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Exam Code: Series7 General Securities Representative Series 7 information source November 2023 by team

Series7 General Securities Representative Series 7

Exam ID : Series7

Exam Title : General Securities Representative Series 7

Questions : 135 (125 Scored)

Unscored : 10

Duration : 3 hrs 45 min.

The Series 7 test is designed to assess the competency of entry-level General Securities Representatives. The Series 7 test seeks to measure the degree to which each candidate possesses the knowledge, skills and abilities needed to perform the critical functions of a General Securities Registered Representative. In order to obtain registration as a General Securities Representative, candidates must pass both the Series 7 test and a general knowledge co-requisite, the Securities Industry Essentials (SIE) exam.

Seeks Business for the Broker-Dealer from Customers and Potential Customers 7%

Opens Accounts After Obtaining and Evaluating Customers Financial Profile and Investment Objectives 9%

Provides Customers with Information About Investments, Makes Suitable Recommendations, Transfers Assets and Maintains Appropriate Records 73%

Obtains and Verifies Customers Purchase and Sales Instructions and Agreements; Processes, Completes and Confirms Transactions 11%

The test is administered via computer. A tutorial on how to take the test is provided prior to taking the exam. Each
candidates test includes 10 additional, unidentified pretest items that do not contribute toward the candidate's
score. The pretest items are randomly distributed throughout the exam. Therefore, each candidates test consists of
a total of 135 items (125 scored and 10 unscored). There is no penalty for guessing. Therefore, candidates should
attempt to answer all items. Candidates will be allowed 3 hours and 45 minutes to complete the Series 7 exam.
All candidate test scores are placed on a common scale using a statistical adjustment process known as equating.
Equating scores to a common scale accounts for the slight variations in difficulty that may exist among the different
sets of test items that candidates receive. This allows for a fair comparison of scores and ensures that every
candidate is held to the same passing standard regardless of which set of test items they received.
Candidates are not permitted to bring reference materials to their testing session. Severe penalties are imposed on
candidates who cheat or attempt to cheat on FINRA-administered exams.

Course Outline, test Syllabus

Function 1: Seeks Business for the Broker-Dealer from Customers and Potential

1.1 Contacts current and potential customers in person and by telephone, mail and electronic
means; develops promotional and advertising materials and seeks appropriate approvals to
distribute marketing materials

Knowledge of:

 Standards and required approvals of public communications

 Types of communications (e.g., retail, institutional, correspondence)

 Seminars, lectures and other group forum requirements

 Product specific advertisements and disclosures

 Investment company products and variable contracts

 Options-related communications; options disclosure document (ODD)

 Municipal securities

 Research reports (e.g., quiet periods, distribution, third-party research)

 Government securities, collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs), certificates of deposit (CDs)


– Communications with the Public

– Communications with the Public about Variable Life Insurance and Variable Annuities

– Use of Investment Companies Rankings in Retail Communications

– Requirements for the Use of Bond Mutual Fund Volatility Ratings

– Communications with the Public about Collateralized Mortgage Obligations (CMOs)

– Options Communications

– Members Responsibilities Regarding Deferred Variable Annuities

– Options

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Act of 1933

Section 5 – Prohibitions Relating to Interstate Commerce and the Mails

156 – Investment Company Sales Literature

482 – Advertising by an Investment Company as Satisfying Requirements of Section 10

498 – Summary Prospectuses for Open-End Management Investment Companies

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

15c2-12 – Municipal Securities Disclosure

15c3-3 – Customer Protection — Reserves and Custody of Securities

Cboe Rules

9.8 – Addressing of Communications to Customers

9.9 – Delivery of Current Options Disclosure Documents

9.15 – Options Communications


G-21 – Advertising

1.2 Describes investment products and services to current and potential customers with the intent of soliciting business
Knowledge of:

 Process for bringing new issues to market (e.g., due diligence, registration statement, preliminary
prospectus, final prospectus, underwriting agreement, selling group agreement, blue-sky laws and

 Regulatory requirements for initial public offerings (IPOs) (e.g., restrictions on prospecting or soliciting,
allowable communications with the public)

 Primary financing for municipal securities (e.g., competitive sale, negotiated sale, private offering, advance

 Syndicate formation and operational procedures (e.g., purpose of syndicate bid, roles and responsibilities of
underwriters, selling group concession and reallowance)

 Pricing practices and components of underwriters spread and determination of underwriters compensation
and selling practices

 Prospectus requirements (e.g., timeliness of information, preliminary prospectus (red herring), final

 Information required in a registration statement and offering material on new issue (e.g., in pre-filing period,
in cooling-off period, in post-registration period)

 Official statements, preliminary official statements, notice of sale for municipal securities

 Qualified institutional buyer (QIB) and accredited investor

 Qualification requirements for Regulation A offerings (e.g., filing of abbreviated registration statement and
offering circular

 Regulation D offerings (e.g., exemption from SEC registration, access to capital markets, accredited

 Securities and transactions exempted from registration, including Section 3(a)(11) of the Securities Act of
1933 and Rule 147 thereunder (i.e., intrastate offering)

 Regulatory requirements for private placements or resales

 Nonregistered foreign securities sold to institutions qualified in the U.S.

 Foreign securities prohibited from being sold to U.S. investors


– Networking Arrangements Between Members and Financial Institutions

– Tape Recording of Registered Persons by Certain Firms

– Corporate Financing Rule — Underwriting Terms and Arrangements

– Public Offerings of Securities with Conflicts of Interest

– Restrictions on the Purchase and Sale of Initial Equity Public Offerings

– New Issue Allocations and Distributions

– Sale of Securities in a Fixed Price Offering

– Disclosure of Price and Concessions in Selling Agreements

– Notification Requirements for Offering Participants

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Act of 1933

Section 3 – Exempted Securities

Section 4 – Exempted Transactions

– Communications Not Deemed a Prospectus

– Options Material Not Deemed a Prospectus

– Persons Deemed Not To Be Engaged in a Distribution and Therefore Not Underwriters

– Private Resales of Securities to Institutions

– Reclassification of Securities, Mergers, Consolidations and Acquisitions of Assets

– Intrastate Offers and Sales

– Post-filing Free Writing Prospectuses in Connection with Certain Registered Offerings

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

– Prohibition of Use of Manipulative or Deceptive Devices or Contrivances with Respect to Certain Securities Exempted from Registration

– Employment of Manipulative and Deceptive Devices by Brokers or Dealers

– Purchases of Certain Equity Securities by the Issuer and Others

– Delivery of Prospectus

– Records To Be Made by Certain Exchange Members, Brokers and Dealers

Regulation A – Conditional Small Issues Exemption

Regulation C – Registration

– Delayed or Continuous Offering and Sale of Securities

– Contents of Prospectus Used After Nine Months

– Prospectus for Use Prior to Effective Date

– Prospectus in a Registration Statement at the Time of Effectiveness

– Prospectus in a Registration Statement After Effective Date

– Conditions to Permissible Post-filing Free Writing Prospectuses

Regulation D – Rules Governing the Limited Offer and Sale of Securities Without Registration Under the Securities Act of 1933

– Use of Regulation D

– Definitions and Terms Used in Regulation D

– General Conditions to be Met

– Filing of Notice of Sale

– Exemption for Limited Offerings and Sales of Securities Not Exceeding $5,000,000

– Exemption for Limited Offers and Sales Without Regard to Dollar Amount of Offering

– Disqualifying Provision Relating to Exemptions under Rules 504 and 506

– Insignificant Deviations from a Term, Condition or Requirement of Regulation D

Regulation M

Regulation S – Rules Governing Offers and Sales Made Outside the United States Without Registration Under the Securities Act of 1933

Trust Indenture Act of 1939

MSRB Rules

– Primary Offering Practices

– Transactions with Employees and Partners of Other Municipal Securities Professionals

– Disclosures in Connection with Primary Offerings

– CUSIP Numbers, New Issue, and Market Information Requirements

– Solicitation of Municipal Securities Business

Function 2: Opens Accounts After Obtaining and Evaluating Customers Financial

Profile and Investment Objectives

2.1 Informs customers of the types of accounts and their appropriateness and provides

disclosures regarding various account types and restrictions

Knowledge of:

 Types of accounts (e.g., pattern day trading, prime brokerage, delivery verses payment/receive versus
payment (DVP/RVP), advisory or fee-based)

 Account registration types (e.g., tenants in common (TIC), community property, sole proprietorship,
partnership, unincorporated associations)

 Requirements for opening customer accounts

 Retirement plans and other tax advantaged accounts

 Transfers, rollovers, eligibility, distribution strategies and taxation (e.g., types of allowable contributions,
distribution options, taxation of distribution at retirement, age restrictions for distributions, permissible

 Employer-sponsored plans and ERISA (e.g., 457, defined benefit, profit-sharing, stock options and
stock purchase, non-qualified deferred compensation programs)

 Wealth events (e.g., inheritance)

