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Exam Code: VTNE Practice test 2022 by team
VTNE Veterinary Technician National Examination (VTNE)

Practice Domains No. of Items % of Items
Domain 1. Pharmacy and Pharmacology 18 12%
Domain 2. Surgical Nursing 17 11%
Domain 3. Dentistry 12 8%
Domain 4. Laboratory Procedures 17 12%
Domain 5. Animal Care and Nursing 30 20%
Domain 6. Diagnostic Imaging 11 7%
Domain 7. Anesthesia 22 15%
Domain 8. Emergency Medicine/Critical Care 12 8%
Domain 9. Pain Management/Analgesia 11 7%
Total 150 100%

Domain 1 Pharmacy and Pharmacology (18 items, 12%)
TASK 1A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to the use of pharmacological and biological agents.
TASK 1B Prepare medications in compliance with veterinarian's orders.
TASK 1C Educate the client regarding pharmacological and biological agents administered or dispensed to ensure the safety of the patient/client and efficacy of the products.
TASK 1D Calculate fluid therapy rate.
TASK 1E Calculate medications based on the appropriate dosage in compliance with veterinarian's orders.
TASK 1F Dispense medications in compliance with veterinary orders.
TASK 1G Maintain controlled drug inventory and related log books.
TASK 1H Recognize classifications of drugs, their mechanisms, and clinically relevant side effects.
TASK 1I Store, handle, and safely dispose of pharmacological and biological agents.

Domain 2 Surgical Nursing (17 items, 11%)
TASK 2A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to surgical nursing.
TASK 2B Prepare the surgical environment, equipment, instruments, and supplies to meet the needs of the surgical team and patient.
TASK 2C Prepare patient for surgical procedure.
TASK 2D Function as a sterile surgical technician to ensure patient safety and procedural efficiency.
TASK 2E Function as a circulating (non-sterile) surgical technician to ensure patient safety and procedural efficiency.
TASK 2F Clean instruments by the appropriate method (e.g., manual, soak, or ultrasonic).
TASK 2G Maintain aseptic conditions in surgical suite and during surgical procedures.
TASK 2H Maintain the surgical environment, equipment, instruments, and supplies to meet the needs of the surgical team and patient.
TASK 2I Sterilize equipment and supplies by the appropriate method (e.g., steam, gas).

Domain 3 Dentistry (12 items, 8%)
TASK 3A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to dentistry.
TASK 3B Prepare the environment, equipment, instruments, and supplies for dental procedures.
TASK 3C Perform routine dental prophylaxis (e.g., manual and machine cleaning, polishing).
TASK 3D Educate the client regarding dental health, including prophylactic and post-treatment care.
TASK 3E Maintain the environment, equipment, instruments, and supplies for dental procedures.
TASK 3F Perform oral examination and documentation.
TASK 3G Produce diagnostic dental images and/or radiographs.

Domain 4 Laboratory Procedures (17 items, 12%)
TASK 4A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to laboratory procedures.
TASK 4B Prepare specimens and documentation for in-house or outside laboratory evaluation.
TASK 4C Perform laboratory tests and procedures (including but not limited to microbiology, serology, cytology, hematology, urinalysis, and parasitology).
TASK 4D Maintain laboratory equipment and related supplies to ensure quality of test results and safety of operation.
TASK 4E Maintain specimens for in-house or outside laboratory evaluation.

Domain 5 Animal Care and Nursing (30 items, 20%)
TASK 5A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to patient care and nursing.
TASK 5B Document initial and ongoing evaluations of physical, behavioral, nutritional, clinical procedures, and mentation status of patients to provide optimal patient/client safety and health.
TASK 5C Perform patient nursing procedures (including but not limited to restraint, catheterization, wound management and bandaging) in the implementation of prescribed treatments.
TASK 5D Perform clinical diagnostic procedures (including but not limited to blood pressure measurement, electrocardiography, and oximetry) to aid in diagnosis and prognosis.
TASK 5E Educate clients and the public about animal care (including but not limited to behavior, nutrition, pre- and post-operative care, preventative care, zoonosis) to promote and maintain the health of animals and the safety of clients/public.

Domain 5 Animal Care and Nursing (30 items, 20%)
TASK 5F Provide a safe, sanitary, and comfortable environment for patients to ensure optimal healthcare and client/personnel safety.
TASK 5G Maintain diagnostic equipment and related supplies to ensure quality of test results and safety of operation.
TASK 5H Administer medications via the appropriate routes (e.g., aural, intravenous, subcutaneous).
TASK 5I Collect specimens for in-house or outside laboratory evaluation.
TASK 5J Collect patient information (e.g., signalment, medical history, primary complaint).
TASK 5K Adherence to appropriate disposal protocols of hazardous materials.
TASK 5L Maintain therapeutic treatments (including but not limited to catheters, wound management and bandages).
TASK 5M Manage hospitalized patients (e.g., appetite, TPR, nutritional needs, medication, mentation).
TASK 5N Perform physical rehabilitation as directed.
TASK 5O Provide assistance with the euthanasia process (e.g., disposal, consent, counseling).
TASK 5P Recognize behavioral characteristics of patients.
TASK 5Q Utilize devices and equipment to restrain large animals (e.g., horses, cattle, goats, swine) for treatment per patient safety protocols.
TASK 5R Utilize devices and equipment to restrain small animals (e.g., dogs, cats, birds) for treatment per patient safety protocols.

