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Exam Code: VACC Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
VACC VACC Vascular Access

DOMAIN CATEGORY I: Clinical Knowledge and Application
A. Device Assessment and Selection
1. Central venous access devices
2. Peripheral intravenous devices
3. Dialysis, apheresis and aquapheresis catheters
4. Intraosseous devices
5. Arterial catheters
6. Pulmonary artery catheters
7. Device characteristics (e.g., single versus multi-lumen devices, optimal insertion and tip location)
B. Patient Assessment
1. Vascular pathology (e.g., impact of disease processes on vascular access)
2. Device selection (e.g., infusion therapy, alternative to IV placement, vesicants and osmolality)
3. Patient specific characteristics (e.g., compromised skin integrity, product reaction) and resources to maintain vascular access devices
4. Imaging technology (e.g., ultrasound, transillumination, fluoroscopy / venogram, chest x-ray)
C. Preparation
1. Infection prevention procedures, concepts and principles (e.g., sterile field, aseptic non-touch technique [ANTT], common pathogens)
2. Anatomy and physiology
3. Growth and development implications
DOMAIN CATEGORY I (continued): Clinical Knowledge and Application
D. Insertion
1. Vascular access device and insertion components
2. Insertion techniques (e.g., Modified Seldinger)
3. Flushing and locking solutions / procedures
4. Imaging technology (e.g., ultrasound, infra-red, transillumination)
5. Laboratory values relevant to device placement and maintenance
6. Tip location and confirmation systems
7. Engineered securement devices
8. Complications and emergency interventions (e.g., inadvertent arterial puncture, pneumothorax, catheter tip malposition, nerve injury)
E. Care and Maintenance of Vascular Access
1. Insertion / exit site assessment
2. Lumen patency and catheter clearance (e.g., flushing protocol, occlusion therapy)
3. Infusion equipment and add-on supplies (e.g., needleless connector)
4. Dressing change procedure
5. Patient / caregiver education
6. Care plan throughout the healthcare continuum (e.g., catheter insertion information, care and maintenance instructions, patient restrictions)
7. Vascular access device removal (e.g., removal length of PICC, removal complications, patient tolerance of removal procedure)
F. Troubleshooting, Complications, and Interventions
1. Post-insertion risks and complications (e.g., extravasation, thrombosis, infection, catheter tip migration, occlusion, nerve damage, phlebitis)
2. Pharmacologic interventions (e.g., catheter clearance, antibiotic lock, ethanol lock, extravasation treatment)
3. Catheter repair / exchange
4. Other complications (e.g., central vein occlusion, internal fracture, compromised skin integrity)
DOMAIN CATEGORY II: Interpersonal and Communication Skills
A. Interpersonal Communication
1. Communication with patient / caregiver (e.g., risks, benefits and alternatives; device care; infection prevention)
2. Communication with patient / caregiver with additional needs (e.g., developmental/ cognitive deficit, psychosocial concerns)
3. Cultural competency (e.g., cultural and religious differences, family involvement, language barrier)
4. Collaboration with patient's care team
B. Mentoring and education
1. Educational / staff development opportunities (e.g., quality improvement, hospital committees, early assessment for vessel preservation)
2. Infection control measures and techniques
DOMAIN CATEGORY III: Professional Development
A. Evidence-based Practice and Continuing Education
1. Evidence-based practice guidelines (e.g., AVA, INS, MAGIC, KDOQI, ACCP, SHEA)
2. Process improvement initiatives and outcome evaluation (e.g., implementation of new techniques and / or products)
3. Professional practice and development (e.g., seminars, webinars, conferences, certification)
4. Critical analysis of published research (e.g., research methodologies)
DOMAIN CATEGORY IV: Legal and Ethical Considerations
A. Legal Considerations
1. Professional codes of conduct, professional guidelines, scope of practice and standards of care
2. Legal principles in the practice of vascular access (e.g., consent, liability, HIPAA)
3. Documentation requirements
4. Manufacturer's guidelines for product use (e.g., Instructions for Use [IFUs], expiration dates, off-label use)
B. Ethical Considerations
1. Patient advocacy (e.g., patient preferences, end of life care)
2. Reporting requirements (e.g., MAUDE database, Joint Commission [JC], state health department)
3. Fiscal responsibility (e.g., accurate recording of charges, use of supplies and equipment, use of time)

VACC Vascular Access
Medical Vascular reality
Killexams : Medical Vascular reality - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/VACC Search results Killexams : Medical Vascular reality - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/VACC https://killexams.com/exam_list/Medical Killexams : Virtual Reality: The New Tool in Healthcare Training

I don’t think anyone can really be prepared for their first time using a virtual reality headset. Technology has become such a familiarized part of our lives that I think its brilliance can sometimes be lost on us, but virtual reality has given people a taste of something they’ve never experienced before. Virtual reality isn’t a technology that simply complements our lives, it’s a technology that brings our lives into an entirely new reality.

It’s no wonder that virtual reality’s impact has been far-reaching. You can be transported to any corner of the world and feel like you’re really there. You can purchase movie tickets and watch a film in a VR cinema with your friends. And of course, you can play a huge variety of video games that make you feel like you’re part of the action.

So, what does this have to do with healthcare? While virtual reality applications don’t seem like they’d have much use in the healthcare industry, VR has proven to be a valuable tool in treatment and care. Medical teams have used virtual reality to plan out and practice complex surgeries, like a neurosurgical procedure, ahead of time. It’s been used as a pain management tactic to distract patients from scary or painful procedures, especially in instances where sedation and anesthesia can’t be given. It’s also helped professionals working in addiction recovery be more creative in the strategies and techniques they use to help their patients overcome their addictions. But another remarkable way virtual reality is applied in the healthcare industry is as a training tool.

Thanks to VR, facilities are able to create simulations for a number of different scenarios that employees can experience from a first-person perspective. Here’s how this is revolutionizing healthcare training.

A deeply immersive and interactive education

Medical professionals know that healthcare is a high-stakes industry, so they’re thankful for all the stages of training they go through to adequately prepare themselves for their future roles. Extensive classroom training, training in the field, and being mentored by seasoned medical professionals is all significant, but being on your own for the first time can be intimidating.

Virtual reality gives new doctors, nurses, and medical staff the ability to immerse themselves in real-life scenarios as if they were in charge. They can see the immediate consequences of their actions and can learn from their correct or incorrect behaviors. They can be exposed to dangerous or life-threatening situations and practice resolving each scenario without putting themselves or their patients in any real danger.

Facilities are always researching and developing new ways to enhance their training processes, and what better way to do that than to have new staff members immerse themselves in situations they could experience while on the job? This is how facilities can enforce self-awareness in their employees while creating more confident, capable teams. Studies have shown that experiential learning also drives higher compassion for patients as well. This is much harder to accomplish with more traditional training methods where employees can’t get regular, hands-on practice.

Virtual reality-based training has been proven to improve performance across the healthcare industry while reducing the possibility of fatal errors. Nothing prepares someone for the real thing more effectively than a program built to replicate real-world experiences.

New or updated equipment training

In order to continue providing the best care to patients, medical equipment must constantly be updated or replaced with new devices. With any new feature, there’s always a learning curve — except in healthcare, these learning curves can have dire consequences.

Training new employees on new or updated equipment can be extremely time-consuming, and facilitating times to introduce staff members to the equipment can be a headache. Virtual reality not only makes equipment training faster and more accessible, it also gives everyone an opportunity to practice using the equipment, tools, and technology as much as they need to in order to feel more comfortable before using it for the first time.

Higher staff retention

Since the beginning of the pandemic, the healthcare industry has seen an increase in staff turnover across hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, and other medical offices. As executives find ways to entice their employees to stay, it seems like some of the common incentives, like higher pay and bonuses, are no longer good enough to combat record levels of burnout and fatigue.

In addition to their wellbeing, doctors, nurses, and other medical staff are also choosing to leave their jobs due to a lack of personal growth and poor self-confidence — both of which put patients at a greater risk of danger. Facilities must invest in the ongoing education and training of their teams, which will help staff members develop greater confidence and competence. Virtual reality exceeds the traditional training methods facilities often use, and this new immersive, experiential way to train staff members is critical for their proficiency and satisfaction. VR simulators have been shown to boost procedural confidence and develop technical on-the-job skills. Investing in your employees means investing in advanced technology that will allow them to perform better in their roles.

Virtual reality helps to build confident, collaborative teams that then create a positive workplace environment for other staff members and patients alike. Using tools like virtual reality to train the current and next generations of healthcare workers is another way executives can commit to enhancing the industry as a whole.

Photo: Moyo Studio, Getty Images

Mon, 05 Dec 2022 05:37:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://medcitynews.com/2022/12/virtual-reality-the-new-tool-in-healthcare-training/
Killexams : Symptoms Of Cirrhosis Explained doctor wearing gloves and © SvetaZi/Shutterstock doctor wearing gloves and

In the Warner Bros. cartoon "Knighty Knight Bugs," one of the knights of the round table is named Sir Osis of Liver. It's a clever joke, but in reality, cirrhosis is no laughing matter. And despite the fact that Sir Osis is the only knight at the table who drinks anything in the cartoon, you can still develop cirrhosis even if you never consume alcohol.

According to the Mayo Clinic, cirrhosis involves the scarring of the liver. Now, various conditions and situations can damage one's liver. These include not only consuming large amounts of alcohol, but also health issues like chronic viral hepatitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Regardless of what injures the liver, when it's damaged, it develops scar tissue. Eventually, this scarring can make it harder for the liver to perform its many functions, which is called decompensated cirrhosis. And yes, cirrhosis can progress to the point where a person's life is in danger.