 Account registration changes and internal transfers


2270 – Day-trading Risk Disclosure Statement

2130 – Approval Procedures for Day-trading Accounts

4512 – Customer Account Information

4514 – Authorization Records for Negotiable Instruments Drawn from a Customers Account

4515 – Approval and Documentation of Changes in Account Name or Designation

Cboe Rule

9.1 – Opening of Accounts

Internal Revenue Code

219 – Retirement Savings

415 – Limitations on Benefits and Contributions Under Qualified Plans

529 – Qualified Tuition Programs

530 – Coverdell Education Savings Accounts

Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA)

2.2 Obtains and updates customer information and documentation, including required legal

documents and identifies and escalates suspicious activity

Knowledge of:

 Customer screening (e.g., customer identification program (CIP), know-your-customer (KYC), domestic or
foreign residency and/or citizenship, corporate insiders, employees of broker-dealers or self-regulatory
organizations (SROs))

 Information security and privacy regulations (e.g., initial privacy disclosures to customers, opt-out notices,
disclosure limitations, exceptions)

 Account authorizations (e.g., power of attorney (POA), trust documents, corporate resolutions, trading
authority, discretionary account documents)


408T – Discretionary Power in Customers Accounts

2090 – Know Your Customer

3260 – Discretionary Accounts

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Section 3(a)(35) – Definitions and Application of Title – “Investment Discretion”

Regulation S-P – Privacy of Consumer Financial Information and Safeguarding Personal Information

Cboe Rule

9.4 – Discretionary Accounts

2.3 Makes reasonable efforts to obtain customer investment profile information including, but
not limited to, the customer's other security holdings, financial situation and needs, tax
status and investment objectives

Knowledge of:

 Essential facts regarding customers and customer relationships

 Financial factors relevant to assessing a customers investment profile

 Security holdings, other assets and liabilities, annual income, net worth, tax considerations

 Other considerations (e.g., age, marital status, dependents, employment, investment experience, home ownership and financing, employee stock options, insurance, liquidity needs)

 Investment objectives (e.g., preservation of capital, income, growth, speculation)

 Reasonable-basis suitability, customer-specific suitability and quantitative suitability

 Investment strategies and recommendations to hold

 Verification of investor accreditation and sophistication


2111 – Suitability

2214 – Requirements for the Use of Investment Analysis Tools


G-19 – Suitability of Recommendations and Transactions

2.4 Obtains supervisory approvals required to open accounts

Knowledge of:

 Required review, approvals and documentation for account opening and maintenance

 Physical receipt, delivery and safeguarding of cash or cash equivalents, checks and securities

 Circumstances for refusing or restricting activity in an account or closing accounts


3110 – Supervision

3120 – Supervisory Control System

Cboe Rule

9.2 – Supervision of Accounts


G-27 – Supervision

Function 3: Provides Customers with Information About Investments, Makes Suitable

Recommendations, Transfers Assets and Maintains Appropriate Records

3.1 Provides customers with information about investment strategies, risks and rewards, and communicates relevant market, investment and research data to customers

Knowledge of:

 Customer-specific factors that generally affect the selection of securities (i.e., customers investment profile,
including the customers risk tolerance, investment time horizon and investment objectives, liquidity needs)

 Portfolio or account analysis and its application to security selection (e.g., diversification, asset allocation
principles, concentration, volatility, potential tax ramifications)

 Portfolio theory (e.g., alpha and beta considerations, Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM))

 Delivery of annual reports and notices of corporate actions (e.g., dividends, splits, odd lot tenders)

 Fundamental analysis of financial statements and types of financial statements included in an annual report,
importance of footnotes, material risk disclosures and key terms (e.g., assets, liabilities, capital, cash flow,
income, earnings per share (EPS), book value, shareholders' equity, depreciation, depletion, goodwill)

 Balance sheet and methods of inventory valuation: last-in, first out (LIFO), first-in, first-out (FIFO) and
methods of depreciation

 Income statement and calculations derived from an income statement: earnings before interest and taxes
(EBIT); earnings before taxes (EBT); net profit; and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and
amortization (EBITDA)

 Principal tools to measure financial health

 Liquidity: working capital, current ratio, quick assets, acid test ratio

 Risk of bankruptcy: bond ratio, debt-to-equity ratio

 Efficient use of assets: inventory turnover ratio, cash flow

 Profitability: margin-of-profit ratio, net profit ratio, asset coverage and safety of income (i.e., net asset
value (NAV) per bond, bond interest coverage, book value per share)

 EPS: fully diluted EPS, price-earnings (P/E) ratio, dividend payout ratio, current yield

 Competitiveness (comparative performance): return on common equity

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

14e-3 – Transactions in Securities on the Basis of Material, Nonpublic Information in the Context of
Tender Offers

14e-4 – Prohibited Transactions in Connection with Partial Tender Offers
Cboe Rule

9.3 – Suitability of Recommendations

3.2 Reviews and analyzes customers' investment profiles and product options to determine
suitable investment recommendations

Knowledge of:

Equity securities

 Types of stock (e.g., authorized, issued, outstanding, Treasury stock, stated value)

 Characteristics of common stock

 Rights of common stockholders (e.g., pre-emptive right, pro rata share of dividends, access to
corporate books, voting power (statutory, cumulative, nonvoting), residual claims on corporate assets)

 Spinoffs

 Stock acquired through a consolidation or transfer

 Penny stocks and rules associated with penny stock transactions

 Characteristics of preferred stock

 Types of preferred stock (e.g., cumulative, non-cumulative, participating, nonparticipating, convertible,
callable, adjustable-rate and variable-rate)

 Rights of preferred stockholders (e.g., preference upon corporate dissolution, dividend payment,
conversions, sinking fund provisions)

 Rights and warrants: origination, exercise terms, relationship of subscription price to market price of
underlying stock, anti-dilution agreement

 Electronic exchanges or auction markets (e.g., electronic communications networks (ECNs), over-thecounter (OTC), dark pools of liquidity)

 Types and characteristics of non-U.S. market securities (e.g., American Depositary Receipts (ADRs),
corporate equity)

 Tax treatment of equity securities transactions

 Capital gains and losses, dividend distributions (qualified and non-qualified), wash sales, holding

 Determination of net long-term and short-term gains or losses

 When-issued securities, securities acquired through conversion

 Calculation of cost basis per share on: purchases, exchange of convertibles for common shares, stock
dividends and stock rights, inherited or gifted securities

 Cost valuation: FIFO, LIFO, identified shares

Packaged products
 Investment companies, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), unit investment trusts (UITs)

 Types of mutual funds: equity, fixed income, money market, interval

 Structure of investment companies (e.g., open-end and closed-end funds)

 Fund objectives (e.g., value, growth, income, balanced, international, sector, life cycle)

 Characteristics of:

 Open-end funds: e.g., NAV, forward pricing, offering price, exchange privileges within families of
funds, fees and expenses: no load, load (front-end, back-end), distribution fees, management fees,
nature of 12b-1 fees

 Closed-end funds: distributed in primary market at IPO price, traded in secondary market

 Sales practices (e.g., dollar-cost averaging (DCA), computing sales charge, breakpoints)

 Redemption (e.g., redemption price, payout or withdrawal plans, conversion privilege, restrictions,
contingent deferred sales charge, tenders)

 Tax treatment of mutual funds

 Reinvestment of dividends and capital gain distributions

 Charges and expenses

 Variable life insurance/annuity contracts

 Characteristics and insurance features (e.g., minimum guarantees, death benefits, living benefits,

 Separate accounts (e.g., purpose, management of portfolio, investment policies, performance of

 Valuation of a variable annuity contract (e.g., accumulation units, surrender value, annuitization units)

 Purchasing or exchanging variable annuities (e.g., immediate annuity, charges, fees, penalties, right of
accumulation (ROA), waiver of premium)

 Annuitization: types of election, variable payout, assumed interest rate, relationship between assumed
interest rate and genuine rate of return

 Tax treatment of variable annuity contracts during accumulation period and annuity period and taxation
at surrender of contract

 Real estate investment trusts (REITs)

 Structure (e.g., finite number of shares, distributed in primary market at IPO price, traded in secondary
market, premiums and discounts to NAV)

 Types and characteristics (e.g., equity REIT, mortgage REIT, hybrid REIT)

 Tax treatment (e.g., dividends, capital gains, distributions)

 Direct participation programs (DPPs)

 General characteristics

 Structures (e.g., limited partnerships (e.g., roles and duties of general partners vs. limited
partners), limited liability companies, corporations that have tax pass-through exemption from the

 Tax treatment (e.g., flow-through of income, expenses and tax liability, real estate depreciation, oil
and gas tax advantages)

 Types of DPPs (e.g., real estate, oil and gas, small-cap debt and equity, business development
companies (BDCs), equipment leasing) and their investment advantages, risks and tax implications

 Types of DPP offerings (i.e., private placements and public offerings)

 Evaluation of DPPs (e.g., economic soundness of the program, expertise of the general partner, basic
objectives of the program; start-up costs, leverage and other revenue considerations)

