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Series7 General Securities Representative Series 7

Exam ID : Series7

Exam Title : General Securities Representative Series 7

Questions : 135 (125 Scored)

Unscored : 10

Duration : 3 hrs 45 min.



The Series 7 test is designed to assess the competency of entry-level General Securities Representatives. The Series 7 test seeks to measure the degree to which each candidate possesses the knowledge, skills and abilities needed to perform the critical functions of a General Securities Registered Representative. In order to obtain registration as a General Securities Representative, candidates must pass both the Series 7 test and a general knowledge co-requisite, the Securities Industry Essentials (SIE) exam.



Seeks Business for the Broker-Dealer from Customers and Potential Customers 7%

Opens Accounts After Obtaining and Evaluating Customers Financial Profile and Investment Objectives 9%

Provides Customers with Information About Investments, Makes Suitable Recommendations, Transfers Assets and Maintains Appropriate Records 73%

Obtains and Verifies Customers Purchase and Sales Instructions and Agreements; Processes, Completes and Confirms Transactions 11%



The test is administered via computer. A tutorial on how to take the test is provided prior to taking the exam. Each
candidates test includes 10 additional, unidentified pretest items that do not contribute toward the candidate's
score. The pretest items are randomly distributed throughout the exam. Therefore, each candidates test consists of
a total of 135 items (125 scored and 10 unscored). There is no penalty for guessing. Therefore, candidates should
attempt to answer all items. Candidates will be allowed 3 hours and 45 minutes to complete the Series 7 exam.
All candidate test scores are placed on a common scale using a statistical adjustment process known as equating.
Equating scores to a common scale accounts for the slight variations in difficulty that may exist among the different
sets of test items that candidates receive. This allows for a fair comparison of scores and ensures that every
candidate is held to the same passing standard regardless of which set of test items they received.
Candidates are not permitted to bring reference materials to their testing session. Severe penalties are imposed on
candidates who cheat or attempt to cheat on FINRA-administered exams.



Course Outline, test Syllabus



Function 1: Seeks Business for the Broker-Dealer from Customers and Potential
Customers

1.1 Contacts current and potential customers in person and by telephone, mail and electronic
means; develops promotional and advertising materials and seeks appropriate approvals to
distribute marketing materials

Knowledge of:

 Standards and required approvals of public communications

 Types of communications (e.g., retail, institutional, correspondence)

 Seminars, lectures and other group forum requirements

 Product specific advertisements and disclosures

 Investment company products and variable contracts

 Options-related communications; options disclosure document (ODD)

 Municipal securities

 Research reports (e.g., quiet periods, distribution, third-party research)

 Government securities, collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs), certificates of deposit (CDs)

FINRA Rules

– Communications with the Public

– Communications with the Public about Variable Life Insurance and Variable Annuities

– Use of Investment Companies Rankings in Retail Communications

– Requirements for the Use of Bond Mutual Fund Volatility Ratings

– Communications with the Public about Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (CMOs)

– Options Communications

– Members Responsibilities Regarding Deferred Variable Annuities

– Options

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Act of 1933

Section 5 – Prohibitions Relating to Interstate Commerce and the Mails

156 – Investment Company Sales Literature

482 – Advertising by an Investment Company as Satisfying Requirements of Section 10

498 – Summary Prospectuses for Open-End Management Investment Companies

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

15c2-12 – Municipal Securities Disclosure

15c3-3 – Customer Protection — Reserves and Custody of Securities

Cboe Rules

9.8 – Addressing of Communications to Customers

9.9 – Delivery of Current Options Disclosure Documents

9.15 – Options Communications

MSRB Rule

G-21 – Advertising

1.2 Describes investment products and services to current and potential customers with the intent of soliciting business
Knowledge of:

 Process for bringing new issues to market (e.g., due diligence, registration statement, preliminary
prospectus, final prospectus, underwriting agreement, selling group agreement, blue-sky laws and
procedures)

 Regulatory requirements for initial public offerings (IPOs) (e.g., restrictions on prospecting or soliciting,
allowable communications with the public)

 Primary financing for municipal securities (e.g., competitive sale, negotiated sale, private offering, advance
refunding)

 Syndicate formation and operational procedures (e.g., purpose of syndicate bid, roles and responsibilities of
underwriters, selling group concession and reallowance)

 Pricing practices and components of underwriters spread and determination of underwriters compensation
and selling practices

 Prospectus requirements (e.g., timeliness of information, preliminary prospectus (red herring), final
prospectus)

 Information required in a registration statement and offering material on new issue (e.g., in pre-filing period,
in cooling-off period, in post-registration period)

 Official statements, preliminary official statements, notice of sale for municipal securities

 Qualified institutional buyer (QIB) and accredited investor

 Qualification requirements for Regulation A offerings (e.g., filing of abbreviated registration statement and
offering circular

 Regulation D offerings (e.g., exemption from SEC registration, access to capital markets, accredited
investors)

 Securities and transactions exempted from registration, including Section 3(a)(11) of the Securities Act of
1933 and Rule 147 thereunder (i.e., intrastate offering)

 Regulatory requirements for private placements or resales

 Nonregistered foreign securities sold to institutions qualified in the U.S.

 Foreign securities prohibited from being sold to U.S. investors

FINRA Rules

– Networking Arrangements Between Members and Financial Institutions

– Tape Recording of Registered Persons by Certain Firms

– Corporate Financing Rule — Underwriting Terms and Arrangements

– Public Offerings of Securities with Conflicts of Interest

– Restrictions on the Purchase and Sale of Initial Equity Public Offerings

– New Issue Allocations and Distributions

– Sale of Securities in a Fixed Price Offering

– Disclosure of Price and Concessions in Selling Agreements

– Notification Requirements for Offering Participants

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Act of 1933

Section 3 – Exempted Securities

Section 4 – Exempted Transactions

– Communications Not Deemed a Prospectus

– Options Material Not Deemed a Prospectus

– Persons Deemed Not To Be Engaged in a Distribution and Therefore Not Underwriters

– Private Resales of Securities to Institutions

– Reclassification of Securities, Mergers, Consolidations and Acquisitions of Assets

– Intrastate Offers and Sales

– Post-filing Free Writing Prospectuses in Connection with Certain Registered Offerings

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

– Prohibition of Use of Manipulative or Deceptive Devices or Contrivances with Respect to Certain Securities Exempted from Registration

– Employment of Manipulative and Deceptive Devices by Brokers or Dealers

– Purchases of Certain Equity Securities by the Issuer and Others

– Delivery of Prospectus

– Records To Be Made by Certain Exchange Members, Brokers and Dealers

Regulation A – Conditional Small Issues Exemption

Regulation C – Registration

– Delayed or Continuous Offering and Sale of Securities

– Contents of Prospectus Used After Nine Months

– Prospectus for Use Prior to Effective Date

– Prospectus in a Registration Statement at the Time of Effectiveness

– Prospectus in a Registration Statement After Effective Date

– Conditions to Permissible Post-filing Free Writing Prospectuses

Regulation D – Rules Governing the Limited Offer and Sale of Securities Without Registration Under the Securities Act of 1933

– Use of Regulation D

– Definitions and Terms Used in Regulation D

– General Conditions to be Met

– Filing of Notice of Sale

– Exemption for Limited Offerings and Sales of Securities Not Exceeding $5,000,000

– Exemption for Limited Offers and Sales Without Regard to Dollar Amount of Offering

– Disqualifying Provision Relating to Exemptions under Rules 504 and 506

– Insignificant Deviations from a Term, Condition or Requirement of Regulation D

Regulation M

Regulation S – Rules Governing Offers and Sales Made Outside the United States Without Registration Under the Securities Act of 1933

Trust Indenture Act of 1939

MSRB Rules

– Primary Offering Practices

– Transactions with Employees and Partners of Other Municipal Securities Professionals

– Disclosures in Connection with Primary Offerings

– CUSIP Numbers, New Issue, and Market Information Requirements

– Solicitation of Municipal Securities Business

Function 2: Opens Accounts After Obtaining and Evaluating Customers Financial

Profile and Investment Objectives

2.1 Informs customers of the types of accounts and their appropriateness and provides

disclosures regarding various account types and restrictions

Knowledge of:

 Types of accounts (e.g., pattern day trading, prime brokerage, delivery verses payment/receive versus
payment (DVP/RVP), advisory or fee-based)

 Account registration types (e.g., tenants in common (TIC), community property, sole proprietorship,
partnership, unincorporated associations)

 Requirements for opening customer accounts

 Retirement plans and other tax advantaged accounts

 Transfers, rollovers, eligibility, distribution strategies and taxation (e.g., types of allowable contributions,
distribution options, taxation of distribution at retirement, age restrictions for distributions, permissible
investments)

 Employer-sponsored plans and ERISA (e.g., 457, defined benefit, profit-sharing, stock options and
stock purchase, non-qualified deferred compensation programs)

 Wealth events (e.g., inheritance)