Domain 6 Diagnostic Imaging (11 items, 7%)
TASK 6A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology as it applies to diagnostic images.
TASK 6B Produce diagnostic images and/or radiographs (excluding dental) following protocols for quality and operator/patient safety.
TASK 6C Maintain imaging/radiograph equipment and related materials to ensure quality of results and equipment, operator, and patient safety.

Domain 7 Anesthesia (22 items, 15%)
TASK 7A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to anesthesia.
TASK 7B Assist in the development of the anesthetic plan to ensure patient safety and procedural efficacy.
TASK 7C Implement the anesthetic plan (including but not limited to administration of medication and monitoring) to facilitate diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedures.
TASK 7D Prepare anesthetic equipment and related materials to ensure operator and patient safety

Domain 7 Anesthesia (22 items, 15%)
TASK 7E Educate the client about anesthetics and anesthesia to ensure the safety of the patient/client and efficacy of the product(s) or procedure(s).
TASK 7F Maintain anesthetic equipment and related materials to ensure reliable operation.
TASK 7G Maintain a patent airway using endotracheal intubation.
TASK 7H Monitor patients during all stages of anesthesia (pre-, peri-, and post-).
TASK 7I Obtain patient related information in the development of an appropriate anesthetic plan.
TASK 7J Respond appropriately to changes in patient status during all stages of anesthesia.

Domain 8 Emergency Medicine/Critical Care (12 items, 8%)
TASK 8A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to emergency medicine and critical care.
TASK 8B Perform triage of a patient presenting with emergency/critical conditions (including but not limited to shock, acute illness, acute trauma, and toxicity).
TASK 8C Perform emergency nursing procedures (including but not limited to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), control acute blood loss, and fracture stabilization) in the implementation of prescribed treatments.
TASK 8D Perform critical care nursing procedures (including but not limited to blood component therapy, fluid resuscitation, and ongoing oxygen therapy) in the implementation of prescribed treatments.
TASK 8E Perform ongoing evaluations of physical, behavioral, nutritional, and mentation status of patients in emergency and critical conditions.

Domain 9 Pain Management/Analgesia (11 items, 7%)
TASK 9A Utilize knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology as it applies to pain management and analgesia.
TASK 9B Assess need for analgesia in patient.
TASK 9C Educate client regarding patient pain assessment and management to ensure the safety of the patient/client, and efficacy of the product(s) or procedure(s).
TASK 9D Assist in the development and implementation of the pain management plan to optimize patient comfort and/or healing.
1. Anatomy
2. Normal physiology
3. Pathophysiology
4. Common animal diseases
5. Medical terminology
6. Toxicology
7. Applied mathematics (including but not limited to metric system/weights, measures/percentage solutions, dosage calculations)
8. Drug classification
9. Routes of administration of pharmacological and biological agents
10. Legal requirements and procedures for acquiring, preparing, storing, dispensing, documenting and disposing of pharmacological and biological agents
11. Safe handling practices for pharmacological and biological agents
12. Pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, metabolism, excretion), normal and abnormal drug reactions, indications, contraindications, side effects, and interactions
13. Fluid balance and therapy, including calculation
14. Aseptic techniques
15. Patient preparation and positioning techniques (including but not limited to diagnostic imaging, surgery, medical procedures)
16. Surgical procedures
17. Surgical equipment, instruments, and supplies
18. Sterilization techniques and quality assurance for equipment, instruments, and supplies
19. Safety considerations related to surgical equipment, instruments, and supplies
20. Wound closure (including suture materials and patterns, staples, and tissue adhesives)
21. Dental procedures (including but not limited to cleaning, floating, charting, preventive procedures, dental imaging)
22. Dental equipment, instruments, and supplies
23. Safety considerations related to dental procedures
24. trial collection, preparation, analysis, storing, and shipping techniques
25. Laboratory diagnostic principles, procedures, and methodologies (including but not limited to microbiology, serology, cytology, hematology, urinalysis, and parasitology)
26. Quality assurance in the laboratory (including but not limited to maintenance of equipment, verification of test results, calibration, and controls)
27. Normal and abnormal laboratory and diagnostic test results
28. Animal assessment and monitoring techniques, excluding anesthetic monitoring
29. Principles of animal behavior
30. Clinical diagnostic procedures
31. Nutrition
32. Safe animal handling and restraint techniques
33. Animal husbandry
34. Animal nursing procedures and rehabilitation therapies
35. Animal first aid, triage, and emergency/critical care techniques
36. Public health (including but not limited to infection control, zoonosis and epidemiology)
37. Environmental health and safety procedures (including but not limited to handling and disposing
of hazardous material, personal safety, evacuation procedures, safety plans, equipment, and instrumentation)
38. Disease control and prevention techniques (including but not limited to quarantine, isolation, vaccination, wellness care, and herd health)
39. Facility cleaning and disinfection techniques
40. Diagnostic imaging equipment and procedures (including but not limited to radiography, ultrasonography, and contrast studies)
41. Quality assurance and safety for diagnostic imaging
42. Pre- and post-anesthetic assessment and care
43. Anesthetic induction, maintenance, monitoring, and recovery including stages of anesthesia and troubleshooting
44. Pre-anesthetic and anesthetic medications reactions, indications, contraindications, side effects, and interactions
45. Pain assessment and analgesic administration techniques
46. Procedures for care, maintenance, and use of diagnostic, therapeutic, surgical, dental, monitoring, and anesthetic equipment and supplies
47. Professional ethics (including but not limited to the Veterinary Technician Code of Ethics)
48. Techniques for communicating with the veterinary medical team and client
49. Record keeping