So, can cirrhosis of the liver be reversed? Well, if it's caught early on, it's possible to at least prevent further damage and even undo existing damage, although the latter is rare. However, once a liver is damaged because of cirrhosis, it will typically remain damaged. And the bad news doesn't stop there. The majority of the time, cirrhosis that isn't extensive doesn't have symptoms. With that said, here are some of the signs of cirrhosis to watch out for and discuss with a medical professional.

Jaundice

Close up of man with jaundice © Creative Cat Studio/Shutterstock Close up of man with jaundice

Even though there are some common signs of cirrhosis, whether someone develops symptoms and which symptoms they develop can vary from person to person (via Cleveland Clinic). Case in point: A cirrhosis patient might develop jaundice.

If you've ever seen someone with jaundice, one of the first things that might have stood out is the whites of their eyes appearing yellow (per Cleveland Clinic). This is a common sign of jaundice, along with one's skin and mucus membranes turning yellow. The reason for this is due to high amounts of a pigment called bilirubin. Per MedlinePlus, bilirubin is in bile, which your liver creates. In fact, bilirubin comes from red blood cells when they break down. And unfortunately, if someone has jaundice as a result of cirrhosis, it's usually a sign that the liver is having problems functioning properly as opposed to an early sign of cirrhosis, according to the Cleveland Clinic.

Of course, there's more than one possible reason why someone develops jaundice, which can mean they might experience more than just the yellowing of their eyes and skin. For example, jaundice because of an infection can also involve flu-like symptoms. So, whether or not you suspect you have cirrhosis, if you have jaundice, see a medical professional immediately.

Slurred Speech

Medical paper  memorizing © Shidlovski/Shutterstock Medical paper reading

According to the Cleveland Clinic, around half of patients with cirrhosis also experience symptoms related to a condition called hepatic encephalopathy, also referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE). But no matter what it's called, it's possible to develop slurred speech as a result of it.

The liver normally filters toxins that are produced when the body breaks down substances like alcohol and medications. But cirrhosis can interfere with this liver function, which means toxins can remain in one's blood, accumulate, and eventually reach the brain. As a result, a person can develop hepatic encephalopathy -- specifically, the type C version of this neurological disorder. Slurred speech is one of a number of possible symptoms connected to this health problem.

While it can be frightening when one's speech becomes slurred, the majority of the time, hepatic encephalopathy is temporary. With that said, don't make the mistake of not taking it or cirrhosis seriously. The two can be connected, so it's important to properly treat cirrhosis. Otherwise, hepatic encephalopathy can worsen and, in some cases, even result in a hepatic coma.

Confusion And Personality Changes

Woman holding her head in confusion © CGN089/Shutterstock Woman holding her head in confusion

Imagine this: You have an uncle who has cirrhosis and begins acting very differently. While he's always been very polite, he suddenly starts saying inappropriate things. He's also forgetful and becomes confused -- two things that rarely happen to him. While there can be a number of reasons for these changes, it also could be connected to cirrhosis and another related medical condition (via WebMD).

When a person develops cirrhosis, their liver can have a harder time filtering toxins from their system. As a result, the toxins can build up, circulate to the brain, and cause hepatic encephalopathy, which can affect someone both physically and mentally. And like other health conditions, hepatic encephalopathy can vary in how it affects someone, both in terms of which symptoms it causes and how slowly or quickly those symptoms manifest themselves. But confusion and personality changes -- as well as crankiness, nervousness, excitedness, and loss of interest -- can be signs of hepatic encephalopathy.

Even if someone is experiencing mental and emotional changes because of hepatic encephalopathy, it's possible they might not realize it. This is where family and friends are crucial to letting them know that they're not quite acting like themselves.

Weight Loss And Loss Of Appetite

Bathroom scale on a mint background © AtlasStudio/Shutterstock Bathroom scale on a mint background

There are a number of health conditions that can cause weight loss and/or loss of appetite. With that said, both of these health issues could be because of your liver.

According to StatPearls, when a person has cirrhosis, they can experience both loss of appetite and weight loss. Because of this, a doctor might recommend changing your diet in part to take some pressure off your liver while still taking in foods to help with your nutritional needs (via Healthline). For instance, since your liver makes bile, and bile helps the body break down the fats in food, you might want to avoid eating fried foods. Processed meats might also be off the menu if you're changing your diet because of cirrhosis. These include foods like bacon, hot dogs, and deli meats. Undercooked foods can also be problematic for a cirrhosis patient, since cirrhosis can impact one's immune system.

Although you might have to give up certain foods if you have cirrhosis, there's still a variety of things you can eat. Fruits like peaches and oranges, as well as vegetables like cauliflower and broccoli, are all possible choices. Sources of protein like meat and eggs are definitely on the table, too. However, you should always check with a medical professional before changing your meal plan.

Fatigue

Fatigued man sitting at his laptop © Prostock Studio/Shutterstock Fatigued man sitting at his laptop

While cirrhosis doesn't always have symptoms, when they do occur, it can be a red flag of significant liver damage (via Mayo Clinic). Recognizing these red flags, however, can be tricky. For instance, fatigue, which can be a sign of a number of health concerns, is also a symptom of cirrhosis, as well as other related liver concerns.

To really understand cirrhosis, it's important to talk about fatty liver disease. As Johns Hopkins explains, there are two basic types of fatty liver disease: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH occurs when fat accumulates in the liver, causing inflammation and damage. Eventually, it can lead to cirrhosis. Symptoms of NASH tend to develop over time, and can include weakness and extreme tiredness. Additionally, when NASH becomes cirrhosis, a person can also experience other health problems, like internal bleeding and muscle wasting.

Although there currently isn't any medication that can get rid of the fat in one's liver, that doesn't mean a NASH patient can't do something to Boost their situation and reduce the chances of developing cirrhosis. For example, a person with NASH might need to at least reduce their alcohol consumption. They also might need to reduce their over-the-counter (OTC) medication intake. But ignoring symptoms like weakness and fatigue can mean ignoring NASH and cirrhosis, and may lead to additional liver damage.

Swelling In The Legs, Ankles, And Feet

A man holding his swollen ankle © Mallmo/Shutterstock A man holding his swollen ankle

As the Cleveland Clinic explains, when a person develops cirrhosis, they might experience swelling in areas of their body like their legs, their ankles, and their feet. However, a medical professional might refer to this as edema as opposed to just swelling. 

Specifically, edema occurs when larger amounts of fluid than normal become trapped inside your tissues (per Mayo Clinic). Besides swelling, this can cause the skin to become stretched out and even shiny. You may also find that if you press down on a swollen area, it'll remain dimpled for a few seconds. And if not addressed, edema can cause other issues, like itchiness and pain. Also, the swollen area can be more susceptible to infections.

Although edema can be a symptom of cirrhosis, it also can occur because of something as simple as sitting in one position for too long, or if the person is pregnant (via Cleveland Clinic). Edema can also happen in relation to congestive heart failure, kidney disease, and kidney failure. 

Abdominal Swelling

Medical professional holding card saying © Yuriy K/Shutterstock Medical professional holding card saying

Swelling in different areas of the body is a potential symptom of cirrhosis. This can include in areas like the legs, as well as in the abdominal area -- a condition known as ascites (via Mayo Clinic). This occurs because a higher-than-normal amount of fluid amasses in the abdominal cavity. But if you're thinking this sounds more inconvenient than concerning, think again. Not only is this a red flag of liver damage, but there's also more than just swelling that can come along with it.

According to Johns Hopkins, depending on how severe ascites is, a patient can experience pain and issues moving without having discomfort. Besides feeling bloated and heavy, someone with ascites can also have indigestion, nausea, and vomiting. Additionally, that fluid can increase the chances of infections in the abdomen and hemorrhoids. That excess fluid doesn't necessarily stay put, either: It can get into someone's chest and cause breathing issues.

While weight gain can be a sign of ascites, a medical professional will need to do more than weigh a patient in order to diagnose ascites. Common tests used to determine if someone has ascites include taking a fluid demo from someone's abdomen via a needle, an MRI, or a CT scan. But if they conclude the patient has ascites, cirrhosis might be a concern, since it's the number one cause of this health problem.

Changes In Urine

toilet and green accent rug © Pixel-Shot/Shutterstock toilet and green accent rug

Even though we're told to discuss all symptoms with our doctors, talking about changes in one's bathroom routine can be embarrassing. After all, the details about our waste products are usually considered TMI. However, changes when it comes to one's urine can be a sign of cirrhosis and a serious related condition.

When your liver has cirrhosis and so isn't functioning properly, you can also develop hepatorenal syndrome (via MedlinePlus). This involves progressive kidney failure. Not surprisingly, symptoms of this condition can include urinating less (or in the case of kidney failure, not urinating at all). Also, someone with hepatorenal syndrome and liver failure (which can occur with cirrhosis) might have dark-colored urine. Make no mistake: Hepatorenal syndrome can be fatal. Per data, approximately 10% of all people hospitalized for liver failure will develop hepatorenal syndrome.

While you should see a medical professional if you notice changes in your urine, keep in mind that physical exams can only provide so much information. For example, a doctor might not be able to tell if one is experiencing kidney failure based solely on urine color, but other signs like jaundice and confusion could point to problems with one's liver, like cirrhosis. And once liver health issues are discovered, so too can other health problems.

Bruising And Bleeding

Bruise injury on young woman's knee © Yekatseryna Netuk/Shutterstock Bruise injury on young woman's knee

At times, what might seem like a minor bump or injury can result in a bruise. But here's the thing: If you're finding that you're bruising more easily than usual, that can be a sign of cirrhosis (via Mount Sinai). And the reason might be tied to your digestive tract.

