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Exam Code: USMLE Practice test 2022 by team
USMLE United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1

Beginning in May 2020, Step 1 examinations will include an increased number of questions that assess communications skills. The tables below provide information on the content weighting for Step 1 examinations administered before and after May 2020.

Table of Contents
- General Principles of Foundational Science
- Immune System
- Blood & Lymphoreticular System
- Behavioral Health
- Nervous System & Special Senses
- Skin & Subcutaneous Tissue
- Musculoskeletal System
- Cardiovascular System
- Respiratory System
- Gastrointestinal System
- Renal & Urinary System
- Pregnancy, Childbirth, & the Puerperium
- Female Reproductive System & Breast
- Male Reproductive System
- Endocrine System
- Multisystem Processes & Disorders
- Biostatistics, Epidemiology/Population Health
- Interpretation of the Medical Literature
- Social Sciences

Biochemistry and molecular biology Gene expression: DNA structure, replication, exchange, and epigenetics (eg, imprinting, Xactivation, DNA methylation) Gene expression: transcription Gene expression: translation, post-translational processing, modifications, and disposition of proteins (degradation), including protein/glycoprotein synthesis, intra-extracellular sorting, and processes/functions related to Golgi complex and rough endoplasmic reticulum Structure and function of proteins and enzymes (eg, enzyme kinetics and structural/regulatory proteins) Energy metabolism (eg, ATP generation, transport chain) Biology of cells Adaptive cell responses and cellular homeostasis (eg, hypertrophy) Mechanisms of injury and necrosis, including pathologic processes (eg, liquefactive necrosis, free radical formation) Apoptosis Cell cycle and cell cycle regulation (eg, mitosis) Mechanisms of dysregulation cell biology of cancer (eg, role of p53, proto-oncogenes) general principles of invasion and metastasis, including cancer staging Cell/tissue structure, regulation, and function, including cytoskeleton, organelles, glycolipids, channels, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, and receptors Human development and genetics Principles of pedigree analysis inheritance patterns occurrence and recurrence risk determination Population genetics: Hardy-Weinberg law, founder effects, mutation-selection equilibrium Principles of gene therapy Genetic testing and counseling Genetic mechanisms (eg, penetrance, genetic heterogeneity) Biology of tissue response to disease Acute inflammatory responses (patterns of response) acute inflammation and mediator systems (eg, histamine, prostaglandins, bradykinins, eosinophilic basic protein, nitric oxide) vascular response to injury, including mediators principles of cell adherence and migration (eg, ECAMs, selectins, leukocytic diapedesis, and rolling) microbicidal mechanisms and tissue injury (eg, defensins) clinical manifestations (eg, pain, fever, leukocytosis, leukemoid reaction, chills) Chronic inflammatory responses (eg, tumor necrosis factor) Reparative processes wound healing, repair: thrombosis, granulation tissue, angiogenesis, fibrosis, scar/keloid formation regenerative process Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes: general principles Pharmacokinetics: absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, dosage intervals Mechanisms of drug action, structure-activity relationships (eg, anticancer drugs) Concentration and dose-effect relationships (eg, efficacy, potency), types of agonists (eg, full, partial, inverse) and antagonists and their actions Individual factors altering pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (eg, age, gender, disease, tolerance, compliance, body weight, metabolic proficiency, pharmacogenetics) Mechanisms of drug adverse effects, overdosage, toxicology Mechanisms of drug interactions Signal transduction, including structure/function of all components of signal transduction pathways such as receptors, ligands (eg, general principles of nitric oxide, autocrine and paracrine signaling) Microbial biology Microbial identification and classification, including principles, microorganism identification, and non-immunologic laboratory diagnosis Bacteria structure (eg, cell walls, composition, appendages, virulence factors, extracellular products, toxins, mechanism of action of toxins) processes, replication, and genetics (eg, metabolism, growth, and regulation) oncogenesis antibacterial agents (eg, mechanisms of action on organism, toxicity to humans, and mechanisms of resistance) Viruses structure (eg, physical and chemical properties, virulence factors) processes, replication, and genetics (eg, life cycles, location of virus in latent infection) oncogenesis antiviral agents (eg, mechanisms of action on virus, toxicity to humans, and mechanisms of resistance) Fungi structure (eg, cell wall, composition, appendages, virulence factors, extracellular products, toxins, mechanisms of action of toxins) processes, replication, and genetics (eg, asexual vs. sexual, metabolism, growth) antifungal agents (eg, mechanisms of action on fungus, toxicity to humans, and mechanisms of resistance) Parasites structure (eg, appendages, macroscopic features, and virulence factors) processes, replication, and genetics (eg, life cycles, metabolism, and growth) oncogenesis antiparasitic agents (eg, mechanisms of action on parasite, toxicity to humans, and mechanisms of resistance) Prions Normal age-related findings and care of the well patient Infancy and childhood (0-12 years) Normal physical changes: linear growth, variations in linear growth, including constitutional delay; weight; head circumference; micturition, defecation,primary incontinence/bedwetting; normal physical examination; screening; sleep; teething syndrome Developmental stages: motor; speech; cognitive; psychosocial; anticipatory guidance Lifestyle and routine preventive health care: nutrition; exercise (eg, benefits of exercise); preventive/travel medicine; risk factors and prevention (eg, guns, swimming, motor vehicles, car seats); routine vaccinations Adolescence (13-17 years) Normal physical changes: linear growth, variations in linear growth including constitutional delay; weight; puberty; normal physical examination; gynecomastia; autonomy/self-identity; sleep Developmental stages: cognitive (eg, abstract thought); psychosocial (eg, autonomy, role confusion, sexual identity); anticipatory guidance Lifestyle and routine preventive health care: nutrition; exercise (eg, benefits of exercise); preventive/travel medicine; risk factors and prevention (eg, risk-taking behavior, helmets, safe sex, motor vehicles, seat belts, distractions); routine vaccinations Adulthood (18-64 years) Normal physical changes: weight; normal physical examination; screening; sleep Developmental stages: cognitive; intimacy vs isolation; anticipatory guidance Lifestyle and routine preventive health care: nutrition; exercise (eg, benefits of exercise); preventive/travel medicine; risk factors and prevention; routine vaccinations Senescence (65 years and older) Normal physical changes, including normal physical test for age: weight, height (spinal compression), skin, bruising; normal physical examination; response to temperature; micturition, defecation;sleep Developmental stages: motor; cognitive (eg, benign senescent forgetfulness); psychosocial; integrity vs despair; retrospection; anticipatory guidance Lifestyle and routine preventive health care: nutrition; exercise (eg, benefits of exercise); preventive/travel medicine; risk factors and prevention (eg, falls, general medical condition; polypharmacy, driving, caregiver stress); routine vaccinations Immune System Normal processes Development of cells of the adaptive immune response, including positive and negative selection during immune development Structure, production, and function granulocytes, natural killer cells, macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells, cell receptors (eg, complement receptors and toll-like receptors), cytokines, chemokines T lymphocytes, including T-lymphocyte receptors, accessory molecules (eg, CD3, CD4, CD8, B7), cell activation and proliferation, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and memory T lymphocytes B lymphocytes and plasma cells, including B-lymphocyte receptors, immunoglobulins, cell activation and proliferation, including development of antibodies and memory B lymphocytes host defense mechanisms, host barriers to infection, mucosal immunity (eg, gutassociated lymphoid tissue and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue), anatomical locations of T and B lymphocytes Cellular basis of the immune response and immunologic mediators antigen processing and presentation in the context of MHC I and MHC II molecules (eg, TAP, beta-2 microglobulin), intracellular pathways, mechanisms by which MHC is expressed on the surface; including distribution of MHC I and MHC II on different cells, mechanisms of MHC I and MHC II deficiencies, and the genetics of MHC regulation of the adaptive immune response (eg, peripheral tolerance, anergy, regulatory T lymphocytes, termination of immune response, and B-T lymphocyte interactions) activation, function, and molecular biology of complement (eg, anaphylatoxins) functional and molecular biology of cytokines (eg, IL 1-15) Basis of immunologic diagnostics (eg, antigen-antibody reactions used for diagnostic purposes, ELISA, immunoblotting, antigen-antibody changes over time, ABO typing) Principles of immunologic protection vaccine production and mechanisms of vaccine action biologically active antibodies (eg, monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies including IVIG, VZIG, rabies immunoglobulin) Effect of age on the function of components of the immune system Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Disorders associated with immunodeficiency deficiency primarily of humoral immunity: common variable immunodeficiency; hyper IgM syndrome; hypogammaglobulinemia/agammaglobulinemia, X-linked (Bruton); selective immunodeficiency (eg, IgA, IgM, IgE) deficiency/dysfunction primarily of cell-mediated immunity: adenosine deaminase deficiency; DiGeorge syndrome; severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID); Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome; granulomatosis; allergic reactions/skin complement deficiency: alternative pathway component deficiency (C2, C3b, C3bB, C36B6); classical pathway component deficiency (C1q, C1r, C1-C5); terminal component deficiency (C5b-C9; terminal complement complex); C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, hereditary angioedema; mannose-binding lectin (MBL) deficiency; membrane attack complex deficiency deficiency of phagocytic cells and natural killer cells: Chediak-Higashi disease; chronic granulomatous disease and other disorders of phagocytosis; leukocyte adhesion deficiency HIV/AIDS: HIV1 and HIV2; AIDS; AIDS complications (eg, neuropathy, dementia, renal insufficiency); immunology of AIDS; immune reconstitution syndrome (IRS); secondary infections; noninfectious complications Immunologically mediated disorders hypersensitivity reactions: type 1, 2, 3, including anaphylaxis; type 4; drug reactions; serum sickness transplantation: rejection; graft-vs-host disease Adverse effects of drugs on the immune system: Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction; drugs affecting the immune system (eg, prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, methotrexate, monoclonal antibody drugs [eg, abciximab, adalimumab; bevacizumab, infliximab, omalizumab, rituximab]); vaccine adverse effects Blood & Lymphoreticular System Normal Processes Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes Organ structure and function Cell/tissue structure and function production and function of erythrocytes, including heme and hemoglobin synthesis; hemoglobin O2 and CO2 transport, transport proteins, erythropoietin production and function of platelets production and function of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors; hemostasis Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Infectious and immunologic infectious disorders bacteria viral: hemorrhagic fever (Ebola virus, Marburg virus); chikungunya; dengue fever; Zika virus disease parasitic: malaria (Plasmodium spp); babesiosis (Babesia species) primary infections of lymphoid tissue: lymphadenitis (viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic); lymphangitis; buboes, bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis); cat scratch disease (Bartonella henselae) immunologic and inflammatory disorders: cryoglobinemia, essential mixed cryoglobinemia; autoimmune hemolytic anemia; paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria; thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; hemolytic uremic syndrome Neoplasms: leukemia, acute (ALL, AML); leukemia, chronic (CLL, CML); lymphomas, Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, T-cell lymphoma; multiple myeloma, dysproteinemias, monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS); myelofibrosis; myelodysplastic syndrome, myelodysplasias; other immunoproliferative neoplasms (eg, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia) Anemia, cytopenias, and polycythemia anemias decreased production: anemia of chronic disease hemolysis: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; pyruvate kinase deficiency disorders of hemoglobin, heme, or membrane: disorders of red cell membranes; hereditary spherocytosis, elliptocytosis; methemoglobinemia, congenital; sickle cell disease; sideroblastic anemia; thalassemias other causes of anemia: blood loss, acute and chronic as a cause of anemia cytopenias: aplastic anemia; leukopenia; neutropenia, cyclic neutropenia, agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; thrombocytopenia, quantitative; immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) cythemias: leukocytosis; polycythemia vera; secondary polycythemia Coagulation disorders (hypocoagulable and hypercoagulable conditions) hypocoagulable: disseminated intravascular coagulation; hemophilia, congenital factor VIII [hemophilia A] and IX [hemophilia B]; hypofibrinogenemia; von Willebrand disease; platelet dysfunction, qualitative hypercoagulable: heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; other coagulopathies (eg, homocysteinemia, hypoplasminogenemia, antithrombin III, protein C/protein S deficiency, Factor V Leiden, anticardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, prothrombin G20210A mutation) reactions to blood components: ABO incompatibility/anaphylaxis; Rh incompatibility/anaphylaxis; hemolysis, delayed; transfusion reaction; transfusion contaminated with bacteria; transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI); anaphylactoid reaction (IgA deficiency) Traumatic, mechanical, and vascular disorders: mechanical injury to erythrocytes (eg, cardiac valve hemolysis); disorders of the spleen; splenic rupture/laceration; splenic infarct; splenic abscess; effects/complications of splenectomy (eg, sepsis due to encapsulated bacteria); hypersplenism Adverse effects of drugs on the hematologic and lymphoreticular systems: antiplatelet drugs, antithrombin drugs (eg, dabigatran); chemotherapeutic agents; inhibitors of coagulation factors; methemoglobinemia, acquired; propylthiouracil; tumor lysis syndrome; warfarin Behavioral Health Normal Processes Psychodynamic and behavioral factors, related past experience (eg, transference, personality traits) Adaptive behavioral responses to stress and illness (eg, coping mechanisms) Maladaptive behavioral responses to stress and illness (eg, drug-seeking behavior, sleep deprivation) Patient adherence: general adherence; adolescent adherence Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Psychotic disorders: brief psychotic disorder; delusional disorder; psychotic disorder due to another medical condition; schizophrenia; schizoaffective disorder; substance-induced psychotic