 Account registration changes and internal transfers

FINRA Rules

2270 – Day-trading Risk Disclosure Statement

2130 – Approval Procedures for Day-trading Accounts

4512 – Customer Account Information

4514 – Authorization Records for Negotiable Instruments Drawn from a Customers Account

4515 – Approval and Documentation of Changes in Account Name or Designation

Cboe Rule

9.1 – Opening of Accounts

Internal Revenue Code

219 – Retirement Savings

415 – Limitations on Benefits and Contributions Under Qualified Plans

529 – Qualified Tuition Programs

530 – Coverdell Education Savings Accounts

Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA)

2.2 Obtains and updates customer information and documentation, including required legal

documents and identifies and escalates suspicious activity

Knowledge of:

 Customer screening (e.g., customer identification program (CIP), know-your-customer (KYC), domestic or
foreign residency and/or citizenship, corporate insiders, employees of broker-dealers or self-regulatory
organizations (SROs))

 Information security and privacy regulations (e.g., initial privacy disclosures to customers, opt-out notices,
disclosure limitations, exceptions)

 Account authorizations (e.g., power of attorney (POA), trust documents, corporate resolutions, trading
authority, discretionary account documents)

FINRA Rule

408T – Discretionary Power in Customers Accounts

2090 – Know Your Customer

3260 – Discretionary Accounts

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Section 3(a)(35) – Definitions and Application of Title – “Investment Discretion”

Regulation S-P – Privacy of Consumer Financial Information and Safeguarding Personal Information

Cboe Rule

9.4 – Discretionary Accounts

2.3 Makes reasonable efforts to obtain customer investment profile information including, but
not limited to, the customer's other security holdings, financial situation and needs, tax
status and investment objectives

Knowledge of:

 Essential facts regarding customers and customer relationships

 Financial factors relevant to assessing a customers investment profile

 Security holdings, other assets and liabilities, annual income, net worth, tax considerations

 Other considerations (e.g., age, marital status, dependents, employment, investment experience, home ownership and financing, employee stock options, insurance, liquidity needs)

 Investment objectives (e.g., preservation of capital, income, growth, speculation)

 Reasonable-basis suitability, customer-specific suitability and quantitative suitability

 Investment strategies and recommendations to hold

 Verification of investor accreditation and sophistication

FINRA Rules

2111 – Suitability

2214 – Requirements for the Use of Investment Analysis Tools

MSRB Rule

G-19 – Suitability of Recommendations and Transactions

2.4 Obtains supervisory approvals required to open accounts

Knowledge of:

 Required review, approvals and documentation for account opening and maintenance

 Physical receipt, delivery and safeguarding of cash or cash equivalents, checks and securities

 Circumstances for refusing or restricting activity in an account or closing accounts

FINRA Rules

3110 – Supervision

3120 – Supervisory Control System

Cboe Rule

9.2 – Supervision of Accounts

MSRB Rule

G-27 – Supervision

Function 3: Provides Customers with Information About Investments, Makes Suitable

Recommendations, Transfers Assets and Maintains Appropriate Records

3.1 Provides customers with information about investment strategies, risks and rewards, and communicates relevant market, investment and research data to customers

Knowledge of:

 Customer-specific factors that generally affect the selection of securities (i.e., customers investment profile,
including the customers risk tolerance, investment time horizon and investment objectives, liquidity needs)

 Portfolio or account analysis and its application to security selection (e.g., diversification, asset allocation
principles, concentration, volatility, potential tax ramifications)

 Portfolio theory (e.g., alpha and beta considerations, Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM))

 Delivery of annual reports and notices of corporate actions (e.g., dividends, splits, odd lot tenders)

 Fundamental analysis of financial statements and types of financial statements included in an annual report,
importance of footnotes, material risk disclosures and key terms (e.g., assets, liabilities, capital, cash flow,
income, earnings per share (EPS), book value, shareholders' equity, depreciation, depletion, goodwill)

 Balance sheet and methods of inventory valuation: last-in, first out (LIFO), first-in, first-out (FIFO) and
methods of depreciation

 Income statement and calculations derived from an income statement: earnings before interest and taxes
(EBIT); earnings before taxes (EBT); net profit; and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and
amortization (EBITDA)

 Principal tools to measure financial health

 Liquidity: working capital, current ratio, quick assets, acid test ratio

 Risk of bankruptcy: bond ratio, debt-to-equity ratio

 Efficient use of assets: inventory turnover ratio, cash flow

 Profitability: margin-of-profit ratio, net profit ratio, asset coverage and safety of income (i.e., net asset
value (NAV) per bond, bond interest coverage, book value per share)

 EPS: fully diluted EPS, price-earnings (P/E) ratio, dividend payout ratio, current yield

 Competitiveness (comparative performance): return on common equity

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

14e-3 – Transactions in Securities on the Basis of Material, Nonpublic Information in the Context of
Tender Offers

14e-4 – Prohibited Transactions in Connection with Partial Tender Offers
Cboe Rule

9.3 – Suitability of Recommendations

3.2 Reviews and analyzes customers' investment profiles and product options to determine
suitable investment recommendations

Knowledge of:

Equity securities

 Types of stock (e.g., authorized, issued, outstanding, Treasury stock, stated value)

 Characteristics of common stock

 Rights of common stockholders (e.g., pre-emptive right, pro rata share of dividends, access to
corporate books, voting power (statutory, cumulative, nonvoting), residual claims on corporate assets)

 Spinoffs

 Stock acquired through a consolidation or transfer

 Penny stocks and rules associated with penny stock transactions

 Characteristics of preferred stock

 Types of preferred stock (e.g., cumulative, non-cumulative, participating, nonparticipating, convertible,
callable, adjustable-rate and variable-rate)

 Rights of preferred stockholders (e.g., preference upon corporate dissolution, dividend payment,
conversions, sinking fund provisions)

 Rights and warrants: origination, exercise terms, relationship of subscription price to market price of
underlying stock, anti-dilution agreement

 Electronic exchanges or auction markets (e.g., electronic communications networks (ECNs), over-thecounter (OTC), dark pools of liquidity)

 Types and characteristics of non-U.S. market securities (e.g., American Depositary Receipts (ADRs),
corporate equity)

 Tax treatment of equity securities transactions

 Capital gains and losses, dividend distributions (qualified and non-qualified), wash sales, holding
periods

 Determination of net long-term and short-term gains or losses

 When-issued securities, securities acquired through conversion

 Calculation of cost basis per share on: purchases, exchange of convertibles for common shares, stock
dividends and stock rights, inherited or gifted securities

 Cost valuation: FIFO, LIFO, identified shares

Packaged products
 Investment companies, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), unit investment trusts (UITs)

 Types of mutual funds: equity, fixed income, money market, interval

 Structure of investment companies (e.g., open-end and closed-end funds)

 Fund objectives (e.g., value, growth, income, balanced, international, sector, life cycle)

 Characteristics of:

 Open-end funds: e.g., NAV, forward pricing, offering price, exchange privileges within families of
funds, fees and expenses: no load, load (front-end, back-end), distribution fees, management fees,
nature of 12b-1 fees

 Closed-end funds: distributed in primary market at IPO price, traded in secondary market

 Sales practices (e.g., dollar-cost averaging (DCA), computing sales charge, breakpoints)

 Redemption (e.g., redemption price, payout or withdrawal plans, conversion privilege, restrictions,
contingent deferred sales charge, tenders)

 Tax treatment of mutual funds

 Reinvestment of dividends and capital gain distributions

 Charges and expenses

 Variable life insurance/annuity contracts

 Characteristics and insurance features (e.g., minimum guarantees, death benefits, living benefits,
riders)

 Separate accounts (e.g., purpose, management of portfolio, investment policies, performance of
account)

 Valuation of a variable annuity contract (e.g., accumulation units, surrender value, annuitization units)

 Purchasing or exchanging variable annuities (e.g., immediate annuity, charges, fees, penalties, right of
accumulation (ROA), waiver of premium)

 Annuitization: types of election, variable payout, assumed interest rate, relationship between assumed
interest rate and actual rate of return

 Tax treatment of variable annuity contracts during accumulation period and annuity period and taxation
at surrender of contract

 Real estate investment trusts (REITs)

 Structure (e.g., finite number of shares, distributed in primary market at IPO price, traded in secondary
market, premiums and discounts to NAV)

 Types and characteristics (e.g., equity REIT, mortgage REIT, hybrid REIT)

 Tax treatment (e.g., dividends, capital gains, distributions)

 Direct participation programs (DPPs)

 General characteristics

 Structures (e.g., limited partnerships (e.g., roles and duties of general partners vs. limited
partners), limited liability companies, corporations that have tax pass-through exemption from the
IRS)

 Tax treatment (e.g., flow-through of income, expenses and tax liability, real estate depreciation, oil
and gas tax advantages)

 Types of DPPs (e.g., real estate, oil and gas, small-cap debt and equity, business development
companies (BDCs), equipment leasing) and their investment advantages, risks and tax implications