Veterinary Technician National Examination (VTNE)
Medical Examination Practice Test
Killexams : Medical Examination practice questions - BingNews Search results Killexams : Medical Examination practice questions - BingNews Killexams : 7 lab tests you should consider for your annual medical health check-up 7 lab tests you should consider for your annual medical health check-up © Provided by India Today 7 lab tests you should consider for your annual medical health check-up

Every year we plan to visit our doctor for an annual health check-up, during which they ask us how we've been feeling, perform a quick physical examination, and occasionally request blood tests.

The doctor could rattle off the names of a few lab tests, like a CMP or CBC, that he/she is ordering, but very seldom does anyone clarify what these tests are specifically looking for. You have your blood drawn, receive a call a few days later saying that everything is "normal," and don't supply it much thought until the following year. The majority of folks (especially women) should think about receiving the following medical exams every year.

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

A complete blood count (CBC), is frequently included as part of a yearly checkup. Your blood's varied components, such as white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin, platelets, and hematocrit, are all measured.

Anaemia, which is frequent in menstrual women, is found by a CBC test, which also serves as a medical test for immune system problems and other diseases, including blood cancers, which can occur in young folks. Therefore, if you receive a weird CBC result, you should be given a more complete evaluation by your doctor. It's a particularly good basic test for this reason. All adults can opt for this test.

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test

CRP test calculates the c-reactive protein level in your blood sample. It is nothing but protein produced by your liver. Typically, you possess reduced levels of this protein in the blood. The liver will discharge more CRP into the bloodstream if you possess inflammation. High CRP levels might indicate the presence of a severe health condition that instigates inflammation.

Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C)

A fasting blood glucose test, often included in a CMP, isn't always the best predictor of blood sugar dysregulation, as was previously indicated. An hba1c test, in the opinion of most doctors, is one of the greatest ways to detect blood sugar abnormalities, prediabetes and insulin resistance before they become significant health problems1 (HbA1C). The proportion of red blood cells that are saturated with glucose is determined by an HbA1c test. The estimated average blood glucose increases as your A1C rises.

It is commonly accepted that your HbA1c number corresponds to your average blood glucose for the past 2-3 months, and not just one day. A high HbA1C indicator may raise your risk of diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease, making the test a potentially accurate predictor of a general lifespan.

Lipid Panel

These days, doctors are ordering a sophisticated lipid panel test, such as the one that breaks down the size of lipoprotein (cholesterol particle size). According to research, examining the number of individual particles rather than just focusing on total or LDL cholesterol is a better way to determine your risk. In essence, the particles should be large and buoyant rather than heavy and small because the latter tend to stick to the artery walls more readily, raising your risk of stroke and heart attack.

Thyroid Panel

One in ten women has a thyroid disease, and roughly 60% of individuals with the ailment are ignorant of their state, which makes them unable to manage their condition. As a hidden cause of infertility issues and miscarriages, hypothyroidism (or low thyroid function), particularly the common autoimmune variant known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, is overlooked.

For this reason, almost every doctor will suggest some type of thyroid testing (at the very least, a TSH test), and that women who were experiencing unexplained weight loss or gain, cold intolerance, chronic fatigue, hair loss, constipation, forgetfulness, or depression, in general, should undergo a more thorough thyroid panel. TSH, free T3, free T4, reverse T3, and two forms of thyroid antibody levels known as anti-thyroglobulin and anti-TPO are the five tests that generally would like to perform.

Vitamin D

Majority of people tend to suffer from vitamin D deficiency 3, which is why most doctors include this test as a part of their routine series of exams. It might happen for a variety of reasons. Geographically, most of us don't receive enough sun exposure throughout the year; some people have genetic conditions that prevent them from synthesising vitamin D from the sun.

As far as vitamin D levels are concerned, remember that a normal vitamin D test result, [30 to 80 ng/mL], doesn't essentially signify optimal. Ideally, it should be around 50 ng/mL. You must take supplements if the count is below that.