disorder Anxiety disorders: acute stress disorder; anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, anxiety due to another medical condition, social phobia); hyperventilation syndrome; obsessive-compulsive disorder; panic disorder with and without agoraphobia; phobic disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder; separation anxiety disorder; substance-induced anxiety disorder, trichotillomania Mood disorders: major depressive disorder with and without psychotic features, with and without seasonal pattern; major depressive disorder, postpartum, with and without psychotic features, including screening; cyclothymic disorder; persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia); bipolar disorder, manic/depressed/mixed; premenstrual dysphoric disorder; bipolar and related disorder or depressive disorder due to another medical condition; substance/medication-induced bipolar and related disorder or depressive disorder (illegal or prescribed); suicidal ideation/attempt Somatoform disorders: body dysmorphic disorder; conversion disorder, including psychogenic seizures; dissociative disorders; illness anxiety disorder (hypochondriasis); malingering; pain disorder; somatic symptom disorder Factitious disorders: factitious disorder imposed on self Eating disorders and impulse control disorders: anorexia nervosa; binge-eating disorder; bulimia nervosa; eating disorder; disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders (eg, gambling, kleptomania, pyromania) Disorders originating in infancy/childhood: reactive attachment disorder; attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder; speech sound disorder or language disorder; learning disorder/dyslexia; intellectual developmental disorder and developmental delay, undefined, including school problems, fetal alcohol syndrome; oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder; autism spectrum disorder, Rett syndrome; psychoses with origin specific to childhood; elimination disorders (incontinence, encopresis); tic disorders/Tourette disorder Personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder; avoidant personality disorder; borderline personality disorder; dependent personality disorder; histrionic personality disorder; narcissistic personality disorder; obsessive-compulsive personality disorder; paranoid personality disorder; schizoid personality disorder Psychosocial disorders/behaviors: adjustment disorder; grief response/bereavement, normal and persistent complex; parent-child relational problems other than physical or emotional abuse; other psychosocial stress Sexual and gender identity disorders: gender dysphoria; psychosexual dysfunction Substance use disorders: alcohol use disorder/intoxication/dependence/withdrawal; tobacco/nicotine use disorder/dependence/withdrawal; varenicline use; cannabis use disorder/intoxication/dependence; hallucinogen use disorder/intoxication/dependence/withdrawal; inhalant use disorder/intoxication/dependence/withdrawal; opioid, heroin, including prescription drug, use disorder/intoxication/dependence/withdrawal; sedative, hypnotic, including benzodiazepine and barbiturate use disorder/intoxication/dependence/withdrawal; stimulant, cocaine, methamphetamine use disorder/intoxication/dependence/withdrawal; other drugs of use disorders (eg, ecstasy, PCP, bath salts)/intoxication/dependence/withdrawal; polysubstance use disorder/intoxication/dependence/withdrawal Nervous System & Special Senses Normal Processes Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes, including neural tube derivatives, cerebral ventricles, and neural crest derivatives Organ structure and function spinal cord gross anatomy and blood supply spinal reflexes brain stem (eg, cranial nerves and nuclei, reticular formation, anatomy and blood supply, control of eye movements) brain gross anatomy and blood supply higher function: cognition, language, memory, executive function hypothalamic function limbic system and emotional behavior circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder sensory systems general sensory modalities, including sharp, dull, temperature, vibratory, and proprioception special sensory modalities, including vision, hearing, taste, olfaction, and balance motor systems brain and spinal cord (upper motoneuron) basal ganglia and cerebellum autonomic nervous system peripheral nerves Cell/tissue structure and function, including neuronal cellular and molecular biology axonal transport excitable properties of neurons, axons, and dendrites, including channels synthesis, storage, release, reuptake, and degradation of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators presynaptic and postsynaptic receptor interactions, trophic and growth factors brain metabolism glia, myelin brain homeostasis: blood-brain barrier, cerebrospinal fluid formation and flow, choroid plexus Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders infectious disorders: meningitis: bacterial (Actinomyces israelii; Haemophilus influenzae; Listeria monocytogenes; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Neisseria meningitidis; Staphylococcus aureus, epidermidis; Streptococcus agalactiae; Streptococcus pneumoniae); viral (adenovirus, arboviruses, echovirus and coxsackie A & B viruses, polioviruses, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, human immunodeficiency virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, measles virus, mumps virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, California encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus); fungal (Blastomycosis dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii); spirochetal (Borrelia burgdorferi; Leptospira; Treponema pallidum, including neurosyphilis); protozoal/helminths (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria fowleri, Strongyloides stercoralis, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Baylisascaris procyonis); encephalitis (herpesvirus [HSVI], varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, mumps virus, enterovirus, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, rabies virus, Eastern and Western equine encephalitis virus, poliovirus, Taenia, Toxoplasma gondii); prion disease (eg, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); botulism (Clostridium botulinum), tetanus (Clostridium tetani); CNS disorders associated with AIDS (eg, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy) immunologic and inflammatory disorders: myasthenia gravis, including thymoma; multiple sclerosis; transverse myelitis Neoplasms (cerebral, spinal, and peripheral): benign (meningioma, neurofibromatosis); malignant (glioblastoma multiforme, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, primary CNS lymphoma); metastatic (eg, breast, lung, pancreatic, testicular, melanoma) Cerebrovascular disease: arteriovenous malformations, ectatic cerebral vessels; transient ischemic attack; stroke, thrombotic: cerebral artery occlusion/cerebral infarction; stroke, embolic: cerebral embolism; stroke: intracerebral hemorrhage, including subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic intracranial hemorrhage; cerebral artery aneurysm; carotid artery stenosis/atherosclerosis/occlusion/dissection; vertebral artery deficiency/dissection; subclavian steal syndrome; vascular dementia; hypertensive encephalopathy; posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; venous sinus thrombosis Disorders relating to the spine, spinal cord, and spinal nerve roots: cauda equina syndrome; spinal artery thrombosis/embolus/infarct; spinal cord compression; spinal cord transection, paraplegia and quadriplegia, acute and chronic effects (eg, autonomic dysreflexia); spinal stenosis (cervical, lumbar); syringomyelia Cranial and peripheral nerve disorders cranial nerve injury/disorders: cranial nerve injury; Bell palsy; anisocoria, miosis, mydriasis; internuclear ophthalmoplegia; nystagmus and other irregular eye movements; vestibular neuritis, labyrinthitis; ptosis of the eyelid; Horner syndrome peripheral nerve/plexus injury/disorders: peripheral nerve injury, including brachial plexus; carpal/cubital/tarsal/peroneal tunnel syndrome; mononeuritis, Guillain-Barré syndrome; Miller Fisher syndrome; neuropathy (eg, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease); herpes zoster Neurologic pain syndromes: complex regional pain syndrome (reflex sympathetic dystrophy, causalgia); fibromyalgia; postherpetic neuralgia; phantom limb pain/syndrome; thalamic pain syndrome; trigeminal neuralgia Degenerative disorders/amnestic syndromes: Alzheimer disease; frontotemporal dementia, including progressive supranuclear palsy, Lewy body disease; mild neurocognitive disorder, mild cognitive impairment Global cerebral dysfunction: altered states of consciousness; delirium; coma/brain death Neuromuscular disorders: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/spinal muscular atrophy; muscular dystrophy (eg, Duchenne, myotonic); muscle channelopathies (eg, hypokalemic period paralysis) Movement disorders: acute dystonia; adult tic disease; essential tremor; Huntington disease; Parkinson disease, including Parkinson dementia Metabolic disorders: adrenoleukodystrophy; metabolic encephalopathy Paroxysmal disorders: headache, including migraine, mixed, tension, ice-pick, cluster, medication withdrawal, caffeine withdrawal; seizure disorders, including generalized tonic-clonic, partial, absence, febrile Sleep disorders: cataplexy and narcolepsy; circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder; insomnia, primary; sleep terror disorder and sleepwalking; REM sleep behavior disorder; restless legs syndrome Traumatic and mechanical disorders and disorders of increased intracranial pressure: anoxic brain damage, cerebral hypoxia; epidural, subdural hematoma (cerebral and spinal); intraparenchymal hemorrhage, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage; cerebral edema; pseudotumor cerebri (idiopathic intracranial hypertension); torticollis/cervical dystonia; hydrocephalus, including normal-pressure; traumatic brain injury (concussion)/postconcussion syndrome (dementia pugilistica); traumatic brain syndrome Congenital disorders: Friedreich ataxia; neural tube defects (eg, spina bifida, holoprosencephaly, anencephaly); microcephaly; Sturge-Weber syndrome; tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau disease; hydrocephalus, obstructive (Arnold-Chiari) Adverse effects of drugs on the nervous system: acute dystonic reaction; drug-induced meningitis (eg, NSAIDs, sulfa drugs); drug-induced neuropathy (eg, vincristine, isoniazid, metronidazole); extrapyramidal adverse effects (eg, akathisia, dystonia, drug-induced parkinsonism); neuroleptic malignant syndrome; poisoning by psychotropic agents, including antidepressants; serotonin syndrome; tardive dyskinesia Disorders of the eye and eyelid infectious and inflammatory disorders of the eye: blepharitis/eyelid inflammation; chalazion; chorioretinitis; conjunctivitis (adenovirus)/keratoconjunctivitis; dacryocystitis; endophthalmitis; hordeolum; iridocyclitis; optic neuritis; periorbital cellulitis; uveitis neoplasms of the eye: melanoma; retinoblastoma disorders of the eye and eyelid, structural: cataract; glaucoma; lacrimal system disorders; pterygium; refractive disorders (presbyopia, myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) disorders of the pupil, iris, muscles (extraocular): amblyopia; strabismus disorders of the retina: hypertensive retinopathy; macular degeneration; papilledema; retinal detachment; retinitis pigmentosa; vascular disorders affecting the retina, including central retinal artery embolus, retinal hemorrhage, amaurosis fugax, embolus, carotid artery stenosis, central retinal vein occlusion; visual impairment/blindness, night blindness traumatic and mechanical disorders: black eye; burn of the eye and adnexa; corneal abrasion, ulcer; dislocated lens; foreign body in eye; hyphema; injury to optic nerve and pathways; laceration of the eye and eyelid; ocular open wounds; orbital fracture; subconjunctival hemorrhage adverse effects of drugs on the eyes: ethambutol; hydroxychloroquine; prednisone Disorders of the ear infectious and inflammatory disorders of the ear: chondritis; mastoiditis; otitis, externa, media, interna, serous, suppurative, malignant otitis externa neoplasms: acoustic neuroma, neurofibromatosis type 2; cholesteatoma hearing loss/deafness: hearing loss, including noise-induced; otosclerosis; tinnitus disorders of balance and spatial orientation: Ménière disease; motion sickness; vertigo, including benign positional vertigo traumatic and mechanical disorders: barotrauma; foreign body in ear; impacted cerumen; laceration, avulsion; perforation of tympanic membrane; eustachian tube disorders adverse effects of drugs on the ear: antineoplastic agents, including cisplatin; aminoglycosides; furosemide; salicylates Skin & Subcutaneous Tissue Normal Processes Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and neonatal changes Organ structure and function, including barrier function, thermal regulation Cell/tissue structure and function, eccrine function Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life (eg, senile purpura, male pattern baldness, postmenopausal hair changes) Skin defense mechanisms and normal flora Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders infectious disorders and infestations bacterial: cellulitis, erysipelas, impetigo, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome; abscess, cutaneous, including septic abscess; anthrax (Bacillus anthracis); carbuncle; folliculitis; pilonidal cyst, infected; pyoderma gangrenosum; MSSA and MRSA skin infections; mycobacterial infections (eg, leprosy, draining sinus); scarlet fever (group A Streptococcus) viral: herpes simplex type 1 & type 2, herpes zoster, Ramsay-Hunt syndrome; molluscum contagiosum; hand-foot-and-mouth disease; herpangina; parvovirus; chickenpox, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), rubella, measles, roseola (exanthema subitum); verrucae vulgaris fungal (deep and superficial): candidiasis, skin; dermatophytosis, tinea corporis; dermatomycoses; diaper rash; onychomycosis parasitic: cutaneous larva migrans; cutaneous leishmaniasis infestations, nonvenomous bites, stings: scabies; lice; insect bites, including bed bugs immunologic and inflammatory disorders papulosquamous and eczematous dermatoses: psoriasis; lichen planus and lichenoid dermatoses; allergic/irritant contact dermatitis (eg, nickel); dermatoses caused by plants (poison ivy, poison oak) vesiculobullous disorders: epidermolysis bullosa; dermatitis herpetiformis; pemphigus; pemphigoid urticaria, erythema, exanthema, and purpura: erythema nodosum; atopic dermatitis; pityriasis rosea; urticaria; Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis autoimmune disorders: vitiligo Neoplasms benign neoplasms, cysts and other skin lesions: actinic keratoses; cysts, including epidermal; hemangiomas; lipoma; pigmented nevi; seborrheic keratosis; xanthomas malignant neoplasms: basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; melanoma, including genital; Kaposi sarcoma; cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, mycosis fungoides Adnexal disorders (hair and hair follicles, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, oral mucous membranes) disorders of the hair and hair follicles: alopecia; seborrhea capitis/seborrheic dermatitis; tinea barbae and capitis disorders of the nails (including ingrowing nail) disorders of sweat and sebaceous glands: acne vulgaris; hidradenitis suppurativa; hyperhidrosis; ichthyosis; rosacea Oral disease: aphthous ulcers (stomatitis, canker sores); leukoplakia Disorders of pigmentation: albinism; lentigo Traumatic and mechanical disorders: animal bites (dogs, cats, etc); burns or wounds affecting the skin or subcutaneous tissue (eg, sunburn, other including blast injuries and burns); cauliflower ear; effects of ultraviolet light; keloids; tattoo; thermal injury, perniosis, frostbite; ulcers, decubitus Congenital