 Types of DPP offerings (i.e., private placements and public offerings)

 Evaluation of DPPs (e.g., economic soundness of the program, expertise of the general partner, basic
objectives of the program; start-up costs, leverage and other revenue considerations)
Options

 Listed options and their characteristics (e.g., contract specifications and adjustments, dividends,
exercise/assignment, settlement date, opening and closing transactions, values (premium, intrinsic and
time), volume, open interest, position limits, exercise limits)

 The Options Clearing Corporation (OCC)

 American-style and European-style

 Long-term Equity AnticiPation Securities (LEAPS)

 Basic strategies (e.g., covered writing and hedging for equity, index, foreign currency and yield-based options)

 Protective put for equity and index options

 Covered call and put writing for equity options

 Advanced strategies (e.g., spreads, straddles, combinations, uncovered writing)

 Long (debit) and short (credit) spreads

 Straddle/combination for equity and index options

 Uncovered (naked) call or put writing for equity, index and yield-based options

 Profit and loss calculations, break-even points, economics of positions

 Tax treatment of option transactions (equity, index, foreign currency, yield-based)

Debt Securities

 Types of debt securities and money market instruments (e.g., corporate commercial paper, brokered CDs,
Eurodollar bond, variable-rate preferreds)

 Characteristics: structure, risks and rewards, call provisions

 Structured products (e.g., equity-linked securities, exchange-traded notes (ETNs))

 Types and characteristics of non-U.S. market securities (e.g., sovereign and corporate debt)

 Types of yields (e.g., coupon (nominal), current, yield to maturity (YTM), yield to call (YTC), yield to worst
and discount yield, calculations and relationship to price)

 Bond ratings

 Tax implications of taxable debt securities, including original issue discount (OID) rules, interest, principal,
premiums, discounts, and capital gains and losses

Corporate bonds

 Types of corporate bonds (e.g., mortgage bonds, equipment trust certificates, debentures, step coupon
bonds, zero-coupon bonds, convertible bonds, high-yield bonds, income bonds) and their characteristics

 Convertible bonds: general characteristics, (e.g., conversion privilege, fixed versus variable, conversion ratio
or price, calculation of parity price of underlying security, arbitrage, factors influencing conversion)

Municipal securities

 General characteristics of municipal fund securities, method of quotations (e.g., yield/basis price, dollar
price), interest rate, payment periods, denominations, diversity of maturities (e.g., serial, term) and legal
opinion (purpose and contents)

 Analysis and diversification of municipal investments: geographical, type and rating

 Analysis of general obligation (GO) bonds, including: characteristics of the issuer, nature of the issuers
debt, factors affecting the issuers ability to pay, municipal debt ratios

 Analysis of revenue bonds, including feasibility studies, sources of revenue, security (protective covenants
of bond indenture), financial reports and outside audits, restrictions on the issuance of additional bonds, flow
of funds, earnings coverage, sources of credit information, rating services, credit enhancements

 Purpose and characteristics of specific types of municipal securities:

 Types of municipal bonds (e.g., GO bonds, limited tax GO bonds and notes, revenue bonds, short-term
municipal obligations (e.g., tax anticipation notes (TANs), bond anticipation notes (BANs), revenue
anticipation notes (RANs), tax-exempt commercial paper, grant anticipation notes (GANs), tax and
revenue anticipation notes (TRANs)))

 Special tax, special assessment, moral obligation, advance or pre-refunded, double-barreled, taxable
(e.g., Build America bonds), OIDs, zero-coupon (capital appreciation) bonds, certificates of participation
(COPs), alternative minimum tax (AMT), lease revenue, variable rate securities, auction rate securities

 Municipal fund securities including 529 college savings plans, local government investment pools
(LGIPs), ABLE accounts (e.g., change in beneficiary, rollovers, ownership, tax consequences of
unqualified withdrawals)

 Call features (e.g., par or premium, optional, mandatory, partial call, sinking fund, extraordinary calls,
make whole calls), advantages/disadvantages to issuers and investors

 Put or tender options

 Refunding methods: direct exchange versus sale of new issue, advance refunding, refunding at call
dates/current refunding, escrowed to maturity, crossover refunding

 Factors affecting the marketability of municipal bonds: rating, maturity, call features, interest (coupon) rate,
block size, liquidity (ability to sell the bond in the secondary market), dollar/yield price, issuer name (local or
national reputation), credit enhancement, credit and liquidity support, denominations

 Pricing of municipal securities and other mathematical calculations: dollar price, accrued interest (regular
coupon, odd first coupon), computations of accrued interest (30/360), amortization of premium, accretion of
discount, relationship of bond prices to changes in maturity, coupon, various yield calculations (taxable
equivalent yield, net yield after capital gains tax, current yield, YTC on premium bonds) value of basis point,
in default,

 Tax treatment of municipal securities: securities bought at a discount or premium in the secondary market,
OID, federal income tax status, state and local tax status, computation of taxable equivalent yield, accrued
interest, AMT, bonds, taxable bonds, bank qualified bonds
Registered hedge funds and fund of funds

 Structure (e.g., private placements, registered, exemption from registration under the Investment Company
Act of 1940, blind pool/ blank check)

 Characteristics (e.g., limited or no liquidity, limited available information, lock-up provisions, charges and
expenses, tangible assets, wide array of investment styles, models and vehicles)

 Tax treatment of distributions

Asset-backed securities

 Collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs)

 Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs)

 Characteristics (e.g., indenture, maturities, form of ownership, interest payment periods, call and put
features, calculation of accrued interest, and specific characteristics (e.g., maturity, type of collateral, priority
of claim, call provisions))

U.S. Treasury securities

 Treasury bills, notes, bonds

 Treasury receipts (Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal Securities (STRIPS)/zero-coupon)

 Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS)

 Characteristics (e.g., types, maturities, denominations, payment of interest)

U.S. government agency securities

 Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA)

 Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA)

 Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC)

 Student Loan Marketing Association (SLMA)

 Characteristics: types, maturities, denominations, primary dealers, distribution, issue form, quotations, passthrough, calculating a spread, pricing, payment of interest and principal

FINRA Rules

2114 – Recommendations to Customers in OTC Equity Securities

2121 – Fair Prices and Commissions

2122 – Charges for Services Performed

2124 – Net Transactions with Customers

2310 – Direct Participation Programs

2320 – Variable Contracts of an Insurance Company

2341 – Investment Company Securities

2350 Series – Trading in Index Warrants, Currency Index Warrants, and Currency Warrants
4210(f)(2) – Definitions Related to Options, Currency Warrants, Currency Index Warrants and Stock Index
Warrant Transactions

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Section 9(a) – Prohibition Against Manipulation of Security Prices (Transactions Relating to Purchase
or Sale of Security)

Exemption of Certain Issuers from Section 15(D) of the Act

3a51-1 – Definition of "Penny Stock"

15g-1 – Exemptions for Certain Transactions

15g-2 – Penny Stock Disclosure Document Relating to the Penny Stock Market

15g-5 – Disclosure of Compensation of Associated Persons in Connection with Penny Stock Transactions

15g-9 – Sales Practice Requirements for Certain Low-priced Securities

Investment Company Act of 1940

Section 2(a) – General Definitions

Section 10 – Affiliations or Interest of Directors, Officers and Employees

Section 12(a) – Functions and Activities of Investment Companies (Purchase of Securities on Margin;

Joint Trading Accounts; Short Sales of Securities; Exceptions)

Section 13(a) – Changes in Investment Policy (Prohibited Actions for Registered Investment
Companies)

Section 15(a) – Investment Advisory and Underwriting Contracts (Written Contract to Serve or Act as
Investment Adviser; Contents)

Section 16(a) – Changes in Board of Directors; Provisions Relative to Strict Trusts (Election of
Directors)

Section 17(a) – Transactions of Certain Affiliated Persons and Underwriters (Prohibited Transactions)

Section 18 – Capital Structure

Section 19 – Dividends

Section 22 – Distribution, Redemption, and Repurchase of Redeemable Securities

Section 23 – Distribution and Repurchase of Securities: Closed-end Companies

Section 30 – Periodic and Other Reports; Reports of Affiliated Persons

Section 35 – Unlawful Representations and Names

Section 36 – Breach of Fiduciary Duty

Section 37 – Larceny and Embezzlement

12b-1 – Distribution of Shares by Registered Open-end Management Investment Company
Cboe Rules

1.1 – Definitions

4.5 (f) – Long-term Equity Option Series (LEAPS®)

4.6 – Adjustments

6.20 (e) – Exercise of American-style Index Options

6.21 – Allocation of Exercise Notices

8.1 – Just and Equitable Principles of Trade

8.3 – Position Limits

8.31 – Position Limits for Broad-based Index Options

8.32 – Position Limits for Industry Index Options

8.41– Position Limits — Interest Rate Options

8.42 (b) – Exercise Limits — Index Options

8.42 (f) – Exercise Limits — Interest Rate Options

11.1 – Exercise of Option Contracts

MSRB Rules

D-12 – Definition of Municipal Fund Securities

G-13 – Quotations Related to Municipal Securities

G-17 – Conduct of Municipal Securities Activities

G-30 – Prices and Commissions

G-45 – Reporting of Information on Municipal Fund Securities

Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)