According to Mount Sinai, the bruising and bleeding that sometimes happens with cirrhosis can be because veins located in the digestive tract have become swollen. Specifically, these veins are located in the esophagus, and when they become larger than usual, they are referred to as varices (per Mount Sinai). Esophageal varices can happen to someone with cirrhosis, because when a liver becomes scarred, it's harder for blood to flow through it. This throws off the proper circulation of one's blood, possibly sending more to the veins in the esophagus. Once this occurs, these enlarged veins can break and bleed. Also, enlarged veins don't only occur in the esophagus; this swelling can also happen to the veins in the upper part of one's stomach.

Besides bruising more easily, a person with cirrhosis and bleeding esophageal varices might experience abnormal bleeding. Furthermore, there might be other signs of these ruptured enlarged veins, like changes in one's stool (ranging from black streaks to bloody stool), lightheadedness, and paleness.

Nausea And Vomiting

Nauseous woman leaning over a sink © LightField Studios/Shutterstock Nauseous woman leaning over a sink

There are many reasons why someone might have stomach problems. They could be nervous and feeling queasy because they're going to make a speech. Or they might have eaten something that didn't agree with them, causing them to vomit. Health issues can also be the culprit -- which brings us to cirrhosis.

As the University of California San Francisco explains, a person with cirrhosis can experience nausea. What's more, the National Health Service for Scotland (NHS) points out that vomiting can also be a symptom of cirrhosis. It's also possible to vomit blood if you've been diagnosed with cirrhosis. This condition is called hematemesis, and according to the Cleveland Clinic, it can occur when cirrhosis leads to the veins in the esophagus becoming larger and weaker. Naturally, this can lead to the veins breaking.

Although vomiting blood can be connected to cirrhosis, it can also be the result of other health issues like peptic ulcers, which occur in the stomach or the duodenum. Another explanation could be arteries bleeding, a possible result of inflammation in the stomach lining or the esophagus. Also, chronic pancreatitis could be the reason why someone is vomiting blood. The bottom line is if you experience this possible symptom of cirrhosis, get medical help as soon as possible.

Changes To Blood Vessels

Person wearing Medical Compression Stockings © ML Photo/Shutterstock Person wearing Medical Compression Stockings

Cirrhosis and changes to one's skin can go hand in hand. For instance, cirrhosis can affect the capillaries in one's hands, causing the palms to become red (via Medical News Today). But that's not the only way that blood vessels impacted by cirrhosis can change one's appearance.

According to Healthline, a person with cirrhosis can develop dilated blood vessels near the skin's surface. As a result, the blood vessels can create a web-like appearance on the skin that's usually red, blue, or purple. Unsurprisingly, this condition goes by names like spider nevus, vascular spider, and spider angioma. Where they occur can vary, but they typically appear on the legs, neck, and face. They can cause a burning or aching sensation, and pressing on them can make them temporarily disappear because it obstructs the blood flow to those vessels.

Although spider nevi can be observed in patients who have cirrhosis that wasn't caused by alcohol consumption, they're more likely to occur in someone with alcohol-related cirrhosis. They can also happen because of other health concerns like hormonal changes and exposure to the sun. 

Itchiness

Woman scratching her itchy arm © Andrey Popov/Shutterstock Woman scratching her itchy arm

Feeling itchy can be annoying, especially when there doesn't seem to be a reason for it (and thus, no apparent way to get rid of it). But as the Mayo Clinic points out, having itchy skin is a potential (albeit somewhat confusing) sign of cirrhosis. 

The technical term for itchiness that can occur because of chronic liver disease is pruritus (via Healthline). A person experiencing pruritus might feel either itchy all over their body or in a specific area. Primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis, per Healthline) occurs when the liver's bile ducts become damaged. It can not only cause itchiness, but also lead to cirrhosis over time.

Besides having a medical professional check the source of your itching, Healthline advises against scratching an itch. Scratching can lead to the skin becoming damaged, which could result in infections. You might want to try a few simple prevention tricks like cutting your fingernails short and wearing gloves or long-sleeved shirts.

Sensitivity To Medication

colorful pills on white lab table © Raland/Shutterstock colorful pills on white lab table

Medication can be an important treatment for a variety of health issues. As the American College of Gastroenterology notes, the liver is instrumental in helping the body process oral medications. Unsurprisingly, cirrhosis can cause issues when it comes to such treatments.

As the University of California San Francisco points out, when a liver is scarred, it doesn't filter medicines from one's bloodstream as quickly as an unscarred liver would. As a result, medication can build up in one's body, which can make the person more sensitive to it. This is why a cirrhosis patient could also become more sensitive to a medicine's side effects.

While prescription medications can be a concern for someone with cirrhosis, so too can over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. In fact, the American College of Gastroenterology states that acetaminophen (Tylenol) can cause liver damage when taken in large amounts over several days or taken in a high dose once. Take note that if a pain medicine advertises that it doesn't contain aspirin, there's a good chance it contains acetaminophen.

Redness In Palms

hands with palmar erythema © Zay Nyi Nyi/Shutterstock hands with palmar erythema

The expression "caught red-handed" usually refers to someone being found doing something wrong. However, for a cirrhosis patient, red-handed can take on a new meaning (although the redness typically doesn't affect the whole hand).

As Medical News Today explains, a person with cirrhosis might experience secondary palmar erythema, where the palms of their hands turn red. In fact, palmar erythema is very often referred to as liver palms. In particular, this redness occurs in the heels of the hands. However, the rest of the palms can also become red, and can even look like they're covered with a rash. This is because tiny blood vessels in the hands are drawing a larger amount of blood than normal to the surface, creating the redness. (If you press down on the palms, the redness will temporarily go away.)

While cirrhosis can be the cause behind palmar erythema, liver health concerns (like hemochromatosis and Wilson disease) or pregnancy may also be the culprit. Alternatively, the redness can occur on its own, a condition known as primary palmar erythema. Regardless, it's important to consult a doctor and determine why you're experiencing palmar erythema. If a health issue like cirrhosis is the reason, addressing it might help reverse some of the redness, at least.

Read this next: Health Symptoms That Are Serious Red Flags

Tue, 13 Dec 2022 01:55:21 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/health-news/symptoms-of-cirrhosis-explained/ar-AA15dZAI
Killexams : Virtual reality helps reduce patient anxiety and need for sedatives during hand surgery

As an anesthesiologist, Adeel Faruki, MD, MBA, works with patients to manage not just pain, but also anxiety. It can be a particular concern for patients receiving a nerve block, rather than sedation or general anesthesia, for upper extremity procedures such as hand surgery.

"If a nerve block is done and blocks the nerves innervating the area a surgeon is working on, what we're generally managing intraoperatively is anxiety and hemodynamic changes," explains Faruki, an assistant professor of anesthesiology in the University of Colorado School of Medicine. "Patients may feel fear, they may feel claustrophobia, so we started asking how we can reduce the amount of sedative medications given intraoperatively for who receive nerve block for upper extremity . We thought, 'Why don't we offer them a distraction?'"

This led to recently published research studying (VR) immersion compared to monitored anesthesia care for .

"As VR has continually grown into the medical sphere, we realized that immersive experiences through VR have the potential to benefit patients as much as the intraoperative treatments we currently use," Faruki says. "We decided to look at in a comparing the two groups' experiences."

Virtual reality immersion during surgery

Faruki began this research as a resident at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center at Harvard Medical School, working with his faculty mentor Brian O'Gara, MD, who had an interest in reducing the associated effects of sedation with patients who may not need it to manage pain.

"We're realizing that a lot of the medications we're giving patients, the intraoperative sedation, are safe but can carry —dropping blood pressure, slowed breathing," Faruki says. "If VR can have a similar effect of managing patient anxiety without with the side effects associated with sedation, that's something we should be studying."

Faruki and his research partners randomized 40 participants who were having elective hand surgery into two groups, one receiving intraoperative monitored anesthesia care (MAC) and one using VR in addition to receiving MAC. They worked from a hypothesis that intraoperative VR use would reduce sedative dosing during elective hand surgery without detracting from patient satisfaction as compared to just MAC.

Participants in the VR group viewed immersive programming of their choice via a head-mounted display during surgery. As a primary outcome, Faruki and his co-researchers measured intraoperative dose of propofol, a common anesthetic, per hour. Secondary outcomes included patient-reported pain and anxiety, overall satisfaction, functional outcome, and post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) length of stay.

Possibilities for VR technology

Patients in the VR group received significantly less propofol per hour than the MAC control group. Though there were no significant differences between groups in overall satisfaction, PACU pain scores, or postoperative functional outcome, participants in the VR group had a significantly decreased PACU length of stay.

"A number of participants in the VR group stated that they were very aware but comfortable," Faruki says. "The beauty of this is, if you have an effective way to manage pain for a specific surgery, you can give patients VR headsets, get them in an immersive environment, and as long as the nerve block doesn't wear off, they can very comfortably endure surgery."

An additional benefit of VR applications during surgery is two-way communication with patients, Faruki says. "The VR screen allows you to send patients messages, so you could let them know how much longer the procedure will take or ask how they're feeling," Faruki says. "The VR group also had a much higher amount of redosing of local anesthetic around the surgery site because they're awake and can communicate whether they're feeling any pain. Whenever your heavily sedate patients, you're often masking what you're managing, but with VR, the patients are fully awake."

Faruki notes that he and his research colleagues weren't studying pain reduction, but "whether you can maintain an adequate experience for patients with less intraoperative sedation." He adds that there is interest in replicating research done by O'Gara at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, looking at the use of VR in joint repair surgery.