disorders: xeroderma pigmentosum; benign lesions in neonates, infants, children (eg, congenital nevi) Adverse effects of drugs on skin and subcutaneous tissue: drug reactions, eruptions, including local reaction to vaccine Musculoskeletal System Normal processes Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes Organ structure and function Cell/tissue structure and function biology of bones, joints, tendons, skeletal muscle, cartilage exercise and physical conditioning/deconditioning Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Infectious, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders infectious disorders: gangrene, dry and wet, clostridial myonecrosis (Clostridium perfringens); discitis; myositis, infective; necrotizing fasciitis; osteomyelitis; septic arthritis; spondylitis, tuberculous immunologic disorders: ankylosing spondylitis; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; juvenile idiopathic arthritis; rheumatoid arthritis, Felty syndrome; psoriatic arthropathy inflammatory disorders: adhesive capsulitis of shoulder (frozen shoulder syndrome); ankylosis/spondylopathy (inflammatory); bursitis; fasciitis; osteochondritis, osteochondritis dissecans; tendinitis, supraspinatus syndrome, enthesopathy of spine, elbow, ankle; temporomandibular joint disorders; fibrositis, myofascial pain syndrome; synovitis; tenosynovitis; myositis Neoplasms: benign neoplasms (e.g., ganglion cyst); malignant neoplasms of bone (eg, osteosarcoma, sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdosarcoma); metastases to bone, secondary malignant neoplasm of bone Degenerative and metabolic disorders degenerative/metabolic disorders of bone, tendon, and cartilage: chondromalacia; disc degeneration, herniated disc; Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease; Osgood-Schlatter disease; osteodystrophy; osteomalacia; osteonecrosis (avascular), bone infarct; osteoporosis; osteopenia; osteitis deformans (Paget disease of bone); pathologic fracture; radiculopathies; spondylolisthesis/spondylosis (degenerative) degenerative/metabolic disorders of joints: gout, gouty arthritis, pseudogout; joint effusion; osteoarthritis degenerative/metabolic disorders of muscles, ligaments, fascia: Dupuytren contracture; muscle calcification and ossification; muscle wasting and diffuse atrophy; rhabdomyolysis Traumatic and mechanical disorders: amputation and care of amputees; backache, including low back pain; blast injuries; compartment syndrome; contractures, hospital-acquired; contusions; dislocations; fractures; sprains, strains; kyphoscoliosis, scoliosis; rotator cuff syndrome; slipped capital femoral epiphysis; dislocation of hip Congenital disorders: achondroplasia/dwarfism; disorders of limb development (HOX gene mutation, phocomelia); developmental dysplasia of the hip; dislocation of hip in infantile spinal muscular atrophy; genu valgum or varum; foot deformities (flat foot, valgus/varus deformities); osteogenesis imperfecta; McArdle disease; mitochondrial myopathies Adverse effects of drugs on the musculoskeletal system: drug-induced myopathy (eg, steroids, statins, cocaine, AZT); malignant hyperthermia Cardiovascular System Normal Processes Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal transitional changes Organ structure and function chambers, valves cardiac cycle, mechanics, heart sounds, cardiac conduction hemodynamics, including blood volume and systemic vascular resistance circulation in specific vascular beds, including pulmonary and coronary Cell/tissue structure and function heart muscle, metabolism, oxygen consumption, biochemistry, and secretory function (eg, atrial natriuretic peptide) endothelium and secretory function, vascular smooth muscle, microcirculation, and lymph flow neural and hormonal regulation of the heart, blood vessels, and blood volume, including responses to change in posture, exercise, and tissue metabolism, and autonomic responses Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders infectious disorders: bacterial endocarditis, myocarditis immunologic and inflammatory disorders: atherosclerosis (eg, atherosclerosis of the aorta) Neoplasms: myxoma, metastases Dysrhythmias: premature beats (PACs, PVCs); atrial flutter/fibrillation; multifocal atrial tachycardia; paroxysmal tachycardias; ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation; wide complex tachycardia; torsades de pointes; bradycardias; atrioventricular block (first-, second-, third-degree); conduction disorder (LBBB, RBBB); cardiac arrest; sick sinus syndrome; prolonged QT syndrome; Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; carotid sinus hypersensitivity; pacemaker dysfunction, including failure to sense, capture Heart failure: chordae tendineae rupture; congestive heart failure; cor pulmonale; diastolic dysfunction; systolic dysfunction; mitral valve dysfunction; heart failure secondary to myocardial infarction; high-output heart failure, including thyrotoxicosis-induced, anemia-induced; tachycardia-induced; cardiogenic pulmonary edema Ischemic heart disease: acute coronary syndrome, acute myocardial infarction; angina pectoris, stable and unstable/coronary artery disease/coronary insufficiency; coronary artery spasm Diseases of the myocardium: cardiomyopathy, dilated, including alcoholic, viral, takotsubo; cardiomyopathy, obstructive hypertrophic; cardiomyopathy, familial dilated; cardiomyopathy, restrictive; hypertensive heart disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular hypertrophy; complications of myocardial infarction; nontraumatic tamponade post-myocardial infarction; papillary muscle rupture/dysfunction; ventricular free wall rupture; myocarditis Diseases of the pericardium: chronic constrictive pericarditis; pericardial effusion; pericardial tamponade; acute pericarditis; pericarditis, following myocardial infarction, surgery, trauma Valvular heart disease: valve disorders, mitral/aortic/tricuspid, pulmonic (eg, regurgitation, stenosis, prolapse, insufficiency, vegetation); functional murmurs; rheumatic heart disease; complications of artificial valves Hypotension: orthostatic hypotension Hypertension: elevated blood pressure reading without diagnosis of hypertension; essential hypertension; malignant hypertension; secondary hypertension Dyslipidemia: hypercholesterolemia; hyperlipidemia; hypertriglyceridemia; lipoproteins/lipoprotein lipase deficiency Vascular disorders disorders of the great vessels: aneurysm, aortic (abdominal/thoracic), dissection, ruptured; aneurysm, iliac, other peripheral vascular, ruptured; aortoiliac disease peripheral arterial vascular disease: arterial embolus/thrombosis; arteriovenous fistula; atheroembolic disease; claudication; cholesterol emboli; hypertensive vascular disease; peripheral arterial disease; thromboangiitis obliterans diseases of the veins: deep venous thrombosis, venous thromboembolism; phlebitis/thrombophlebitis; varicose veins; venous insufficiency; stasis ulcers, stasis dermatitis Traumatic and mechanical disorders: ventricular puncture; myocardial contusion; myocardial rupture; traumatic aortic dissection; traumatic tamponade Congenital disorders, including disease in adults: anomalous left coronary artery; atrial septal defect; coarctation of the aorta; endocardial cushion defect; patent foramen ovale; patent ductus arteriosus; tetralogy of Fallot; transposition of the great vessels; ventricular septal defect Adverse effects of drugs on the cardiovascular system: adriamycin; cocaine, amphetamine, PCP; ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, alpha blockers, minoxidil Respiratory System Normal Processes Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes Organ structure and function airways, including mechanics and regulation of breathing lung parenchyma, including ventilation, perfusion, gas exchange pleura nasopharynx, sinuses Cell/tissue structure and function, including surfactant formation, and alveolar structure Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life Pulmonary defense mechanisms and normal flora Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders of the upper airways: acute upper respiratory infection; viral infections (adenovirus, coronaviruses, coxsackievirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, rhinoviruses); sinusitis; nasopharyngitis; epiglottitis; Bordetella pertussis pneumonia; croup; acute laryngitis; acute laryngotracheitis; tracheitis; pharyngitis; streptococcal throat infections; tonsillitis; peritonsillar abscess; rhinitis, allergic, chronic; ulcers of nasal cavity/sinuses infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders of the lower airways: hospitalacquired pneumonia; ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, acute bronchiolitis; bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP); anthrax, pulmonary (Bacillus anthracis); aspiration pneumonia, pneumonitis; bronchitis, acute; bronchopneumonia; pneumonia (Burkholderia pseudomallei, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus, MSSA, MRSA, other gram‐negative bacteria); viral infection (eg, influenza A, B, adenovirus, H1N1, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus); fungal infection (aspergillosis, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and aspergilloma, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, Pneumocystis jirovecii); pulmonary tuberculosis; lung abscess; viral infection (eg, influenza A, B, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, avian influenza virus); fungal infection (aspergillosis, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and aspergilloma, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, Pneumocystis jirovecii) Neoplasms benign neoplasms: upper airways (eg, vocal cord polyps, nasal polyps, juvenile papillomatosis); lungs and pleura (eg, solitary pulmonary nodule, bronchial carcinoid tumors) malignant neoplasms upper airways: lip, oral cavity, and pharynx; head and neck cancer; larynx; trachea lower airways and pleura: malignant neoplasms of bronchus and/or lung (squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, large cell, small cell); malignant neoplasms of pleura (mesothelioma); secondary malignant neoplasms of lung; secondary malignant neoplasms of pleura metastatic neoplasms including pleural Obstructive airway disease: asthma, reactive airway disease; bronchiectasis; chronic airway obstruction; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, emphysema Pneumoconiosis/fibrosing/restrictive pulmonary disorders/interstitial lung disease: pneumoconiosis; asbestosis; silicosis; silo-filler's lung, byssinosis, bagassosis, berylliosis; hypersensitivity pneumonitis; hypereosinophilic syndromes, Loeffler syndrome; interstitial pneumonia, usual (UIP), desquamative (DIP), nonspecific Respiratory failure/respiratory arrest and pulmonary vascular disorders: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); pulmonary hypertension; pulmonary vascular disorders, arteriovenous fistula; pulmonary edema, pulmonary cause and unspecified; pulmonary embolism; air and fat embolism; respiratory failure due to enteral feeding Metabolic, regulatory, and structural disorders: disorders of gas exchange; hypoventilation; hypoxia; pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; ventilation-perfusion imbalance Disorders of the pleura, mediastinum, and chest wall: chylothorax; costochondritis; empyema; hemothorax; mediastinitis; pleural effusion; pleuritis; pneumomediastinum; pneumothorax Traumatic and mechanical disorders upper airways: epistaxis; barotrauma, sinus; laryngeal/pharyngeal obstruction; tracheoesophageal fistula; tracheal stenosis; tracheomalacia; trauma (eg, tracheal injury); foreign body (nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea); traumatic/mechanical disorders of the nasal cavity/sinuses (eg, septal perforation) lower airways and pleura: atelectasis; diaphragm/chest wall injury; drowning and neardrowning; foreign body, upper and lower respiratory tract; penetrating chest wounds; pulmonary contusion; sleep apnea, obstructive and central; hypoventilation syndrome, obesity-hypoventilation syndrome Congenital disorders: bronchogenic cysts; congenital cysts; congenital diaphragmatic hernia; pulmonary sequestration; immotile cilia syndrome Adverse effects of drugs on the respiratory system: bleomycin, amiodarone; adverse effects of 100% oxygen; acute effects of tobacco/nicotine, inhalants, cocaine Gastrointestinal System Normal Processes Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes Organ structure and function anatomy of the alimentary canal, including mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus, peritoneal cavity liver and biliary system, including enterohepatic circulation salivary glands and exocrine pancreas gastrointestinal motility, including defecation digestion and absorption Cell/tissue structure and function endocrine and neural regulatory functions, including GI hormones (eg, gastrin) salivary, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, hepatic secretory products, including enzymes, proteins, bile salts, and processes synthetic and metabolic functions of hepatocytes Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life Gastrointestinal defense mechanisms and normal flora Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders infectious disorders bacterial: pseudomembranous colitis (Clostridium difficile); enteritis/enteric infections (includes gastroenteritis) (eg, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter species, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella species, Shigella species, traveler's/infectious diarrhea); hepatic abscess, subhepatic abscess, subphrenic abscess; peritonitis, primary and secondary; Whipple disease viral: infectious esophagitis (eg, CMV, herpes); hepatitis A, B, C, D, E; coxsackievirus enteritis/colitis; Echovirus enteritis/colitis; rotavirus enteritis; mumps; gingivostomatitis, herpetic fungal: thrush parasitic: Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia, Isospora belli, Strongyloides stercoralis immunologic and inflammatory disorders: autoimmune hepatitis; celiac disease; eosinophilic esophagitis; granulomatous enteritis; inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn disease, regional enteritis, microscopic colitis (collagenous and lymphocytic colitis), ulcerative colitis, toxic megacolon Neoplasms benign neoplasms, including polyps, cysts: stomach; small intestine; colon, rectum, and anus, including polyps malignant neoplasms and pre-malignant conditions: oral cancer (eg, lips, mouth, tongue, salivary glands); esophageal, squamous and adenocarcinoma; Barrett esophagus; gastrinoma, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors; gastrointestinal stromal tumors; small intestine; stomach, adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, MALT; colon, rectum, anus; hereditary colon cancer syndromes, familial adenomatous polyposis (eg, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Gardner syndrome, Turcot syndrome, ); MUTYH-associated polyposis; gallbladder, cholangiocarcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater; liver, including hepatoma; peritoneal cancer, including metastatic studding with cancer; pancreas metastatic neoplasms Signs, symptoms, and ill-defined disorders: upper gastrointestinal bleeding; lower gastrointestinal bleeding; constipation; diarrhea; hematochezia; bright red rectal bleeding; melena; nausea, vomiting, rumination Disorders of the oral cavity, salivary glands, and esophagus oral cavity and salivary glands: abscessed tooth; dental caries; malocclusion; disorders of the salivary glands (eg, stones, sialadenitis, parotitis) esophagus: achalasia and cardiospasm; dysphagia; diverticulum (eg, Zenker); esophageal periapical abscess without sinus; esophagitis/esophageal reflux (GERD); esophagitis, pill; Mallory-Weiss syndrome; paraesophageal (hiatal) hernia; stricture and stenosis of esophagus Disorders of the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, anus stomach: dyspepsia/hyperacidity; gastric ulcer; gastritis; peptic