 Listed options and their characteristics (e.g., contract specifications and adjustments, dividends,
exercise/assignment, settlement date, opening and closing transactions, values (premium, intrinsic and
time), volume, open interest, position limits, exercise limits)

 The Options Clearing Corporation (OCC)

 American-style and European-style

 Long-term Equity AnticiPation Securities (LEAPS)

 Basic strategies (e.g., covered writing and hedging for equity, index, foreign currency and yield-based options)

 Protective put for equity and index options

 Covered call and put writing for equity options

 Advanced strategies (e.g., spreads, straddles, combinations, uncovered writing)

 Long (debit) and short (credit) spreads

 Straddle/combination for equity and index options

 Uncovered (naked) call or put writing for equity, index and yield-based options

 Profit and loss calculations, break-even points, economics of positions

 Tax treatment of option transactions (equity, index, foreign currency, yield-based)

Debt Securities

 Types of debt securities and money market instruments (e.g., corporate commercial paper, brokered CDs,
Eurodollar bond, variable-rate preferreds)

 Characteristics: structure, risks and rewards, call provisions

 Structured products (e.g., equity-linked securities, exchange-traded notes (ETNs))

 Types and characteristics of non-U.S. market securities (e.g., sovereign and corporate debt)

 Types of yields (e.g., coupon (nominal), current, yield to maturity (YTM), yield to call (YTC), yield to worst
and discount yield, calculations and relationship to price)

 Bond ratings

 Tax implications of taxable debt securities, including original issue discount (OID) rules, interest, principal,
premiums, discounts, and capital gains and losses

Corporate bonds

 Types of corporate bonds (e.g., mortgage bonds, equipment trust certificates, debentures, step coupon
bonds, zero-coupon bonds, convertible bonds, high-yield bonds, income bonds) and their characteristics

 Convertible bonds: general characteristics, (e.g., conversion privilege, fixed versus variable, conversion ratio
or price, calculation of parity price of underlying security, arbitrage, factors influencing conversion)

Municipal securities

 General characteristics of municipal fund securities, method of quotations (e.g., yield/basis price, dollar
price), interest rate, payment periods, denominations, diversity of maturities (e.g., serial, term) and legal
opinion (purpose and contents)

 Analysis and diversification of municipal investments: geographical, type and rating

 Analysis of general obligation (GO) bonds, including: characteristics of the issuer, nature of the issuers
debt, factors affecting the issuers ability to pay, municipal debt ratios

 Analysis of revenue bonds, including feasibility studies, sources of revenue, security (protective covenants
of bond indenture), financial reports and outside audits, restrictions on the issuance of additional bonds, flow
of funds, earnings coverage, sources of credit information, rating services, credit enhancements

 Purpose and characteristics of specific types of municipal securities:

 Types of municipal bonds (e.g., GO bonds, limited tax GO bonds and notes, revenue bonds, short-term
municipal obligations (e.g., tax anticipation notes (TANs), bond anticipation notes (BANs), revenue
anticipation notes (RANs), tax-exempt commercial paper, grant anticipation notes (GANs), tax and
revenue anticipation notes (TRANs)))

 Special tax, special assessment, moral obligation, advance or pre-refunded, double-barreled, taxable
(e.g., Build America bonds), OIDs, zero-coupon (capital appreciation) bonds, certificates of participation
(COPs), alternative minimum tax (AMT), lease revenue, variable rate securities, auction rate securities

 Municipal fund securities including 529 college savings plans, local government investment pools
(LGIPs), ABLE accounts (e.g., change in beneficiary, rollovers, ownership, tax consequences of
unqualified withdrawals)

 Call features (e.g., par or premium, optional, mandatory, partial call, sinking fund, extraordinary calls,
make whole calls), advantages/disadvantages to issuers and investors

 Put or tender options

 Refunding methods: direct exchange versus sale of new issue, advance refunding, refunding at call
dates/current refunding, escrowed to maturity, crossover refunding

 Factors affecting the marketability of municipal bonds: rating, maturity, call features, interest (coupon) rate,
block size, liquidity (ability to sell the bond in the secondary market), dollar/yield price, issuer name (local or
national reputation), credit enhancement, credit and liquidity support, denominations

 Pricing of municipal securities and other mathematical calculations: dollar price, accrued interest (regular
coupon, odd first coupon), computations of accrued interest (30/360), amortization of premium, accretion of
discount, relationship of bond prices to changes in maturity, coupon, various yield calculations (taxable
equivalent yield, net yield after capital gains tax, current yield, YTC on premium bonds) value of basis point,
in default,

 Tax treatment of municipal securities: securities bought at a discount or premium in the secondary market,
OID, federal income tax status, state and local tax status, computation of taxable equivalent yield, accrued
interest, AMT, bonds, taxable bonds, bank qualified bonds
Registered hedge funds and fund of funds

 Structure (e.g., private placements, registered, exemption from registration under the Investment Company
Act of 1940, blind pool/ blank check)

 Characteristics (e.g., limited or no liquidity, limited available information, lock-up provisions, charges and
expenses, tangible assets, wide array of investment styles, models and vehicles)

 Tax treatment of distributions

Asset-backed securities

 Collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs)

 Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs)

 Characteristics (e.g., indenture, maturities, form of ownership, interest payment periods, call and put
features, calculation of accrued interest, and specific characteristics (e.g., maturity, type of collateral, priority
of claim, call provisions))

U.S. Treasury securities

 Treasury bills, notes, bonds

 Treasury receipts (Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal Securities (STRIPS)/zero-coupon)

 Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS)

 Characteristics (e.g., types, maturities, denominations, payment of interest)

U.S. government agency securities

 Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA)

 Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA)

 Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC)

 Student Loan Marketing Association (SLMA)

 Characteristics: types, maturities, denominations, primary dealers, distribution, issue form, quotations, passthrough, calculating a spread, pricing, payment of interest and principal


2114 – Recommendations to Customers in OTC Equity Securities

2121 – Fair Prices and Commissions

2122 – Charges for Services Performed

2124 – Net Transactions with Customers

2310 – Direct Participation Programs

2320 – Variable Contracts of an Insurance Company

2341 – Investment Company Securities

2350 Series – Trading in Index Warrants, Currency Index Warrants, and Currency Warrants
4210(f)(2) – Definitions Related to Options, Currency Warrants, Currency Index Warrants and Stock Index
Warrant Transactions

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Section 9(a) – Prohibition Against Manipulation of Security Prices (Transactions Relating to Purchase
or Sale of Security)

Exemption of Certain Issuers from Section 15(D) of the Act

3a51-1 – Definition of "Penny Stock"

15g-1 – Exemptions for Certain Transactions

15g-2 – Penny Stock Disclosure Document Relating to the Penny Stock Market

15g-5 – Disclosure of Compensation of Associated Persons in Connection with Penny Stock Transactions

15g-9 – Sales Practice Requirements for Certain Low-priced Securities

Investment Company Act of 1940

Section 2(a) – General Definitions

Section 10 – Affiliations or Interest of Directors, Officers and Employees

Section 12(a) – Functions and Activities of Investment Companies (Purchase of Securities on Margin;

Joint Trading Accounts; Short Sales of Securities; Exceptions)

Section 13(a) – Changes in Investment Policy (Prohibited Actions for Registered Investment

Section 15(a) – Investment Advisory and Underwriting Contracts (Written Contract to Serve or Act as
Investment Adviser; Contents)

Section 16(a) – Changes in Board of Directors; Provisions Relative to Strict Trusts (Election of

Section 17(a) – Transactions of Certain Affiliated Persons and Underwriters (Prohibited Transactions)

Section 18 – Capital Structure

Section 19 – Dividends

Section 22 – Distribution, Redemption, and Repurchase of Redeemable Securities

Section 23 – Distribution and Repurchase of Securities: Closed-end Companies

Section 30 – Periodic and Other Reports; Reports of Affiliated Persons

Section 35 – Unlawful Representations and Names

Section 36 – Breach of Fiduciary Duty

Section 37 – Larceny and Embezzlement

12b-1 – Distribution of Shares by Registered Open-end Management Investment Company
Cboe Rules

1.1 – Definitions

4.5 (f) – Long-term Equity Option Series (LEAPS®)

4.6 – Adjustments

6.20 (e) – Exercise of American-style Index Options

6.21 – Allocation of Exercise Notices

8.1 – Just and Equitable Principles of Trade

8.3 – Position Limits

8.31 – Position Limits for Broad-based Index Options

8.32 – Position Limits for Industry Index Options

8.41– Position Limits — Interest Rate Options

8.42 (b) – Exercise Limits — Index Options

8.42 (f) – Exercise Limits — Interest Rate Options

11.1 – Exercise of Option Contracts

MSRB Rules

D-12 – Definition of Municipal Fund Securities

G-13 – Quotations Related to Municipal Securities

G-17 – Conduct of Municipal Securities Activities

G-30 – Prices and Commissions

G-45 – Reporting of Information on Municipal Fund Securities

Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)