"We're looking to expanding the use of VR into more high-risk populations," Faruki says. "Patients receiving surgery for a broken hip, for example, may be older or have more and giving them sedation is much higher risk. If we can give them an adequate spinal dose of medication, yet keep them awake and comfortable and hanging out in an immersive environment, it creates an opportunity to reduce the risks associated with anesthesia."

There also is potential to study the use of VR in reducing patients' negative experiences in the surgical recovery unit, managing pain with non-pharmacological applications. "I really do foresee a lot of uses for VR technology in the future," Faruki says, "not to take away from the use of anesthesia, but to be a complementary treatment that benefits patients."

More information: Adeel A. Faruki et al, Virtual reality immersion compared to monitored anesthesia care for hand surgery: A randomized controlled trial, PLOS ONE (2022). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0272030

Citation: Virtual reality helps reduce patient anxiety and need for sedatives during hand surgery (2022, December 8) retrieved 13 December 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-12-virtual-reality-patient-anxiety-sedatives.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Thu, 08 Dec 2022 03:42:00 -0600 en text/html https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-12-virtual-reality-patient-anxiety-sedatives.html
Killexams : Xironetic Receives FDA Clearance for Augmented Reality Surgical Software

OKLAHOMA CITY--()--Xironetic (chiro-net-ik), an early-stage healthcare technology company, today announced its IntraOpVSP™ augmented reality (AR) visualization software for complex surgeries has received clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

IntraOpVSP displays patient CT and MRI as three-dimensional holograms in AR headsets, helping surgeons visualize surgical plans, anatomical targets, and cutting guides alongside or overlayed on the patient. The software can be used during surgery and pre-operative planning and includes hand tracking and voice recognition features.

Current and planned use cases for IntraOpVSP are expected to align to the needs of physicians across general, craniofacial and maxillofacial, neuro, orthopedic, plastic, thoracic and vascular surgery disciplines.

“IntraOpVSP is an extension to virtual surgical planning tools used today, bringing the insights of 3D visualization of CT and MRI data into the operating room to support improved surgical outcomes,” said Christian El-Amm, MD, Xironetic founder, and chief pediatric surgeon at Oklahoma Children’s Hospital. “Our software is a huge step forward for surgeons and their patients, and the FDA’s clearance is another important milestone in getting it into operating rooms everywhere.”

About Xironetic

Xironetic (chiro-net-ik) is building medical extended reality solutions and is on a mission to augment every surgery. The company’s IntraOpVSP™ software combines augmented reality and computer vision to support complex surgical procedures. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration cleared the software for use in 2022. Xironetic is headquartered in Oklahoma City. Follow our progress at https://www.xironetic.com and connect with us on LinkedIn.

Fri, 02 Dec 2022 21:48:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20221114005198/en/Xironetic-Receives-FDA-Clearance-for-Augmented-Reality-Surgical-Software
Killexams : How virtual reality training may Boost 'blind' surgery to treat female urinary incontinence

For the 1 in 3 women who experience urinary incontinence, treatment often comes in the form of surgery: implanting a device called a midurethral sling. The sling stops uncontrolled urination during physical activity, such as lifting or laughing.

But regardless of how expert the surgeon performing the sling procedure may be, there's a common issue across the 300,000 such minimally invasive surgeries performed in the U.S. each year: The surgeon works "blindly"—or, by feel. They estimate angles based on external anatomic landmarks and take note of subtle, tactile changes in tissue response as the sling is placed under the urethra with a tool called a trocar.

To replace the current expensive and time-intensive process for the sling procedure, Central Virginia VA Health Care System urogynecologist Lauren Siff, M.D., is leading a team of interdisciplinary researchers from across Virginia Commonwealth University who are building a virtual-reality training application.

"Dr. Siff's technology is a good example of how can have an impact on the ," says Brent Fagg, a senior licensing manager at VCU Innovation Gateway, the university's technology-transfer and IP support office. "She has found a use for VR that can lower costs, remove risks and open this life-changing surgery up to more people in need of it."

The blind nature of sling surgery can result in up to a 13% complication rate, explained Siff, one of 1,300 urogynecologists in the U.S. who perform the procedure. And while rare, there have even been reports of death related to vascular or bowel injury caused by the procedure. "Unfortunately, there's no universal proficiency standards for surgeon credentialing" for midurethral slings, said Siff, an adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the VCU School of Medicine.

Becoming expert in slings requires significant training often during a multiyear surgical fellowship.

"We know that surgery is effective, but our current training methods are either an apprenticeship, where you're learning on live patients working with an expert surgeon, cadaver labs or a static, plastic model," Siff said.

Training also often requires funding and travel time away from work. And when working with cadavers, tissue can become distorted after multiple passes of the sling. "So we asked ourselves, 'How can we teach a blind technique that really requires learning by feel and high volume to develop muscle memory in the era of limited hours, resources and case numbers?'" Siff said.

Here's how the training system works: Think of it as a kind of video game. A VR headset, worn by the training surgeon, displays a 3D model of a female pelvis. The user holds a stylus, custom-designed with a trocar handle. The surgeon-in-training wears the headset; as they move the stylus, it moves in the same manner within the VR environment that the trocar would be inserted and shifted within the pelvis.

Visual cues assist the surgeon, and haptics—the same technology found in phones —cause the stylus to vibrate or push back and give the user the physical sensation of touching bone or bladder. Such virtual components make the process more real.

In the trainer, Siff has helped the system's developers code "an example of the ideal pathway" to implant the sling within the pelvic floor. "The VR model helps the user properly introduce the trocar, feel the pubic bone, and use that sensation with haptics and visuals to drop behind the bone and pass the sling," she said.

Users are scored based on how well they perform the virtual procedure.

"In an ideal world, the trainee, with practice, will follow the exact steps and proper pathway get a high score, demonstrating their competency, and then they can provide that score to the attending surgeon to prove that they're ready for primetime," Siff said. "This will hopefully become a training system that allows fellows and training surgeons to say, 'Put me in coach, I'm ready to play.'"

Siff also said she hopes the VR system will be accepted by health systems and credentialing organizations to prove surgeons are competent to perform the sling procedure. Noted Fagg, with VCU innovation Gateway: "Now, the opportunity is to refine the product and ensure it becomes an accredited training method for urogynecologists nationwide."

There's work to be done before the system is ready. The team is refining the virtual anatomical illustrations, adding art and texture to make the skin, muscles and soft tissues more lifelike. They're even adding distractions and emergencies that can pop up in a real OR setting and throw off a surgeon's focus. "That increases training simulation realism," Siff said. "We are constantly working on evaluation, design improvement and user feedback."

Citation: How virtual reality training may Boost 'blind' surgery to treat female urinary incontinence (2022, December 7) retrieved 13 December 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-12-virtual-reality-surgery-female-urinary.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Wed, 07 Dec 2022 03:33:00 -0600 en text/html https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-12-virtual-reality-surgery-female-urinary.html
Killexams : Virtual Reality Helps Students Experience Healthcare Scenarios

Augusta University’s College of Nursing realized it needed to better train students on how to support family members when patients are near the end of life after latest graduates told faculty how emotionally unprepared they were the first time they faced the situation.

In response, the Georgia university has built virtual reality simulations that enable nursing students to role-play various situations so they can learn empathy and provide the support their future patients and patients’ families will need, says Lynsey Steinberg, a board-certified medical illustrator with Augusta University’s Center for Instructional Innovation.

“We can’t bring students to genuine hospice care settings where patients are dying. It’s not appropriate. But by putting a scene in front of students in virtual reality, they can experience this real-world scenario,” she says.

Universities and colleges are increasingly using VR, augmented reality and other immersive technologies as part of their curriculum, and medical and nursing schools are among the early adopters.

Click the banner below for exclusive content about emerging technologies in higher ed.

With VR headsets, computers and software, students can dissect virtual cadavers; train for surgery, intubation and other procedures; and practice medical situations, from examining and diagnosing patients to handling hospice care.

“There’s tremendous value in being able to replicate real-life scenarios and try things again and again,” says Bob O’Donnell, founder and chief analyst at TECHnalysis Research. “Doing virtual surgeries — and in the case of virtual cadavers, letting people peel away the layers and explore the body — helps people figure out how everything works.”

According to the National Library of Medicine, educators can use different forms of VR in a medical school environment, including 360-degree video and interactive VR. The technology also offers cost savings compared with physical simulations, with the main upfront costs being the hardware and software.

The technology requires less space than physical simulations and can free up faculty time because, in some cases, instructors do not need to be present, the National Library of Medicine notes.

READ MORE: How virtual reality advances bring new possibilities to higher education.

Augusta University Nursing Students Practice End-of-Life Situations

At Augusta University, two nursing professors collaborated with the university’s Center for Instructional Innovation to create six immersive, end-of-life VR scenes that students can view on an Oculus VR headset.

The scenes, each lasting one to three minutes, include telling family members that their loved one is near death and explaining why the patient looks and sounds the way they do. In another scene, an anguished family member asks if she can bring her 4-year-old child into the room to say goodbye.

To build the VR scenes, they first wrote scripts, then filmed the scenes using a 360-degree video camera and microphones, using students and staff as actors inside a patient room at the university’s healthcare simulation center.

During production, they painted visual effects on the patient’s skin and added vocal audio effects to replicate what patients look and sound like at the end of life, Steinberg says.

The College of Nursing tested the VR scenes this summer with eight students pursuing their master’s degrees. It was so successful that the college is incorporating it as part of its palliative care nursing course content this fall. About 135 nursing students pursuing bachelor’s degrees will go through the VR simulations.

