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TOEFL Test Of English as a Foreign Language(Educational Testing Service)

Test Detail:
The TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) is a standardized test conducted by the Educational Testing Service (ETS) to measure the English language proficiency of non-native English speakers. The test is widely recognized and accepted by universities, colleges, and institutions around the world. Here is a detailed overview of the TOEFL, including the number of questions and time, course outline, test objectives, and test syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The TOEFL test consists of four sections: Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing. The total number of questions and time allocation for each section are as follows:

1. memorizing Section:
- Number of Questions: Approximately 30-40 questions
- Time Limit: 54-72 minutes

2. Listening Section:
- Number of Questions: Approximately 28-39 questions
- Time Limit: 41-57 minutes

3. Speaking Section:
- Number of Tasks: 4 tasks
- Time Limit: 17 minutes

4. Writing Section:
- Number of Tasks: 2 tasks
- Time Limit: 50 minutes

The total test duration, including breaks, is typically around 3 hours and 30 minutes.

Course Outline:
The TOEFL test measures the test taker's ability to understand and use English in academic settings. While there is no specific course outline provided by ETS, the test covers the following key areas:

1. Reading:
- memorizing and comprehending academic texts from various disciplines.
- Identifying main ideas, supporting details, and understanding vocabulary in context.

2. Listening:
- Listening to lectures, conversations, and classroom discussions.
- Understanding main ideas, specific details, speaker attitude, and purpose.

3. Speaking:
- Expressing opinions on familiar topics.
- Delivering integrated responses by combining information from memorizing and listening tasks.
- Conveying information and summarizing passages or lectures.

4. Writing:
- Writing responses to given prompts.
- Organizing and developing ideas coherently.
- Demonstrating grammatical accuracy and vocabulary usage.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the TOEFL test include assessing the test taker's ability to:

1. Understand and analyze academic memorizing passages.
2. Comprehend and interpret spoken English in academic contexts.
3. Speak English fluently and coherently in various situations.
4. Write well-structured and coherent responses to academic prompts.

Exam Syllabus:
The TOEFL test syllabus focuses on the skills necessary for academic success in an English-speaking environment. It includes:

1. Reading:
- memorizing comprehension of academic passages.
- Understanding vocabulary in context.

2. Listening:
- Comprehending lectures, conversations, and discussions.
- Note-taking skills.

3. Speaking:
- Expressing personal opinions.
- Providing summaries.
- Presenting and defending arguments.

4. Writing:
- Writing essays or responses to given prompts.
- Developing and organizing ideas.
- Grammar and vocabulary usage.

Candidates should refer to official TOEFL preparation materials, practice tests, and resources provided by ETS for detailed information on the test structure, question types, scoring, and test strategies.
Test Of English as a Foreign Language(Educational Testing Service)
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Test Of English as a Foreign Language(Educational
Testing Service)
Question: 294
n. point directly overhead in the sky; highest point; climax
A. chauvinist
B. blemish
C. zenith
D. larceny
Answer: C
Question: 295
adj. depending upon another; risky; uncertain; unstable; unsteady
A. precarious
B. flagrant
C. itinerant
D. diverting
Answer: A
Question: 296
n. two words having the same sound but different meanings
A. demagogue
B. imposture
C. deluge
D. homonym
Answer: D
Question: 297
adj. indifferent; submissive; nonchalant; self-satisfied; at ease
A. complacent
B. boorish
C. cursory
D. sallow
Answer: A
Question: 298
n. favorable opinion arrived at beforehand; affinity; liking; fondness
A. predilection
B. idiosyncrasy
C. peccadillo
D. paradox
Answer: A
Question: 299
v. to understand; to get to the bottom of; to measure the depth of
A. ejaculate
B. allude
C. feign
D. fathom
Answer: D
Question: 300
adj. flimsy and cheap; shabby; cheap
A. sleazy
B. culpable
C. maudlin
D. dynamic
Answer: A
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Teachers College offers a wide variety of educational experiences for teacher education students at the preservice and in-service levels. Programs are field-based, offering practica, internships, and student teaching. Academic departments offer programs that lead simultaneously to a master’s degree and to eligibility for New York State certification for teaching in elementary or secondary schools, as well as for specific subjects and to special populations (see sections below on additional New York State Department of Education (NYSED) requirements for initial teacher certification). Some of these programs also offer New York State teacher certification with a bilingual extension. The programs typically require a minimum of an academic year and a summer term to complete degree requirements. Applicants need not have included courses in education in their undergraduate programs, but inadequate preparation in the proposed teaching field may necessitate additional coursework to meet admission, certification or graduation requirements.

For a complete list of teacher preparation programs, please go to:

Office of Teacher Education

The Office of Teacher Education (OTE) offers many services to teacher education students and programs at Teachers College.  For example, OTE including conducts professional development workshops, provides information regarding certification requirements, offers information sessions on New York State Teacher Certification Exams, and supports students with student teaching requirements. Most importantly, OTE oversees and manages the certification process, recommending candidates for certification once all institutional and NYS requirements are met.

Student Teaching and Observation

Candidates for initial certification must complete a student teaching experience. This experience may take place in one, two, or even three settings, based on requirements set by NYSED and the student’s TC teacher education program. The student teaching experiences are structured to enable each student teacher to gradually develop pedagogical competence and skill, and typically begin with observation of an experienced cooperating teacher followed by incremental assumption of responsibility as the term progresses. The College provides on-site supervision to ensure that students are well-supported during this component of their teacher preparation program.

Student teachers are required to obtain clearance to commencestudent teaching and to carefully review the “Student Teaching Handbook.” A general orientation to student teaching is offered by OTE in the beginning of each semester. Please go to the “Student Teaching” tab of our website at for a full list of workshops, packets, and handbooks. 

New York State Certification

Teachers College has an array of programs which, upon successful completion, lead to an institutional recommendation for New York State Certification at the initial or professional level.  Students enrolled in programs that lead to New York State Certification are responsible for becoming knowledgeable about New York State Certification requirements and regulations. The New York State Education Department (NYSED) mandates the teacher certification requirements that are needed for program completion and graduation. These requirements are listed below.