REIT Modernization Act of 1999

Internal Revenue Code

301 – Distributions of Property

316 – Dividend Defined

856 – Definition of Real Estate Investment Trust

858 – Dividends Paid by Real Estate Investment Trust After Close of Tax Year

1035 – Certain exchanges of Insurance Policies

1091 – Loss from Wash Sales of Stock or Securities

1233 – Gains and Losses from Short Sales

1256 – Contracts Marked to Market

3.3 Provides appropriate disclosures regarding investment products and their characteristics,
risks, services and expenses

Knowledge of:

 Required disclosures on specific transactions (e.g., material aspects of investments, statement of additional
information, material events, control relationships)

 Types of investment risk (e.g., call, systematic and nonsystematic, reinvestment, timing)

 Types of investment returns (e.g., tax-exempt interest, return of capital)

 Costs and fees associated with investments (e.g., markups, commissions, net transactions, share classes,
non-discretionary fee-based accounts, surrender charges, 12b-1 fees, mortality and expense charges in
variable products, soft dollar arrangements)

 Tax considerations (e.g., unification of gift and estate taxes, lifetime exclusion, annual gift limit, taxation of
securities received as a gift, inheritance of securities)

 Market analysis considerations (e.g., market sentiment, market indexes, options volatility, put/call ratio,
market momentum, available funds, trading volume, short interest, index futures)

 Market analysis considerations for municipal securities, including Bond Buyer indexes (e.g., 11 GO Bonds
Index, Municipal Bond Index (40 Bond), 20 GO Bonds Index)

 Technical analysis of basic chart patterns and key terms (e.g., trend lines, saucer/inverted saucer, headand-shoulders/inverted head-and-shoulders, breakouts, resistance/support levels, moving averages,
consolidation, stabilization, overbought and oversold)

 Disclosure of material events effecting retail sales of municipal bonds


2165 – Financial Exploitation of Specified Adults

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

Section 28(e) – Effect on Existing Law (Exchange, Broker, and Dealer Commissions; Brokerage and
Research Services)

Internal Revenue Code

2503 – Taxable Gifts

3.4 Communicates with customers about account information, processes requests and retains

Knowledge of:

 Customer confirmations and statements, including: components, timing, mailings to third parties, and

 Account value, profits and losses, realized and unrealized

 Withdrawals and tenders

 Customer account records (e.g., updating for change of address, sending required notifications, investment

 Transferring accounts between broker-dealers (e.g., Automated Customer Account Transfer Service
(ACATS), transfer agent and procedures)

 Books and records retention requirements

 Account closure procedures


409T – Statements of Accounts to Customers

2231 – Customer Account Statements

2232 – Customer Confirmations

2273 – Educational Communication Related to Recruitment Practices and Account Transfers

4510 – Books and Records Requirements

11870 – Customer Account Transfer Contracts

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

10b-10 – Confirmation of Transactions

15g-6 – Account Statements for Penny Stock Customers

17a-4 – Records To Be Preserved by Certain Exchange Members, Brokers and Dealers

Regulation FD – Disclosure Requirements

Cboe Rules

6.1 – Reporting duties

7.1 – Maintenance, Retention and Furnishing of Books, Records and Other Information

7.2 – Reports of Uncovered Short Positions

7.3 – Financial Reports

7.4 – Audits

7.5 – Automated Submission of Trading Data

7.7 – Risk Analysis of Market-maker Accounts

7.8 – Risk Analysis of Portfolio Margin Accounts

7.9 – Regulatory Cooperation

9.5 – Confirmation to Customers

9.6 – Statements of Accounts to Customers

9.14 – Transfer of Accounts

MSRB Rules

G-8 – Books and Records To Be Made by Brokers, Dealers, and Municipal Securities Dealers and Municipal

G-9 – Preservation of Records

G-15 – Confirmation, Clearance, Settlement and Other Uniform Practice Requirements with Respect to
Transactions with Customers

G-26 – Customer Account Transfers

Function 4: Obtains and Verifies Customers Purchase and Sales Instructions and
Agreements; Processes, Completes and Confirms Transactions

4.1 Provides current quotes

Knowledge of:

 Orders, offerings and transactions in customer accounts (e.g., at advertised yield)

 Trade execution activities

 Types of securities quotes (e.g., firm, subject)

 Types of orders (e.g., all-or-none (AON), fill-or-kill (FOK), immediate-or-cancel (IOC), not-held, market-onclose (MOC), spread, straddle)

 Short sale requirements and strategies (e.g., order marking, locate, borrow and delivery, speculation,
hedging, arbitrage)

 Securities lending (e.g., hard to borrow, fail to deliver)

 Best execution obligations


4320 – Short Sale Delivery Requirements

4551 – Requirements for Alternative Trading Systems to Record and Transmit Order and Execution
Information for Security Futures

5210 – Publication of Transactions and Quotations

5220 – Offers and Stated Prices

5260 – Prohibition on Transactions, Publication of Quotations, or Publication of Indications of Interest During
Trading Halts

5290 – Order Entry and Execution Practices

5310 – Best Execution and Interpositioning

6100 Series – Quoting and Trading in NMS stocks

6110 – Trading Otherwise than on an Exchange

6120 – Trading Halts

6121 – Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility

6130 – Transactions Related to Initial Public Offerings

6400 Series – Quoting and Trading in OTC Equity Securities

6500 Series – OTC Bulletin Board® Service

6600 Series – OTC Reporting Facility

11860 – COD Orders

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

15c2-7 – Identification of Quotations

15c2-11 – Initiation or Resumption of Quotations Without Specified Information

15g-3 – Broker or Dealer Disclosure of Quotations and Other Information Relating to the Penny Stock

15g-4 – Disclosure of Compensation to Brokers or Dealers

Regulation ATS – Alternative Trading Systems

Regulation SHO – Regulation of Short Sales

Cboe Rules

5.33 – Certain Types of Orders Defined

5.7 – Required Order Information

NYSE Rules

7.12 – Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility

7.31 – Orders and Modifiers

7.35 Series – Auctions

7.37 – Order Execution and Routing

54 – Dealings on the Floor-persons

64 -- Bonds, Rights and 100-Share-Unit Stocks

71 – Precedence of Highest Bid and Lowest Offer

72(d) – Priority of Cross Transactions and Supplemental Material .10 – Definition of a Block

74 – Publicity of Bids and Offers

75 – Disputes as to Bids and Offers

76 – “Crossing” Orders

77 – Prohibited Dealings and Activities

80B – Trading Halts Due to Extraordinary Market Volatility

104 – Dealings and Responsibilities of DMMs

123A – Miscellaneous Requirements

123D(d) – Initial Listing Regulatory Halt

127 – Block Crosses Outside of the Prevailing NYSE Quotation

1000 – Automatic Executions

1001 – Execution of Automatically Executing Orders

1002 – Availability of Automatic Execution Feature

1004 – Election of Buy Minus Zero Plus Orders

4.2 Processes and confirms customers transactions pursuant to regulatory requirements and
informs customers of delivery obligations and settlement procedures

Knowledge of:

 Information required on an order ticket (e.g., symbol, account number, price)

 Market making activities: role and functions of the designated market maker, listing requirements, limitations
on trading during significant market declines, principal transactions, agency transactions, quotations (e.g.,
firm, subject or otherwise qualified, bid wanted, offer wanted, size obligations), SEC order handling rules,
transaction reporting

 Use of automated execution systems

 Regulatory reporting requirements (e.g., Order Audit Trail System (OATS), Trade Reporting and
Compliance Engine (TRACE), Electronic Municipal Market Access (EMMA), trade reporting facility (TRF),
Real-Time Transaction Reporting System (RTRS))

 Delivery requirements

 Good delivery (e.g., certificates in possession of the seller, certificates in the name of two persons,
deceased owner, stock or bond powers, mutilated certificates, due bills, DVP/RVP, book entry securities,
stock certificate, endorsements, denominations, bearer, registrar, registered, Direct Registration System

 Settlement of transactions (e.g., security-specific requirements, when-, as- and if-issued, ex-rights, exdividends, due bill checks, negotiated settlements, option exercise/assignment, dont know (DK),


5330 – Adjustment of Orders

6000 Series – Quotation, Order, and Transaction Reporting Facilities

6140 – Other Trading Practices

6700 Series – Trade Reporting and Compliance Engine

7000 Series – Clearing, Transactions and Order Data Requirements, and Facility Charges

11000 Series – Uniform Practice Code

SEC Rules and Regulations

Securities Exchange Act of 1934

15c6-1 – Settlement Cycle

Cboe Rules

6.20 – Exercise of Options Contracts

6.21 – Allocation of Exercise Notices

6.22 – Delivery and Payment

MSRB Rules

G-12 – Uniform Practice

G-14 – Reports of Sales or Purchases

Nasdaq Stock Market Rules

4600 Series – Requirements for Nasdaq Market Makers and Other Nasdaq Market Center Participants

4750 Series – Nasdaq Market Center-Execution Services

NYSE Rules

63 – “When Issued”— “When Distributed”