“They’re shocked at how realistic it is. They say, ‘It’s like I’m right there,’” Steinberg says.

The College of Nursing’s VR setup features 10 computers and four Oculus VR headsets. Students use the computers to go through a training module to learn how to speak with empathy and practice phrases they can say to the patient’s family members, Steinberg says. Then they take turns putting on the headsets to go through the VR scenarios, which last about 15 minutes.

The VR simulations provide a safe environment to practice communicating with patients’ families, says Elena Prendergast, an assistant professor at the College of Nursing. Faculty watch how students handle the situations, then talk them through the experience.

“Giving bad news is difficult. It doesn’t matter how much training you have,” Prendergast says. “The difference is, we can help students be more prepared and more comfortable to have those conversations.”

VR Enables Remote Learning at Purdue University Global

When the pandemic struck, Purdue University Global’s online nursing program needed an alternative to an onsite skills lab.

Partnering with a third-party educational VR vendor, the university developed immersive simulations using 3D animation in VR to help students learn six essential skills, says Abbey Elliott, assistant dean of immersive learning and innovation for Purdue University Global’s school of nursing. Those skills include chest tube insertion and endotracheal intubation.

The university launched the VR experience during the fall 2020 semester. Students purchased Oculus VR headsets, downloaded the app, and in guided mode, the VR application taught them step by step how to perform the procedures, Elliott says.

In expert mode, they performed the procedures without any hand-holding. Then, in test mode, they had to do each procedure correctly before starting their clinical practice experiences.

The VR technology drew rave reviews from students. “We saw such a great increase in student confidence,” Elliott says. “The student response was overwhelmingly positive because it gave them flexibility.”

70%

Percentage of students who say using VR and AR to supplement medical education is more advantageous than “classic” or traditional education

Source: Translational Research in Anatomy, “Assessment of the Utility of Mixed Reality in Medical Education,” September 2022

The VR app also provided analytics. If students struggle with a procedure, faculty members are notified on a web-based dashboard. “Faculty can talk to students about how they can do better, and if needed, they can share their screen to show them something,” she says.

Today, students pursuing an associate degree can learn nearly 70 skills, including hand hygiene and inserting an IV. They can also run AI-powered VR simulations in which they give patient exams and assess patients’ health. The program also created a community assessment in VR, where students can interview avatars in a neighborhood and learn what healthcare services they need.

“Students are much better at skills because they’ve practiced 1,000 times at home,” Elliott says.

Virtual Reality Brings Cadavers to the Medical Students

New York University’s Grossman School of Medicine uses VR and AR to give students new ways to visualize and learn about the human body.

While the medical school still has human cadavers for students to inspect, they no longer dissect cadavers as part of the curriculum; they use VR and AR instead, says Greg Dorsainville, manager of immersive computing at the medical school’s Institute for Innovations in Medical Education.

“In the past, students were in the anatomy lab at all hours of the night examining real cadavers,” he says. “Now, if they are learning about the physiology of the heart, for example, they still go to the lab and see examples of the heart. But we want them to have anytime, anywhere access. So, now they can go home and see digitized versions of the heart, animations and other resources.”

DISCOVER: Musinah Morris is leading Morehouse College into the metaverse.

Dorsainville has taken photos of real-life cadavers and, using photogrammetry software, stitched the photos together so students can see the human body in 3D through VR.

Students can also view 3D models of the brain and other body parts as if they are standing inside them. That allows them to better visualize the body, Dorsainville says.

“VR makes a big difference for the anatomy because it provides you the spatial relationships,” Dorsainville says. Some VR applications work directly on VR headsets. Other VR apps that are graphics-intensive require both a VR headset and a computer with a dedicated GPU chip, he says.

The medical school has 20 VR headsets on campus, including the Lenovo Varjo, Oculus Quest 2 and HTC Vive. But it also makes sure students can go home and access the VR experiences and 3D models on other devices, such as computers, tablets and smartphones.

“We’ve got to meet our learners where they are,” Dorsainville says.

Photography by Matt Odom

Thu, 01 Dec 2022 02:01:00 -0600 Wylie Wong en text/html https://edtechmagazine.com/higher/article/2022/11/virtual-reality-helps-students-experience-healthcare-scenarios
Killexams : The last word: Collaborative innovation

Emerging Europe has proven time and again that by working together, its healthtech start-ups are a match for anyone. 

Two weeks ago I hosted the EIT Health InnoStars Awards Grand Final — the finale of a six-month acceleration programme for early-stage healthcare start-ups from Central, Eastern and Southern Europe.  



What was interesting about the winner — Shuttle Catheters, a Greek start-up, working on expanding the reach of minimally invasive surgery for CTO’s (Chronic Total Occlusions) by developing a mobile, balloon-anchoring technology — was that while it might originate from outside of emerging Europe, it works closely with innovators from the region. 

“We collaborate with Alexandre Romoscanu, who created the Swiss-Romanian Incite Medical in 2017, bringing in significant engineering and management experience in the electrophysiology and vascular percutaneous devices fields,” Danae Manolesou, the start-up’s CTO, told me after the Grand Final.  

Romanian innovation 

Just a few days later, re.flex, a digital assistant for musculoskeletal physical therapy facilitating effective long-lasting knee, hip, and lower back pain treatment, without the need of physiotherapists, again developed by Romanian start-up — Kineto Tech Rehab, became one of the first non-German digital medical devices (DMDs) to qualify for reimbursement under the statutory health insurance system in Germany. 

During the Grand Final, I did a fireside chat with Martin Rus, one of the founders and the CEO of Tully, another Romanian start-up working on a wearable device that acts as an early warning guidance system for children, calculating an overall level of stress and empowering them to manage their emotions. Tully won the InnoStars award in 2021. 

But Romania’s contribution in developing innovative health solutions is broader. Two years ago, during the Global Start-Up Summit European conference, the Romanian city of Cluj-Napoca was appointed as a project leader in healthcare innovation and artificial intelligence within the European Innovation Area — a new European project created to encourage innovation, promoted by European Commissioner for Innovation Mariya Gabriel.  

“Cluj-Napoca now takes over the management of the Health iArea, in order to create new economic opportunities for Romania and Europe. Our goal is to accelerate innovative solutions for one of the most important components of our lives: our health,” Emil Boc, Cluj-Napoca’s mayor said at the time. 

The Kineto Tech Rehab team is based in Bucharest. Its last investment round, in 2020, estimated the company’s market value at 10 million euros. In 2022, the start-up was enrolled in the EIT Health Go Global track to evaluate a potential market approach for the United States.    

“We’re excited to observe how the start-ups grow and work their way up. The innovation potential in Romania, and in the whole Central and Eastern European region is still significant. Our job is to scout for the most promising solutions and support them during their journey so all European citizens can benefit from the novel medical and healthcare innovations,” Monika Toth, responsible for EIT Health Regional Innovation Scheme (RIS), tells me.   

Little innovation? 

The EIT Regional Innovation Scheme (EIT RIS) was introduced in 2014 to boost the innovation performance of countries with moderate or modest innovation scores as defined by the European Innovation Scoreboard.  

The RIS region covers EU member states Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechia, Estonia, Greece, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, as well as Horizon Europe associated countries Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, Türkiye and Ukraine. 

“Greece is indeed a laggard in innovation, especially in med-tech. The fact that a Greek med-tech start-up took up the challenge and gained recognition beyond its borders is very encouraging indeed,” Shuttle Catheters’ Manolesou tells me.  

“It is also telling of the latest boom in life sciences start-ups. This has been spurred by renewed focus from local industrial players, as well as an appetite for risk from scientists at academic institutions trying out tech transfer projects.”  

‘Collaborative innovation’ 

A couple of months ago I spoke with EIT Health’s Monika Toth at InnovEIT, another event I hosted in Warsaw in September. She told me that in the 21st century collaborative innovation is considered the key to the development of innovative solutions.  

“The complexity of our environment and the fast speed technology development demand a wide range of capabilities that are difficult to derive from a single provider. Collaboration of multiple stakeholders enable partners to integrate various resources and share knowledge to co-create and develop breakthrough solutions.” 

It is often easy to appear overly positive about the EIT InnoStars programme, but its “collaborative innovation” concept gets results.  

Accelerating the growth of 100 start-ups within six years (with almost 70 per cent of them already launched on the market) is an achievement. Being able to engage multiple stakeholders in a long-term mission requires a lot of effort — I have seen how difficult it is to encourage different parties to work together. There is enormous potential for regional collaboration within the emerging Europe region and InnoStars shows it is possible. 

“Our participation in the InnoStars programme has been beneficial in multiple ways,” adds Danae Manolesou.  

“First, it has contributed to our team-building by uniting everyone’s efforts towards an easily identifiable goal; second, it has catalysed our interaction with mentors whose important advice we may have otherwise overlooked due to urgent daily tasks; third, it has given us much needed financial and moral support at a critical point of our product development; fourth, it has instilled just enough discipline needed at a time when we might have ranked our priorities wrongly in terms of resource allocation and route to market; finally, it has given us access to clinical resources, which is one of the most obvious and essential elements for any health tech start-up.”  

Time for more  

I have heard so many times that this or that country within emerging Europe needs to create another Silicon Valley to make sure they are able to produce unicorns. I have also heard of experts eager to learn from and collaborate with experts from the West. 

Relatively little have I heard about learning from the experiences of emerging Europe countries or borrowing from their best practices, especially those that entered the European Union over the past two decades, like Romania, or are not even part of the EU yet, like the Western Balkan countries or Ukraine. And there is a lot to be shared and learned from. 