ulcer; peptic ulcer perforation; gastroparesis small intestine, colon: appendicitis; angiodysplasia; diverticula, diverticulitis, diverticulosis; duodenitis, duodenal ulcer, peptic ulcer; gastroenteritis and colitis (noninfectious); granulomatous enterocolitis; Hirschsprung disease; impaction of intestine; intestinal obstruction/stricture; intussusception; irritable colon/irritable bowel syndrome; mesenteric ischemia/ischemic bowel/ischemic colitis; necrotizing enterocolitis; paralytic ileus; volvulus; malnutrition and malabsorption, including lactose intolerance, short bowel syndrome rectum and anus: abscess of anal and rectal regions; anal fissure; anal fistula; ulcer; fecal incontinence; hemorrhage (rectum, anus); proctitis; hemorrhoids; rectal prolapse Disorders of the liver and biliary system, noninfectious liver: cirrhosis; Dubin-Johnson, Rotor syndromes; end-stage liver disease, including indications for transplantation; Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome; hepatic coma/hepatic encephalopathy; hepatitis, noninfectious; hepatitis, fatty liver, alcoholic; hepatorenal syndrome; hepatopulmonary syndrome; jaundice; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; portal hypertension/esophageal varices biliary system: bile duct obstruction/cholestasis; cholangitis, including ascending; choledocholithiasis; cholelithiasis/cholecystitis; cholestasis due to parenteral nutrition; gallstone ileus; Mirizzi syndrome; primary biliary cirrhosis; primary sclerosing cholangitis Disorders of the pancreas: pancreatitis, acute; pancreatitis, chronic; pancreatitis, hereditary; pancreatic cyst/pseudocyst; pancreatic duct obstruction; pancreatic insufficiency Disorders of the peritoneal cavity: ascites Traumatic and mechanical disorders: abdominal wall defects; adhesions, postsurgical; digestive system complications of surgery; post-gastric surgery syndromes (eg, blind loop syndrome, adhesions); duodenal tear; foreign body in digestive system; inguinal, femoral, and abdominal wall hernias; open wound, abdominal; perforation of hollow viscus and blunt trauma; perforation/rupture of esophagus (Boerhaave syndrome); umbilical hernia Congenital disorders: annular pancreas, biliary atresia, cleft lip and palate, esophageal atresia, malrotation without volvulus, Meckel diverticulum, pyloric stenosis, tracheoesophageal fistula Adverse effects of drugs on the gastrointestinal system: drug-induced changes in motility (chronic laxative abuse, opioids); drug-induced gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulcer disease (NSAIDs); drug-induced hepatitis (eg, acetaminophen, isoniazid); drug-induced pancreatitis (eg, thiazide diuretics) Renal & Urinary System Normal Processes Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes Organ structure and function kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra glomerular filtration and hemodynamics urine concentration and dilution renal mechanisms in acid-base balance renal mechanisms in body fluid homeostasis micturition Cell/tissue structure and function renal metabolism and oxygen consumption tubular reabsorption and secretion, including transport processes and proteins hormones produced by or acting on the kidney (eg, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin II, vasopressin) Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders infectious disorders upper urinary tract: granulomatous pyelonephritis; perinephric abscess; pyelonephritis; pyonephrosis; renal abscess; renal tuberculosis lower urinary tract and urinary tract infections of unspecified location: cystitis; chlamydial and nonchlamydial immunologic and inflammatory disorders upper urinary tract glomerular disorders: Alport syndrome; glomerular disease due to hepatitis B, C; glomerulonephritis, including poststreptococcal; IgA nephropathy; lupus nephritis; minimal change disease; nephrotic syndrome; thin basement membrane disease tubular interstitial disease: acute tubular necrosis (ATN); acute interstitial nephritis; papillary necrosis; HIV nephropathy lower urinary tract: interstitial cystitis Neoplasms benign neoplasms and cysts: polycystic kidney disease malignant neoplasms: renal (eg, Wilms tumor/nephroblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, renal tumors associated with congenital/hereditary conditions); urinary bladder and collecting system Signs, symptoms, and ill-defined disorders: dysuria; hematuria; oliguria, anuria; proteinuria Metabolic and regulatory disorders: acute kidney injury; renal insufficiency; azotemia, uremic syndrome; chronic kidney disease, including end-stage renal disease; cystinuria; Fanconi syndrome; hypertensive renal disease (renal complications of hypertension); renal calculi, ureteral calculi, nephrolithiasis; renal tubular acidosis Vascular disorders: renal artery stenosis (atherosclerosis, fibromuscular dysplasia, nephrosclerosis); renal vein thrombosis; renal infarction Traumatic and mechanical disorders: bladder rupture; neurogenic bladder; obstructive uropathy; posterior urethral valves; renal laceration; renal vascular injury; ureteral laceration/avulsion/disruption; urethral diverticulum; urethral/ureteral obstruction/stricture/prolapse; urinary incontinence, including secondary enuresis; vesicoureteral reflux Congenital disorders: double ureters/ureteral duplication/double collecting system; horseshoe kidney; hydronephrosis/reflux; renal agenesis, renal hypoplasia, renal dysplasia; single kidney Adverse effects of drugs on the renal and urinary system: ACE inhibitors; aminoglycosides; amphotericin B; cisplatin; furosemide; gadolinium (nephrogenic systemic fibrosis); heroin; iodinated contrast dye; lithium; NSAIDs; penicillins; sulfa drugs; tenofovir; drug - induced urinary retention Pregnancy, Childbirth, & the Puerperium Normal Processes Organ structure and function: pregnancy, including fertilization, implantation, development of embryo, labor and delivery, the puerperium, lactation, gestational uterus, placenta Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Prenatal care preconception counseling and care: folate deficiency prevention; immunizations; nutritional assessment, including vitamins; Rh screening prenatal risk assessment/prevention: adolescent pregnancy; antepartum fetal evaluation, including biophysical profile; genetic screening; α-fetoprotein; diabetes mellitus; neural tube defects; Rh isoimmunization supervision of normal pregnancy: assessment of gestational age; iron deficiency prevention; nutrition, including weight management; surveillance, including ultrasonography and assessment of fetal growth; vitamin deficiency prevention; infections, maternal, fetal, newborn (focus on prevention and screening): cytomegalovirus, coxsackievirus, hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex viruses, HIV, influenza virus, parvovirus B19 virus, rubella virus, varicella-zoster virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, Streptococcus agalactiae, Toxoplasma gondii, amnionitis; asymptomatic urinary tract infection Obstetric complications: abortion, induced, septic, missed, spontaneous, threatened; acute fatty liver of pregnancy; anemia of pregnancy, sickle cell disease, thalassemia in pregnancy; antepartum hemorrhage, including third-trimester bleeding; cardiomyopathy of pregnancy; cervical incompetence, cervical shortening; cholestasis of pregnancy, intrahepatic; congenital abnormalities, maternal (eg, bicornuate uterus); ectopic pregnancy; fetal abnormality affecting management of mother (eg, hydrocephalus, spina bifida); fetal growth restriction; gestational diabetes; maternal mortality; multiple gestation; placental abnormalities (abruptio placentae, placenta previa, premature separation of placenta); polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios; preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, gestational hypertension; prolonged pregnancy; Rh isoimmunization affecting management of mother; vomiting in pregnancy (morning sickness, hyperemesis gravidarum); trauma in pregnancy; infections complicating pregnancy Labor and delivery: labor and delivery, uncomplicated; labor and delivery, complicated, including shoulder dystocia; cesarean delivery, including complications; cord compression, cord prolapse; fetal malpresentations (eg, breech); intrapartum fetal evaluation, including fetal heart tones; intrapartum prophylaxis (eg, HIV, Chlamydia, gonococcal prophylaxis); premature rupture of membranes; preterm (before 37 weeks' gestation) and postdates labor and delivery; threatened preterm labor Puerperium, including complications: lactation problems; breast-feeding problems; lochia; postpartum cardiomyopathy; postpartum blues; postpartum hemorrhage; postpartum sepsis; retained placenta, products of conception (eg, placenta accreta); uterine atony Newborn (birth to 4 weeks of age) normal newborn examination of liveborn at admission to hospital screening, newborn disorders of the newborn: screening, newborn; ABO incompatibility in newborn; hemolytic disease due to Rh incompatibility; birth asphyxia syndrome (liveborn neonate); birth trauma (eg, cord compression, brachial palsy, lacerations); drug withdrawal syndrome in newborn; feeding problems in newborn; fetal growth and development abnormalities, including fetal growth restriction; gastrointestinal obstruction; hypocalcemia of newborn; infections, congenital or peripartum (cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses, HIV, hepatitis B, rubella virus, parvovirus B19 virus, varicella zoster virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Treponema pallidum, Toxoplasma gondii); intrapartum fetal distress/death including stillborn; jaundice, fetal/neonatal/perinatal; laryngomalacia; macrosomia (large for gestational age); meconium aspiration syndrome; neonatal acne; neonatal Candida infection (thrush); neonatal hypoglycemia; neonatal conjunctivitis and dacryocystitis; ophthalmic gonorrhea; phenylketonuria; premature infant; postterm infant; pseudomembranous colitis of infancy; respiratory distress syndrome (hyaline membrane disease); respiratory problems after birth (eg, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, tracheomalacia; tracheoesophageal fistula in neonates); retinitis of prematurity; seizures in newborn; sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), apparent life-threatening event (ALTE); tetanus neonatorum Congenital disorders, neonatal: congenital malformations and anomalies; neonatal hydrocele Adverse effects of drugs on pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium: alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD); prenatal radiation exposure; teratology (eg, ACE inhibitors, SSRIs, warfarin, infections, toxins) Systemic disorders affecting pregnancy, labor and delivery, and puerperium: appendicitis; asthma; carpal tunnel syndrome in pregnancy; cirrhosis; deep venous thrombosis (DVT); diabetes mellitus; heart failure, valvular heart disease;hypertension; myasthenia gravis; obesity; pancreatitis; psychiatric disorders; renal calculus/calculi; renal failure/renal disease, including SLE; seizure disorders; thyroid disorders, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism Female Reproductive System & Breast Normal Processes Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and perinatal changes, gametogenesis Organ structure and function female structure, including breast female function (eg, ovulation, menstrual cycle, puberty) intercourse, sexual response Cell/tissue structure and function: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, sex steroids, and gestational hormones Reproductive system defense mechanisms and normal flora Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Breast infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders: breast abscess; inflammatory disease of breast, fat necrosis; mastitis; nipple discharge neoplasms benign and undefined neoplasms: breast cyst, solitary; fibrocystic changes; fibroadenoma; hypertrophy of breast; intraductal papilloma malignant neoplasms (including screening): breast cancer; intraductal carcinoma; Paget disease of breast; phyllodes tumors Female reproductive system infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders: bacterial vaginosis; Bartholin gland abscess; cellulitis, pelvic; candidiasis of the vulva or vagina; lichen sclerosus; sexually transmitted infections and exposure; cervicitis and endocervicitis; chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi); genital herpes; gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae); human papillomavirus infection, genital/venereal/anal warts, condylomata acuminata; lymphogranuloma venereum (Chlamydia trachomatis), non-lymphogranuloma venereum; pelvic inflammatory disease; Fitz-Hugh–Curtis syndrome; salpingitis and oophoritis; syphilis (Treponema pallidum); trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis); urethritis; vaginitis; vulvovaginitis Neoplasms of the cervix, ovary, uterus, vagina, and vulva benign neoplasms and cysts: abnormal Pap smear; benign neoplasm of ovary; endocervical and endometrial polyps; leiomyomata uteri; ovarian cyst malignant and precancerous neoplasms: cervical cancer; HPV causing cancer; cervical dysplasia, HPV causing dysplasia; endometrial hyperplasia; endometrial/uterine cancer; gestational trophoblastic disease (hydatidiform mole); ovarian cancer; vulvar dysplasia and cancer Fertility and infertility: assisted reproductive techniques (ART); contraception (eg, oral contraceptives, IUD, vaginal cap, cervical sponge, diaphragm, implant, morning-after pill, male and female condoms); female infertility; gonadal dysgenesis 45,X (Turner syndrome); sterilization; tubal factors; infertility Menopause: ovarian failure, premature menopause; perimenopause; premenopausal menorrhagia; postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis (vaginal atrophy); postmenopausal bleeding; vasomotor symptoms Menstrual and endocrine disorders: abnormal uterine bleeding, including perimenopausal; absence of menstruation (primary amenorrhea, secondary amenorrhea including undiagnosed pregnancy); anovulation; dysmenorrhea; endometriosis; hirsutism, virilization; mittelschmerz; pelvic pain; polycystic ovarian syndrome; postcoital bleeding; premenstrual syndrome Sexual dysfunction: dyspareunia; orgasmic dysfunction; sexual desire/arousal syndrome; vaginismus Traumatic and mechanical disorders: Asherman syndrome; chronic inversion of uterus; chronic pelvic pain syndrome; cystocele; imperforate hymen; injuries, wounds, and burns affecting the female reproductive system and injuries, wounds, burns, and blast injuries; ovarian torsion; pelvic relaxation; prolapse, vaginal walls, uterine, uterovaginal; rectocele; urethrocele Congenital disorders: müllerian agenesis; uterus didelphys, bicornuate uterus; short cervix Adverse effects of drugs on the female reproductive system and breast: antihistamines, H2-receptor blockers; benzodiazepines; beta-adrenergic blockers; hormone replacement; opioids; spironolactone; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; tricyclic antidepressants Male Reproductive System Normal Processes Embryonic development, fetal maturation, and neonatal changes, gametogenesis Organ structure and function structure, male genitalia and prostate function, male genitalia and prostate (eg, spermatogenesis, puberty) intercourse, orgasm, erection Cell/tissue structure and function, including hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, sex steroids, and gestational hormones Reproductive system defense mechanisms and normal flora Repair, regeneration, and changes associated with stage of life Abnormal Processes: Health and Health Maintenance, Screening, Diagnosis, Management, Risks, Prognosis Infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders infectious disorders: balan
United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1
USMLE Examination student
Killexams : USMLE Examination student - BingNews Search results Killexams : USMLE Examination student - BingNews Killexams : The USMLE: Ten Questions