130 Series – Comparison and Exchange of Contracts

133 – Comparison—Non-cleared Transactions

135 – Differences and Omissions—Cleared Transactions (“DKs”)

136 – Comparison—Transactions Excluded from a Clearance

4.3 Informs the appropriate supervisor and assists in the resolution of discrepancies, disputes,
errors and complaints

Knowledge of:

 Erroneous reports, errors, cancels and rebills

 Requirements for addressing customer complaints and consequences of improper handling of complaints

 Methods of formal resolution (e.g., arbitration, mediation, litigation)

 Form U4 reporting requirements


4513 – Records of Written Customer Complaints

4530 – Reporting Requirements

8000 Series – Investigations and Sanctions

11892 – Clearly Erroneous Transactions in Exchange-listed Securities

11893 – Clearly Erroneous Transactions in OTC Equity Securities

12000 Series – Code of Arbitration Procedure for Customer Disputes

13000 Series – Code of Arbitration Procedure for Industry Disputes

14000 Series – Code of Mediation Procedure

Cboe Rules

5.11 – Price Binding Despite Erroneous Report

9.17 – Customer Complaints

4.4 Addresses margin issues

Knowledge of:

 Requirements and characteristics of margin accounts (e.g., minimums, approvals, ineligible accounts,
eligible/ineligible securities), and required disclosures (e.g., interest rate disclosure and hypothecation)

 Product or strategy specific requirements (e.g., Treasury securities, mutual funds)

 Calculations in margin accounts (e.g., long and/or short positions)

 Initial margin: long market value, short market value, debit balance, credit balance, initial Regulation T
margin requirement on long or short positions, Regulation T requirement for established accounts, loan
value, excess equity, buying power of deposited securities

 Maintenance: additional purchases, sales (long or short), cash withdrawals, stock withdrawals, simultaneous
purchases and sales, restrictions, liquidation to meet a margin/maintenance call, deposit of cash or
securities required to meet a margin or maintenance call

 Special memorandum account (SMA): balance, buying power, prohibited use of SMA, effect of excess
equity, deposit of marginable securities, receipt of cash dividends and earned interest, liquidation of
securities in the account, cash or securities withdrawals, new margin securities purchased or sold short

 Other margin accounts (e.g., portfolio margin, day trading)


2264 – Margin Disclosure Statement

4210 – Margin Requirements

Cboe Rules

10.1 – General Rules

10.2 – Time Margin Must Be Obtained

10.3 – Margin Requirements

10.4 – Portfolio Margin

10.5 – Determination of Value for Margin Purposes

10.6 – "When Issued" and "When Distributed" Securities

10.7 – Guaranteed Accounts

10.8 – Meeting Margin Calls by Liquidation Prohibited

10.9 – Margin Required Is Minimum

10.10 – Compliance with Margin Requirements of New York Stock Exchange

10.11 – Daily Margin Record

Federal Reserve

Regulation T – Credit by Brokers and Dealers
General Securities Representative Series 7
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General Securities Representative Series 7
Question: 990
Judging by a clients trading pattern, you have a very strongsuspicion that he is trading on inside information.
You should
A. C. contact FINRand send it supporting documentation
B. contact the SEC and send it supporting documentation
C. contact FINRA and send it supporting documentation
D. all of the above
Answer: A
If you suspect that one of your clients is using inside information, you must immediately inform a principal. Any
further action will be decided by your firm. The Insider Trading and Securities Fraud Enforcement Act of 1988
requires all broker-dealers to have written supervisory procedures that address insider information.
Question: 991
The CEO of OEC Corporation tells his lifelong friend that OECwill be announcing an acquisition of COE, Inc., the
following week.The friend acts on this knowledge and purchases shares of COE and
A. the CEO
B. the lifelong friend
C. both the CEO and the lifelong friend
D. neither the CEO nor the lifelong friend
Answer: C
Because the friend used the inside information (information not yet released to the public), both the CEO and the
friend violated insider trading rules.
Question: 992
All of the following are violations EXCEPT
A. matching orders
B. freeriding
C. commingling
D. hypothecating
Answer: D
Hypothecating isnt a violation. Hypothecation takes place when a brokerage firm lends money to a customer to
purchase securities in a margin account.
Question: 993
Which of the following regulatory organizations has the authorityto punish registered representatives for rule
A. I only
B. I and II
C. I, II, and III
D. I, II, III, and IV
Answer: C
The SEC has the authority to punish individuals inside or outside of the brokerage industry. The NYSE and FINRA
may penalize an individual within the industry. However, because the MSRB doesnt enforce MSRB rules, the
MSRB may not punish any individual for rules violations.
Question: 994
Which of the following is TRUE about SIPC?
A. It is an agency of the U.S. government.
B. Investment advisers are required to be members of SIPC.
C. D. SIPfunding is made by member assessments
D. SIPC funding is made by member assessments
Answer: D
SIPC (Securities Investor Protection Corporation) is funded by annual fees paid by brokerage firms. SIPC isnt a
U.S. government agency. Banks and investment advisers arent required to purchase SIPC insurance.
Question: 995
Mike Nugent and his wife, Mary, have individual accounts withABCDE broker-dealer. Along with their individual
accounts, they alsohave a joint account with rights of survivorship. Mikes individualaccount has $200,000 of
stock, $50,000 of bonds, and $200,000 ofcash. Marys individual account has $100,000 of stock and $400,000of
cash. In the joint account, Mike and Mary have $100,000 of stock,$350,000 of bonds, and $200,000 of cash. If
ABCDE declaresbankruptcy, what would be the maximum SIPC coverage for all theaccounts?
A. $950,000
B. $1,300,000
C. $1,350,000
D. $1,850,000
Answer: B
SIPC (Securities Investor Protection Corporation) covers each separate customer account up to $500,000, of which
no more than $250,000 can be cash. So in this case, Mikes account would be covered for $450,000 ($200,000
stock + $50,000 bonds + $200,000 cash), Marys account would be covered for $350,000 ($100,000 stock +
$250,000 cash), and the joint account would be covered for $500,000 ($100,000 stock + $350,000 bonds + $50,000
cash). Added together, thats .
Question: 996
SIPC protects each separate customer up to
A. $500,000 in cash and securities with no more than $250,000 cash
B. $500,000 in cash and securities with no more than $100,000 cash
C. $400,000 in securities and $100,000 cash
D. $500,000 in securities and an additional $250,000 cash
Answer: A
SIPC (Securities Investor Protection Corporation) covers investors in the event of broker-dealer bankruptcy. SIPC
covers each investor up to $500,000, of which no more than $250,000 can be cash.
Question: 997
SIPC provides coverage for which of the following securities heldin a customers account?
A. common stock
B. municipal bonds
D. all of the above
Answer: D
SIPC (Securities Investor Protection Corporation) provides coverage for all types of securities held in customer
accounts. SIPC provides protection for customers in the event of broker-dealer bankruptcy. SIPC coverage covers
each separate account up to $500,000, of which no more than $250,000 can be cash.
Question: 998
You have a new client who is going to open an individual cashtime, he also wants to open a joint account with his
wife, a jointaccount with his son, and a corporate account. How many separateaccounts is the investor covered for
under SIPC?
A. one
B. two
C. four
D. five
E. account and an individual margin account in his namAt the same
Answer: C
The customer has a cash account and a margin account in his name, which counts as one separate customer
according to SIPC. The joint account with his wife, the joint account with his son, and the corporate account are
three other separate accounts.
Question: 999
If an investor is not fully covered under SIPC, she becomes a(n)__________ of the bankrupt broker-dealer.1000.
FDIC protects each bank account up to
A. $100,000
B. $250,000
C. $500,000
D. $1,000,000
Answer: B
SIPC (Securities Investor Protection Corporation) protects each separate account only up to $500,000, of which no
more than $250,000 can be cash. If the investor had more held in the account than would be covered by SIPC, she
would become a general creditor of the firm for the remainder.
Question: 1000
FDIC protects each bank account up to
A. $100,000
B. $250,000
C. $500,000
D. $1,000,000
Answer: B
FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) covers each depositor up to $250,000 in the event of bank failure.
Question: 1001
Which of the following protects a broker-dealer against fraud orembezzlement by employees?
B. fidelity bond
D. power of substitution
Answer: B
A fidelity bond protects a firm against fraud or embezzlement by employees of the brokerage firm. SIPC protects
customers against broker-dealer bankruptcy.
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Business-Tests Representative information source - BingNews Search results Business-Tests Representative information source - BingNews Sources in tests and measures

This guide lists resources for locating educational and psychological testing instruments. It includes databases, online resources, and e-books, as well as print materials held at Concordia. Additional resources may be found by searching the Sofia Discovery Tool.

Please note that most commercially published instruments must be purchased from the publisher. In some cases, it may be possible for you to contact the author or the publisher to obtain permission to use the test. Unpublished tests are sometimes available as appendices to journal articles, research reports, theses and dissertations, or directly from the author.

This guide also includes resources that provide descriptions and reviews of tests, attitude scales, and questionnaires.