Anemia Panel

This article has made numerous references to exhaustion and low energy thus far because, regrettably, this is a very widespread complaint among most adults, particularly women. Low levels of a few essential nutrients, including iron, ferritin (the saved form of iron), vitamin B12 and folate, may also contribute to declining energy levels in addition to thyroid problems and low vitamin D. Your doctor can do these tests individually or collectively as part of an anaemia panel.

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Sun, 04 Dec 2022 21:45:14 -0600 en-IN text/html
Killexams : 10 medical tests every older adult should get

Maintaining your physical fitness and mental well-being is crucial to living a longer and happier life.

There are about two dozen tests or screenings older adults can get to help ensure optimal health and wellness, based on recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention, and on Medicare’s coverage of preventive health service.

Of course, exactly which tests you need depends on a variety of factors, including your age, weight, sex, family history and risk factors, as well as on your doctor’s recommendations.

The Affordable Care Act mandates preventive care with no cost-sharing, so in 2011, Medicare began offering a variety of free preventive-health services. Some services may need to be ordered during an annual wellness visit in order to be covered; otherwise, you may need to cover the costs out of pocket or with private insurance.

“People are living into their 90s, independently and in the community, and loving it. But in order to get there, you’ve got to do this stuff,” said Richard Besdine, a professor of medicine and public health at Brown University. “Not all of these are fatal diseases, but they can take the fun out of life. And what’s the point of that?”

Besdine said a Mediterranean-style diet and daily exercise are at the top of the list of the most important habits for aging well. Adequate sleep is also crucial, as are quitting smoking and limiting alcohol.

Mental health is equally important. Many older adults face depression, loneliness and isolation amid life changes such as the loss of a spouse. Ask a doctor for a depression screening if you or a loved one are showing any signs of depression.

And keep up with vaccines, such as those for COVID-19, shingles and the flu. Also consider getting the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), which helps protect against meningitis and bloodstream infections, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), which protects against pneumonia.

Here’s a rundown of routine tests you should get as an older adult:

Eye test

Eye health may decline gradually as people get older, but the changes may not be noticeable right away. Poor eyesight can affect your ability to drive, get around the house and perform daily tasks. Also, as you age, the risk for eye problems such as cataracts and glaucoma increases.

In addition, latest research has found that up to 100,000 U.S. dementia cases could have potentially been prevented with improved eye care.

According to a study published this year in JAMA Neurology, one of the top things you can do to help reduce your risk for Alzheimer’s and related dementias is to get vision problems corrected with the help of eye exams, eyeglasses and cataract surgery.

Researchers found that about 1.8% of U.S. dementia cases were associated with visual impairment and projected that by 2050, that total would rise to around 250,000 cases. The investigators also found that incidence of impaired vision in older adults was higher for Hispanic people, at 11%, compared with 8.3% on average for Black and non-Hispanic white people.

Last year, a study published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology also suggested that certain eye conditions including age-related macular degeneration, cataracts and diabetes-related eye disease may be associated with an increased risk of dementia.

“Avoiding dementia is the No. 1 job of physicians and patients,” Besdine said. “Do everything you can to maintain your mental and physical health.”

Hearing exam

While we’re talking about dementia, get your hearing tested — and get a hearing aid if you need one.

If you have hearing loss, you have a greater chance of developing dementia, according to a 2020 Lancet commission report that listed hearing loss as one of the top risk factors for dementia.

People with moderate hearing loss were twice as likely to experience cognitive decline as their peers, while those with severe hearing loss faced five times the risk, research has found.

In the U.S., hearing aids are now available over the counter — and they cost just hundreds of dollars, rather than the several thousands that prescription devices can cost. The White House estimated that people could save nearly $3,000 by buying over-the-counter devices.

Also read: ‘It democratizes what you get’: Hearing aids are now available over the counter — what you need to know

Walmart Walgreen CVS and Best Buy are among the national retailers that now sell hearing aids.

Dental exam

Gum disease increases the risk of a heart attack. That alone should get you to the dentist, but gum health can also be a good barometer of your overall health. Your teeth, gums, mouth and throat need to be checked by a dentist, ideally twice a year. Medicare does not cover dental checkups, however, so private insurance or out-of-pocket payments are necessary.

Blood-pressure screening

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is common; more than half of the adults in the U.S. have it. As you age, your arteries change and become stiffer. Left untreated, hypertension can lead to strokes, heart attacks and heart disease.

Diabetes screening

After age 65, both men and women should be screened for diabetes regularly. The American Diabetes Association recommends that a fasting blood-sugar test be done at least once every three years in order catch diabetes early and manage it so it doesn’t become a life-threatening disorder.

Breast-cancer screening

The Mayo Clinic supports screening for breast cancer beginning at age 40. Women up to age 75 should get a mammogram every one to two years, depending on their risk factors. Risk factors include having started menstruation before age 12, a family history of breast cancer, dense breasts and genetic mutations. After age 75, women should discuss the need for continued breast-cancer screening with their doctor.

Osteoporosis screening

As you age, your bones become thinner, which can make you more susceptible to fractures or breaks, especially in the hips and spine. All women older than 64 should get a bone-density scan at least once a year. Men over 70 should also consider getting screened for osteoporosis, especially if the condition runs in their family.