With the dreaded USMLE Step 1 now always around the corner -- it's now given 6 days a week, every week! -- the test has become a popular subject of questions on Medscape Med Students' discussion boards. I decided to go straight to the source for some answers, so here's a Q & A with Chirag Amin, MD, and Tao Le, MD, 2 of the authors of that USMLE bible, First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2001: A Student to Student Guide. Dr. Amin is now Vice President of Content and Community for, where Dr. Le is Chief Medical Officer.

Medscape: Describe the USMLE.

Drs. Amin and Lee: The USMLE Step 1 computer-based test (CBT) is a 1-day test, taken on a computer, that's administered once a day (except Sunday) on a year-round basis at hundreds of testing centers around the world. The test consists of a total of 350 multiple-choice, single-best-answer questions that are broken down into seven 1-hour blocks, with 50 questions per block. Examinees are given short breaks between blocks, as well as a lunch break.

M: How long in advance of Step 1 should students start preparing? Should they make studying for the USMLE a part of studying for regular courses?

A&L: The USMLE Step 1 was designed to assess medical science knowledge and concepts taught during the preclinical years at a typical medical school. Therefore, medical students who studied diligently during their first- and second-year coursework end up minimizing the stress and workload of a USMLE Step 1 review. Regardless, most students start intensive examination preparation on a full-time basis (ie, 6-8 hours of studying per day) approximately 4-6 weeks before the genuine examination date. Due to differences in their medical education/training and curriculum as well as the time that often lapses since the completion of basic science coursework, international medical graduates (IMGs) usually need 2-4 months of study before taking the USMLE Step 1.

M: If you have a month, as many schools supply students, what's a good schedule?

A&L: In the month leading up to the exam, the majority of medical students find themselves studying anywhere from 6-12 hours each day, dividing their study time proportionally over the 7 traditional basic science disciplines, which include anatomy, behavioral sciences, biochemistry, microbiology/immunology, pathology, pharmacology, and physiology. In addition, many students devote the last week of their test preparation to comprehensive review as well as going through demo questions. Many students recommend thorough review of the high-yield facts in First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 during the last week. Generally, students devote more time to the more clinically relevant disciplines, such as pathology, pharmacology, and microbiology/immunology. However, a common mistake that students make is not spending enough time covering all subject disciplines thoroughly.

M: What books can you recommend for general review? For specific subjects?

A&L: Students usually find themselves buying anywhere from 10-25 review as well as question-and-answer (Q&A) books, but most will start with our First Aid for the USMLE Step 1. The major medical publishing companies such as McGraw-Hill, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Blackwell Science, and Harcourt Health Sciences have several excellent titles for USMLE review. In addition, many students have benefited from books that present this basic science material from a clinical perspective, such as our Underground Clinical Vignettes series.

M: What kind of surprises, in terms of subject material, have students told you about?

A&L: Many medical students that we have talked to underestimate the amount of clinical material on the USMLE Step 1 examination. For example, a significant portion of the anatomy that is tested on the USMLE test is based on one's ability to recognize anatomical structures on common radiographic images, such as x-rays, CT, and MRI scans. Furthermore, many students also leave the test feeling somewhat intimidated regarding the clinical slant of how the basic science material is tested. Knowing specific disease pathophysiology as well as drug mechanism of action in the context of a clinical scenario is essential for doing well on the USMLE.

M: Do courses work?

A&L: This depends on the student's learning style and level of discipline. Only a small percentage of students take a review course for the USMLE Step 1 examination. Many students feel that they can benefit more by organizing a study schedule that is focused around their own strengths and weaknesses. However, there are some students who are not effectively able to manage their own study time. Those students may benefit from a structured review course.

M: What about cramming?

A&L: Because the material tested on the USMLE Step 1 examination covers a large amount of information that is learned over the course of 2 years in medical school, strict cramming is usually not an effective method for USMLE preparation. Furthermore, since many questions on the test are asked from a clinical standpoint, requiring medical reasoning and problem-solving skills, a structured and disciplined review over the course of several weeks is far more effective in terms of doing well on the test as compared to cramming. That being said, anecdotes abound about medical students passing just by cramming First Aid for the USMLE Step 1. Again, cramming is not recommended.

M: What kind of advice do you have for international medical graduates?

A&L: The most important advice for international medical graduates is to become familiar with taking exams on the computer. The vast majority of international medical graduates have never taken an test on the computer, and this is a major obstacle. Factors such as eye strain and mouse dexterity can serve as a major obstacle when taking the examination. The more that one is able to become familiar with the specific test-taking environment, the better that person is able to concentrate on the test itself.

M: Any particular advice for students who are retaking the test after failing?

Honestly assess your weaknesses and shortfalls in your previous test preparation, and focus on improving in those areas. Retakers have the advantage of experience, and most use this advantage to their benefit in terms of revising their method of test preparation when studying the second time around. The good news is that retakers generally have a very high pass rate.

M: Can you list helpful resources?

A&L: There are a number of helpful resources for USMLE preparation. In terms of textbooks, one textbook that gives an excellent overview of the exam, including a database of high-yield facts and a detailed list of useful resources, is our First Aid for the USMLE Step 1. Many students consider this book the best place to start their test preparation. In addition,'s community Web site ( has a USMLE Study Center that provides a wealth of free information, including online USMLE lectures, demo training schedules, simulated test modules, recommended books, discussion forums, and much more. Another important resource is the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Web site at, which provides students with the most up-to-date information about the examination.