The ERIC database covers citations and abstracts of journal articles and other research literature (ERIC documents) in education and related fields. The abstracts usually indicate whether the instrument is included in the text of the journal article or in the ERIC document. Search ERIC by keywords for the type of test you are looking for, e.g. learning strategies, then tick the box for Document Type 160 Tests/questionnaires.


The PsycINFO database covers citations and abstracts of journal articles, books and dissertations in Psychology. Some of these sources may contain the instrument used in the study. The name of the instrument is generally listed in the Tests and Measures field.

A good search strategy to use with either of these databases is to search by the type of test that you are looking for e.g., learning strategies. Once you have found a reasonable number of citations you can limit the search using one of the terms listed below:

  • Assessment
  • Methodology
  • Rating-Scales
  • Test-Items
  • Attitude-Measures
  • Personality-Measures
  • Research-Methodology
  • Test-Reliability
  • Cognitive-Measurement
  • Psychometrics
  • Screening-Tests
  • Test-Selection
  • Measurements-Techniques
  • Quantitative-Methods
  • Surveys
  • Test-Validity
  • Measures
  • Questionnaires
  • Test-Construction
  • Tests

ProQuest Dissertations and Theses

The full text of North American dissertations and theses are provided here from 1997 onward. The titles of the instruments used in dissertations and theses are often listed in the abstracts. The complete instrument is sometimes included in the Appendices to the dissertation or thesis. It is advisable to search this database by keyword, e.g., learning strategies and instruments.

Test Link

TestLink (Educational Testing Service) is a free searchable database which contains the descriptions and availability information for over 20,000 tests and others measurement instruments.

You can search TestLink by the title of the testing instrument, by keywords in the title, or by ERIC Descriptor. The source for locating copies of these tests is usually found in the Availability: section of the TestLink record.

Please note that most of these tests are commercially published and are only available for purchase by contacting the test publisher or sometimes by contacting the test author directly. Many of these tests are out of print and are not generally available. However, there are a few sources for obtaining tests via TestLink:

Tests in Microfiche

  1. If Tests in Microfiche appears in the Availability field of the TestLink record, take note of the test title (e.g. Learning Strategies Questionnaire)
  2. The Tests in Microfiche collection (1975-2004) is available at the Webster Library. The tests, listed in alphabetical order by title, are located in a microfiche cabinet. Call number and location: M/FICHE BF 431 T42+ (Webster 3rd floor)

Journal Articles and Books

TestLink retrieves tests that are included as appendices in journal articles or books. The Availability field lists the journal title, volume and date of publication; and for books, the title and date of publication. Search Sofia by Journal Title or by the book’s Title or to determine if Concordia has access to the journal or book.

ERIC Documents

  1. TestLink retrieves tests that are available as ERIC Documents. The Eric Document (ED) number appears in the Availability field. Take note of the ED number and the date of publication. Most ERIC Documents published since 1993 are available electronically directly from the ERIC database. Earlier documents are also in the process of being digitized.
  2. Connect to ERIC and type in the complete ED number in the search window (e.g. ED496125), then click on the Search button. To view the full text of the document that includes the test, click on Link to full text.
  3. ERIC Documents created prior to 1993 that have not yet been digitized are all located in the ERIC microfiche collection. The complete collection dating from 1966-2002 is available at Webster Library microfiche cabinets, 3rd floor. The microfiche are filed numerically by ED number (e.g. ED130000).

Tests and Measures in the Social Sciences: Tests available in compilation volumes

A searchable index of over 12,000 individual tests, measures, and instruments, the full text of which have been reproduced in 128 published book compilations. Search Sofia by title of the book compilation to see if Concordia Libraries owns a copy.

The following sources will help you to identify relevant tests and measurements that are used in the fields of education, psychology, health and business. Most of the print materials are located in the Reference area (REF) of either Webster or Vanier Libraries. The list is not exhaustive; additional sources can be found using Sofia. Try a Keyword or a Subject Headings search. Some useful search terms are listed in the Searching Sofia section.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Handbook of psychiatric measures. REF RC 473 P78A46 2000 VAN

  • Information on measures currently used to assess mental health (goals, description, practical issues, psychometric properties, clinical utility, references and selected readings).

Buros Institute. Mental measurements yearbook. (online)

  • Provides critical reviews of commercially published psychological, vocational, educational and developmental tests. References are given to journal articles and other publications that may include a copy of the test.

Corcoran, K.J. & Fischer, J. Measures for clinical practice: A sourcebook. (Vol.1 Couples, Families, Children; Vol 2. Adults) Inventory of Rapid Assessment Instruments for psychology, social work and counselling. BF 176 C66 2007 VAN

  • Provides background for selecting and administering tests. Instruments and interpretive data are included in the text.

Educational Testing Service. (1993). The ETS test collection catalog. REF LB 3051 E79 1993 VAN & WEB

  • Volume1: Covers achievement tests and measurement devices. Search this catalog online via the Test Link database.

Fabiano, E. (1989). Index to tests used in educational dissertations. REF LB 3051 F3 1989 WEB

  • Indexes educational dissertations abstracted by Dissertations Abstracts International. Tests are frequently included with the dissertation.

Fehrmann, P.G. & O’Brien, N.P. (2001). Directory of test collections in academic, professional, and research libraries. REF LB 3051 D564 2001 VAN & WEB

Goldman, B.A. Directory of unpublished experimental mental measures. (Vols. 1-9) For the title index to this collection, see the entry for Jamison below. REF BF 431 G625 VAN

Hammill, D.D. (1992). A consumer's guide to tests in print. REF BF 176 H36 1992 VAN WEB

  • Provides information on technical characteristics, such as format and administration, for tests used primarily with school-aged children, grades kindergarten to 12.

Health and Psychosocial Instruments (HaPI) (online)

  • Journal abstracts provide information on thousands of measurement instruments (i.e. questionnaires, interview schedules, checklists, coding schemes, rating scales, etc.) in the fields of health and psychosocial sciences.

Jamison, M. (2001). Title index for the directory of unpublished experimental mental measures. REF BF 431 J29 2001 VAN

  • Covers volumes 1-7 of the Directory of unpublished experimental mental measures (see Goldman above).

Keyser, D.J., & Sweetland, R.C. Test critiques. REF BF l76 T4l9. Vol. I – 10 VAN, Vol. I – 7, 9 WEB

  • Reviews the most frequently used psychological, educational and business tests. Provides references to articles or other publications that may include a copy of the test.

Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing. BF 176 K575 2000 VAN 3rd Floor

  • A comprehensive guide to all aspects of psychological testing. Includes reviews of some instruments.

Maddox, T. (Ed.). (2008). Tests: A comprehensive reference for assessments in psychology, education, and business. REF BF 176 T43 2008 VAN

Maltby, J., Lewis, C., & Hill, A. (Eds.). (2000). Commissioned reviews of 250 psychological tests. REF BF 176 C65 2000 vol.1-2 VAN

  • An overview of psychological tests developed during the 1990s.

Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R. Wrightsman, L.S., & Andrews, F.M. (Eds.). (1991). Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. REF BF 698.4 M38 1991 VAN

  • Reviews attitude measures in social psychology; includes copies of several tests.

Buros Institute. Tests in print. REF BF 431 T47 no.6 WEB

  • Descriptive listings of commercially published tests; cross references are provided to reviews in Mental Measurements Yearbook; latest edition available published in 2002.

The following sources provide an overview of testing theory, methods and procedures. The list is not exhaustive; further sources can be found using Sofia. Try a Keyword or a Subject Headings search. Some useful search terms are listed in the Searching Sofia section.

Abell, N. (2009). Developing and validating rapid assessment instruments. (e-book)

American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. REF LB 3051 S74+ 1999 WEB VAN

Andrews, J.J., Saklofske, D.H., & Janzen, H. L. (Eds.) (2001). Handbook of psychoeducational assessment: Ability, achievement and behavior in children. REF LB 3051 H31985 WEB

Baer, L., & Blais, M. A. (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of clinical rating scales and assessment in psychiatry and mental health. (e-book)

Culbertson, J.L., & Willis, D. J. (Eds.). (1993). Testing young children: A reference guide for developmental, psychoeducational, and psychosocial assessments. BF 719.6 T47 1993 VAN 

Downing, S.M., & Haladyna, T.M. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of test development. LB 3051 H31987 2006 WEB 

Fernandez-Ballesteros, R. (Ed.). (2003). Encyclopedia of psychological assessment. (2 vol.) REF BF 39 E497 2003 VAN

Groth-Marnat, G., & Wright, A. J. (2016). Handbook of psychological assessment. (e-book) 

Hersen, M., & Rosqvist, J. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of psychological assessment, case conceptualization, and treatment. (2 vols.) RC 454 H352 2008 VAN

Kamphaus, R. W., & Reynolds, C. R. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children: Intelligence, aptitude, and achievement. BF 722 H33 2003 VAN 

Kamphaus, R.W. & Reynolds, C.R. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of psychological and educational assessment of children: personality, behavior, and context. BF 722 H33 2003b VAN 