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is a common disease among men, especially those over the age of 65. Doctors can check for prostate cancer with a physical examination and a blood test. Some signs of prostate cancer include difficulty urinating, unexplained weight loss or blood in the urine.

Colon-cancer screening

Colorectal cancer is more common among older adults, with an average age at diagnosis of 68 for men and 72 for women. If you experience changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain or bleeding, see your doctor.

The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that adults age 45 to 75 be screened for colorectal cancer. Types of screening include stool tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and CT colonography (virtual colonoscopy). Adults ages 76 to 85 should talk to their doctor about whether they should continue to get screened.

Skin exam

The American Cancer Society recommends regular screening for skin cancer. Be sure to ask your doctor to check your skin if you have any unusual moles or skin changes or if you’re at high risk with a history of skin cancer, have close relatives with skin cancer or have a weakened immune system.

Sat, 26 Nov 2022 02:44:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : Everything you need to know about SSC GD Constable Exam

The SSC GD Constable 2022 test will start on January 10, 2023. For available vacancies with the Border Security Force (BSF), Assam Rifles, Secretariat Security Force (SSF), Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), and Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), the Staff Selection Commission is accepting online applications (AR). Processes of SSC GD Constable shortlisting testing include the Examine And evaluate Test, Physical Performance Test, Medical Exam, and Document Verification.

Eligibility criteria for SSD GD Constable Exam

The age requirements established by the authorized conducting body should be understood by candidates seeking for SSC GD Constable position. The age requirements stipulate the minimum and maximum ages as well as any age concessions made to applicants who fall under the higher age limit.

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Pattern for SSC GD Constable Exam

The CBE test will soon be here, thus applicants are recommended to use the finest study methods in order to pass the test with flying colors. As a result, we have put together a list of the SSC GD Constable test preparation advice that experts offer

The following details about SSC GD Constable computer-based test test format:

  • Objective MCQ's make up the computer-based test.

  • The only available languages for the question paper are English and Hindi.

  • Each question carries two points under the SSC GD Constable, and there is a 0.50 point deduction for each wrong solution.

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Methods for passing the SSC GD Constable Exam

Candidates should prepare the finest test strategy when the SSC GD Constable CBE test draws near in order to get the best results.

According to Corrigendum No. 3/1/2020-P&P-I dated 24th March 2022, the following cut-off marks have been used to determine eligibility of applicants for selection procedure to the next stage of examination, i.e. PET/PST.

© Provided by Free Press Journal

The final score and cut-off points for short-listing applicants for PET/PST were determined using normalized candidate scores from the Computer Based Examination, combined with bonus points for NCC Certificate holders.

How to prepare for SSC GD Exam

Examining the questions from the previous year is a crucial step. The SSC's earlier tests are crucial for exams. These are the Tips to clear SSC Exam:-

1. Recognize the format of the test.

2. Know the requirements for the test.

3. Recognize the significant and recurrent themes and issues.

4. Exercise and Discipline

5. Know Which Books To Read for the Exam

6. Set objectives.

7. regular newspaper practicing while increasing your vocabulary and understanding

8. Be assured of your abilities.

9. Take notes instead of learning by rote

10. Learn how the SSC structures its questions.


So that’s Everything you need to know about SSC GD Constable Exam. Hoping the article answered your doubts, work hard and prepare for the best results Best of luck from us.

This article is generated and published by FPJ focus team. You can get in touch with them on

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Fri, 09 Dec 2022 00:04:02 -0600 en-IN text/html
Killexams : Twins with History of Similar Test Scores Win Lawsuit After Medical School Alleged Cheating on Exam

Kayla and Kellie Bingham Kayla and Kellie Bingham © Provided by People Kayla and Kellie Bingham Kayla and Kellie Bingham

Identical twins Kayla and Kellie Bingham were accused of cheating on a medical school test in 2016. Last month, they won a defamation case against the Medical University of South Carolina and were awarded $1.5 million in damages, according to court documents.

Kayla and Kellie, then 24, were in their second year of studies at MUSC when they took the test in May 2016, according to Insider. Kellie told the outlet that they were given assigned seats "about four or five feet apart" at the same table — but that they couldn't see each other — for the exam. 

A faculty member who was remotely monitoring the test-taking noticed that the twins "were progressing similarly through their examinations and had many of the same incorrect answers," the twins alleged in court documents filed ahead of last month's trial.

They also claimed that the proctor had been told to keep an eye on them and took notes on their behavior during the test, noting how they'd "nodded their heads during the examination, and occasionally pushed back from their computers, looked around the classroom, or shuffled their scratch paper." 

Two weeks after the exam, the faculty members accused them of cheating, according to Insider.  

MUSC did not immediately respond to PEOPLE's request for comment.

RELATED: Woman Learns Via DNA Test That She's Not Biologically Related to Her Dad, Family Claims in Lawsuit

A subsequent letter sent to the President of the College of Medicine's Honor Council stated "that cheating had occurred and Plaintiffs were signaling one another and passing notes," the twins alleged in court documents. 