REIT Modernization Act of 1999

Internal Revenue Code

301 – Distributions of Property

316 – Dividend Defined

856 – Definition of Real Estate Investment Trust

858 – Dividends Paid by Real Estate Investment Trust After Close of Tax Year

1035 – Certain exchanges of Insurance Policies

1091 – Loss from Wash Sales of Stock or Securities

1233 – Gains and Losses from Short Sales

1256 – Contracts Marked to Market

3.3 Provides appropriate disclosures regarding investment products and their characteristics,
risks, services and expenses

Knowledge of:

 Required disclosures on specific transactions (e.g., material aspects of investments, statement of additional
information, material events, control relationships)

 Types of investment risk (e.g., call, systematic and nonsystematic, reinvestment, timing)

 Types of investment returns (e.g., tax-exempt interest, return of capital)

 Costs and fees associated with investments (e.g., markups, commissions, net transactions, share classes,
non-discretionary fee-based accounts, surrender charges, 12b-1 fees, mortality and expense charges in
variable products, soft dollar arrangements)

 Tax considerations (e.g., unification of gift and estate taxes, lifetime exclusion, annual gift limit, taxation of
securities received as a gift, inheritance of securities)

 Market analysis considerations (e.g., market sentiment, market indexes, options volatility, put/call ratio,
market momentum, available funds, trading volume, short interest, index futures)

 Market analysis considerations for municipal securities, including Bond Buyer indexes (e.g., 11 GO Bonds
Index, Municipal Bond Index (40 Bond), 20 GO Bonds Index)

 Technical analysis of basic chart patterns and key terms (e.g., trend lines, saucer/inverted saucer, headand-shoulders/inverted head-and-shoulders, breakouts, resistance/support levels, moving averages,
consolidation, stabilization, overbought and oversold)

 Disclosure of material events effecting retail sales of municipal bonds

FINRA Rule

2165 – Financial Exploitation of Specified Adults

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Section 28(e) – Effect on Existing Law (Exchange, Broker, and Dealer Commissions; Brokerage and
Research Services)

Internal Revenue Code

2503 – Taxable Gifts

3.4 Communicates with customers about account information, processes requests and retains
documentation

Knowledge of:

 Customer confirmations and statements, including: components, timing, mailings to third parties, and
exceptions

 Account value, profits and losses, realized and unrealized

 Withdrawals and tenders

 Customer account records (e.g., updating for change of address, sending required notifications, investment
objectives)

 Transferring accounts between broker-dealers (e.g., Automated Customer Account Transfer Service
(ACATS), transfer agent and procedures)

 Books and records retention requirements

 Account closure procedures

FINRA Rules

409T – Statements of Accounts to Customers

2231 – Customer Account Statements

2232 – Customer Confirmations

2273 – Educational Communication Related to Recruitment Practices and Account Transfers

4510 – Books and Records Requirements

11870 – Customer Account Transfer Contracts

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

10b-10 – Confirmation of Transactions

15g-6 – Account Statements for Penny Stock Customers

17a-4 – Records To Be Preserved by Certain Exchange Members, Brokers and Dealers

Regulation FD – Disclosure Requirements

Cboe Rules

6.1 – Reporting duties

7.1 – Maintenance, Retention and Furnishing of Books, Records and Other Information

7.2 – Reports of Uncovered Short Positions

7.3 – Financial Reports

7.4 – Audits

7.5 – Automated Submission of Trading Data

7.7 – Risk Analysis of Market-maker Accounts

7.8 – Risk Analysis of Portfolio Margin Accounts

7.9 – Regulatory Cooperation

9.5 – Confirmation to Customers

9.6 – Statements of Accounts to Customers

9.14 – Transfer of Accounts

MSRB Rules

G-8 – Books and Records To Be Made by Brokers, Dealers, and Municipal Securities Dealers and Municipal
Advisors

G-9 – Preservation of Records

G-15 – Confirmation, Clearance, Settlement and Other Uniform Practice Requirements with Respect to
Transactions with Customers

G-26 – Customer Account Transfers

Function 4: Obtains and Verifies Customers Purchase and Sales Instructions and
Agreements; Processes, Completes and Confirms Transactions

4.1 Provides current quotes

Knowledge of:

 Orders, offerings and transactions in customer accounts (e.g., at advertised yield)

 Trade execution activities

 Types of securities quotes (e.g., firm, subject)

 Types of orders (e.g., all-or-none (AON), fill-or-kill (FOK), immediate-or-cancel (IOC), not-held, market-onclose (MOC), spread, straddle)

 Short sale requirements and strategies (e.g., order marking, locate, borrow and delivery, speculation,
hedging, arbitrage)

 Securities lending (e.g., hard to borrow, fail to deliver)

 Best execution obligations

FINRA Rules

4320 – Short Sale Delivery Requirements

4551 – Requirements for Alternative Trading Systems to Record and Transmit Order and Execution
Information for Security Futures

5210 – Publication of Transactions and Quotations

5220 – Offers and Stated Prices

5260 – Prohibition on Transactions, Publication of Quotations, or Publication of Indications of Interest During
Trading Halts

5290 – Order Entry and Execution Practices

5310 – Best Execution and Interpositioning

6100 Series – Quoting and Trading in NMS stocks

6110 – Trading Otherwise than on an Exchange

6120 – Trading Halts

6121 – Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility

6130 – Transactions Related to Initial Public Offerings

6400 Series – Quoting and Trading in OTC Equity Securities

6500 Series – OTC Bulletin Board® Service

6600 Series – OTC Reporting Facility

11860 – COD Orders

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

15c2-7 – Identification of Quotations

15c2-11 – Initiation or Resumption of Quotations Without Specified Information

15g-3 – Broker or Dealer Disclosure of Quotations and Other Information Relating to the Penny Stock
Market

15g-4 – Disclosure of Compensation to Brokers or Dealers

Regulation ATS – Alternative Trading Systems

Regulation SHO – Regulation of Short Sales

Cboe Rules

5.33 – Certain Types of Orders Defined

5.7 – Required Order Information

NYSE Rules

7.12 – Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility

7.31 – Orders and Modifiers

7.35 Series – Auctions

7.37 – Order Execution and Routing

54 – Dealings on the Floor-persons

64 -- Bonds, Rights and 100-Share-Unit Stocks

71 – Precedence of Highest Bid and Lowest Offer

72(d) – Priority of Cross Transactions and Supplemental Material .10 – Definition of a Block

74 – Publicity of Bids and Offers

75 – Disputes as to Bids and Offers

76 – “Crossing” Orders

77 – Prohibited Dealings and Activities

80B – Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility

104 – Dealings and Responsibilities of DMMs

123A – Miscellaneous Requirements

123D(d) – Initial Listing Regulatory Halt

127 – Block Crosses Outside of the Prevailing NYSE Quotation

1000 – Automatic Executions

1001 – Execution of Automatically Executing Orders

1002 – Availability of Automatic Execution Feature

1004 – Election of Buy Minus Zero Plus Orders

4.2 Processes and confirms customers transactions pursuant to regulatory requirements and
informs customers of delivery obligations and settlement procedures

Knowledge of:

 Information required on an order ticket (e.g., symbol, account number, price)

 Market making activities: role and functions of the designated market maker, listing requirements, limitations
on trading during significant market declines, principal transactions, agency transactions, quotations (e.g.,
firm, subject or otherwise qualified, bid wanted, offer wanted, size obligations), SEC order handling rules,
transaction reporting

 Use of automated execution systems

 Regulatory reporting requirements (e.g., Order Audit Trail System (OATS), Trade Reporting and
Compliance Engine (TRACE), Electronic Municipal Market Access (EMMA), trade reporting facility (TRF),
Real-Time Transaction Reporting System (RTRS))

 Delivery requirements

 Good delivery (e.g., certificates in possession of the seller, certificates in the name of two persons,
deceased owner, stock or bond powers, mutilated certificates, due bills, DVP/RVP, book entry securities,
stock certificate, endorsements, denominations, bearer, registrar, registered, Direct Registration System
(DRS))

 Settlement of transactions (e.g., security-specific requirements, when-, as- and if-issued, ex-rights, exdividends, due bill checks, negotiated settlements, option exercise/assignment, dont know (DK),
extensions)