Thu, 03 Nov 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : USMLE (Step 1 and 2) Registration

There are a few different ways that Anki is usually incorporated into Step 1 studying:

Pre-Made decks

Zanki and Anking are two pre-made decks that have been curated over exact years to capture the best and most high yield Step 1 content from almost any and all resources that students find useful, including Pathoma, First Aid, Sketchy, etc. Both decks are very large and extremely comprehensive, sometimes emphasizing information that isn’t always high-yield or testable.

Making your own cards (content)

For some students, taking traditional handwritten or typed notes is cumbersome and disengaging. With that in mind, it’s not uncommon that students will do their “note taking” by taking the material they find in resources like First Aid, Boards and Beyond, etc and creating their own cards to capture the content in whatever way makes the most sense for them.

Making your own cards (missed questions)

Knowing that UWorld offers a wealth of information in the explanation of answer choices and through outlining the educational objectives of different question types, it should be no surprise that a lot of that content can be ideal for Anki. In this approach it’s important to do your best to pinpoint specific and succinct knowledge gaps so that you can make cards that aren’t so dense that they’re not helpful. It’s important to note that if not appropriately focused, this approach can be incredibly time intensive and can sometimes not be the most productive way to use your time, so be thoughtful in how you incorporate this into your overall study strategy.

Fri, 03 Dec 2021 01:09:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : A Critique of the USMLE Clinical Skills Examination

At our institution, all medical students are now required to take and pass the United States Medical Licensing Examination , Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) prior to graduation, and many of us have now received our "Pass" CS score report. But unlike passing Step 1 CS and Step 2 Clinical Knowledge (CK), receiving a passing score report on the CS only heightened our frustration with the entire experience. The CS has become a licensure requirement for all doctors graduating from medical school in 2005 or later. A similar test has been required since 1998 for foreign medical graduates to ensure a minimum proficiency in patient interaction and English communication, as part of the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) certification.[1] In its current form, the CS test claims to use "standardized patients to test medical students and graduates on their ability to gather information from patients, perform physical examinations, and communicate their findings to patients and colleagues.[2]" As the inaugural subjects, we suffered with our colleagues around the country through all the trains and planes, rumors and rituals, pompous rhetoric, and laughable acting. All this, now combined with the stunningly inadequate feedback, confirms our prior suspicions about an entirely dubious enterprise.

Consider the CS score report, which includes no information about areas of weakness or strength, even with crudely defined criteria, such as thoroughness of history taking, physical test skills, or formulation of differential diagnosis. The report simply implies that we have met a very bare minimum requirement without providing any further information. This paucity of feedback underscores one of the critical inadequacies of this examination only briefly explored in previously published discussions.[3,4] The 3 score categories that were mentioned -- Integrated Clinical Encounter, Communication and Interpersonal Skills, and Spoken English Proficiency -- are hopelessly broad, particularly when compared with structured categories of analysis offered by the Step 1 CS and Step 2 CK exams.[5] In these 2 exams, the score report, pass or fail, provides detailed performance information for the specific subjects and disciplines covered on the test (internal medicine, psychiatry, biochemistry, etc). In comparison, the CS score report for the nearly 97% of test takers expected to pass the exam[6] provides no helpful evaluation or feedback of any kind. Thus, it remains entirely unclear what students, medical schools, residency programs, or the general public ought to conclude about this test or the students who pass it.

The shortcomings of the CS feedback are even more evident when we compare it with the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) exams currently held voluntarily and at great expense and effort by some three quarters of US medical schools, with nearly half of these requiring a satisfactory performance for graduation.[7] (Of the remainder, many schools are in the process of creating OSCE exams and others are making them requirements for graduation.) On these exams, the standardized patient and an experienced physician observe every history question, physical test technique, and treatment formulation. Detailed evaluation and feedback come from the patient and physician observers on each stage and the overall exercise. This allows students to quickly and accurately address weak areas, while also building confidence in those skills of which they may already be proficient. This system also allows educators to monitor students' progress and focus on the needs of specific students or entire curricula. Students may find the OSCE experience to be anxiety-provoking, but evidence suggests that the exercises overall are very well received.[8,9,10,11,12]

In addition to the superior feedback mechanism, the OSCE approaches the stated goals of the CS test much more rigorously, particularly in the area of the physical exam. An orthopaedist observes your low-back-pain exam; a cardiologist ensures that you can hear the murmur and describe it correctly; a neurologist increases the odds that your motor test has any chance of eliciting abnormal findings. In our experience, we found these specialists to be quite forthcoming, almost eager, with their constructive criticism. The CS test elicits the motions of a competent exam, but without an experienced clinician-observer in the room, nothing prevented us on test day from, say, auscultating the scapula. Similarly, the written component of the CS test compares poorly with the on-the-spot presentation of our history, findings, differential diagnosis, and decision making. Laying test findings bare before the faculty supports the immediate integration of communication and clinical thinking. Indeed, the supervision and evaluation of the OSCE attenuate a common criticism of standardized encounters generally: the artificial feel of "fake" patients. Physician-observers provide a real-time quality-control mechanism in which imitated physical findings or patient questions can be properly qualified and contrasted to genuine experience. Thus, even though both the CS and OSCE require often unrealistic portrayals of sick patients, the presence, supervision, and evaluation by a physician in the room support and facilitate a more worthwhile experience.

We submit that the OSCE precisely captures the supposed virtues of the CS exam, which itself adds little to our education or training at over $1000 per student. To some, this cost may seem minor compared with the overall costs of medical education -- recently estimated at $140,000 for public and $225,000 for private schools.[13] We strenuously disagree with this reasoning, however, which substitutes obvious math for serious debate on the attitudes and principles driving modern medical instruction and healthcare generally. Claiming that the CS test is "just another $1000" fails to address the trends toward higher costs and subsequent barriers to accessing quality graduate medical education. This flippant attitude also ignores the way in which multiple smaller expenses -- textbooks, supplies, and student health insurance -- add up to increase the average student-debt burden. As with any new intervention offered in healthcare today, the CS test must justify its expense, whatever the magnitude. In our opinion, it does not.

We therefore applaud those schools already investing in the OSCE and encourage other schools to consider their funding priorities and develop OSCEs of their own. If the public indeed demands this manner of examination, as has been claimed, then perhaps all medical schools should be required by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) to hold 1 or more OSCE exercises with satisfactory performances necessary for graduation. Holding these exams at each school, rather than at a few centers nationwide, would reduce the inconvenience and expense for students while allowing individual schools to adapt their curricula rapidly on the basis of areas of strength and weakness. Hopefully, this could be achieved without passing on additional expenses to students. This approach would keep the burden of creating skilled clinicians in the province of medical schools, where it belongs.

Indeed, what else does the CS test do but call into question the ability of American medical schools to teach a physician's most fundamental skills? We accept the tedium of written exams in order to guarantee a consistent fund of knowledge across the country; this is relatively easy to test and while providing helpful feedback. But the challenge of the clinical encounter -- earning trust and constructing a story, looking and listening, testing hypotheses and making decisions, and explaining and reassuring -- cannot possibly be met with this elaborate educational sham. Let us instead earn the public's trust by supporting rigor within medical schools, demanding of ourselves and our teachers a greater commitment to mastering the skills that matter most to our patients.

Wed, 09 Feb 2022 05:34:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : USMLE - The Gateway for Sri Lankan doctors to practice in the USA.

The Ministry of Health has indicated that it cannot automatically absorb all Sri Lankan doctors to the Heath Services. This, and many other reasons, may prompt a doctor to explore working overseas. One country that regularly employs a substantial number of foreign doctors is the United States of America. This question and answer session attempts to answer some of the initial questions posed by doctors interested in practicing in the US. We invite readers to ask questions from the author so that we may provide the most relevant information to those considering practicing medicine in the US.

Can Sri Lankan Doctors Practice Medicine in the United States of America?

Yes, there are no nationality barriers to practice medicine in the USA. The USA has a very fair system of examinations that are open to its nationals as well as foreigners. Both foreign doctors and American medical students/doctors sit for the same standardized examinations. However, hospitals usually interview their prospective doctors before they employ them. American medical graduates usually have an advantage because of the language, their familiarity with the US hospital system and the fact that there are fewer restrictions on them in general (i.e. no requirement for a work visa). However, as the amount of doctors that the US produces is grossly inadequate to cater to their demand, each year thousands of foreign doctors enter the US medical practice. In exact years about 6500 foreign medical graduates applied for US residency out of which about 45% succeed in securing a place. This is in addition to about 15,000 US medical graduate applicants out of which about 90% secure a place.
What are the things a doctor has to do to be eligible to practice medicine in America?

First, the doctor should have graduated from a medical school that is listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) directory of medical schools. Six Sri Lankan medical faculties are in the directory. They are Colombo, Peradeniya, Jaffna, Galle, Ragama (incuding North Colombo Medical College) and Sri Jayawardenapura medical faculties. A full list is available in the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) web site. Sri Lankan doctors who have gone abroad for medical education should check whether their medical school is in the directory.

The doctor should register with the Education Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG). This can be done online by visiting the ECFMG Web site ( - CHECK. Registering involves answering many questions related to you and your medical education. All clinical appointments need to be entered with dates, consultants etc. No errors should be made during this process. Therefore it's a good idea to get the help of someone who has gone through the process to avoid delays and rejection of the application.

The doctor should pass the USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 (Clinical Knowledge and Clinical Skills) examinations to be eligible to apply for residency.

What is ECFMG ?
ECFMG is the Education Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates. It is the entity that coordinates all examination related affairs of a foreign medical graduate until he or she has completed residency. It also sponsors foreign medical graduates so that they legally work in the US during their period of training as a resident.

What is USMLE ?
USMLE is the United States Medical Licensing Examination . The USMLE consists of 3 steps, Step 1, Step 2 and Step 3. In step 1, students are mainly tested in the pre-clinical subjects. Step 2 has two parts, Step 2 CK or Clinical Knowledge and Step 2 CS or Clinical Skills. Then there is the Step 3. Step 3 is not necessary to get a residency. Most US doctors do Step 3 during their 2nd or 3rd year of residency. Doing Step 3 early is a special advantage to foreign doctors as there are certain advantages in securing a less restrictive working visa if all USMLE examinations have been passed at the time of applying.

How do I Register to take the USMLE?
Unlike US doctors, foreign medical graduates do not directly register with the USMLE. They register with the ECFMG to do the USMLE examination. As I have stated earlier, one should first visit the ECFMG web site, apply and get a registration number from ECFMG. This number is necessary to fill the online application for the USMLE examinations. The ECFMG and USMLE examination application process can take quite some time as the ECFMG writes directly to your medical school and gets your transcript etc.

This question and answer session is the first one in a series of three. In the next session, we will be addressing issues such as, details of the different USMLE examinations, whether there is any order in which you should sit the examinations, where you can sit the examinations, advise on preparation etc.
"Please log in to and visit the USMLE forum to post your questions. The questions will be used as a guide to generate the next article by the author."

Sun, 13 Feb 2022 08:51:00 -0600 text/html
Killexams : test Information

An test proctor will begin reading test instructions approximately 15 minutes before the test start time. Students must be in the test room with their test at this time. If taking the test on a laptop, it must be booted up and have passed the security check. Hand writers must not have a laptop with them in an test room, unless otherwise allowed according to the professor’s instructions. A student entering the test room after the proctor begins reading instructions will not receive additional time for booting up their laptop, passing the security check, and/or reading test instructions.

When instructed by the proctor, write your test number on the cover page of your exam, bluebooks, and any scratch paper you turn in as part of your exam. Handwritten test answers must be written in blue books in blue or black ink. Number the bluebooks you use (1 of 1, 1 of 2, 2 of 2, etc.). Proctors will allow time to read the professor’s instructions. Other than counting the number of pages of the exam, students are not permitted to turn the page of an test past the instructions page until the proctor instructs to do so.