Speaking with Insider, Kayla said that "there was no signaling" and "we were just nodding at a question at our own computer screens." 

Google Maps Medical University of South Carolina © Provided by People Google Maps Medical University of South Carolina

They were initially found guilty by the school's Honor Council. However, on appeal the decision was reversed, according to court documents.  

 "We thought it had gone away," Kellie told Insider. However, Kayla told the outlet that wherever they went, "people would gossip about us and we'd get a cold reception."

RELATED:  Mich. Dad Files $1M Lawsuit Against School After Employee Cut 7-Year-Old Biracial Daughter's Hair

Court documents allege that the findings of the Honor Council were "leaked to the student body" and "due to the ensuing hostility," the twins left medical school and went on to "abandon their plans for careers in medicine altogether." 

"It honestly killed me," Kellie told Insider. "I'd dreamed about being a doctor since I was little —  Kayla and I wanted to help people."

After withdrawing from the school in September 2016, the twins filed the lawsuit in 2017, according to the outlet.  

"We weren't going to roll over and let our reputation be ruined," remarked Kayla. 

Kayla and Kellie Bingham Kayla and Kellie Bingham © Provided by People Kayla and Kellie Bingham Kayla and Kellie Bingham

After going to trial last month, a jury sided with the twins and awarded each sister $750,000 in damages, according to court documents.

During the trial, a behavioral genetics expert testified that twins are "genetically predisposed to behave the same way" and that cheating complaints against twins are "common," Insider reported.

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"Kellie and Kayla were subject to a complete lack of understanding of the impact of their corresponding genetic profiles," Nancy Segal, who founded the Twin Studies Center at California State University, Fullerton, said in a statement obtained by PEOPLE.

"Scientific research shows that identical twins have similarities that go far beyond their shared appearance," Segal added, explaining that due to similar "cognitive processes and response times" as well as "typically being raised in the same environment," having similar test scores is "a common occurrence among identical twins."

Another professor also wrote a letter in their defense according to the outlet. In the letter, the professor reportedly said the twins had the exact same answers on an test he supervised in 2012 — and that they were sitting on opposite ends of the room at the time. 

In a release obtained by PEOPLE, it was noted that the twins have "often obtained the exact same score on tests they took on different days and in different locations," including on their SATs.

Kayla and Kellie Bingham Kayla and Kellie Bingham © Provided by People Kayla and Kellie Bingham Kayla and Kellie Bingham

RELATED: Student Burned in High School Science Experiment Says It Was 'Something Out of a Horror Movie'

As for what the future holds, both sisters completed law school last year, graduating with similar grade point averages, according to the statement.

"Our verdict has given us hope again as we look ahead to our future and careers," Kellie said.

"There were multiple points of failure from faculty and staff that led to our experience," added Kayla, noting that although it was painful to relieve the past, "we had to stand up and fight for the truth."

"Hopefully our case will ensure other twins are not victimized like we were," she continued.

Read the original article on People

Mon, 05 Dec 2022 06:05:47 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : Bill to set up commission to regulate medical costs introduced by Rajya Sabha MP

CPI member P. Santhosh Kumar introduces his private member bill in the Rajya Sabha on December 9, 2022. Photo: Sansad TV

As India witnesses a rapid increase in cost of medical treatment, a Bill to provide for the establishment of a National Commission for Controlling Medical Inflation, which will regulate and standardise the rising costs of medicines, medical diagnostic tests and pathological examinations, was introduced in the Rajya Sabha.

CPI Rajya Sabha MP P. Santhosh Kumar names the Bill as ‘The National Commission for Controlling Medical Inflation Act, 2022’. It seeks to establish a commission which will consist of a Chairperson, Deputy Chairperson and five members to be appointed by the President of India.

The commission will monitor, regulate and control the rising costs of medicines, medical diagnostic tests and pathological examinations. It shall have the powers of a civil court to try matters regarding examination of witnesses and documents, receiving evidence on affidavits and requisitioning any public record or copy from any court or office.

The Government shall consult the National Commission on all policies related to the control and monitoring of medical inflation. 

The statement for objects and reason for the Bill flags the problem that every year, healthcare expenses are increasing at a very fast rate and even the middle class cannot afford hospitalisation.

“There is an accelerating rate of increase in the price of medicines, pathological diagnosis, hospitalisation and everything related to healthcare,” the Bill says. 

“Medical inflation is a reality. We do not have any standard rates for tests and medicines. At one hospital, a test can cost Rs. 50 and at another it can cost Rs. 100,” Mr. Kumar said.

The Economic Survey of 2017-18 states that, there are wide differences in the average prices of medical diagnostic tests across cities.

In the year 2021, India witnessed the highest medical inflation rate of 14 percent among Asian countries. As per the official data of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, the cost of medical treatment in India went up by 7.21 per cent in April 2022.

As per a record, 55 million Indians were pushed into poverty in 2017, because of the high out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenses. This is more than the population of three countries- South Korea, Spain and Kenya.