Content Core.  NYSED specifies general Content Core requirements according to the certification area.  For example, students in the MA program in Mathematics that leads to initial certification (7-12) are required to be Mathematics majors at the undergraduate level or hold 30 credits in pure mathematics.  For more information about these content core requirements, please refer to the NYSED website, the Office of Teacher Education Website at or call the OTE Office at 212.678.3502.

Child Abuse Identification Workshop. Students may fulfill this requirement at Teachers College by taking a workshop offered through Continuing Professional Studies (CPS) in collaboration with the Office of Teacher Education.  For a list of dates and times, please go to the CPS Website at Students may also fulfill this requirement at Teachers College by taking HBSS4116, Health Education for Teachers, which is offered by the Department of Health and Behavior Studies.  Alternatively, students may opt to take an on-line or in-person workshop offered by approved NYSED vendors.  This requirement must be met prior to degree conferral. For information about these workshops, please go to

School Violence Intervention and Prevention Workshop. Students may fulfill this requirement at Teachers College by taking a workshop offered through Continuing Professional Studies (CPS) in collaboration with the Office of Teacher Education.  For a list of dates and times, please go to the CPS Website at Students may also fulfill this requirement at Teachers College by taking HBSS4116, Health Education for Teachers, which is offered by the Department of Health and Behavior Studies.  Alternatively, students may opt to take an on-line or in-person workshop offered by approved NYSED vendors.  This requirement must be met prior to degree conferral. For information about these workshops, please go to

Dignity for All Students Act (DASA) Workshop. Students may fulfill this requirement at Teachers College by taking a workshop offered through Continuing Professional Studies (CPS) in collaboration with the Office of Teacher Education.  For a list of dates and times, please go to the CPS Website at Students may also fulfill this requirement at Teachers College by taking HBSS4116, Health Education for Teachers, which is offered by the Department of Health and Behavior Studies.  This course may be offered on-line; however, to fulfill the DASA requirement, students must complete 3 hours of in-person preparation. In addition, a list of NYSED approved providers is available at  This requirement must be met prior to degree conferral.

Autism Workshop (only for students seeking certification in special education/teaching students with disabilities). Students fulfill this requirement at Teachers College by taking a course specified by their programs.

New York State Teacher Certification Exams (NYSTCE):  Please see the chart below for exams required by certificate type. 

Initial Teaching

  • Educative Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA)
  • Educating All Students Test (EAS)
  • Content Specialty Tests (CST)

Initial School Building Leader

  • School Building Leader Assessment (SBL) Part I & Part II
  • Educating All Students Test (EAS)

Professional School Building Leader

  • School District Leader Assessment (SDL) Part I & Part II
  • Educating All Students Test (EAS)
  • research and inquiry methods and the relationship between research and practice;
  • the continuum of lifelong learning and issues of professional concern;
  • subject-matter/disciplinary content;
  • learners and learning;
  • curriculum and teaching;
  • processes and strategies of effective communication and collaboration; and
  • foundations of democracy, equity, and schooling.

For more information regarding NYSTCE test registration and schedules please see the NYSTCE website at:

For more information regarding NYSED test requirements by certificate title and grade level, please see the NYSED website at:

Please note that Teachers College programs lead to New York State certification.  If you would like to seek certification in another state, please contact that state’s Department of Education regarding requirements.

Applying for Certification

Students who are in programs leading to teacher certification must complete a two-step process.

Step 1: Create a NYSED TEACH account, and apply and pay for the teaching certificate(s) via the NYSED TEACH online system at:

Step 2: Submit a completed Institutional Recommendation Data Form (IRDF) to the OTE. The IRDF can be found on the OTE website at:

Once all requirements have been met, and the Office of the Registrar has notified the Office of Teacher Education that candidates have been cleared for graduation, TC’s Certification Officers will electronically submit the institutional recommendation for certification via the NYSED-TEACH online system.

Students who are in the Literacy Specialist, memorizing Specialist programs must provide proof of either completion of an approved teacher preparation program or of a valid teaching certificate. Students who are in the Summer Principals Academy program must provide proof of teacher certification and hold a minimum of three (3) years of full-time classroom teaching/PPS experience.  If you have questions about this requirement, please contact the Office of Teacher Education at 212.678.3502 or

Teacher Education Standards at Teachers College

Consistent with the College’s long tradition of serving the needs of urban and suburban schools in the United States and around the world, the vision and purpose of professional education at Teachers College is to establish and maintain programs of study, service, and research that prepare competent, caring, and qualified professional educators (teachers, counselors, psychologists, administrators and others). This vision is based on three shared philosophical stances that underlie and infuse the work we do:

Inquiry stance: We are an inquiry-based and practice-oriented community. We and our students and graduates challenge assumptions and complacency, and embrace a stance of inquiry toward the interrelated roles of learner, teacher, and leader in P-12 schools.

Curricular stance: Negotiating among multiple perspectives on culture, content, and context, our graduates strive to meet the needs of diverse learners, both students and other adults, in their school communities.

Social justice stance: Our graduates choose to collaborate across differences in and beyond their school communities. They demonstrate a commitment to social justice and to serving the world while imagining its possibilities.

Expectations of Teacher Education Candidates at Teachers College

Our candidates are inquirers/researchers who have breadth of knowledge and a variety of tools to ask questions about educational environments. They reflect on and continually evaluate the effects of their choices on others (children, families, and other professionals in the learning community).

Lifelong Learners:  Our candidates are continually engaged in learning and research. They take responsibility for their professional growth and seek/create learning opportunities for themselves and others.

Learner-Centered Educators:  Our candidates understand their subject matter/disciplines, learners and learning, and curriculum and teaching. They create learning experiences that foster development and achievement in all students.

Effective Collaborators:  Our candidates actively participate in the community or communities of which they are a part to support students’ learning and well being.

Advocates of Social Justice and Diversity:  Our candidates are familiar with legal, ethical and policy issues. They provide leadership in advocating for children, families, and themselves in a variety of professional, political, and policy-making contexts.