It is high time we changed that and built on the individual experiences of the emerging Europe countries to create more innovative solutions in health care and beyond. 


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Sat, 10 Dec 2022 19:09:00 -0600 Andrew Wrobel en-US text/html https://emerging-europe.com/news/the-last-word-collaborative-innovation/
Killexams : What Is Vascular Surgery and When Is It Needed?

Vascular surgery can treat conditions that affect the blood vessels in your body. It may be recommended when vascular disease is advanced or increases your risk of serious health outcomes. There are different types of vascular surgery, including open surgeries and less invasive options.

Vascular surgery focuses on treating diseases that impact the vascular system, which is made up of the different blood vessels in your body.

A doctor who performs vascular surgery is called a vascular surgeon. A vascular surgeon has had training in general surgery, open vascular surgery, and endovascular surgery. As such, they can approach your problem with the best strategy for your situation

There are many different types of vascular surgery. Some of these are open surgeries, while others are less invasive endovascular procedures.

This article will take a closer look at when vascular surgery is needed, what types of procedures are used, and the potential risks involved.

Vascular disease includes conditions that affect your blood vessels, including your:

  • arteries, which carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart and to the organs and tissues of your body
  • veins, which carry oxygen-depleted blood back to your heart to be reoxygenated in the lungs
  • capillaries, which are tiny blood vessels where your blood exchanges oxygen and nutrients for carbon dioxide and waste products

Some examples of vascular conditions include:

In addition to your blood vessels, vascular disease can also impact your lymphatic system, which drains fluid from your tissues and helps protect you from illness. An example of a condition that affects the lymphatic system is lymphedema.

Whether or not vascular surgery is needed depends on the type of vascular disease you have as well as its severity. A doctor will review these and other factors before recommending vascular surgery.

Overall, getting an early diagnosis and sticking to your treatment plan can go a long way in preventing the need for vascular surgery. Many vascular diseases can be managed through lifestyle changes and medications.

For example, lifestyle and medication treatments can work well for peripheral artery disease (PAD) when it’s not very severe. However, if the disease progresses and becomes worse, a doctor may recommend surgery to prevent complications and Boost your quality of life.

In other vascular diseases, surgery may be critical in preventing serious health outcomes, such as severe internal bleeding. An example of this is repairing an aortic aneurysm before it can rupture.

Generally speaking, there are two types of vascular surgery: endovascular surgery and open surgery. Let’s examine each type in a little more detail now.

Endovascular surgery

Endovascular surgery is a type of minimally invasive surgery. This type of surgery uses much smaller incisions than open surgery. It also typically involves a shorter recovery time, a reduced hospital stay, and a lower risk of negative outcomes.

In endovascular surgery, a thin flexible tube called a catheter is placed into one of your blood vessels through a small incision in your skin. Many times, the incision for this type of surgery is made at your groin.

Depending on the type of procedure, different tools or medications are present in the catheter. These can then be used to do the procedure or apply the treatment directly in the blood vessel.

Some examples of surgical techniques that may be used during endovascular surgery include:

  • Ablation: Ablation applies heat to varicose veins in order to seal them off.
  • Angioplasty: Angioplasty involves using a balloon-like tool to open up a blood vessel. This can help Boost blood flow in blood vessels that have narrowed. It’s often combined with stenting.
  • Stent placement: A stent is a mesh tube that’s placed into a blood vessel that has narrowed in order to help hold it open and Boost blood flow.
  • Stent graft placement: A stent graft is a fabric tube that’s supported by a stent. It can be used as a part of an aortic aneurysm or dissection treatment to help support the area of the blood vessel that’s become weakened.
  • Thrombolytic therapy: This type of treatment involves the delivery of medications that help break up potentially dangerous blood clots.

Open surgery

Open surgery involves making an incision in order to provide direct access to a blood vessel. It uses a larger incision than endovascular surgery and can have a longer recovery time and hospital stay.

Generally speaking, many of the procedures that can be done using endovascular surgery can also be performed using open surgery.

However, with the rise of endovascular surgeries, open surgeries for vascular disease are becoming less common. In fact, a 2018 study found that the rate of open surgery for aortic aneurysms had fallen by close to 80% in the past decade.

Some types of vascular surgery still use an open procedure. One of these is called carotid endarterectomy. This is a surgery that’s used to treat carotid artery disease, which can affect blood flow to the brain.

In this surgery, the carotid artery is exposed via an incision in your neck. The surgeon uses a tool to remove plaque from the walls of the artery. A temporary bypass tube is placed to redirect the flow of blood during the procedure.

Another type of open vascular surgery is bypass surgery. A bypass can be used to treat blockages in blood vessels. It uses either a synthetic tube or a blood vessel from another part of the body to reroute the flow of blood.

All surgeries have some degree of risk, and vascular surgery is no different. The surgeon will inform you of any potential risks prior to your procedure.

Some of the risks associated with vascular surgery include:

There are some factors that may increase the risk of negative outcomes following vascular surgery. These include:

Before recommending vascular surgery, a doctor will weigh the risks and benefits of the procedure. In many, but not all situations, the potential benefits outweigh the risks, especially for more serious vascular disease.

Vascular surgery can help reduce the risk of experiencing more severe health problems like stroke and aneurysm rupture. It may also improve quality of life in people who were experiencing more serious symptoms.

Overall, endovascular surgery can have a shorter recovery time and hospital stay as well as a reduced risk of negative outcomes. However, it may not lead to better outcomes than open surgery.

For example, studies on endovascular versus open surgery for aortic aneurysm have found that long-term survival after endovascular surgery is the same or lower than after open surgery.

According to these studies, endovascular surgery was associated with a higher likelihood of needing another procedure for vascular disease.

If you have vascular disease, a doctor will review factors like your specific condition, its severity, and your age and overall health to help determine the type of vascular surgery that’s best for you.

Vascular surgery is used to treat conditions that affect your blood vessels. It may be recommended when vascular disease has become advanced or increases your risk of serious health outcomes.

There are two general types of vascular surgery: endovascular and open. Endovascular procedures are less invasive and have a shorter recovery time, but some may have long-term outcomes similar to those of open surgeries.

If a doctor recommends vascular surgery, have an open conversation about the types of procedures that are available as well as their risks and benefits. A doctor can help give you a realistic picture of what to expect.

Mon, 05 Dec 2022 07:43:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.healthline.com/health/vascular-surgery
Killexams : What is the difference between vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease?

Vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are two types of dementia. Both conditions can affect cognitive function, behavior, and the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

Vascular dementia occurs as a result of damage to the blood vessels in the brain that affect brain function. The condition can affect thinking, behavior, and memory.

Alzheimer’s disease occurs through the formation of amyloid plaques and tangles of fibers in the brain. These changes affect memory, thinking, and the ability to carry out everyday activities.

Many symptoms and risk factors for vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease overlap. It is possible for people to have both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. Healthcare professionals refer to this as mixed dementia.

This article compares vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Vascular dementia is the term for any changes in cognition or brain function that occur from damage to the blood vessels in the brain. The condition affects memory, thinking, and behavior.

It develops as a result of conditions that affect the blood flow to the brain, such as a stroke. A lack of blood flow and oxygen to the brain can damage the blood vessels in the brain.

Changes in cognitive function can depend on the severity of the damage and which region of the brain vascular changes affect.

Symptoms of vascular dementia include:

  • difficulty performing everyday tasks
  • difficulty following instructions or taking in new information
  • forgetting past or current events
  • misplacing items
  • getting lost in familiar places or routes
  • language problems, such as difficulty finding the right words
  • difficulty memorizing and writing
  • changes in sleeping patterns
  • mood or personality changes, such as feeling depressed, angry, or agitated
  • losing interest in people or hobbies
  • hallucinations or delusions
  • a lack of judgment and inability to perceive danger

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia in older adults (ages 65 years and over). It affects thinking skills, memory, and the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

The symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease happen due to changes in the brain. A buildup of proteins forms plaques, called amyloid plaques, and tangles of fibers, called tau tangles. Neurons, which send messages between areas of the brain, stop working correctly and cannot connect with other neurons.

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease can occur in stages, which may be mild to begin with and gradually worsen over time. They can include:

  • memory problems
  • difficulty finding words
  • impaired reasoning or judgment
  • wandering and getting lost
  • difficulty with everyday tasks, such as paying bills and handling money
  • personality and behavioral changes
  • repeating questions
  • confusion
  • difficulty recognizing friends and family
  • difficulty coping with new situations or learning new information
  • hallucinations, delusions, or paranoia
  • impulsive behavior
  • being unable to communicate or care for themselves

The following are similarities and differences between the two types of dementia.

Causes

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, both vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease have connections with conditions that damage the blood vessels and heart. These include:

Blood vessel and heart health are important for brain health, as these supply blood and oxygen to the brain. Damage to the heart and blood vessels may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia.

Stroke, or damage to blood vessels in the brain, may increase the likelihood of plaques and tangles, leading to symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

Symptoms

Depending on where vascular changes occur, symptoms of both conditions may overlap.

If vascular dementia occurs after a stroke, changes in thinking and behavior may occur very suddenly. If damage to blood vessels happens deeper within the brain, cognitive changes may occur more gradually.

Early symptoms of vascular dementia may include:

Depending on where damage occurs, memory loss may or may not be a key symptom of vascular dementia.

If changes occur in the area of the brain that helps store and retrieve information, people with vascular dementia may experience memory loss similar to that typically seen in Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s symptoms typically begin with memory loss, which may worsen over time.