FINRA Rules

5330 – Adjustment of Orders

6000 Series – Quotation, Order, and Transaction Reporting Facilities

6140 – Other Trading Practices

6700 Series – Trade Reporting and Compliance Engine

7000 Series – Clearing, Transactions and Order Data Requirements, and Facility Charges

11000 Series – Uniform Practice Code

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

15c6-1 – Settlement Cycle

Cboe Rules

6.20 – Exercise of Options Contracts

6.21 – Allocation of Exercise Notices

6.22 – Delivery and Payment

MSRB Rules

G-12 – Uniform Practice

G-14 – Reports of Sales or Purchases

Nasdaq Stock Market Rules

4600 Series – Requirements for Nasdaq Market Makers and Other Nasdaq Market Center Participants

4750 Series – Nasdaq Market Center-Execution Services

NYSE Rules

63 – “When Issued”— “When Distributed”

130 Series – Comparison and Exchange of Contracts

133 – Comparison—Non-cleared Transactions

135 – Differences and Omissions—Cleared Transactions (“DKs”)

136 – Comparison—Transactions Excluded from a Clearance

4.3 Informs the appropriate supervisor and assists in the resolution of discrepancies, disputes,
errors and complaints

Knowledge of:

 Erroneous reports, errors, cancels and rebills

 Requirements for addressing customer complaints and consequences of improper handling of complaints

 Methods of formal resolution (e.g., arbitration, mediation, litigation)

 Form U4 reporting requirements

FINRA Rules

4513 – Records of Written Customer Complaints

4530 – Reporting Requirements

8000 Series – Investigations and Sanctions

11892 – Clearly Erroneous Transactions in Exchange-listed Securities

11893 – Clearly Erroneous Transactions in OTC Equity Securities

12000 Series – Code of Arbitration Procedure for Customer Disputes

13000 Series – Code of Arbitration Procedure for Industry Disputes

14000 Series – Code of Mediation Procedure

Cboe Rules

5.11 – Price Binding Despite Erroneous Report

9.17 – Customer Complaints

4.4 Addresses margin issues

Knowledge of:

 Requirements and characteristics of margin accounts (e.g., minimums, approvals, ineligible accounts,
eligible/ineligible securities), and required disclosures (e.g., interest rate disclosure and hypothecation)

 Product or strategy specific requirements (e.g., Treasury securities, mutual funds)

 Calculations in margin accounts (e.g., long and/or short positions)

 Initial margin: long market value, short market value, debit balance, credit balance, initial Regulation T
margin requirement on long or short positions, Regulation T requirement for established accounts, loan
value, excess equity, buying power of deposited securities

 Maintenance: additional purchases, sales (long or short), cash withdrawals, stock withdrawals, simultaneous
purchases and sales, restrictions, liquidation to meet a margin/maintenance call, deposit of cash or
securities required to meet a margin or maintenance call

 Special memorandum account (SMA): balance, buying power, prohibited use of SMA, effect of excess
equity, deposit of marginable securities, receipt of cash dividends and earned interest, liquidation of
securities in the account, cash or securities withdrawals, new margin securities purchased or sold short

 Other margin accounts (e.g., portfolio margin, day trading)

FINRA Rules

2264 – Margin Disclosure Statement

4210 – Margin Requirements

Cboe Rules

10.1 – General Rules

10.2 – Time Margin Must Be Obtained

10.3 – Margin Requirements

10.4 – Portfolio Margin

10.5 – Determination of Value for Margin Purposes

10.6 – "When Issued" and "When Distributed" Securities

10.7 – Guaranteed Accounts

10.8 – Meeting Margin Calls by Liquidation Prohibited

10.9 – Margin Required Is Minimum

10.10 – Compliance with Margin Requirements of New York Stock Exchange

10.11 – Daily Margin Record

Federal Reserve

Regulation T – Credit by Brokers and Dealers
General Securities Representative Series 7
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Question: 990
Judging by a clients trading pattern, you have a very strongsuspicion that he is trading on inside information.
You should
A. C. contact FINRand send it supporting documentation
B. contact the SEC and send it supporting documentation
C. contact FINRA and send it supporting documentation
D. all of the above
Answer: A
Explanation:
If you suspect that one of your clients is using inside information, you must immediately inform a principal. Any
further action will be decided by your firm. The Insider Trading and Securities Fraud Enforcement Act of 1988
requires all broker-dealers to have written supervisory procedures that address insider information.
Question: 991
The CEO of OEC Corporation tells his lifelong friend that OECwill be announcing an acquisition of COE, Inc., the
following week.The friend acts on this knowledge and purchases shares of COE and
A. the CEO
B. the lifelong friend
C. both the CEO and the lifelong friend
D. neither the CEO nor the lifelong friend
Answer: C
Explanation:
Because the friend used the inside information (information not yet released to the public), both the CEO and the
friend violated insider trading rules.
Question: 992
All of the following are violations EXCEPT
A. matching orders
B. freeriding
C. commingling
D. hypothecating
Answer: D
Explanation:
Hypothecating isnt a violation. Hypothecation takes place when a brokerage firm lends money to a customer to
purchase securities in a margin account.
Question: 993
Which of the following regulatory organizations has the authorityto punish registered representatives for rule
violations?I. SECII. FINRAIII. NYSEIV. MSRB
A. I only
B. I and II
C. I, II, and III
D. I, II, III, and IV
Answer: C
Explanation:
The SEC has the authority to punish individuals inside or outside of the brokerage industry. The NYSE and FINRA
may penalize an individual within the industry. However, because the MSRB doesnt enforce MSRB rules, the
MSRB may not punish any individual for rules violations.
Question: 994
Which of the following is TRUE about SIPC?
A. It is an agency of the U.S. government.
B. Investment advisers are required to be members of SIPC.
C. D. SIPfunding is made by member assessments
D. SIPC funding is made by member assessments
Answer: D
Explanation:
SIPC (Securities Investor Protection Corporation) is funded by annual fees paid by brokerage firms. SIPC isnt a
U.S. government agency. Banks and investment advisers arent required to purchase SIPC insurance.
Question: 995
Mike Nugent and his wife, Mary, have individual accounts withABCDE broker-dealer. Along with their individual
accounts, they alsohave a joint account with rights of survivorship. Mikes individualaccount has $200,000 of
stock, $50,000 of bonds, and $200,000 ofcash. Marys individual account has $100,000 of stock and $400,000of
cash. In the joint account, Mike and Mary have $100,000 of stock,$350,000 of bonds, and $200,000 of cash. If
ABCDE declaresbankruptcy, what would be the maximum SIPC coverage for all theaccounts?
A. $950,000
B. $1,300,000
C. $1,350,000
D. $1,850,000
Answer: B
Explanation:
SIPC (Securities Investor Protection Corporation) covers each separate customer account up to $500,000, of which
no more than $250,000 can be cash. So in this case, Mikes account would be covered for $450,000 ($200,000
stock + $50,000 bonds + $200,000 cash), Marys account would be covered for $350,000 ($100,000 stock +
$250,000 cash), and the joint account would be covered for $500,000 ($100,000 stock + $350,000 bonds + $50,000
cash). Added together, thats .
Question: 996
SIPC protects each separate customer up to
A. $500,000 in cash and securities with no more than $250,000 cash
B. $500,000 in cash and securities with no more than $100,000 cash
C. $400,000 in securities and $100,000 cash
D. $500,000 in securities and an additional $250,000 cash
Answer: A
Explanation:
SIPC (Securities Investor Protection Corporation) covers investors in the event of broker-dealer bankruptcy. SIPC
covers each investor up to $500,000, of which no more than $250,000 can be cash.
Question: 997
SIPC provides coverage for which of the following securities heldin a customers account?
A. common stock
B. municipal bonds
C. REITs
D. all of the above
Answer: D
Explanation:
SIPC (Securities Investor Protection Corporation) provides coverage for all types of securities held in customer
accounts. SIPC provides protection for customers in the event of broker-dealer bankruptcy. SIPC coverage covers
each separate account up to $500,000, of which no more than $250,000 can be cash.
Question: 998
You have a new client who is going to open an individual cashtime, he also wants to open a joint account with his
wife, a jointaccount with his son, and a corporate account. How many separateaccounts is the investor covered for
under SIPC?
A. one
B. two
C. four
D. five
E. account and an individual margin account in his namAt the same
Answer: C
Explanation:
The customer has a cash account and a margin account in his name, which counts as one separate customer
according to SIPC. The joint account with his wife, the joint account with his son, and the corporate account are
three other separate accounts.
Question: 999
If an investor is not fully covered under SIPC, she becomes a(n)__________ of the bankrupt broker-dealer.1000.
FDIC protects each bank account up to
A. $100,000
B. $250,000
C. $500,000
D. $1,000,000
Answer: B
Explanation:
SIPC (Securities Investor Protection Corporation) protects each separate account only up to $500,000, of which no
more than $250,000 can be cash. If the investor had more held in the account than would be covered by SIPC, she
would become a general creditor of the firm for the remainder.
Question: 1000
FDIC protects each bank account up to
A. $100,000
B. $250,000
C. $500,000
D. $1,000,000
Answer: B
Explanation:
FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) covers each depositor up to $250,000 in the event of bank failure.
Question: 1001
Which of the following protects a broker-dealer against fraud orembezzlement by employees?
A. SIPC
B. fidelity bond
C. FDIC
D. power of substitution
Answer: B
Explanation:
A fidelity bond protects a firm against fraud or embezzlement by employees of the brokerage firm. SIPC protects
customers against broker-dealer bankruptcy.
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(Un)principled Agents: Monitoring Loyalty after the End of the Royal African Company Monopoly