Expectations of Teacher Preparation Programs at Teachers College

Teachers College programs preparing teachers and other professional school personnel ensure that candidates have the knowledge, skills, and dispositions required for effective teaching. By the conclusion of the program, candidates demonstrate:

Knowledge and Understanding of:

Skills in:

  • self-critique and reflection;
  • use of research and inquiry methods and application of research to practice;
  • planning, implementation, and evaluation of professional growth;
  • planning, implementation, and evaluation of curriculum/services;
  • communication and collaboration; and
  • addressing inequalities in the classroom, school and society.

Dispositions/Commitments to:

  • inquiry and reflection;
  • the profession, ethics, and lifelong learning leadership;
  • the fullest possible growth and development of all students;
  • cooperation and collaboration; and
  • social justice and diversity.

Jaffe Peace Corps Fellows Program

The Jaffe Peace Corps Fellows Program recruits outstanding Returned Peace Corps Volunteer educators who are passionate about making long-term commitments to teach in New York City’s public schools. Since 1985, the program has recruited and prepared more than 750 urban educators. As the Paul D. Coverdell Fellows (formerly Fellows/USA) flagship teacher preparation program, we provide full scholarships covering all tuition expenses. Upon completion of our 13-week Intensive Summer Institute, new Jaffe Peace Corps Fellows teach full-time as salaried teachers of record in NYC public schools for a minimum of four years. All related Master's degree requirements are completed at Teachers College within two to three years. We prepare teachers for a variety of grade levels and subject areas. For more information, please review the Program website or call 212-678-6622.

Teacher Opportunity Corps (TOCII)

The Teacher Opportunity Corps (TOCII) program is a New York State Education Department grant funded program designed to increase the number of New York State teachers from underrepresented backgrounds. To be eligible for TOC II at TC, candidates must be New York State residents who are enrolled in a TC teacher education program that leads to certification.  Participants are provided with tuition assistance for coursework at Teachers College.  All participants engage in a 10 month internship from September-June at one of our local partnership schools, seminars with renowned TC faculty who are committed to culturally sustaining pedagogies, and professional development opportunities that suit the needs and inquiries of the TOC cohort. 

Teaching Residents at Teachers College (TR@TC)

This 18 month intensive, full-time program prepares those who wish to teach in high-need New York City public schools. With support from the U.S. Department of Education, the Teaching Residents at Teachers College (TR@TC) program was developed to ensure that Teaching Residents receive exceptional preparation and multiple supports, while enrolled in a Master’s degree program leading to initial NYS teaching certification. Teaching Residents receive generous stipends. Upon graduation, alumni benefit from induction support for at least two years, while they fulfill their commitment to teach in a high-need urban school in New York City for a minimum of three years. For more information please visit:

Tue, 02 Jan 2024 06:18:00 -0600 en text/html
Entrance tests for students of all pre-university streams to try

National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) and Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) are the most popular entrance examinations that only science candidates are eligible to attempt. Here are some of the exams that can be enrolled for all 10+2/ XII/ PUC students of the science, humanities and commerce streams nationwide.

Common University Entrance Test (CUET): The National Testing Agency (NTA) will administer the CUET (UG-24) online test between May 15 and 31, 2024. The notification is expected to be out in the first week of February 2024. The CUET scores apply for undergraduate admissions in 44 central universities, more than a 100 private universities, deemed-to-be universities and other institutions. Those who have passed Class 12 can apply.

Under Graduate Common Entrance Examination for Design (UCEED): Admission to Bachelor of Design Programmes at IIT Bombay, IIT Delhi, IIT Guwahati, IIT Hyderabad and IIT Jodhpur are facilitated through the UCEED, conducted by IIT Bombay. Many private and deemed-to-be universities are subscribing to the UCEED scores list. All students who have passed XII or have appeared in 2024 Board Examinations for the first time are eligible to appear for the UCEED 2024 test.

Common Law Admission Test (CLAT): The CLAT is a national-level entrance test for undergraduate Integrated Law (LLB) programmes offered by 22 national law universities in India. Several affiliated universities, including BITS Pilani Law School, use the CLAT scores to select the new intake. The 2024 CLAT is more student-friendly. There are 120 questions of 1 mark each in a multiple-choice (MCQ) pattern with negative marks (0.25%). English language and current affairs are tested, along with general knowledge, legal reasoning, logical reasoning and quantitative techniques.

Integrated Programme in Management Aptitude Test (IPMAT): It is a national-level admission test for integrated management programmes offered by IIM Indore, IIM Ranchi, and other famous management institutes. The registration for IPMAT–24 starts in February/March 2024. Those XII students securing above 60% are eligible for the test. It is a two-hour online test with an MCQ pattern. IIM Indore is the conducting agency of this test.

Joint Integrated Programme in Management Admission Test (JIPMAT): The NTA has been authorised to conduct JIPMAT 2024. This test is for admission to 5 years integrated programme in Management at IIM Bodh Gaya and IIM Jammu. The JIPMAT-2024 comprises MCQs in quantitative aptitude, data interpretation, logical reasoning, verbal ability and memorizing comprehension.

National Council for Hotel Management: Joint Entrance Examination (NCHM JEE). The National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India that conducts hospitality management education in India. The Hotel Management institutes affiliated to NCHMT after BSc in hospitality and hotel administration courses, which many institutions/universities, including JNU, recognise the scores. 

Teacher Education Courses: These include BA.Ed, B.Sc Ed conducted by National Council for Teacher Education. This undergraduate programme is a four-year integrated course. Regional Institute of Education (RIEs) governed by NCERT, central / state universities and other institutes, including IITs, NITs and many autonomous colleges, refer to the NCTE scores for admissions.

National Defence Academy & Naval Academy (NDA and NA): The national defence entrance test is conducted by UPSC in India. This entrance test is for recruiting persons in the Army, Navy and Air Force Wings of NDA. All unmarried youngsters (both genders) having XII pass certification are eligible for this test. This test is conducted twice a year and has two stages, i.e., written and interview. NDA notification for 2024 intake is expected to be released in the second or third week of December 2023.

Integrated BPEd programme: Many central, state, private and deemed-to-be Universities offer integrated Bachelor of Physical Education programmes. The National Sports University is offering sports coaching courses. These are all four years of integrated BPEd programmes.