Keeves, J.P. (Ed.). (1997). Educational research, methodology and measurement: An international handbook. REF LB 1028 E3184 1997 WEB

Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing. BF 176 K575 2000 VAN 

McGrew, K.S., & Flanagan, D.P. (1998). The intelligence test desk reference (ITDR): Gf-Gc cross-battery assessment. REF BF 431 M3514 1998 WEB

Newmark, C.S. (Ed.). (1996). Major psychological assessment instruments. BF 176 M35 1996 VAN 

Presser, S. (Ed.). (2004) Methods for testing and evaluating survey instruments. HM 538 M48 2004 WEB

Reynolds, R. A., Woods, R., & Baker, J. D. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of research on electronic surveys and measurements. HA 31.2 H347 2007 WEB

Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G., & Meller P. J. (Eds.) (2008). Handbook of multicultural assessment: Clinical, psychological, and educational applications. BF 176 H36 2008 WEB

Weiner, I. B., & Greene, R. L. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of personality assessment. BF 698.4 W45 2008 VAN

Additional manuals describing specific tests, test construction, questionnaires or the practice of testing in general, can be located through Sofia. Some useful Subject Headings are:

  • Ability-Testing
  • Achievement Tests
  • Attitude (Psychology)
  • Behavioral Assessment
  • Criterion-Referenced Tests
  • Educational Tests and Measurements
  • Intelligence Tests
  • Personality Assessments
  • Personality Tests
  • Psychodiagnosis
  • Psychological Tests
  • Psychometrics
  • Questionnaires
  • Scale Analysis (Psychology)

This guide was originally created by Chris Bober, Education Librarian.

Last modified March 2022

Thu, 05 May 2022 16:17:00 -0500 en text/html
New Business Idea? How to Test It Before Launching

Do you have an idea for the next big thing? You may think your idea is perfect already, but it’s wise to test it out before you spend too much time and money developing a business or product for which there’s no market. Ensuring your idea is something the world wants before you launch it is vital to business success.

How to test your business idea

Here are eight steps to test your business idea and determine its value proposition.

1. Contemplate your idea.

graphic of a person thinking with a lightbulb above their head

Although you’re no doubt excited about your new business idea, you might want to wait a while before fleshing out a potential company, said Greg Isenberg, CEO of product design agency Late Checkout. 

“After I’ve gone through the process of writing down a bunch of ideas, I don’t like to rush into building a business plan or recruiting the team,” Isenberg said. “I like to wait a few weeks [to] see which ideas really stick with me.”

Isenberg said he only moves forward if he has a burning feeling that the world genuinely needs his idea.

“Once I’m through that, the best way to test a business idea is to build some prototype and show it to people to get some honest and authentic feedback,” he said. 

2. Build a minimum viable product.

The lean startup model provides a great way to develop your business or a specific product before going to market. The most important part of that model is to build a minimum viable product (MVP).

An MVP is “the simplest form of your idea that you can actually sell as a product,” said Eric Ries, a Silicon Valley-based entrepreneur and the author of The Lean Startup

Using the principles of Lean Six Sigma, Ries’ book advocates having a version of your product to test and market early in the development process so that you can make any tweaks or changes in response to real feedback from your target audience.

3. Run it by a group of critics.

graphic of a person with a lightbulb in their hand talking to a group of their colleagues

When your first prototype or test service is ready, present it to potential target customers.

“You should talk [to] and/or survey at least 50 potential customers to see if they identify with the problem the same way you do,” said Wayde Gilchrist, a senior technical manager at Amazon. “In other words, you need to find out if this is a real problem for a majority of your target market or just a few.”

However, to truly put your new business idea to the test, select your 50 potential customers or clients carefully.

“Identify people in that target [audience] you know to be skeptical and critical,” said Chip Bell, founder of business consultancy firm The Chip Bell Group. “These people could be irate customers from previous encounters or friends who always take the glass-half-empty perspective.”

Bell advised hand-picking your test group and then asking these people to pick your idea and minimum viable product apart. [Find out how to tell if you have a bad business idea and how to tell if you have a great business idea.]

The ability to give and receive effective feedback is a crucial skill for small business leaders.

4. Tweak it to suit your test market.

When Isenberg tested 5by, an internet video finder app he developed and has since sold, he and his team went to college campuses and showed mock-ups of what the product was going to look like. Feedback from students was invaluable in fine-tuning the original idea.

“We were able to quickly gauge that people … were frustrated that they couldn’t open an app and just be able to find the best internet videos in whatever they were interested in with just a tap of a button,” he said.

Isenberg realized that although his initial business idea and mock-up were a good start, they needed tweaking. Based on the feedback he received, his team made fruitful adjustments.

“We quickly knew we were on to something and then focused on building out the product, raising money, etc.,” he said.

5. Create a test website with social media tie-ins.

graphic of a businessperson next to a screen with a lighbulb on it

Once the word is out about your product or business, your target market needs a place to get more information about it or to show it to their friends. Building a simple website with a landing page specifically for the product and promoting it on social media are great ways to provide information and monitor how many people are interested in what you plan to sell.

Make sure your site features opportunities for interested people to join a mailing list to receive updates about the product launch date or to sign up for preorders.

“You’ll be able to tell if the idea will get traction from the number of click-throughs on the ads and the number of people who fill in your form,” Gilchrist said.

6. Create a marketing plan and use it.

All of your preparatory work means nothing if you can’t get a response from prospective customers. Once you have a viable product, you need to act on the interest in it. But while you may know your target audience at this point, you’re unlikely to know which marketing strategies have the best chance of converting their interest into future sales. For that reason, your initial marketing plan should cast a wide net.

Develop strategies to take advantage of different advertising, marketing and PR channels across mediums. As you execute the strategies and monitor the results over time, you’ll be able to sharpen your marketing plan based on what did and didn’t work. This is also another opportunity to gain feedback on what you’re planning to sell.

7. Adopt an experimentation mindset.

Too many businesses are afraid to fail, so they don’t put themselves in a position to succeed. Often, this manifests in either avoidance of pursuing new ideas or failure to properly test a product idea before launching it.

If you adopt an experimentation mindset, you’ll be more willing to make mistakes and test a variety of ideas. Your business model will unlock more long-term value, as you’ll supply more ideas a chance to come to fruition. In this case, failure can also be a success, as it allows you to better understand what works and what doesn’t in the ever-changing business world.

While you want to be able to embrace your mistakes, too many pitfalls can torpedo a business before it really gets going. See the reasons many entrepreneurs fail by their second year.

8. Implement design thinking.

graphic of a person with a lightbulb and gears above their head

Design thinking involves the cognitive, strategic and practical processes of developing new ideas or products. It helps innovators redefine problems and create better, more creative solutions. In other words, it opens the door to more groundbreaking discoveries and inventions. [Read related article: Innovation Is Key to a Successful Business]

To incorporate this strategy when developing your potential business, follow the five stages of design thinking: empathize (research/understand customers’ needs), define (state your customers’ problems and needs), ideate (brainstorm unique solutions to their problems), prototype (create the solutions) and, most importantly, test (try them out yourself).

What to do when your business idea tests poorly

Not every idea is going to wow your inner circle or initial focus groups. Don’t worry — that’s part of the process. Here are two options for what to do if your concept still needs work.

Iterate until you find an idea that tests well.

Business is a process of iteration. You figure out what works and then continually try to make it work better. It’s not supposed to be perfect at first, and it’s important you understand that from the beginning. The point of testing an idea is to make it as good as possible before committing substantial time and resources to it. 

Let’s say you want to start a gardening service that specializes in imported plants. Some of these plants need large amounts of water, while others thrive in dry climates. If you’re based in an area under the threat of drought, you might learn from initial testing and market research that your would-be customers are mainly interested in plants and grasses that don’t require much water. The imported plants that need a lot of water won’t serve your customer base.

By taking into account the feedback you received and adapting your business idea to existing conditions, you can pivot to a business that specializes in the plants sought after in your region. This will then inform your marketing and ordering efforts so you can focus on a specialty that will actually sell. 

This is a great example of taking an idea that won’t work in its original form and adjusting it so it will. In other words, follow the classic mantra: If at first you don’t succeed, try and try again.

Develop something new.

graphic of a person throwing a broken lighbulb into a garbage can

Of course, not every business idea is a winner no matter how much you tweak it. Ideas might not work for any number of reasons. A product or service might be too expensive, face too much competition or not solve a problem customers have. An idea that doesn’t work isn’t a bad reflection on you. Part of being a successful entrepreneur is recognizing what’s not going to work and moving on quickly to something better. It’s part of the process. 

Testing your ideas is the best way to ensure you don’t invest yourself in a concept that won’t succeed. With your newfound knowledge about what doesn’t work, you can use the data you’ve collected to generate a new idea. The time and effort you’ve spent needn’t go to waste if you know how to capitalize on what you’ve already accomplished.