  • Summer 2023 |
  • Article |
  • Business History Review

The revocation of the Royal African Company's monopoly in 1698 inaugurated a transformation of the transatlantic slave trade. While the RAC’s exit from the slave trade has received scholarly attention, little is known about the company’s response to the loss of its trading privileges. Not only did the end of the company's monopoly increase competition, but the unprecedented numbers of private traders who entered the trade exacerbated the company’s principal-agent problems on the West African coast. To analyze the company’s behavior in the post-monopoly period, we exploit a series of 292 instruction letters that the RAC issued to its slave-ship captains between 1685 and 1706, coding each individual command in the letters. Our database reveals two new insights into the company’s response to its upended competitive landscape. First, the RAC showed a remarkable degree of organizational flexibility, reacting to a heightened principal-agent problem. Second, its response was facilitated by the infrastructure of the transatlantic slave trade, which gave the company a monitoring mechanism by virtue of the slave-ship captains who continually sailed to the West African coast.

LALIGA—From a Soccer Competition Organizer to a Global Player in the Sports and Entertainment Industry

  • 2023 |
  • Working Paper |
  • Faculty Research

LALIGA, the first- and second-tier professional soccer league (known as “football” outside of the U.S. and Canada) in Spain, enters its 100th soccer season later this decade. The most popular game in the world (Giulianotti, 2012) has gone through many changes since LALIGA began play in 1929 (O’Brien, 2022). Therefore, the purpose of this Working Paper is to describe the development of LALIGA since its initiation in 1929. However, the emphasis of the paper is to explore and analyze LALIGA’s evolution towards becoming an influential global business and brand in the contemporary world of the business of sports. Expansion, progress and improved sporting and commercial maturity go hand in hand with the recognized achievements observed by the league’s local, regional, national, and global fan bases. Soccer fans from every corner of the globe are aware of the accomplishments made on the pitch by the league’s globally recognized competitive powerhouses, Real Madrid and FC Barcelona. Yet, these triumphs are complemented by off-the-pitch strategies and corporate ideas and actions, which have transformed LALIGA into a global organization with more than seven hundred employees spread all around the world. Consequently, LALIGA is positioned to take its next steps as a key player in the competitive industry and business of sports and entertainment. With a global presence covering offices and delegations in 41 countries. LALIGA has applied different strategies to boost growth in its main revenue stream (broadcasting rights), to nurture and grow its fanbase in Spain and abroad, and to evolve its product range and brand equity in order to overcome new challenges in the fast-changing and competitive sports entertainment nexus. In total, LALIGA’s international efforts span 90 countries, including 11 offices in key locations and three joint ventures in the United States, in China, and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)—LALIGA’s top-priority markets overseas. In addition, LALIGA has strived to Strengthen its digitalization efforts and to implement new technologies in various phases of its value chain (competition management, fan engagement and content enhancement) while diversifying its business offerings and value proposition. Thus, LALIGA is cognizant about building future-proof financial “fitness” via generating new revenue streams intended to help expand its branding footprint globally. As an entity representing 42 teams in the first and second divisions, LALIGA has recently signed and negotiated “Boost LALIGA,” a €1.994 billion capital injection in the Spanish soccer ecosystem from the investment fund CVC. The investment aims to “soften” the negative economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, but mainly to accelerate corporate growth in the league and its clubs, by providing the respective soccer clubs resources to invest in such areas as soccer infrastructure, digitalization, and international development.

Deep Responsibility and Irresponsibility in the Beauty Industry

  • July 2023 |
  • Article |
  • Entreprises et histoire

This article employs the concept of deep responsibility to assess the social responsibility of the beauty industry over time. It shows that many of today’s problems with the industry have deep historical roots. Products have too many ingredients that are potential health hazards. Exaggerated claims have been made to all consumers and ideals of beauty that are very restrictive have damaged the self-esteem of more vulnerable consumers. The environmental impact of the industry has been highly negative. The article shows how the beauty industry has done more harm than good within the communities it addresses. Alternative and more responsible behavior has existed in the past in the industry and it is argued that this type of behavior needs to become the norm once again.

Jones, Geoffrey. "Deep Responsibility and Irresponsibility in the Beauty Industry." Entreprises et histoire 111, no. 2 (July 2023): 113–125.

Point Four and the Politics of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States during the Early Cold War

By: Melanie Sheehan

  • 2023 |
  • Working Paper |
  • Faculty Research

This article traces business influence in the formulation of the Point Four technical assistance program, the first US Cold War-era international development program. It focuses specifically on business interest associations’ efforts to secure federal incentives to promote foreign direct investment (FDI) in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Business leaders and their government allies described FDI as the most effective means to promote international development, support European recovery, and encourage strategic minerals production after the Marshall Plan. Ultimately, business interest associations secured tax advantages and government-backed insurance for foreign investments because such measures served the interests of the US government in the context of European balance of payments deficits and the Korean War. Intent on promoting international development as a Cold War strategy, the Truman administration and Congress preferred private means to large-scale foreign aid appropriations. Business power thus stemmed from government leaders’ appraisal of the ways in which private business could fulfill state objectives.

Doing Business in Lima, Peru

  • June 2023 |
  • Case |
  • Faculty Research

This case examines the challenges and opportunities of doing business in Peru. It highlights Peru's economic transformation in the decades leading up to 2023 in the context of its history, culture, and politics. The case gives an overview of some of the main obstacles faced by businesses operating in the country, contrasting these with the efforts undertaken by the government to Strengthen the country's business climate. This is illustrated through the discussion of a fictional business dilemma.

Deeply Responsible Business: A Global History of Values-Driven Leadership

  • 2023 |
  • Book |
  • Faculty Research
Corporate social responsibility has entered the mainstream, but what does it take to run a successful purpose-driven business? This book examines leaders who put values alongside profits to showcase the challenges and upside of deeply responsible business. Should business leaders play a role in solving society’s problems? For decades, CEOs have been told that their only responsibility is to the bottom line. But consensus is growing that companies―and their leaders―must engage with their social, political, and environmental contexts. Jones distinguishes deep responsibility, which can deliver radical social and ecological responses, from corporate social responsibility, which is often little more than window dressing. Deeply Responsible Business provides a historical perspective on the social responsibility of business, going back to the Quaker capitalism of George Cadbury and the worker solidarity of Edward Filene and carrying us through to impact investing and the B-corps. Jones profiles exemplary business leaders from around the world who combined profits with social purpose to confront inequality, inner-city blight, and ecological degradation, while navigating restrictive laws and authoritarian regimes.

The business leaders profiled in this book were motivated by bedrock values and sometimes driven by faith. They chose to operate in socially productive fields, interacted with humility with stakeholders, and felt a duty to support their communities. While far from perfect, each one showed that profit and purpose could be reconciled. Many of their businesses were wildly successful―though financial success was not their only metric of achievement. As many companies seek to coopt more ethically sensitized consumers, Jones gives us a new perspective to tackle tough questions and envisions a future in which companies and entrepreneurs can play a key role in healing our communities and protecting the natural world.

Doing Business in Kigali, Rwanda

  • March 2023 (Revised June 2023) |
  • Case |
  • Faculty Research

This case examines the challenges and opportunities of doing business in Rwanda. It highlights Rwanda's economic transformation in the decades leading up to 2023 in the context of its history, culture, and politics. The case gives an overview of some of the main obstacles faced by businesses operating in the country, high transportation costs, some of the most expensive electricity tariffs in sub-Saharan Africa and high levels of government bureaucracy, contrasting these with the efforts undertaken by the government to Strengthen the country's business climate. This is illustrated through the discussion of a business dilemma in which e-mobility startup Ampersand has to assess the extent to which Rwanda's high openness could mean a high threat of competition or plenty of opportunities for growth partnerships.

Zelleke, Andy, Leonard A. Schlesinger, Pippa Tubman Armerding, and Wale Lawal. "Doing Business in Kigali, Rwanda." Harvard Business School Case 323-089, March 2023. (Revised June 2023.)

Doing Business in Buenos Aires, Argentina

  • February 2023 (Revised June 2023) |
  • Case |
  • Faculty Research

This case examines the challenges and opportunities of doing business in Argentina. It highlights Argentina's economic transformation in the decades leading up to 2023 in the context of its history, culture, and politics. The case gives an overview of some of the main obstacles faced by businesses operating in the country, contrasting these with the efforts undertaken by the government to Strengthen the country's business climate. This is illustrated through the discussion of a business dilemma in which Forever 21 attempts to launch its first store in Buenos Aires.