Besides the tests mentioned above, many universities such as MAHE, Azim Premji, CUSAT, Chanakya, Christ and PES conduct entrance tests for diversified and new-generation innovative UG programmes. Most of these higher education institutions are expected to release their admission notifications in the forthcoming days. (November 2023–March 2024)

(The author is the Principal of Coorg Public School & Pre-University College)

To send questions on studying in India, Email with STUDY IN INDIA as the subject.

Fri, 22 Dec 2023 04:02:00 -0600 en text/html
Deadlines & Requirements

Master's Programs

Priority Deadlines:
We strongly suggest applying by your program’s stated priority deadline, which can be found on each program’s webpage. Applicants who submit a completed application by the priority deadline are ensured that their application will receive a full review for admission and scholarship (if applicable).

Rolling Deadlines:
Some of our programs accept applications on a rolling basis after the priority deadline. If your program participates in rolling admissions, the program’s webpage will list a separate Rolling Admission deadline. Application and scholarship consideration during the rolling application period is always on a space-available basis. We suggest submitting your application as early in the rolling period as possible for the best chance of admission.

Doctoral Programs

Ph.D. Programs

  • Deadline: 12/1
  • Programs start in the Fall semester.

Ed.D. Programs

  • Ed.D. in Educational Leadership (PSAP) Deadline: 2/1
  • Ed.D. in Higher Education Deadline: 12/1
  • Programs start in the Summer semester. 

Certificates & Nondegree Coursework

Students interested in pursuing coursework at the graduate level but not interested in enrolling in a degree program may apply for nondegree admission (Special Student Status). Many individuals choose Special Student Status either to explore the seriousness of their interest in studying for an advanced degree and/or to strengthen their credentials for a future degree application. Others are interested in taking graduate course work for personal enrichment or professional development. Complete the online application and select "Nondegree Status" in the "Applicant Profile" section. 

* If you are applying to take a course and pay for it with a Field Placement & Partnership Outreach Office voucher, please indicate "nondegree" under both the Intended Program and Intended Concentration sections.  

Please note:  International applicants are not eligible for nondegree status unless they are currently enrolled full-time at another U.S. institution or they possess a current U.S. Visa that permits them to take graduate-level courses. Please contact the Office of Graduate Admission for clarification.

Although there is no limit to the number of courses a Special Student may take, no more than four courses (12 credits), if appropriate, may be applied toward a degree program in the Graduate School of Education. While admission as a Special Student does not certain subsequent admission for degree candidacy, courses taken as a Special Student may be applied to a degree program after official acceptance into the program and with the consent of the student's advisor. Certain restrictions apply to courses available to Special Students. Professional coursework associated with teacher or counseling licensure (including practicum coursework) is reserved for matriculated degree students in these programs. A listing of restricted courses is available in the Graduate Office each semester.  Additionally, nondegree students are not eligible for University-sponsored sources of financial aid or any financial aid that requires matriculation in a degree program.


Admission to certificate programs is conducted on a rolling basis. This means that applications can be submitted throughout the year and a decision will be rendered once the application form and any required documents are received. Please note: certificate applications close approximately one month prior to the start of classes for a given semester. We strongly encourage students to apply well in advance of the start of their desired first semester or course. 

International Applicants

An international applicant is defined as any person that requires a student visa in order to study in the United States. International applicants are eligible to apply to any graduate program in the Lynch School, provided they have successfully completed the equivalent of a United States bachelor degree and have the appropriate diplomas and/or satisfactory results on transcripts or leaving examinations from the country in which the degree was earned. International applicants must complete all program-specific application requirements as well as additional requirements outlined below.


Applicants that have completed a degree outside of the United States must have a course-by-course evaluation of their transcript(s) completed by an evaluation company approved by the National Association of Credential Evaluation Services (NACES). Submission of falsified documents is grounds for denial of admission or dismissal from the University.

English Proficiency

All applicants whose primary language is not English (or for whom English is not one of their primary languages) are required to submit proof of satisfactory English proficiency. At this time, the only acceptable forms of proof for English proficiency are the TOEFL and IELTS exams (certificates of completion from English-language schools are not currently accepted). The minimum score requirement for TOEFL iBT is 100. The minimum score for IELTS is 7.0.

An official score report must be sent directly from Educational Testing Services (TOEFL). TOEFL School Code: 3240.


Applicants that meet either of the criteria below do not need to submit proof of English proficiency.

  • Applicants who completed an undergraduate or graduate degree from a regionally-accredited institution within the United States
  • Applicants who completed an undergraduate OR graduate degree at an institution outside of the United States where the language of instruction was English

Designated STEM Programs

The following degrees are STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Math) designated programs as determined by the Department of Homeland Security. F-1 students enrolled in STEM degree programs are currently eligible for an additional 24 months of Post Completion Optional Practical Training (OPT) for a total of 36 months after graduation. The 24-month STEM extension must be applied at the end of the 12 month OPT period and very specific criteria must be met by you and your employer in order to qualify for the 24-month STEM extension.


Application Timeline

We strongly recommend that international students complete their applications by each program's stated deadline. If applying during rolling admissions, we recommend applying no less than 3 months prior to the start of classes for a given entrance term at a minimum, in order to allow sufficient time for application review, admission, enrollment, and the student visa process. This means that we recommend international students apply no later than the following: 

  • Spring (January) start: October 15
  • Summer start: February 15
  • Fall start: June 1

Fifth-Year & Early Admission Programs

Fifth-Year & Early Admission Programs offer academically outstanding Boston College juniors a unique opportunity to begin graduate study during their undergraduate senior year, allowing them to graduate with a bachelor’s and master's degree in a shortened amount of time. Students accepted in the Fifth Year/Early Admit program will be able to apply two approved graduate courses (6 credits) towards both their bachelor's degree (120 credits) and their master's degree (30 credits or more). In consultation with an advisor, a graduate level course may be added each semester onto the student's senior-year schedule. All undergraduate juniors in the Lynch School of Education and Human Development, Morrissey College of Arts and Sciences, Connell School of Nursing, and Carroll School of Management are eligible to apply for these programs.