When taking a closed book exam, no books, outlines, book bags, purses, or scratch paper (other than the scratch paper provided) may be at your seat during the exam. These items must be left outside of the test room or in the front or sides of the test room. Students may not begin to write anything, including on scratch paper, before the proctor begins a closed book exam.

Students taking in-class exams are prohibited from having any electronic communication device, other than a laptop as allowed per the professor's instructions, during the exam. Cell phones and smart watches must be turned off during the test and placed in a bag or backpack. Violations of this rule may be considered an Honor Code violation. A clock in each test room will be the official time keeper for the exam.

Non-alcoholic beverages are permitted in test rooms; however, the container must have a lid.

After the test instructions have been read and the test begins, the proctor will remain in the room. Any student who has a question or problem during an test should see the proctor.

Students may use the restroom or take a break during an exam. However, all test materials must be left in the test room and no additional time will be given. Students must sign in and out at the front of the room with the proctor.

Tue, 17 May 2022 07:52:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : The 10 Best Medical Schools in the Caribbean

The Caribbean is home to some of the best medical schools in the world. Students who want to study medicine can find many excellent programs throughout the region. The schools are known for their high quality education, and students receive a well-rounded training that prepares them for a successful career in medicine. The Caribbean is an excellent choice for students who want to study medicine. The schools in the region are known for their high quality education, and students receive a well-rounded training that prepares them for a successful career in medicine. Students who want to study medicine can find many excellent programs throughout the Caribbean. With so many great options available, choosing the right school can be a challenge. However, with careful research and planning, students can find the perfect program to match their needs and goals. The Caribbean is an ideal location for medical school students due to its close proximity to the United States, top-notch facilities, and renowned faculty members.

Students who attend one of the many accredited medical schools in the region can expect to receive a top-notch education that will prepare them for a successful career in medicine. With so many great schools to choose from, students should take the time to research each option carefully before making a decision. Caribbean medical schools offer an excellent education and provide students with the skills and knowledge they need to succeed in their chosen field. Any student considering a career in medicine should definitely consider attending one of the many accredited medical schools in the region.

The Caribbean is home to some of the best medical schools in the world, which makes it an ideal choice for students who want to study medicine. The region is known for its high quality education, and students receive a well-rounded training that prepares them for a successful career in medicine. Caribbean schools may even be better for those interested in working as a doctor elsewhere in the world, since the region is known for its excellent medical facilities. Students who attend a Caribbean medical school can expect to receive a top-notch education that will prepare them for a successful career in medicine.

This article will discuss 10 of the best medical schools in the Caribbean, including their state-of-the-art facilities, financial aid opportunities, program offerings, and curriculum structure. There are many great medical schools in the Caribbean, and students should take the time to research each option carefully before making a decision. The schools in the region offer an excellent education and provide students with the skills and knowledge they need to succeed in their chosen field.

Here is a list of 10 of the best medical schools in the Caribbean, along with a brief overview of their program offerings and curriculum structure:

1) American University of the Caribbean School of Medicine: The American University of the Caribbean School of Medicine (AUC) is a private for-profit medical school. The American University of the Caribbean School of Medicine is an excellent choice for students who want to study medicine. The school offers a variety of programs, including an MD program. AUC to train tomorrow’s physicians, whose service to their communities and their patients is enhanced by the quality of their medical education. The curriculum at AUC is designed to provide students with a strong foundation in the basic sciences, as well as the clinical skills necessary to be successful in their chosen field. The school offers a variety of programs, including an MD program. AUC to train tomorrow’s physicians, whose service to their communities and their patients is enhanced by international learning experiences, a diverse learning community, and an emphasis on social accountability and engagement.

2) St. George’s University: St. George’s University (SGU) is a private, not-for-profit university in Grenada, West Indies. It is the only medical school in Grenada and offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in medicine, veterinary medicine, public health, science, and business. SGU also has a campus in Mona, Jamaica, which offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in pharmacy, nursing, health sciences, and business. St. George’s University School of Medicine is one of the most respected medical schools in the world. The school has a distinguished faculty that includes Nobel Laureates and Royal Society members. SGU is also home to one of the largest medical research centers in the region. The school offers a variety of programs, including an MD program. It’s a private medical school and parent organization is Med forth Global Healthcare Education which is affiliated with Rocky Vista University College of Osteopathic Medicine. It has four academic institution which are School of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, School of Graduate Studies, School of Arts and Sciences.

3) American University of Antigua: AUA is a private, international medical school located in Antigua and Barbuda. The school offers a variety of programs, including an MD program. AUA is dedicated to providing students with a quality education that will prepare them for a successful career in medicine. AUA is founded by Neal S. Simon a lawyer and former president of Ross University. AUA is fully accredited by the Caribbean Accreditation Authority for Education in Medicine and other Health Professions (CAAM-HP) and is listed in the World Directory of Medical Schools. Therefore, in order to be eligible to apply to AUA, you would need to have completed at least 90 credits of college courses. Additionally, US citizens and permanent residents are required to submit MCAT scores as part of their application.

4) Saba University School of Medicine: The Saba University School of Medicine is a private for-profit offshore medical school located on Saba, a special municipality of the Netherlands in the Caribbean. The school offers a variety of programs, including an MD program. Saba University School of Medicine is dedicated to providing students with a quality education that will prepare them for a successful career in medicine. The school is fully accredited by the Accreditation Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and is listed in the World Directory of Medical Schools. Established in 1992, President Dr. Joseph Chu.

5) Medical University of the Americas – Nevis: Medical University of the Americas (MUA) has a systems-based U.S. curriculum with small classes to encourage interaction and collaboration between students and professors, Students at MUA can take advantage of federal financial aid options as well as private options to finance their medical education, Since its founding in 1998, MUA has awarded degrees to nearly 1,600 graduates who have gone on to top residency placements, The MD program at MUA is comparable to programs at top U.S. medical schools and key approvals allow graduates to practice anywhere in the US. MUA has a 4-year curriculum leading to a Doctor of Medicine degree.

The first two years consist of five semesters of basic sciences taught by approximately 45 full-time faculty with credentials from the United States, United Kingdom, Canadian or Asian universities. After finalizing the basic sciences part of the curriculum, MUA requires students to pass the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 prior to starting clinical rotations. The final two years are considered the clinical medicine curriculum, which is completed in affiliated teaching hospitals in the United States and Canada. The major clerkship programs have accreditation from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, American Osteopathic Association or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

6) Avalon University School of Medicine: AUSOM is a private medical school located in Willemstad, Curaçao, in the Caribbean. AUSOM confers upon its graduates the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. Administrative offices for the university are located in Youngstown, Ohio. AUSOM was founded in 2003 as Xavier University School of Medicine and changed its name to Avalon University School of Medicine 2010 when it relocated to Curaçao. The curriculum for the Doctor of Medicine degree spans four years with first and second year students studying basic science courses on campus followed by third year students attending an eight-week course at admissions office in Youngstown, Ohio before spending final 18 months clinical clerkships in United States including 24 weeks elective clerkships fourth-year students can take advantage of.

Avalon University School of Medicine’s mission is to prepare competent physicians who can serve communities locally and around the world. Avalon graduates are committed to patient safety and public health while maintaining the highest standards of professionalism and ethical behavior required for medical practice. The school offers various scholarships & payment plan options to assist with financing, as well as a competitive residency & fellowship placement program.

7) University of Medicine and Health Sciences: The University of Medicine and Health Sciences (UMHS) is a private, for-profit medical school located in Basseterre, Saint Kitts in the Caribbean. UMHS confers upon its graduates the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. The university also has a 5th semester campus in Portland, Maine and an administrative office in New York, New York. The MD program at UMHS is a 10 semester course of study that consists of three semesters per calendar year. Semesters 1-4 are basic sciences semesters that are completed at the university’s Saint Kitts campus while Semester 5 (Introduction to Clinical Medicine) is completed at the university’s campus in Portland, Maine. Semesters 6-10 consist of 78 weeks of clinical clerkships (48 weeks of core rotations, 30 weeks of elective rotations) that are completed at affiliated hospitals in the United States.

UMHS is chartered by Saint Kitts and accredited by their Accreditation Board as well as being recognized by FAIMER Directory or Organizations That Recognize/Accredit Medical Schools (DORA). To begin the admissions process, applicants must first meet the minimum requirements for admission. Applicants can then start their application by submitting a copy of their common application from one of the five services listed above. Once submitted, an admission specialist will contact the applicant to discuss next steps and waive the application fee.

8) Trinity School of Medicine: Trinity Medical Sciences University (TMSU) is an offshore private medical school with its Basic Science part of the MD program, Pre-medical program and Masters program located in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in the Caribbean and Clinical Science part of the MD program in Warner Robins, GA in the United States. It opened in 2008, as a fully accredited medical facility to respond to a shortage of physicians in the United States and Canada. It has its administrative headquarters in Roswell, Georgia and it partners with Milton Cato Memorial Hospital located in Kingstown and Northwest Hospital in Baltimore.

For students who have not attained the four-semester prerequisite courses for entrance to medical school, the school offers undergraduate programs. The Pre-Medical Program provides students with 90 credit hours of basic medical curriculum for those who have not attained applicable credits from foreign universities. Trinity offers a 5-year International Program for students looking to become doctors. The program was designed with the same prerequisites U.S. students complete, giving international students a level playing field. Some advantages of the program include asynchronous learning, instruction from MD faculty, and test prep in the undergraduate program.

9) Ross University School of Medicine: Ross University School of Medicine (RUSM) is a private medical school with its main campus located in Barbados and administrative offices in Iselin, New Jersey, and Miramar, Florida. RUSM was founded in 1978 by Robert Ross as a provider of medical education offering Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree programs. The university primarily serves students from the United States and Canada. In 1984, the university officially changed its name to Ross University School of Medicine. RUSM is accredited by the Barbados Medical Council (BMC), Caribbean Accreditation Authority for Education in Medicine and other Health Professions (CAAM-HP), National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation through the U.S. Department of Education The Ross University School of Medicine pre-clinical campus is located at the Lloyd Erskine Sandiford Centre which features a medical laboratory, anatomical imaging laboratory, clinical simulation center.

10) American University of Barbados, School of Medicine: American University of Barbados is best Caribbean medical school located in Barbados. It is accredited by the Caribbean Accreditation Authority for Education in Medicine and other Health Professions (CAAM-HP). American University of Barbados School of Medicine has a rolling admissions policy, meaning that applications are accepted year-round and students can begin their studies at any of the five start dates throughout the year. The school offers a unique hands-on approach to learning, with early clinical exposure starting in the first semester. Students have the opportunity to complete rotations at hospitals and clinics across North America, Europe, Asia, and the Caribbean.

The American University of Barbados School of Medicine (AUB) is a private medical school founded in 2011. AUB started as a branch of Era’s Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, based in India. The school was the first offshore private medical school in Barbados when it opened its doors in January 2012. As of November 2015, the student population was 135 with two Barbadian students for every five foreign students enrolled.

Mon, 05 Dec 2022 03:31:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : test Policies

Final test Policy

Final exams are those tests scheduled for a special period following the last week of instruction which is referred to as "final test week." This period begins and ends with the first and last officially scheduled final examinations. Each department shall designate all courses or sections of courses in which final examinations are to be given.

A comprehensive final examination designed to measure the student's overall knowledge is considered good teaching policy. However, no regulations shall attempt to govern the content of a final exam. A final test could be either incremental or comprehensive.

No final examination will be given earlier than the final test week. In classes which do not have final exams the instructor may not supply any major tests or examinations during the last week of regularly scheduled classes, because such a test would be in effect a final examination given earlier than the final test week. However, departments with lab courses can choose to exempt lab examinations from this policy. Make-up exams for illness or other excused absences may be administered before or after the scheduled time, consistent with maintenance of test security.

No final exams shall be scheduled on Sunday, unless the regular instruction periods are also scheduled on Sunday.

No regular instruction is to be continued during the final test week, except that the final examination time assigned to a course can be used for instruction if an instructor so desires.

The University shall not schedule, nor shall the students participate in, any official function during the scheduled final test period, except events whose date is beyond the control of the University.