To diagnose vascular dementia, a doctor may carry out a range of tests and investigations, including:

  • assessing symptoms and a person’s medical history and lifestyle
  • asking the person, or people who know the person well, about changes in their everyday behavior and ability to carry out everyday activities
  • tests to assess memory and thinking skills
  • brain imaging scans

To diagnose Alzheimer’s disease, doctors may carry out a variety of examinations, such as:

  • taking a full medical history and assessing symptoms
  • asking the person and their friends or family about:
    • overall health
    • the person’s ability to carry out everyday tasks
    • any changes in their personality or behavior
  • tests to check memory and attention, problem solving, counting, and language skills
  • blood and urine tests to rule out other conditions
  • MRI, CT, or PET scans to provide images of the brain

Factors that may increase the risk of vascular dementia include:

  • high blood pressure
  • conditions affecting the typical rhythm of the heartbeat
  • diabetes
  • high cholesterol

Managing risk factors may reduce the risk of developing dementia.

Although strokes increase the risk of vascular dementia, not everyone who experiences a stroke will develop dementia.

A combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors may cause Alzheimer’s disease. Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease include:

  • genetics, including having a certain gene that is a type of apolipoprotein E gene
  • being an older adult
  • a family history of Alzheimer’s disease
  • head injury
  • heart disease
  • stroke
  • high blood pressure
  • high cholesterol
  • diabetes
  • having obesity

Having Down syndrome can also increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. This is because the additional copy of chromosome 21 (which causes Down syndrome to occur) also contains the gene that creates amyloid.

Older adults who are Latino or African American may have an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease compared with older adults who are white. Although the reason for this is not understood, it may be due to increased rates of vascular disease.

Learn about dementia in the Black community here.

The following sections outline the treatment options for both types of dementia.

Vascular dementia

Treatment for vascular dementia may help to manage symptoms and prevent the condition from worsening. It can include medications to help prevent strokes and further damage to the brain.

Medications healthcare professionals prescribe to treat Alzheimer’s disease may help to treat early vascular dementia in some cases.

Treatment includes managing any underlying health conditions that are risk factors for a stroke.

Alzheimer’s disease

Treatment for Alzheimer’s disease may help to manage behavioral and cognitive symptoms, as well as treating the underlying process that causes the disease.

Treatments may include:

  • medications such as donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine, to help manage symptoms
  • medications such as aducanumab to help treat the underlying disease process
  • nondrug and drug-based options to help manage symptoms such as agitation and difficulty sleeping
  • making adjustments to manage behavioral symptoms, such as creating a calm environment and allowing sufficient time to rest

Early diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease may help maintain how well a person can function for longer, as well as help people plan for the future.

Research and clinical trials for dementia treatments are ongoing. To find out more about clinical trials, speak with a healthcare professional.

Evidence suggests that there are steps people can take to reduce their risk of cognitive decline and dementia. These include:

  • taking part in regular physical exercise that elevates heart rate, as this increases blood flow to the brain and improves cardiovascular health
  • continuing to learn through reading, taking a class at a local center, or taking an online course
  • quitting smoking
  • taking steps to keep the heart healthy and reduce the risk of obesity, high blood pressure, and stroke
  • protecting the head from brain injury by:
    • wearing a seatbelt
    • using a helmet for contact sports and cycling
    • taking measures to help prevent falls
  • eating a nutritious, balanced diet full of vegetables and fruits
  • practicing good sleep hygiene for quality sleep
  • managing stress and any mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety
  • connecting socially with others
  • challenging the brain with puzzles, learning a new skill, or doing something creative

Both vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are types of dementia that can affect thinking, behavior, and the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

Vascular dementia occurs through damage to blood vessels in the brain. Alzheimer’s disease occurs through plaques and tangles forming in the brain.

Memory loss may be a major symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. It may also occur in vascular dementia, depending on which area of the brain the damage affects.

Treatments for both conditions may help to manage symptoms and slow down cognitive decline. Managing risk factors may also help to prevent further damage to the brain.

Mon, 28 Nov 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/vascular-dementia-vs-alzheimers
Killexams : Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market, Industry Drivers, Key Trends, Progression Rate, and Future opportunities for the period 2022-2028

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Nov 04, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- Pre and Post Covid is covered and Report Customization is available.

In the forecast period of 2022-2028, the Global “Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market” Research report The analysis includes market size, upstream situation, market segmentation, price and cost and industry environment. In addition, the report outlines the factors driving industry growth and the description of market channels. The report begins from overview of industrial chain structure, and describes the upstream. Besides, the report analyses market size and forecast in different geographies, type and end-use segment, in addition, the report introduces market competition overview among the major companies and company’s profiles, besides, market price and channel features are covered in this report.

Get a demo PDF of the report at -https://www.researchreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-sample/21595546

List of TOP KEY PLAYERS in Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Report are: -

● CAE Inc. ● Oculus (Facebook) ● Osso VR, Inc. ● Microsoft ● 3D Systems, Inc. ● Elara Systems, Inc. ● FundamentalVR ● Firsthand Technology Inc. ● Medical Realities

Market Analysis and Insights: Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market

The global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market size is projected to reach USD million by 2028, from USD million in 2021, at a CAGR of % during 2022-2028.

Fully considering the economic change by this health crisis, Hardware accounting for % of the Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training global market in 2021, is projected to value USD million by 2028, growing at a revised % CAGR from 2022 to 2028. While Hospitals segment is altered to an % CAGR throughout this forecast period.

China Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market size is valued at USD million in 2021, while the North America and Europe Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training are USD million and USD million, severally. The proportion of the North America is % in 2021, while China and Europe are % and respectively, and it is predicted that China proportion will reach % in 2028, trailing a CAGR of % through the analysis period 2022-2028. Japan, South Korea, and Southeast Asia are noteworthy markets in Asia, with CAGR %, %, and % respectively for the next 6-year period. As for the Europe Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training landscape, Germany is projected to reach USD million by 2028 trailing a CAGR of % over the forecast period 2022-2028.

With industry-standard accuracy in analysis and high data integrity, the report makes a brilliant attempt to unveil key opportunities available in the global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market to help players in achieving a strong market position. Buyers of the report can access Verified and reliable market forecasts, including those for the overall size of the global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market in terms of revenue.

Overall, the report proves to be an effective tool that players can use to gain a competitive edge over their competitors and ensure lasting success in the global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market. All of the findings, data, and information provided in the report are validated and revalidated with the help of trustworthy sources. The analysts who have authored the report took a unique and industry-best research and analysis approach for an in-depth study of the global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market.

Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Scope and Market Size

Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market is segmented by players, region (country), by Type and by Application. Players, stakeholders, and other participants in the global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market will be able to gain the upper hand as they use the report as a powerful resource. The segmental analysis focuses on revenue and forecast by Type and by Application for the period 2017-2028.

Get a demo copy of the Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Report

About Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market:

These major players operating in this Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Trainings Market analysis are in strong competition in terms of technology, innovation, product development, and product pricing. The Market study aids in making sales forecasts for its products and thereby, establishing harmonious adjustment between demand and supply of its products.It is helpful in finding out the size of the Market for specific products. Our report on the Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market provides a holistic analysis, market size and forecast, Market trends, growth drivers, and challenges, as well as vendor analysis covering around 25 vendors.

Qualitative information will discuss the key factors driving the restraining the growth of the market, and the possible growth opportunities of the market, regulatory scenario, value chain and supply chain analysis, export and import analysis, attractive investment proposition, and Porter’s 5 Forces analysis among others will be a part of qualitative information. Further, justification for the estimates for each segments, and regions will also be provided in qualitative form.

On the whole, the report proves to be an effective tool that players can use to gain a competitive edge over their competitors and ensure lasting success in the global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market. All of the findings, data, and information provided in the report are validated and revalidated with the help of trustworthy sources. The analysts who have authored the report took a unique and industry-best research and analysis approach for an in-depth study of the global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market.

Enquire before purchasing this report -https://www.researchreportsworld.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/21595546

Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Trainings Market: Segment Analysis
The research report includes specific segments by region (country), by manufacturers, by Type and by Application. Each type provides information about the production during the forecast period of 2016 to 2028. by Application segment also provides consumption during the forecast period of 2016 to 2028. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.

Product Type Insights

Global markets are presented by Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training type, along with growth forecasts through 2028. Estimates on revenue are based on the price in the supply chain at which the Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training are procured by the companies.

This report has studied every segment and provided the market size using historical data. They have also talked about the growth opportunities that the segment may pose in the future. This study bestows revenue data by type, and during the historical period (2017-2022) and forecast period (2023-2028).

Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training segment by Type

● Hardware ● Software and Service

Application Insights

This report has provided the market size (revenue data) by application, during the historical period (2017-2022) and forecast period (2023-2028).

This report also outlines the market trends of each segment and consumer behaviors impacting the Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market and what implications these may have on the industry's future. This report can help to understand the relevant market and consumer trends that are driving the Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market.

Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Segment by Application

● Hospitals ● Research and Teaching Institutions

Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Shareby Company Type Report is designed to incorporate both qualify qualitative and quantitative aspects of the industry with respect to each of the regions and countries involved in the study. This report also provides a balanced and detailed analysis of the on-going Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training trends, opportunities/high growth areas, Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market drivers which would help the investors to device and align their market strategies according to the current and future market dynamics.

The Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Share report is provided for the international markets as well as development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status. Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures are also analyzed. This report additionally states import/export consumption, supply and demand Figures, cost, price, revenue and gross margins.