Available Fifth-Year Programs

Available Early Admit Programs

Given the number of credits required for licensing in Mental Health and School Counseling, both Early Admission Program and students admitted directly into the M.A. programs typically need six years to complete their B.A. and license-eligible M.A. Mental Health degree (60 credits) or School Counseling (48 credits). The main advantages of the Early Admit Program are (1) BC juniors receive early provisional admittance into these M.A. programs, and (2) complete two master's-level courses during senior year.

Students interested in a Fifth Year or Early Admission Program should consult with the Lynch School Graduate Admissions Office, located in Campion 135, during the fall semester of their junior year. Without proper advisement and early acceptance into a master's degree program, students will be unable to complete the program in five years.

Students who have completed some psychology-related coursework, have at least a 3.5 GPA, and have completed some type of practical, field-based or helping experience (e.g., residential advisor, camp counselor, hotline operator, youth worker, etc.), either volunteer or paid, are strong candidates for this program.

Application Process

  • Students must apply by March 1 of their junior year
  • Applicants must meet all standard graduate admission requirements for their program of interest
  • The application fee and GRE requirement are waived for applicants to the Fifth Year and Early Admit Programs
  • Notification of approval to begin the program is typically made in May by the Office of Graduate Admission
  • If an applicant is not offered admission into the program, they are welcome to re-apply to the master's program upon completion of their undergraduate degree

Full Graduate Student Status

Upon successful graduation from the undergraduate program, Fifth Year and Early Admit students will be advanced to full graduate student status if they have maintained good academic standing (including a 3.5 or higher in their two graduate courses). Early admit students will also need to have engaged in field experience as described above. Students should submit their transcripts and documentation of any additional service work if the work was not previously documented in their application for the Fifth Year and Early Admit programs. Upon final admission, the student will receive an official letter of acceptance into the full master's program by the Office of Graduate Admission.

Tue, 05 Dec 2023 14:02:00 -0600 en text/html
Aptitude Test: Definition, How It's Used, Types, and How to Pass

What Is an Aptitude Test?

An aptitude test is an test used to determine an individual's skill or propensity to succeed in a given activity. Aptitude tests assume that individuals have inherent strengths and weaknesses and have a natural inclination toward success or failure in specific areas based on their innate characteristics.

Aptitude tests are generally used for job placement, college program entry, and to help people to get an idea of where their interests and aptitudes can take them regarding careers.

Key Takeaways

  • An aptitude test is used to determine an individual's abilities, assessing how they are likely to perform in an area in which they have no prior training or knowledge.
  • Schools use aptitude tests to determine if students are inclined toward advanced placement classes or specific areas of study, such as engineering or a foreign language.
  • Human resources departments at some companies will use career assessment tests to learn about a potential candidate's strengths and weaknesses.
  • An aptitude test does not test knowledge or intelligence, only a particular skill or propensity. Therefore, it is not a test for which a person can study.

Understanding Aptitude Tests

Aptitude tests can be used to determine your capabilities in a variety of subjects. For example, individuals may take an aptitude test to determine the careers that are a good match for their skills and interests. Similarly, high school students may take an aptitude test when thinking about what would be an appropriate college major or whether college is the best choice for them.

In general, aptitude tests measure one's competence in logical reasoning, numerical skills, or verbal ability; competency can be evaluated through problem-solving tasks and testing one's critical thinking across various contexts.

When You Might Take an Aptitude Test

Some schools administer aptitude tests to students beginning in elementary school. Combined with intelligence and achievement tests that measure student mastery of academic content, aptitude tests may be used to determine placement in gifted and talented programs or other specific educational tracks.

Language Aptitudes

For example, the Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT) measures a student's potential for successfully mastering foreign languages. Aptitude tests can also help determine if a student needs special education services.

Older Students

For older students, Differential Aptitude Tests (DATs) assess a range of aptitudes from spatial relations to language usage. The results can help administrators make curricular recommendations.

Aptitude and personality tests can be useful in determining skills and abilities to highlight on a resume or cover letter when applying for a job.

Curriculum Guidance

Counselors might use high scores in mechanical reasoning tests to guide students toward courses that prepare them for engineering or designing studies in college. For instance, students who score well in tests measuring speed, accuracy, and problem-solving might choose coursework in computer science, finance, or other fields requiring attention to detail.

Hiring Decisions

Some companies use aptitude tests to help them make hiring decisions. These tests, called career assessment tests, help human resources (HR) personnel learn more about a prospective employee's strengths and weaknesses. Career assessment tests may also be used within a company to make promotion decisions.

Situational judgment tests are a specific kind of career aptitude test that can help predict how an employee might respond to specific situations in the workplace. They are also used to assess an employee's communication style and ability to work within a team.

Some situational judgment tests focus specifically on customer service careers. These tests analyze personality traits predictive of successful public interaction, such as empathy, diplomacy, and patience. Situational judgment tests may also be used to predict future competency in sales-related careers.

Types of Aptitude Tests

Many types of aptitude tests are taken for educational or career discovery and ability purposes. The most common aptitude tests are:

  • Mechanical reasoning: These types test your knowledge of physical concepts and are generally used to evaluate you for technical positions.
  • Situational judgment: These tests gauge your reactions to situations and your decision-making.
  • Diagrammatic/spatial reasoning: These tests see how well you can reach a conclusion based on processes contained in diagrams.
  • Abstract reasoning: These measure problem-solving abilities and identify relationships between abstract arrays.
  • Numerical reasoning: In these tests, your abilities with numbers, math, and data are tested.
  • Verbal reasoning: Your language, memorizing comprehension, and vocabulary are tested in these types.
  • Inductive reasoning: Under the pressure of time, these tests see how well you analyze patterns and data.
  • Logical reasoning: Logical reasoning tests measure how well you recognize patterns and sequences and identify relationships between objects.
  • Clerical aptitude: Clerical tests measure how fast and accurate you can be, seeing how well you can concentrate.

How to Pass an Aptitude Test

You might have heard that you can't prepare for an aptitude test, but nothing could be further from the truth. Study guides and practice aptitude tests are readily available online and in community or high school libraries.