As of now, the OOP expenditure of an individual for healthcare is 63 percent in India. This means that whether an individual has private health insurance or visits a government healthcare facility for treatment, they will have to spend a significant amount from their pocket for getting treated in the country, the Bill said.

Fri, 09 Dec 2022 01:06:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Mention of ‘two finger test’, ‘victim habituated to sex’ in medical examination reports of POCSO cases: Study © Provided by The Indian Express

The findings of an analysis conducted on the state of child protection mechanism in Rajasthan has found that in several cases, there were references to two finger tests in medical examination of child sexual victims.

In October, the Supreme Court had termed the 'two finger test' on alleged rape victims regressive and held that anyone indulging in it will be guilty of conduct.

The study, titled ‘Analysis of the response of the child protection system to violence against children in Rajasthan’ was conducted under the aegis of the Juvenile Justice Committee (JJC) of the Rajasthan High Court in collaboration with Resource Institute for Human Rights (RIHR) and UNICEF Rajasthan.

“In several cases, the medical examination report included references to the 'two finger test', and conclusions that the victim was 'habituated to sex' and that there were no signs of rape or sexual assault, contrary to the normative standards on the contents of a medical examination report,” says the analysis.

The analysis adds that the medical examination reports stated that, during examination it was seen that two fingers could be easily inserted into the victim's vagina.

The analysis, which was officially released on November 20 at the Rajasthan Police Academy on the occasion of World Children's Day, was conducted between July and December 2021 and lays down trends of violence against children in the years 2019 and 2020.

“The continued use of the two finger test, conclusions that the victim was 'habituated to sex' and that there were no signs of rape or sexual assault, are contrary to the normative standards on contents of a medical examination report. There is also a wide variation in the manner in which medical age determination is conducted. This calls for integration of latest legal developments in the curriculum and capacity building programs aimed at medical students and practitioners,” says the analysis.

The two finger test, carried out by a medical practitioner, involves the examination of the victim’s vagina to check if she is habituated to sexual intercourse. The practice is unscientific and does not provide any definite information. Moreover, such ‘information’ has no bearing on an allegation of rape.

“The so-called test is based on the incorrect assumption that a sexually active woman cannot be raped. Nothing could be further from the truth — a woman’s sexual history is wholly immaterial while adjudicating whether the accused raped her,” the SC had said.

A handbook released by the World Health Organization (WHO) on dealing with sexual assault victims says, “There is no place for virginity (or ‘two-finger’) testing; it has no scientific validity.”

The analysis also notes that although the POCSO Act empowers the special courts to determine the quantum of compensation, this was rarely exercised in Rajasthan and recommendations were instead made to the District Legal Service Authority (DLSA) to decide on compensation.

“This results in child victims having to appear before another forum and go through several procedural formalities to access compensation. Clarifications on the mandate of the special courts to determine compensation will help ensure that children receive timely support that can aid their rehabilitation,” says the analysis.

Tue, 29 Nov 2022 09:57:51 -0600 en-IN text/html
Killexams : High Deductibles Create Barriers to Screening Mammograms, Follow-Up Tests No result found, try new keyword!High deductibles may discourage women from receiving follow-up testing after an abnormal mammogram, as one in five said they would skip additional imaging if they knew they had to pay a deductible. Fri, 09 Dec 2022 03:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html Killexams : NYC civil service exam: These applications are open in December

STATEN ISLAND, N.Y. — The New York City Department of Citywide Administrative Services (DCAS) has released its December application schedule for civil service exams.

Open, competitive, computer-based tests are administered throughout each month for various positions.

The DCAS Computer-Based Testing and Application Centers (CTAC), where exams are taken, have reopened to the public. However, due to the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, walk-ins are no longer accepted, and appointments must be scheduled online at Online Application System (OASys).

This month’s application period opened Dec. 1 for the following positions: associate correctional counselor (NYC H+H); carpenter; carpenter (NYC H+H); child protective specialist; correction officer; emergency medical specialist - EMT; emergency medical specialist trainee; school food service manager; police officer; scientist (water ecology); telecommunications associate (data); traffic control inspector; and traffic device maintainer.

New York City employs hundreds of thousands of people in its 80 agencies. Taking a test is the way to get started in the hiring process for most of these positions. Application fees range from $40 to $101.

For more information about registering for these and other tests, log onto the DCAS website. To apply for a civil service test open during this application period, go online via the OASys at

To receive monthly test updates, sign up for the DCAS newsletter at and click the Exams tab.

Former Mayor Bill de Blasio announced at the start of August 2021 that all newly hired city workers will need to be vaccinated against the coronavirus.

According to DCAS, as of Aug. 2, 2021, all new hires must be vaccinated against the coronavirus, unless they have been granted a reasonable accommodation for religion or disability. If you’re offered city employment, this requirement must be met by your date of hire, unless a reasonable accommodation for exemption is received and approved by the hiring agency.

As of March 1, 2021, all examination and eligible list-related notifications will be sent by email only; you will no longer receive notifications via U.S. mail.