COVID-19 and Russia-Ukraine War Influence Analysis

The readers in the section will understand how the Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market scenario changed across the globe during the pandemic, post-pandemic and Russia-Ukraine War. The study is done keeping in view the changes in aspects such as demand, consumption, transportation, consumer behavior, supply chain management. The industry experts have also highlighted the key factors that will help create opportunities for players and stabilize the overall industry in the years to come.

To know How COVID-19 and Russia-Ukraine War Influence Will Impact This Market/Industry-Request a demo copy of the report-:https://www.researchreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-covid19/21595546

Regional Outlook

This section of the report provides key insights regarding various regions and the key players operating in each region. Economic, social, environmental, technological, and political factors have been taken into consideration while assessing the growth of the particular region/country. The readers will also get their hands on the revenue data of each region and country for the period 2017-2028.

The market has been segmented into various major geographies, including North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. Detailed analysis of major countries such as the USA, Germany, the U.K., Italy, France, China, Japan, South Korea, Southeast Asia, and India will be covered within the regional segment. For market estimates, data are going to be provided for 2021 because of the base year, with estimates for 2022 and forecast revenue for 2028.

This Report lets you identify the opportunities in Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market by means of a region:

● North America (the United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey, etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia and Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam)) ● South America (Brazil etc.) ● The Middle East and Africa (North Africa and GCC Countries)

Key Drivers and Barriers

High-impact rendering factors and drivers have been studied in this report to aid the readers to understand the general development. Moreover, the report includes restraints and challenges that may act as stumbling blocks on the way of the players. This will assist the users to be attentive and make informed decisions related to business. specialists have also laid their focus on the upcoming business prospects.

Reasons to Buy This Report

● This report will help the readers to understand the competition within the industries and strategies for the competitive environment to enhance the potential profit. The report also focuses on the competitive landscape of the global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market, and introduces in detail the market share, industry ranking, competitor ecosystem, market performance, new product development, operation situation, expansion, and acquisition. etc. of the main players, which helps the readers to identify the main competitors and deeply understand the competition pattern of the market. ● This report will help stakeholders to understand the global industry status and trends of Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training and provides them with information on key market drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities. ● This report will help stakeholders to understand competitors better and gain more insights to strengthen their position in their businesses. The competitive landscape section includes the market share and rank (in volume and value), competitor ecosystem, new product development, expansion, and acquisition. ● This report stays updated with novel technology integration, features, and the latest developments in the market ● This report helps stakeholders to understand the COVID-19 and Russia-Ukraine War Influence on the Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training industry. ● This report helps stakeholders to gain insights into which regions to target globally ● This report helps stakeholders to gain insights into the end-user perception concerning the adoption of Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training. ● This report helps stakeholders to identify some of the key players in the market and understand their valuable contribution.

Highlights of the Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market report are

A comprehensive evaluation of all opportunities and risks in the Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market.

Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training market current developments and significant occasions.

A deep study of business techniques for the development of the market-driving players.

Conclusive study about the improvement of the market report for approaching years.

Top to bottom approach of market-express drivers, targets, and major littler scale markets.

Important Sections from the Table of Contents:

● Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Overview ● Economic Impact on Industry ● Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Competition by Manufacturers ● Production, Revenue (Value) by Region ● Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions ● Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type ● Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Analysis by Application ● Manufacturing Cost Analysis ● Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy, and Downstream Buyers ● Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders ● Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Effect Factors Analysis ● Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Forecast

Finally, the Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market report is the believable source for gaining the market research that will exponentially accelerate your business. The report gives the principle locale, economic situations with the item value, benefit, limit, generation, supply, request and market development rate and figure and so on. Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training industry report additionally Present new task SWOT examination, speculation attainability investigation, and venture return investigation.

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Detailed TOC of Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Research Report 2022

1 Report Overview
1.1 Study Scope
1.2 Market Analysis by Type
1.2.1 Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size Growth Rate by Type: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028
1.2.2 Hardware
1.2.3 Software and Service
1.3 Market by Application
1.3.1 Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Share by Application: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028
1.3.2 Hospitals
1.3.3 Research and Teaching Institutions
1.4 Study Objectives
1.5 Years Considered
2 Global Growth Trends
2.1 Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Perspective (2017-2028)
2.2 Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Growth Trends by Region
2.2.1 Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028
2.2.2 Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Historic Market Size by Region (2017-2022)
2.2.3 Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Forecasted Market Size by Region (2023-2028)
2.3 Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Dynamics
2.3.1 Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Industry Trends
2.3.2 Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Drivers
2.3.3 Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Challenges
2.3.4 Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Restraints
3 Competition Landscape by Key Players
3.1 Global Top Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Players by Revenue
3.1.1 Global Top Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Players by Revenue (2017-2022)
3.1.2 Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Revenue Market Share by Players (2017-2022)
3.2 Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3)
3.3 Players Covered: Ranking by Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Revenue
3.4 Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Concentration Ratio
3.4.1 Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Concentration Ratio (CR5 and HHI)
3.4.2 Global Top 10 and Top 5 Companies by Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Revenue in 2021
3.5 Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Key Players Head office and Area Served
3.6 Key Players Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Product Solution and Service
3.7 Date of Enter into Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market
3.8 Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion Plans
4 Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Breakdown Data by Type
4.1 Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Historic Market Size by Type (2017-2022)
4.2 Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Forecasted Market Size by Type (2023-2028)
5 Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Breakdown Data by Application
5.1 Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Historic Market Size by Application (2017-2022)
5.2 Global Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Forecasted Market Size by Application (2023-2028)
6 North America
6.1 North America Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size (2017-2028)
6.2 North America Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size by Country (2017-2022)
6.3 North America Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size by Country (2023-2028)
6.4 United States
6.5 Canada
7 Europe
7.1 Europe Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size (2017-2028)
7.2 Europe Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size by Country (2017-2022)
7.3 Europe Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size by Country (2023-2028)
7.4 Germany
7.5 France
7.6 U.K.
7.7 Italy
7.8 Russia
7.9 Nordic Countries
8 Asia-Pacific
8.1 Asia-Pacific Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size (2017-2028)
8.2 Asia-Pacific Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size by Country (2017-2022)
8.3 Asia-Pacific Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size by Country (2023-2028)
8.4 China
8.5 Japan
8.6 South Korea
8.7 Southeast Asia
8.8 India
8.9 Australia
9 Latin America
9.1 Latin America Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size (2017-2028)
9.2 Latin America Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size by Country (2017-2022)
9.3 Latin America Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size by Country (2023-2028)
9.4 Mexico
9.5 Brazil
10 Middle East and Africa
10.1 Middle East and Africa Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size (2017-2028)
10.2 Middle East and Africa Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size by Country (2017-2022)
10.3 Middle East and Africa Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Market Size by Country (2023-2028)
10.4 Turkey
10.5 Saudi Arabia
10.6 UAE
11 Key Players Profiles
11.1 CAE Inc.
11.1.1 CAE Inc. Company Detail
11.1.2 CAE Inc. Business Overview
11.1.3 CAE Inc. Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Introduction
11.1.4 CAE Inc. Revenue in Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Business (2017-2022)
11.1.5 CAE Inc. latest Development
11.2 Oculus (Facebook)
11.2.1 Oculus (Facebook) Company Detail
11.2.2 Oculus (Facebook) Business Overview
11.2.3 Oculus (Facebook) Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Introduction
11.2.4 Oculus (Facebook) Revenue in Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Business (2017-2022)
11.2.5 Oculus (Facebook) latest Development
11.3 Osso VR, Inc.
11.3.1 Osso VR, Inc. Company Detail
11.3.2 Osso VR, Inc. Business Overview
11.3.3 Osso VR, Inc. Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Introduction
11.3.4 Osso VR, Inc. Revenue in Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Business (2017-2022)
11.3.5 Osso VR, Inc. latest Development
11.4 Microsoft
11.4.1 Microsoft Company Detail
11.4.2 Microsoft Business Overview
11.4.3 Microsoft Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Introduction
11.4.4 Microsoft Revenue in Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Business (2017-2022)
11.4.5 Microsoft latest Development
11.5 3D Systems, Inc.
11.5.1 3D Systems, Inc. Company Detail
11.5.2 3D Systems, Inc. Business Overview
11.5.3 3D Systems, Inc. Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Introduction
11.5.4 3D Systems, Inc. Revenue in Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Business (2017-2022)
11.5.5 3D Systems, Inc. latest Development
11.6 Elara Systems, Inc.
11.6.1 Elara Systems, Inc. Company Detail
11.6.2 Elara Systems, Inc. Business Overview
11.6.3 Elara Systems, Inc. Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Introduction
11.6.4 Elara Systems, Inc. Revenue in Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Business (2017-2022)
11.6.5 Elara Systems, Inc. latest Development
11.7 FundamentalVR
11.7.1 FundamentalVR Company Detail
11.7.2 FundamentalVR Business Overview
11.7.3 FundamentalVR Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Introduction
11.7.4 FundamentalVR Revenue in Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Business (2017-2022)
11.7.5 FundamentalVR latest Development
11.8 Firsthand Technology Inc.
11.8.1 Firsthand Technology Inc. Company Detail
11.8.2 Firsthand Technology Inc. Business Overview
11.8.3 Firsthand Technology Inc. Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Introduction
11.8.4 Firsthand Technology Inc. Revenue in Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Business (2017-2022)
11.8.5 Firsthand Technology Inc. latest Development
11.9 Medical Realities
11.9.1 Medical Realities Company Detail
11.9.2 Medical Realities Business Overview
11.9.3 Medical Realities Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Introduction
11.9.4 Medical Realities Revenue in Virtual Reality (VR) Medical Training Business (2017-2022)
11.9.5 Medical Realities latest Development
12 Analyst's Viewpoints/Conclusions
13 Appendix
13.1 Research Methodology
13.1.1 Methodology/Research Approach
13.1.2 Data Source
13.2 Disclaimer
13.3 Author Details

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