If you're unsure about what kind of job you want or where you want to go next in your career, an aptitude or assessment test—offered on various websites, either for free or for a small fee—can be a great way of narrowing down options to make a choice.

Conduct an online search for the type of test you'll be taking. You'll find many guides that offer tips on subjects you can read about and practice tests. Once you've found the practice tests and some study material:

  • Practice the test daily: Practicing every day gives you continuous exposure to the Questions Answers and helps you identify weak spots.
  • Learn the test format: Remembering the format helps you move through the test. It also allows you to identify areas you need to work on.
  • Carefully read the instructions: When you take the test, don't dive into it. Instead, read all instructions and ensure you understand them, so you don't work through a section giving wrong answers.
  • Manage your testing time: Answer the questions you know first. Then, go back and work on the more challenging questions.

What Is an Aptitude Test and an Example?

An aptitude test measures your capabilities in specific areas. One aptitude test most people hear of in high school is the Armed Forces Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). The ASVAB tests general science, arithmetic reasoning and mathematics, word knowledge, memorizing comprehension, mechanical comprehension, and more. The information is used to place applicants in job positions where they will have a better chance of succeeding.

Is an IQ Test an Aptitude Test?

An IQ test tries to measure your intelligence, while an aptitude test measures your ability to apply your intelligence.

Is There an Online Aptitude Test?

While some aptitude tests may still be given using test booklets and bubble sheets, many aptitude tests are administered online. You can find free and paid versions.

The Bottom Line

An aptitude test is a measure of your ability to learn or perform required tasks and succeed in the environment you're in. They are not a measure of intelligence—these tests look for your strengths and weaknesses, giving you and the evaluator an idea of your abilities.

Most aptitude tests can indicate success in education and a career, but they are not always 100% accurate predictions. For example, it is possible to score very low on an aptitude test for a specific job and be successful with hard work and dedication—the test may have merely taken a snapshot of your knowledge and abilities at a point where you didn't know much about the field.

Remember that preparation can help you pass an aptitude test even if you have no prior knowledge in an area—if you think of it as learning something new and interesting, you may surprise yourself with what you can do.

Mon, 18 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Study in the UK without IELTS: A guide for Indian students No result found, try new keyword!Several universities offer alternative conditions for admission, which means you can study in the UK without taking the IELTS exam. The IELTS waiver makes the UK the best country for international ... Mon, 01 Jan 2024 16:48:18 -0600 en-us text/html Is Bookkeeping Certification Worth It? Salary And Job Growth

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

If you enjoy crunching numbers and running payroll, bookkeeping might just be the career for you. You don’t need to get a college degree—or any other kind of credential, for that matter—to become a bookkeeper. As a result, you may be asking yourself, “is a bookkeeping certification worth it?”

The answer depends on where you are in your career, along with a few other factors. If you’re just starting out as a bookkeeper, earning a certification can help you stand out from the competition. Keep memorizing to discover what else a bookkeeping certification can offer.

What Is a Bookkeeping Certification?

A bookkeeping certification is an official demonstration of a person’s bookkeeping skills. It’s a way to show your skill set to potential employers and others in your professional network. You can earn a bookkeeping certification through a college, a university or an accredited professional program.

Outside of universities, certifications are available through the American Institute of Professional Bookkeepers (AIPB) and the National Association of Certified Public Bookkeepers (NACPB).

You can also complete additional certifications to demonstrate your proficiency in advanced subtopics related to bookkeeping.

Not all certification programs are for beginners. Both AIPB and NACPB require previous bookkeeping experience to qualify for their courses.

Bookkeeping vs. Accounting

If you’re looking online for bookkeeping certifications, you’ve probably already run into information about accounting programs. While there are similarities between bookkeeping vs. accounting, these two fields are not the same.

What is bookkeeping? Bookkeepers deal with an organization’s granular financial data. The bookkeeper job description entails maintaining the general ledger and accounts, recording transactions, posting debits and credits, running payroll and creating invoices.

Accountants, on the other hand, take the data generated by bookkeepers and turn it into actionable insights. Accountants analyze financial trends and provide companies with a strategy for maintaining their financial health.

Bookkeeping Certification Education and Cost

The cost of obtaining a bookkeeping certification depends on the certification type and the organization that administers it.

A general bookkeeping certification can run you up to $3,000. For example, a certification from California State University, Fullerton costs $2,195. As for certification from AIPB, members pay $479, and nonmembers pay $574. The price of this certification includes the cost of enrollment, workbooks and the four-part national certification exam. After passing the AIPB’s certification exam, you will be recognized as a certified bookkeeper.

If you earn certification from NACPB, you’ll pay a bit less—$369 for NACPB members or $449 for nonmembers.

Regardless of which bookkeeping certification you pursue, we recommend taking a preparatory course. This course should teach you the fundamentals of accounting, along with how to adjust entries, correct accounting errors, master payroll and inventory, understand depreciation, set internal controls and prevent fraud.

You might also consider obtaining additional certifications to sharpen your skills in a specific focus area. For example, gaining a certification in QuickBooks, a popular bookkeeping software, can help bolster your credibility and competitiveness in the field. A QuickBooks certification costs about $600.

What’s the Time Commitment for a Bookkeeping Certification?

A typical bookkeeping certification course takes several weeks to complete. For example, NACPB’s initial certification course takes an estimated 13 weeks, but you can complete the material at your own pace. NACPB also offers a Certified Public Bookkeeper license, which takes several months. AIPB’s certification course usually takes six months to complete.

If you opt to pursue certification through a college or university, check with your chosen school’s admissions office to verify the length of the program. Some programs are asynchronous, meaning you’ll pace yourself throughout the course, and you don’t have to log in at any particular time.

AIPB’s certified bookkeeper test features four parts. You’ll have two hours each to complete parts one and two. The final two parts of the test don’t have time limits.

Bookkeeping Salary and Job Growth Potential

Bookkeepers earn a median annual salary of $45,860, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). However, a bookkeeper’s salary varies depending on their education, location and level of experience.