On Staten Island, the testing center is located at 135 Canal St., Stapleton. Additional testing centers are located at: 2 Lafayette St., Manhattan; 210 Joralemon St., Brooklyn; 118-35 Queens Blvd., Queens; 1932 Arthur Ave., the Bronx.

After an test is administered, it generally takes nine to 12 months for an eligible list of passers to be established from which agencies can hire, according to DCAS.

In addition, eligible lists for exams for police officer, police communications technician, traffic enforcement agent and school safety agent, which were scheduled to terminate between Jan. 1, 2021, and Dec. 31, 2021, will also be extended by one year.

Inquiries regarding the status of an eligible list can be e-mailed to the New York City Department of Citywide Administrative Services at:


If you purchase a product or register for an account through one of the links on our site, we may receive compensation.

Tue, 06 Dec 2022 01:58:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : JEE-Main, NEET-UG, CU-ET-UG entrance tests: Govt to release fixed calendar from 2023 JEE-Main, NEET-UG, CU-ET-UG entrance tests: Govt to release fixed calendar from 2023 © Provided by Business Today JEE-Main, NEET-UG, CU-ET-UG entrance tests: Govt to release fixed calendar from 2023

The government is expected to release a fixed calendar for national competitive entrance exams like Joint Entrance Examination (JEE), National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET-UG), and Common University Entrance Test (CUET) from 2023.

The test schedule for admissions to medical, engineering and undergraduate colleges will be shared by the education ministry this week. Potential candidates can check the JEE Main, NEET and CUET 2023 dates once they are out at

The ministry has decided to release a fixed calendar for NTA exams so that candidates have more clarity regarding the dates and admission schedule and those appearing for the exams can prepare better.

University Grants Commission (UGC) has made a committee that is working on the fixed test calendar for JEE Main, NEET, and CUET 2023. NTA had formed two expert committees in November, after the exams were conducted. One of the committees is working on the annual schedule of JEE Main, CUET, and NEET 2023 whereas the other committee will review the infrastructure of test centres. For conducting the exams, the committee will have experts from the IITs, central universities, and officials with experience.

According to reports, the JEE (Main) dates would be in mid-Jan and April. Therefore, students who have appeared for their Class 12th Board Exams in the years 2021 and 2022 can appear for the JEE Main exam. Students who are appearing for their Class 12 Board Exams in 2023 can also apply for the JEE Main 2023 exam.

CUET UG is most likely to be conducted between April 3rd week and May 1st week of 2023. However, an official confirmation regarding the same is still awaited. 


Also read: JEE Advanced 2022 results announced: List of toppers, other details

Also read: JEE Main 2023 Registration dates: Step-by-Step guide to apply, eligibility, documents needed and more

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Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:46:44 -0600 en-IN text/html
Killexams : Taliban will allow girls to take graduation tests despite banning them from classrooms

Afghan girls have reportedly been given the green light to take their high school graduation exams this week despite being barred from classrooms by the Taliban.

The move applies to 31 out of 34 provinces in Afghanistan ahead of the late December winter break, with most of the tests starting on Wednesday, the Associated Press reported. To some Afghan women, the move is a slap in the face.


“This is ridiculous,” 12th-grader Najela said. “We spent a whole year under tension and stress and haven’t read a single page of our textbooks. ... How can we possibly take an test after a year and a half that the Taliban have kept school doors closed?"

After toppling the U.S.-backed government and returning to power, the Taliban stoked international outrage earlier in the year for enacting a ban on girls attending school beyond sixth grade.

Afghan girls attend a religious school, which remained open since the last year's Taliban takeover, in Kabul, Afghanistan, on Aug. 11, 2022. (AP Photo/Ebrahim Noroozi, File) © Provided by Washington Examiner Afghan girls attend a religious school, which remained open since the last year's Taliban takeover, in Kabul, Afghanistan, on Aug. 11, 2022. (AP Photo/Ebrahim Noroozi, File)

One principal claimed to have been told that girls in 12th grade will have exams in 14 subjects with 10 questions per subject, something she derided as "meaningless" due to the lack of textbooks among female students.

The three outstanding provinces of Kandahar, Helmand, and Nimroz that haven't gotten the go-ahead for girls to take the exams have different scheduling for the school year.

Girls who fail the test or do not take it will reportedly be given another opportunity in mid-March after schools reconvene from winter break.

Under Taliban rule, women have been straddled with harsh restrictions on employment, and they have also been ordered to cover from head to toe, reminiscent of the group's hard-line rule of the 1990s.


Many international groups from the United Nations and Western nations have roundly condemned the Taliban's draconian treatment of women and other human rights concerns. Meanwhile, acute hunger and poverty have been on the rise in the war-torn nation.

Over 60% of Afghanistan's population (24 million people) was estimated to be in dire need of humanitarian assistance such as medical supplies and food, the U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs warned earlier this year.


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Tags: Taliban, News, Afghanistan, Gender Issues, Education, Foreign Policy

Original Author: Ryan King

Original Location: Taliban will allow girls to take graduation tests despite banning them from classrooms

Tue, 06 Dec 2022 08:36:00 -0600 en-US text/html
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