Doing Business in Boston, Massachusetts

  • February 2023 (Revised June 2023) |
  • Case |
  • Faculty Research

This case examines the challenges and opportunities of doing business in Boston, Massachusetts while giving a broad history of the city and surrounding area.

Doing Business in Accra, Ghana

  • February 2023 (Revised June 2023) |
  • Case |
  • Faculty Research

This case examines the challenges and opportunities of doing business in Ghana. It highlights Ghana economic transformation in the decades leading up to 2023 in the context of its history, culture, and politics. The case gives an overview of some of the main obstacles faced by businesses operating in the country, such as complexity of doing business, slow legal proceedings, limited access to funding, a slow growing manufacturing sector, a large informal sector and changing regulatory environment, contrasting these with the efforts undertaken by the government to Strengthen the country's business climate. This is illustrated through the discussion of a business dilemma in which an entrepreneur is considering setting up a chocolate manufacturing business in Ghana.

Belo-Osagie, Hakeem, Leonard Schlesinger, and Namrata Arora. "Doing Business in Accra, Ghana." Harvard Business School Case 323-090, February 2023. (Revised June 2023.)
More Publications
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Objectives of a Sales Representative Training Program

Based in Ottawa, Canada, Chris Wolski started writing professionally for non-governmental organizations in 2007. He has written communications material for marketing firms and small businesses, and he has published articles for various websites. Wolski received a national coaching certification in 2001 and a Master of Arts in political science from York University in 2007.

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Manufacturer's Representative

Manufacturer's Representative Definition:

An independent sales agent who works on commission

Manufacturer's representative or rep, manufacturer's broker and manufacturer's agent are all terms used to describe independent sales agents who work on commission. You don't pay them a salary, just a percentage of what they sell. Manufacturer's reps offer a practical, cost-effective alternative to a direct sales force for many growing companies. There are more than half a million reps in North America, most selling to targeted markets in select geographic regions. Reps know their markets well because they call on local buyers regularly and have established sound working relationships with them.

Using manufacturer's reps can provide you with many of the benefits of having a satellite office in the location--including knowledge of local markets and rapid access to large accounts--without your incurring large fixed costs. With reps, sales costs are always a fixed percentage of sales. The downside is that reps typically handle many different products. Some may be complementary to yours; others may compete. A typical manufacturer's rep earns a 5-percent commission on sales, although that amount varies widely depending on the product, market and sales volume.

If you're interested in learning more about manufacturer's reps, contact the Manufacturers' Agents National Association.

Thu, 07 Apr 2016 11:48:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/manufacturers-representative
How to Test for Sales Ability

As a former senior sales director with Mary Kay and the co-owner of a renovation company, Monica Patrick has firsthand knowledge of small business operations. Besides start ups, she has extensive skills in recruiting, selling, leadership, makeup artistry and skin care.

Fri, 27 Jul 2018 05:52:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://smallbusiness.chron.com/test-sales-ability-31488.html
Customer Service Representative No result found, try new keyword!They answer questions, address concerns and complaints ... “The main responsibility of a customer service representative is to be an advocate for the customer,” Jonathan Fernandez, former ... Wed, 05 Jul 2017 12:19:00 -0500 https://money.usnews.com/careers/best-jobs/customer-service-representative Best At-Home STD Tests for 2024

We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

Healthline only shows you brands and products that we stand behind.

Our team thoroughly researches and evaluates the recommendations we make on our site. To establish that the product manufacturers addressed safety and efficacy standards, we:
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We do the research so you can find trusted products for your health and wellness.

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We compared the best at-home STD tests available online and found that Everlywell offers users the best overall experience.

Best at-home tests

Regular testing for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is important for overall health and any necessary treatments. At-home tests can provide an accurate and convenient method for knowing your status.

STDs and STIs are very common. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1 million STIs are acquired daily worldwide.

One reason for this is that contraceptive methods, such as condoms, aren’t always failproof. Overall, if you’re sexually active, you could contract an STI.

Nowadays, there are dozens of at-home testing kits that may make getting tested easier.

Here’s some information on quality at-home testing options, how to figure out what type is best for you, and when to contact a doctor.

You can use this chart for a quick comparison of the tests in our roundup:

There are a lot of factors to consider when choosing an at-home STD test, which is why we turned to the experts.

Every product we recommend and brand we work with is thoroughly vetted by our team. If there are any lawsuits, recalls, or regulatory action letters documented about these products or companies, our vetting team makes sure they’re reported and listed.

In addition to legalities, our team always checks for medical credibility, good business practices, privacy practices and security, social impact, and the validity of any health claims a brand makes about a product. At-home testing services are required to abide by telehealth standards in the following circumstances:

  • Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and/or Certified Analytics Professional (CAP) certified
  • guidance available to customers who test positive for an STD
  • prescription services available in the event of positive test results
  • physician orders for in-person lab testing available where necessary

With dozens of at-home testing kits available, it can be hard to choose the right one. After all, what does a good at-home STD testing kit look like? What should it entail? What do you need?

There’s no one-size-fits-all answer. Your needs will vary, depending on your situation and circumstances. Also, they may change over time.

This chart can help you determine which type of test is right for you.

If you think you’ll need help determining results from your at-home test, taking an in-office test may be preferable. It’s an immediate source of information, and an action plan can be created on-site in the case of a positive result.

Also, be sure the test you choose is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To determine whether the FDA approves a product, you can check the FDA’s website.

At-home STD tests arrive with all the tools needed to collect a sample, such as:

  • needles or lancets
  • swabs
  • collection tubes
  • alcohol wipes
  • bandages
  • a prepaid envelope to mail your sample back to the company

You might need to provide a blood or urine sample or perform a rectal, oral, or vaginal swab. It’s best to return the samples the same day you take them. The company then sends results through your online account, usually within 1 to 7 days.

While every home STD testing service is different, most brands recommended here offer professional advice or support for reading test results at home.

If you do a fully at-home STD test, there’s a risk you’ll misinterpret your results. Lab-based tests can also be difficult to interpret without a medical background.

As such, it’s best to opt for a testing service where you have access to a healthcare professional who can discuss your results with you. They can help you interpret your results and advise on treatments and next steps.

Talk with a healthcare professional if one of your partners has recently tested positive for an STD or STI or if you’re experiencing possible symptoms of an STI.

The CDC recommends STD screenings from a healthcare professional in the following cases:

  • You’re between 13 and 64 years old and have never been tested for HIV.
  • You share needles. Your doctor may recommend annual HIV testing.
  • You have sex without a condom or other barrier methods. Your doctor may recommend annual HIV testing.
  • You have oral or anal sex regularly. Your doctor may recommend throat and rectal testing.
  • You’re pregnant. Your doctor will test you for hepatitis B and C, HIV, and syphilis.

If you have an STI but are experiencing more or worsening symptoms, like genital discharge or urinary symptoms, contact a healthcare professional to further evaluate your symptoms.

The CDC makes the following additional recommendations for screening:

  • People who are sexually active and assigned female at birth, people assigned male at birth, and people under 25 years old may want to undergo annual chlamydia and gonorrhea testing.
  • People who are sexually active and assigned male at birth who have sex with other people assigned male at birth may want to undergo testing as frequently as every 3 to 6 months.

Our roundup of at-home STD tests is a good starting point if you want to get tested without contacting a doctor.

Depending on the test, you may need to visit a lab for collection. Every other part of the process, including the lab order, payment, and results, is done online.

If you receive a positive test result, the testing kit company may offer a consultation with one of their doctors. During that consultation, you can discuss any next steps, such as further testing or treatment.

At this point, it’s also a good idea to contact your primary care doctor to share your results.

With both at-home and lab-direct tests, you’ll provide a sample. The samples may include blood, urine, anal, vaginal, or oral swabs.

The samples are submitted to a lab, and results are shared discreetly.

If you receive a positive STD result, contact your primary care clinician to discuss the best treatment option for you. Also, be prepared to notify any partners of the positive result.

An at-home test may confirm whether you have an STD, but it’s important to contact your doctor if you have symptoms of a possible infection. These symptoms may include:

  • vaginal or penile burning or discharge
  • frequent urination
  • pelvic or genital pain
  • sores or bumps around your genitals, anus, or mouth
  • atypical bleeding (bleeding other than menstruation)

The CDC recommends that people ages 13 to 64 get tested for HIV at least once a year as part of their routine health checkup.

The CDC also recommends that sexually active women younger than 25 years get tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia every year.

In addition, the CDC suggests that pregnant people get tested for syphilis, hepatitis B, and HIV early in their pregnancy.

Sexually active men who have sex with men may want to also get tested for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea annually.

If you experience symptoms at any time, don’t wait to get tested. The quicker you’re tested, the sooner you can begin treatment.

Most modern STD tests are very accurate. Still, test accuracy can vary, depending on the type of sample and the test detection method.

Traditional in-office tests are more accurate than fully online tests, and home-to-lab tests are more accurate than self-collected tests. But all are highly efficient.