The BLS projects employment for bookkeeping, accounting and auditing clerks to decline by 6% by 2032. Even so, the BLS projects an average of 183,900 openings for bookkeeping, accounting and auditing clerks. The demand for new bookkeepers stems from a need to replace those who retire and workers who transfer to other industries.

Is a Bookkeeping Certification Worth It?

Earning a bookkeeping certification involves weeks of studying, hours of test preparation and a significant financial investment. Additionally, maintaining a bookkeeping certification from NACPB or AIPB requires continuing professional development.

A bookkeeping certification can yield a high return on investment, depending on a few factors. Here are a few things to consider before obtaining a bookkeeping certification.

Assess Where You Are in Your Career

If you’re just launching your bookkeeping career, a professional certification can set you apart from the competition. This credential can boost your credibility in the eyes of potential employers, especially if you’re just breaking into the job market.

What’s more, a bookkeeping certification will help you hone your skills and provide more in-depth job training. This also provides a competitive advantage for bookkeepers beginning their careers.

If you’re a seasoned bookkeeper, however, a bookkeeping certification may not be worth it. With years of experience under your belt, it’s likely that you already have the skills and credibility required to do your job well. Employers are less likely to ask for certified evidence of your skills if you’ve been working as a bookkeeper for years.

Look at Earning Potential

As a bookkeeper, your income level may vary based on your location, experience and employer. Earning a certification can boost your earning potential. If you work in a competitive job market, certification can supply you a leg up when discussing salary potential with prospective employers.

Additionally, your employer might be inclined to promote and offer higher salaries to certified bookkeepers. Demonstrating a high level of proficiency can reassure employers that you’re equipped to take on greater responsibility, significantly raising your earning potential.

Expand Your Job Opportunities

A bookkeeping certification can expand your career horizons. Your credentials show prospective employers that you’re a qualified bookkeeper and you’re willing and able to grow professionally. As a result, certification can lead to advancement opportunities in other areas of accounting, as well as finance and management positions.

The process of maintaining certification can help you keep your skills sharp over time as well. To renew your certification, you must complete continuing coursework, attend professional development programs and take part in training workshops. While these requirements may sound tedious, they could benefit your career in the long term.

Coursework and other continuing education programs support skill development and encourage professional networking, which can also expand your job opportunities.

You might also consider completing a higher education degree to bolster your career development. An associate or bachelor’s degree in a financial field like accounting can boost your competitiveness and open doors to higher-paying jobs.

Ultimately, your circumstance determines whether a bookkeeping certification would be worth it for you. Junior bookkeepers looking to establish themselves in the field are arguably more likely to benefit from certification. Experienced bookkeepers, on the other hand, may not see a significant return on investment.

Sun, 31 Dec 2023 23:53:00 -0600 Cecilia Seiter en-US text/html
Adani International School: Admission Documents, Age Criteria, Curriculum, Facilities and More Adani International School is a co-educational school in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, offering an international curriculum from Pre-Primary to Senior Secondary levels. The school was established in 2010 and is affiliated with the Cambridge Assessment International Education (CAIE) and follows the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) and International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) curriculum.
The school has a student-teacher ratio of 11:1 and offers a range of both indoor and outdoor sports activities for children, including basketball, cricket, badminton, football, a gym play area, and yoga. Additionally, the school provides a variety of language options at different curriculum levels. English (covering literature and grammar), Hindi, Gujarati, and French are included in the school's language program.
Admission 2024-25: Age Criteria
3 yrs
01st June 2021
KG 1
4 yrs
01st June 2020
KG 2
5 yrs
01st June 2019
Grade 1
6 yrs
01st June 2018
Grade 2
7 yrs
01st June 2017
Grade 3
8 yrs
01st June 2016
Grade 4
9 yrs
01st June 2015
Grade 5
10 yrs
01st June 2014

Admission 2024-25: Documents for Admission
  • Self-attested photocopy of Birth Certificate which has the name of both parents mentioned on it.
  • Self-attested proof of residence (Ration Card/ Voter ID/ Electricity or Water Bill/ Tenant's Deed/ Aadhaar).
  • Two passport-size photographs of the student /applicant.
  • Self-attested Aadhaar Card photocopy of the student/applicant.
  • Blood Group report of the child.
  • Medical report/Medical history/Vaccination record of the child.
  • Attested copies of legal documents if the child is being brought up by a single parent.
  • Affidavit of guardianship to be submitted if a student lives with a local guardian. (Extra enclosures for Grades Other than Grade Nursery to 1).
  • Marksheet/Report Card of the student (For Grades 2 and above).
  • Original Transfer Certificate from the last school. (To be Submitted within 15 days of admission, or else the admission stands cancelled).

Facilities at Adani International School
Dining Hall
Swimming Pool
Science Lab
Basketball Courts
Badminton Court
Language Lab
Football Ground
Net Cricket
Air-Conditioned Bus
Indoor Play Area

Tue, 02 Jan 2024 15:31:00 -0600 en text/html
CMAT 2024 - Common Management Admission Test, 2024

About CMAT 2024 

The Common Management Admission Test (CMAT) is a standardized national-level entrance test for admission to management programs throughout India. It acts as a gateway for candidates interested in pursuing postgraduate management programs offered by AICTE-approved Institutes/Universities.

The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) administered the test until 2018. Since 2019, the National Testing Agency (NTA) has been conducting this exam. The purpose of the test is to assess a candidate's analytical, quantitative, logical reasoning, and language skills, all of which are required for success in the field of management.

The CMAT test is of three hours in online mode (computer-based test) and consists of 100 multiple-choice questions, divided into five sections, and conducted in two shifts. The examination is usually held during the first half of the year. 

CMAT 2024 Important Dates

The CMAT examination is often administered during the first half of the year. The entire process, from the release of the official notification to the declaration of results, spans up to several months. Every year, the entire CMAT test schedule for the current year is published in the Information Bulletin which can be downloaded from the CMAT official website.