It is the responsibility of the chair of each department to prevent violations of the final examination policy. Students may report violations of the policy to the chair of the instructor's department either in person or by anonymous note. Students may similarly report violations to the office of the Dean of Student Affairs; these reports will be forwarded to the departmental chair for appropriate action.

Any departures from an officially scheduled examination time must be approved by the scheduling office.

Absences from final exams need not be excused when caused by a student scheduling courses with conflicting final examination times.

No student shall be required to take more than three examinations per calendar day.

Conflicts will be resolved by the Dean of Student Affairs.

Evening Exams

Regular exams are exams and quizzes that are not defined as final examinations. Evening exams are regular exams held outside of scheduled class times, usually after 6 p.m.

Regular exams should be given during scheduled class meeting times when possible. Students required to take an evening test shall be excused from one scheduled class.

Evening examinations must be arranged through the scheduling office to avoid conflicts and to allow effective use of University resources. Evening exams should be scheduled for 6-7 p.m., Monday-Thursday. The University shall not schedule classes for this time period.

Faculty scheduling evening exams must provide alternative examination times for students with the following conflicts:

  1. In the case of two conflicting evening exams (inside or outside the 6-7 p.m. period), the larger class has priority.
  2. In the case of an evening test conflicting with a regularly scheduled class, the class has priority over the exam.

Regular exams shall not be given on Friday evenings, nor on Saturday or Sunday.

Winter Carnival Week

That hour examinations shall not be given during that portion of Winter Carnival week beginning at 6 p.m. Tuesday.  An hour examination is taken to be any major examination comprising a significant portion of a student’s overall grade and which would require major preparation.

Career Fair

Regular examinations, major projects and papers, and presentations shall not be given or be due on career fair day. All instructors are encouraged to consider how involved the students in each of their classes are with career fair and address other days in the week appropriately.

Lower level students are encouraged to attend career fair to learn the ropes and seek internships and co-ops. Faculty in courses with high numbers of lower level students, new to managing the conflicting demands of being an adult student, should consider providing more support to help those students develop good habits of planning ahead and communicating clearly, early, and respectfully about conflicts.

A regular examination, major projects or papers, or presentations is taken to be any assignment comprising a significant portion of a student's overall grade and which would require major preparation. Evening exams are included as they are regular exams held outside of scheduled class times (senate policy 601.1).

Regular weekly assignments, such as lab reports, are not considered major papers. However, instructors of lower division classes with career fair attending students are encouraged to move the due date a day earlier or in some other way help lower level students plan ahead.

Election Day


The University Senate proposes that beginning in the fall of 2022 instructors do not schedule due dates for major assignments, e.g., examinations, projects, presentations, or papers on the first Tuesday after November 1 (i.e. Election Day) on even numbered years. Furthermore, instructors are encouraged to not schedule any assignments for Election Day and are asked to be flexible regarding class attendance on this day in consideration of election related absences.

Tue, 13 Jan 2015 06:09:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Egyptian Doctor Reflects On His Caribbean Medical School Journey: From UAE Pharmacist To Becoming A Pediatrician In New York
(MENAFN- Mid-East.Info)

After starting his career as a pharmacist in the UAE, Dr. Ahmed Hussein reveals why St. George's University (SGU) School of Medicine, Grenada, in the Caribbean was the perfect choice to help him pursue his dreams of becoming a doctor in the United States. 

“Coming from the Middle East, I didn't have much information about the US healthcare system, which is very different from Egypt and the UAE (where I used to work).”

“So, to be able to integrate myself into this system, when I was looking for a medical school, I found many graduates from SGU matched with US hospitals.,” says Dr. Ahmed Hussein, alumni of St. George's University Medical School in Grenada.

After starting his career in pharmacy, he soon realized that he wanted to make a greater difference in the lives of patients and decided to try and follow his dream of becoming a doctor in the United States.

“We can all be helpful to the vulnerable, but being on the frontline, diagnosing and treating patients, was my main drive to pursue medicine,” he says.

He reveals that after much consideration and research, he started his application process to SGU's School of Medicine.“Which was seamless,” he says, citing the availability of people to contact and discuss all elements of the process – from questions and aid queries to simple reassurance.

“When I got the news about my acceptance, I felt that I was about to embark on a new journey that would require hard work, day in and day out, to reach my destination: MD in the United States.”

“Once there, I particularly enjoyed the extracurricular selectives offered by SGU, such as dissection and wilderness medicine. I also discovered that SGU supports students in their preparation for the US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). The modules taught and tested during the basic science years are very detailed. I was provided with all the tools that I needed to do well in standardised exams, such as DES (Department of Educational Services) facilitators who helped me set up study schedules, go over materials that I didn't grasp well, and many other things.”

In addition to the varied and in-depth academic syllabus, there were opportunities to fully embrace SGU campus life.“The new campus gym and the intramural soccer league were my favourites.”

“And the beach! And I can't forget the beautiful sunsets,” he adds, laughing.

Following basic sciences, he did his first clinical rotation at Brooklyn Hospital Center in New York.“I had a wonderful experience rotating between different departments. Also, I met the love of my life in this hospital, who is currently my wife. So, this place will always be memorable,” he says.

He explains that it wasn't all plain sailing, and the matching process was stressful. This is where you apply for a role of interest, and you get matched with a participating hospital or facility if there's a vacancy. 

“I tried to prepare as much as I could mentally by reaching out for advice from exact graduates, and the Office of Career Guidance (OCG) and Student Support at St. George's University helped me a lot.” 

His advice is to have a game plan to tackle the application process and interview season for Match Days. “But I was provided with assistance while still in Grenada. SGU's Office of Career Guidance provided me with a framework for filling out the application and my CV, and they provided reviews before the submission date. In addition, my clinical site had mentors that tailored their advice based on my Step 1 grades, clinical performance, and the specialty I was applying for.”

Dr. Hussein says he didn't believe it when he learned he had matched with his dream position in paediatrics at Maimonides Medical Center Program in New York.“I kept checking the National Residency Matching Program website every five minutes to be sure.”

However, he believes that once he graduated, the transition from student to MD is an ongoing process.“One thing I learned quickly in med school is you'll never 'feel' 100 percent prepared for an test or patient encounter during clinical rotations. However, I channelled this self-doubt to do my best, analyze my shortcomings, and try to address them before my next test or patient encounter. With the same mindset, I tackled my first block of residency. It's a lifetime journey of learning and it begins by being open to self, peer, and supervisor appraisals.

For students from the Middle East and North Africa looking to practice medicine in the US, he wouldn't hesitate to recommend SGU.“Grenada is a wonderful island that accepts students from all over the globe and luckily for us (Egyptians) it doesn't require a visa application process. In addition, in my experience, SGU was successful in matching me into the US healthcare system which was ultimately my goal.


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Mon, 28 Nov 2022 13:47:00 -0600 Date text/html
Killexams : Student wants apology after test made HIV-positive character with her name kill man

Freya Leach, 19, a law student at the University of Sydney claims that she has been picked on for her political views with a namesake character used in an test script

Freya Leach, 19, was unhappy about the use of a namesake character in an test question

A student claims she has been picked on with her name used in her law test where a right wing character kills a man, gives another HIV and is thrown out of a window to her death.

Freya Leach, 19, and other second year law students at the University of Sydney were reportedly given an end of semester paper where they had to consider the criminal liability of the fictional people involved.

But Freya believes she was targeted because there is a character in the test who is a student with her same name Freya.

Ms Leach is believed to be a member of the Conservative club and the Young Liberals and in the test her namesake’s character kills a left-leaning student.

So she feels that she has been picked on for her political views.

The University of Sydney has reportedly said the use of the namesake was complete coincidence (


Getty Images)

In the test it describes a character called Daniel who tells a student called Adam to “f*** off you woke p****”.

Then the test, reports states: “Unfortunately for Adam, however, he has not realised that a sporty-looking Mercedes car is approaching rapidly from the right. By a total coincidence, the car is driven by Daniel’s friend, Freya.

“(Adam) is clipped by Freya’s car one metre from the centre of the road. He falls, smashes his head on the ground and dies instantly. As Freya speeds away from the scene, she hears her phone beep. It is a text message from Daniel, which reads simply ‘Great job ;-) One less illiberal liberal!!!!’”

Also in the test, the character Freya has unprotected sex with Daniel without saying she has HIV and has a fight with a woman before being thrown out of a window to her death.

The Sydney Morning Herald has reported that there were four students on the course who had the same names as characters in the test.

And Ms Leach said she had been contacted by other students who feel the character of Freya is based on her.

“The problem question uses my name and characterises me as a right-wing person who kills a left wing person. It then recounts a sex scene in graphic detail and says I am HIV positive,” she reportedly said in a complaint letter.

“After which point, I am thrown out of a window. Memes have already started to circulate, making fun of my character in the problem question and depicting me as having HIV. This test has had made me feel unsafe to hold a diverse viewpoint at the University of Sydney Law School.”

She wanted an apology from the university and reportedly says that law school has been “incompetent at best, malicious at worst”.

The University of Sydney did apologise "for any offence or distressed caused" but said the name match-up was “entirely” a coincidence.

“This afternoon we received a complaint about one of our law assessments and have now responded directly to the student,” that statement said, reported

“We explained to the student that the fictional character in the test scenario was in no way meant to reference or depict a real-life person, and the use of any first names shared by students was entirely a coincidence.

“In fact, the same name was also used in an test drafted by the same academic in an assessment and class questions list in previous years.”

Tue, 08 Nov 2022 14:07:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Law school student claims professor named HIV-positive character on test after her because she’s conservative

A University of Sydney, Australia student claims she was unfairly targeted in a law test that sees a character with her first name kill a man, infect another with HIV and get thrown out of a window.

Freya Leach, 19, said she and her second-year criminal law cohort were given a fictional scenario as part of an end-of-semester test in which a character — a uni student named “Freya” — murders one of her left-leaning peers.

The namesake character also deliberately infects a sexual partner with HIV.

Leach, who is a member of the Conservative club and the Young Liberals, has accused the faculty of mocking her political views in the essay question, the Daily Telegraph reported.

Another character made up for the test was “Daniel”, who tells another student named “Adam” to “f–k off you woke pr–k”.

“Unfortunately for Adam, however, he has not realized that a sporty-looking Mercedes car is approaching rapidly from the right. By a total coincidence, the car is driven by Daniel’s friend, Freya,” the scenario reads.

Freya Leach
Freya Leach is a member of the Conservative club.
Freya Leach/Facebook

“(Adam) is clipped by Freya’s car one meter from the center of the road. He falls, smashes his head on the ground and dies instantly. As Freya speeds away from the scene, she hears her phone beep. It is a text message from Daniel, which reads simply ‘Great job ;-) One less illiberal liberal!!!!’”

The scenario adds that the character Freya has unprotected sex with Daniel without mentioning she has HIV.

She then gets into a fight with another woman before being thrown out of a window to her death.

The students were asked to assess the criminal liability of the characters in the question.

The paper, which is due back on Sunday, includes characters with the same first names of four other students on her course, the Sydney Morning Herald reported.

Leach said she was contacted by 20 students on her course who believed the Freya in the test was based on her.

“The problem question uses my name and characterizes me as a right-wing person who kills a left-wing person. It then recounts a sex scene in graphic detail and says I am HIV positive,” she said in a letter of complaint.

“After which point, I am thrown out of a window.

Freya Leach
The 19-year-old student called on Sydney University to apologize for the incident.
Freya Leach/Facebook

“Memes have already started to circulate, making fun of my character in the problem question and depicting me as having HIV. This test has made me feel unsafe to hold a diverse viewpoint at the University of Sydney Law School.”

She has called on the faculty to apologize, claiming the law school has been “incompetent at best, malicious at worst”.

The University of Sydney said the name match-up was “entirely” a coincidence.

“This afternoon we received a complaint about one of our law assessments and have now responded directly to the student,” that statement said.

“We explained to the student that the fictional character in the test scenario was in no way meant to reference or depict a real-life person, and the use of any first names shared by students was entirely a coincidence.

“In fact, the same name was also used in an test drafted by the same academic in an assessment and class questions list in previous years.”

However, the university did apologize “for any offense or distress caused” and will change exams in future to avoid names of current students being used,

Tue, 08 Nov 2022 08:09:00 -0600 en-US text/html
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