While in-office STD tests may be considered the most reliable, the at-home test kits on our list also have a reputation for being accurate.

It’s important that you don’t rely on home testing in place of contacting your doctor if you have any possible symptoms of an STD or STI or have other important questions about your overall health.

Most insurance plans cover the cost of STD tests, as these tests are considered preventive and covered under the Affordable Care Act. But whether your plan covers a specific STD test depends on several factors, including your:

  • age
  • sex and gender
  • risk factors
  • pregnancy status

Also, the coverage of at-home tests varies.

To learn more about your specific options, talk with a nurse, a doctor, or your insurance company.

You can also find free or low cost STD testing sites across the country.

Testing for STDs and STIs regularly is important.

Testing can help prevent the transmission of STIs. It can also help you get the appropriate treatment if you have a viral, bacterial, or fungal infection, as many STDs and STIs can be treated or cured.

Contacting a doctor or other healthcare professional is generally the most reliable way to know whether you’ve contracted an STI or have an STD. But an at-home test is an excellent alternative. For many, an at-home test is a confidential and convenient option.


Kimberly Zapata is a mother, writer, and mental health advocate. Her work has appeared on several sites, including The Washington Post, HuffPost, Oprah, Vice, Parents, Health, and Scary Mommy — to name a few. When her nose isn’t buried in work (or a good book), Kimberly spends her free time running Greater Than: Illness, a nonprofit organization that aims to empower children and young adults working through mental health conditions. Follow Kimberly on Facebook or Twitter.

Kristeen Cherney is a freelance writer and PhD candidate who specializes in covering syllabus related to mental disabilities, women’s health, skin health, diabetes, thyroid disease, asthma, and allergies. She’s also currently working on her dissertation, which explores intersections of disability studies and literacy studies. When she’s not researching or writing, Cherney enjoys getting outdoors as much as possible. She also practices yoga and kick-boxing.

Mon, 01 Jan 2024 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.healthline.com/health/at-home-std-test
What Personality Tests Can Say About Your Leadership Style

Clare Moore is the Head of Franchising at Tide Cleaners.

The first time I heard the word “enneagram,” I thought, “Huh?” I’m sure some of you are thinking the same thing right now.

But an enneagram is a word and concept worth becoming familiar with if you’re looking to sharpen your leadership and management skills. Actually, even if you see yourself as more of a follower — even if professional mattress tester would be your dream job — you’d probably still find enneagrams or personality tests in general worth your time. They’re fun, and they tell us a lot about who we are.

An enneagram, for those who don’t already know, is a personality test. If you're familiar with the Myers-Briggs personality test (with groups such as ESJF, ESFJ and INFP), you'll love this. In a nutshell, an enneagram is thought of as a set of nine distinct personality types. You might have some or all of the nine personality types within you, but of the nine, one should really stand out.

I won’t detail everything about the enneagram and why I like it so much; we’d be here all day. But you can find places online that will let you take the enneagram personality test for free, and of course, there are numerous other personality tests that you could engage in.

I would encourage everyone, especially those who want to be business leaders, to take a personality test every so often. Why? I have a few reasons.

Management is all about personalities.

Yes, management is also about allocating resources, and it’s about utilizing time. You could argue that management is about a wide array of other issues, but if you’re a manager, you’re definitely working with different personalities. It can be daunting to get the cynic to be excited about an important project, and it may be tricky to convince the upbeat and optimistic individual to be a little more pragmatic in what can be accomplished with a short deadline — especially if your own personality doesn’t mesh well with some of the people you’re managing.

But when you understand your own personality better, I believe that you’re going to have a much more pleasant time working with other people. There’s an old expression that it’s hard to see the picture when you’re inside the frame. Well, a personality test can supply you a much better idea of what the picture around you looks like.

Of course, if you can get your employees to take personality tests, all the better. But if you at least take your own, you’ll understand yourself better, and you may develop hunches about your co-workers’ personalities and what makes them tick.

Personality tests can showcase your strengths — and weaknesses.

You probably know a lot of your strengths, but it’s nonetheless validating to have a personality test showcase them. But we often don’t know our weaknesses, making us even more vulnerable. As you may notice with the enneagram, each distinct personality type has strengths but also pretty significant weaknesses, which makes sense. Nobody’s perfect.

If you can find a personality test that you like and trust, as I have with the enneagram, you may find yourself more self-aware than you used to be. If suddenly you see that you’re an Individualist and can be, at times, temperamental or self-absorbed, or an Investigator who, if not careful, can be secretive and isolated, that may be quite the wake-up call.

For the cynics reading this (you’re probably a Loyalist or Challenger), obviously, you need to think for yourself and not automatically assume that every personality test is right. But in my experience, personality tests often are extremely insightful. It’s insight that you often won’t pick up elsewhere at work.

After all, your colleagues and employees may not always call out your weaknesses. They don’t want to rock the boat, or they may like you a lot and not want to hurt your feelings. They also may be nervous about possibly opening the door for you to tell them what you think are their flaws. But a personality test won’t hold back. It will tell you exactly what it thinks are your strengths and weaknesses. And that can be valuable information for a manager to have.

And I don’t know about you, but I want to have all of the intel I can possibly have when leading a team. If I better understand how I think, and if I know my team well, then I’m going to understand more how we mesh or don’t gel, and then I can be more receptive to their needs and reassure them when times are tough. But then Peacemakers are like that. If you’re an Achiever or Enthusiast, information about the people you are leading may still be valuable to have, but you may feel that it’s helpful for different reasons.

As we all know, information is everything in management, and it’s hard enough to lead. It’s even harder to know where to go and what to do when you don’t know who you really are.


Forbes Business Council is the foremost growth and networking organization for business owners and leaders. Do I qualify?


Mon, 24 Aug 2020 02:01:00 -0500 Clare Moore en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesbusinesscouncil/2020/08/24/what-personality-tests-can-say-about-your-leadership-style/
On Bainbridge, community questions how much a bike lane may impact a longtime business No result found, try new keyword!As Bainbridge Island plans for creating and improving safety for bicycle commuters, one auto shop worries that a new lane could harm operations. Thu, 04 Jan 2024 06:42:08 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ Toyota-owned automaker halts Japan production after admitting it tampered with safety tests for 30 years

Hong Kong/Tokyo CNN  — 

Daihatsu, the Japanese automaker owned by Toyota, has halted domestic production after admitting it forged the results of safety tests for its vehicles for more than 30 years.

The brand, best known for manufacturing small passenger cars, has stopped output at all four of its Japanese factories as of Tuesday, including one at its headquarters in Osaka, a spokesperson told CNN.

The shutdown will last through at least the end of January, affecting roughly 9,000 employees who work in domestic production, according to the representative.

The move comes as Daihatsu grapples with a deepening safety scandal that Toyota says “has shaken the very foundations of the company.”

Last week, Daihatsu announced an independent third-party committee had found evidence of tampering with safety tests on as many as 64 vehicle models, including those sold under the Toyota brand.

As a result, Daihatsu said it would temporarily suspend all domestic and international vehicle shipments and consult with authorities on how to move forward.

The scandal is another blow to the automaker, which had admitted in April to violating standards on crash tests on more than 88,000 cars, mostly sold under the Toyota brand in countries such as Malaysia and Thailand.

In that case, “the inside lining of the front seat door was improperly modified” for some checks, while Daihatsu did not comply with regulatory requirements for certain side collision tests, it said in a statement at the time.

In May, the automaker said it had discovered more wrongdoing, revealing that it had submitted incorrect data for collision tests on two hybrid electric vehicles. The company said at the time it had stopped shipping and selling those models.

The latest probe further threatens the company’s reputation. According to a report released last Wednesday by the investigative committee, 174 more cases were found of Daihatsu manipulating data, making false statements or improperly tinkering with vehicles to pass safety certification tests.

The oldest case was traced back to 1989, with a noted increase in the number of cases since 2014, the report said.

Toyota shares dropped 4% in Tokyo last Thursday following the news. The stock has since pared some losses.

In response, the Japanese behemoth has promised to shake up its subsidiary, saying in a statement last week that “fundamental reform is needed to revitalize Daihatsu.”

“This will be an extremely significant task that cannot be accomplished overnight,” Toyota said, adding that it would require a sweeping review of management, operations, and how the unit was structured.

“We recognize the extreme gravity of the fact that Daihatsu’s neglect of the certification process has shaken the very foundations of the company as an automobile manufacturer,” Toyota added.

Tue, 26 Dec 2023 18:57:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.cnn.com/2023/12/27/business/daihatsu-japan-production-halt-safety-tests-intl-hnk/index.html
MS Dhoni Cheated Of Rs 15 Crore By Former Business Partners, Files Case No result found, try new keyword!Former Team India captain MS Dhoni has filed a criminal case against two of his former business partners, claiming that they duped him of around Rs 16 crore by not honouring a contract to establish ... Fri, 05 Jan 2024 02:55:56 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/




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