Important Dates for CMAT 2024(Tentative)



Start of Registration

February 2024

Closing of Registration

March 2024

Issue of Admit Cards

First week of May 2024


First week of May 2024

Declaration of Results

Last week of May 2024

CMAT 2024 Application Procedure


Applications for CMAT 2024 can only be submitted online via the official website. Candidates must submit a single application form and are required to follow the given guidelines while filling up and submitting the application form:

Step 1: Online Registration 

  • Visit the official website -

  • Click on the registration link of CMAT 2024 and a new webpage appears

  • As the registration page opens fill in the basic details accurately - Candidate’s Name/ Mother’s Name/ Father’s Name, Date of Birth, Mobile Number and E-mail Address

  • Click on the ‘Submit’ button

  • A unique registration number will be generated which is essential for further application process

Step 2: Filling out the CMAT Application form

  • Enter the login credentials to fill the application form

  • Fill in the relevant information accurately 

  • Upload all the required documents/files (image, signature, PwD certificate if applicable)

  • Check the entered details properly before submitting

Step 3: Payment of the CMAT Application fees

Step 4: Receiving the Confirmation Mail

  • After the payment of the application fees, the candidates receive an email confirming the successful submission of their CMAT Application

  • Download the CMAT application form and take a printout of it for future reference


CMAT 2024 Eligibility

The NTA determines the Common Management Admission Test (CMAT) eligibility requirements. These requirements include factors like educational requirements and reservations. The basic eligibility is obtaining a bachelor’s degree in any discipline from a recognized university/institution. There is no maximum age limit for the CMAT applicants.

Colleges Accepting CMAT 2024 Score

The Common Management Admission Test (CMAT) is a national-level entrance examination administered for admission to various postgraduate management courses. The CMAT scores are accepted by all AICTE - Approved Institutions / University Departments / Constituent Colleges / Affiliated Colleges.

CMAT 2024 Syllabus

The NTA does not release any set syllabus for the CMAT test but mentions the test sections for the candidate’s preparation. The syllabus is divided into five sections: Quantitative Techniques & Data Interpretation, Logical Reasoning, Language Comprehension, General Awareness, and Innovation & Entrepreneurship, as well as syllabus linked to each of these sections.

CMAT 2024 Examination Pattern

The main aim of the CMAT test is to evaluate candidates' analytical and problem-solving skills, as well as their command of the English language. 

The CMAT test is conducted in online mode (computer-based test) and the basic format includes five sections consisting of MCQs with a total duration of 3 hours. Four points are awarded for each correct answer and for each incorrect answer, one point will be deducted. No marks will be awarded or deducted for questions that are not attempted.

CMAT 2024 Results


The CMAT result is generally provided in the form of a scorecard which includes all the relevant information about the candidate, their sectional, and overall scores. The final answer keys are used to compile the result. After the announcement of the CMAT results, there will be no consideration of complaints regarding the answer key(s). The raw (actual) marks that a candidate received will be taken into further consideration when calculating the CMAT result.

The CMAT scorecard gives an in-depth analysis of the candidate's test performance. 

Result/Scorecard of the CMAT can be downloaded by following the mentioned steps:

  1. Visit the official website of CMAT (

  2. Click on - “CMAT 2024 Score Card”. The website will direct you to a new page

  3. Select the test name and enter the login credentials with the security pin

  4. The result will be displayed on the screen

  5. Download the result/scorecard for further admission procedure

After the CMAT result is released, NTA plays no part in admission counselling for management programs.

Candidates must submit separate applications with their CMAT scores to the appropriate CMAT participating Institutions. Following that, each participating Institution will announce the CMAT cutoff scores that an applicant must get in order to be considered for admission to that specific Institution. Once selected, the candidate must follow the institution's selection process, which may include a group discussion and a personal interview. The candidate's performance in the GD and PI will be taken into account when shortlisting the candidate for admission.

CMAT 2024 Outcomes

Passing the Common Management Admission Test (CMAT) test provides students interested in pursuing management education in India with a variety of options. Management education provides students with the necessary skills and information to succeed in the business sector. Achieving high scores in the CMAT test increases the candidate's chances of being admitted to various management programs in prestigious institutes approved by the AICTE. 

Overall, passing the CMAT test offers a gateway to a range of prospects in the field of management and business administration. As a result, the CMAT test is crucial in determining the future of aspiring management professionals in India.


Wed, 27 Dec 2023 20:54:00 -0600 en text/html
Graduation exemptions for IELTS entice more Vietnamese youths

According to a report on study of foreign languages in Vietnam released Wednesday by the Vietnam National Institute of Educational Sciences and the National Foreign Languages Project Management Board, the age of IELTS test takers in Vietnam is getting younger.

In 2018, over 50% of IELTS candidates were over the age of 23. There were only about 1.5% of test-takers aged 16-18, and over 13% were in the 19-22 age group.

After four years, the proportion of students aged 16-22 among total IELTS test-takers increased to 62%. The 16-18 age group accounted for 30%, a twentyfold increase from 2018.

The 19-22 age group more than doubled, while the group over 23 years old decreased by more than half, from nearly 52% to 20%.

The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is an international English language proficiency certificate that is accepted by over 11,000 training institutions and organizations worldwide.

Since 2017, the Ministry of Education and Training has exempted the English test from the high-school graduation exams for students with IELTs certificates. For this year’s exam, the ministry designated that an IELTS score of 4.0 translates to a perfect score (10) on the English graduation exam.

In 2021, over 28,600 students used their IELTS scores to skip the English test. In 2022, that number rose to over 35,000, and then nearly 47,000 this year.

Dozens of universities consider candidates with IELTS certificates for admission.

Such moves by the ministry are a major cause of the increase in candidates in this age group, according to experts.

IELTS reported in September that Vietnamese scored an average of 6.2 on its tests last year.

Most Vietnamese scored between 6.0 (22%) and 6.5 (19%), according to the company.

Out of the 40 countries where the test was held last year, Vietnam ranked 23rd, along with South Korea and India.

The average IELTS band score, ranging from 0 to 9, is calculated by evaluating all four sections of the exam: reading, listening, speaking, and writing.

In 2022, the average scores for Vietnamese test takers was 6.4 each in listening and reading, 6.0 in writing, and 5.8 in speaking.

Thu, 28 Dec 2023 21:46:00 -0600 en text/html

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