Thu, 26 Oct 2023 11:59:00 -0500 en text/html
Open-Source Document Management: Pros and Cons

If your business spends a lot of time and energy managing paperwork, you could benefit from open-source document management software. This software allows you to quickly manage and automate your day-to-day paperwork needs. Here is everything you need to know about customizable document management software.

Editor’s note: Looking for document management software for your business? Fill out the questionnaire below to have our vendor partners contact you about your needs.

What is open-source document management?

Document management software is a system for storing essential information for your business. Legacy hard copies of documents can be scanned and then uploaded directly into the document management system, where they’ll remain safely in digital form.

Many systems allow you to enter metadata and tags to organize the files. Other tools may include a search capability so your team members spend less time tracking down specific documents.

A key consideration for any document management system is the workflow. You and your team should be able to navigate the file structure easily and face minimal friction in collaborating with other users. A document management system that provides mobile access will ensure greater convenience for your team.

If you will scan files as part of your workflow, make sure there is a method for adding and organizing files within the user interface of the software you’re considering. Keyword search and a system for viewing and editing permissions must all be built into the framework.

There are other practical features to consider when building a solution that works best for your team. For example, you need to determine whether multiple users can edit the same document simultaneously. You’ll need to build a version control system so users know which iteration of the document they are on and have the option to roll back changes. An audit trail, for example, allows you to trace the history of a file’s edits and which team members worked on it.

Open-source document management is a customizable, free platform for teams to share and collaborate on digital files.

Is open-source document management the solution for your business?

Open-source document management software enables organizations to access, monitor and share essential files. When you use an open-source system, your company is responsible for customizing the solution for its users and implementing any updates built by the open-source community.

Businesses typically have one of two aims in using an open-source solution. Some businesses want to use open-source software as a trial solution to test whether that type of system will meet their needs before they pay for a similar program. For other businesses, open-source software itself may be the end goal.

Reuben Yonatan, founder and CEO of independent provider comparison site GetVoIP, said there is a lot to like about the open-source world.

“Many open-source products have additional features, like enterprise-grade storage space or hosted solutions,” he said. Proprietary systems may be a stretch financially for small businesses. “For many [companies], it is a good fit to try open-source software first, then upgrade when the time is right.”

Open-source document management may be the right choice for an organization that wants to build and customize its own solution. When created under an open-source license, the software is typically free to use, modify and redistribute. If supported by an active community, open-source software benefits from regular input and modification that improves the product over time.

If you want a flexible, highly customizable document management solution, open-source software might be for you. However, be prepared to handle the technical updates and support yourself.

Benefits of open-source document management software

These are some of the many benefits of open-source document management software:

More flexibility

The main benefit of open-source software is its flexibility. A core premise of open-source software is that it can be customized to the needs of the users, so a company that is comfortable with building its own solutions may find open-source software to be the best route.

“Open source means that anyone can Boost upon the success of the previous generation,” Yonatan said. In the long run, this shared knowledge and collective effort can lead to better software from which all of its users can benefit.

Workflow automation

Another major benefit of using document management software is that you can replace many manual processes with simple automation rules. For example, document management systems can process information, organize documents and send out electronic signature requests without any human intervention.

Less need for physical storage

Storing and organizing paper documents can require a lot of space, time and energy. With document management software – open source or otherwise – you can significantly reduce the space and cost of physically storing documents in your office building.

Better security and disaster recovery

Storing physical copies of all sensitive documents may seem like a secure option in the era of large data breaches, but document management software can actually increase your data privacy. With this software, you can tightly control who has access to sensitive information and keep records of who accessed specific data at a specific time. Furthermore, digital document management allows you to index, archive and retrieve all your documents in the event of a disaster, which you can’t easily do with physical copies.

The benefits of open-source document management software include flexibility, automation and easier disaster recovery.

Potential drawbacks of open-source solutions

For these reasons, an open-source document management solution may not be the right choice for every business.

Proprietary software may be a quicker and cheaper solution.

Certain features might be more quickly accessible (with fewer headaches) from a third-party solution. Also consider the costs and time of doing the software work in-house and how the storage solution will look.

Document management software can be created as an on-premises or cloud-based system. With the on-premises (self-hosted) option, your business is in control and does not rely on an outside cloud provider for access or uptime, with server storage typically on-site at the office.

If you choose an on-premises system, you must decide how the upkeep costs fit into your budget, which is why many businesses use cloud-based systems. Your IT team doesn’t need to maintain on-premises servers for your documents; storage is handled through the cloud. Of course, with this option, any downtime on the software provider’s side means you’ll temporarily lack access to your files. However, such instances are rare, and you may even be able to build a hybrid option that uses both on-premises and cloud storage.

Open-source software always has security risks.

The major potential drawback to using an open-source system is the security risk, according to Jon Lincoln, former vice president of business development for cloud-based document management solution OfficeScope. Security is paramount, and open-source software may not have the most robust capabilities. [Read related article: Hackers Target These Types of Accounts the Most]

“With security being a major concern for many industries, organizations must keep in mind that most open-source document management systems do not encrypt documents,” Lincoln said. “If compliance is a major concern for your organization or industry, then using open-source document management will not be the right choice, since it doesn’t provide features that you may need to tap into to prove compliance.”

Some certifications may be more difficult to obtain.

A key factor to consider is the application of ISO certification principles. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) publishes standards that serve as a global benchmark for business practices and procedures. Proper documentation, for example, is a key component of ISO 9001.

While certification may not be necessary for your business, given the time and costs involved in achieving such a designation, a specific set of standards and procedures for establishing the user interface, sharing capabilities and security of a document management system are essential.

Open-source document management software can come with significant security flaws and demand significant upkeep.

Top open-source document management solutions

If you’re ready to invest in a document management solution but aren’t sure which is right for your business, take a look at our list of the best document management software and systems. If you are specifically looking for open-source software, here are a few options to consider:

  • VIENNA Advantage Community is a community-driven, user-friendly document management system that is free to businesses. It provides advanced workflow automation features to Boost your business’s processes. This document management software has been certified by TÜV SÜD, which provides security, testing, certification and auditing services.
  • OpenDocMan has a full suite of document management features, including automated workflow management, document search and extensive file management. OpenDocMan was developed under the GNU General Public License, so you can modify it as needed.
  • LogicalDOC Community Edition is open-source document management software that doesn’t have all the bells and whistles of the commercial version, but it offers all the basic features a small business may need, such as a web-based interface, SOAP and REST API interfaces, and extensions with Joomla and WordPress. LogicalDOC Community Edition is available under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3 model, which means the source code is available for free to modify and redistribute as needed.
  • OpenKM Community Edition, another open-source version of a commercial product, allows you to create workflows and access documents from mobile devices, and it’s compatible with different operating systems. This document management software offers an open-source option for free via the GNU General Public License version 2 model. The source code is available to everyone.

VIENNA, OpenDocMan, LogicalDOC and OpenKM all offer open-source document management solutions worth considering.

Is open-source document management right for you?

An open-source document management system can help a company keep its important information accessible and organized for everyone on the team. This eliminates the chance of human error while improving your workflow, allowing select team members to access documents from any place at any time. Additionally, open-source document management protects sensitive data from potential breaches.

This method of document management affords you many options, although the open-source nature requires planning about how you’ll implement the features from the available solutions. If you’re thinking about working with an open-source document management system, consider your business’s specific document management needs and weigh the different options listed above.

Sammi Caramela and Sean Peek contributed to this article. ​​Source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article.

Sun, 22 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
QuidelOrtho Weighs Sale of Transfusion Medicine Unit, Sources Say No result found, try new keyword!QuidelOrtho Corp. is weighing a sale of its transfusion medicine unit, which could be valued at $1.5 billion to $2 billion, people with knowledge of the matter said. Wed, 15 Nov 2023 07:11:15 -0600 en-us text/html Best At-Home STD Test Kits of 2023

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At-home STI and STD test kits provide private, accurate results, along with post-diagnosis care. We compared the best at-home STD test kits available online and found that Everlywell offers users the best overall experience.

Best at-home tests

Hybrid testing for privacy and convenience

Regular testing for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is important for overall health and any necessary treatments. At-home tests can provide an accurate and convenient method for knowing your status.

STDs and STIs are very common. According to the World Health Organization, more than 1 million STIs are acquired daily worldwide.

One reason for this is that contraceptive methods, such as condoms, are not always failproof. Overall, if you’re sexually active, you could contract an STI.

Nowadays, there are dozens of at-home testing kits that may make getting tested easier.

Here’s some information on quality at-home testing options, how to figure out what type is best for you, and when to contact a doctor.

Also, you can use this chart for a quick comparison of the nine tests in our roundup:

*Note that we use the term “basics” to encompass chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, HIV, HPV, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Other STDs tested are unique to that brand.

**All prices are rounded up to the nearest dollar.

There are a lot of factors to consider when choosing an at-home STD test, which is why we turned to the experts.

Our vetting team goes the extra mile to make sure you have the best options available to you. Every product we recommend and brand we work with is thoroughly vetted by our team. If there are any lawsuits, recalls, or regulatory action letters documented about these products or companies, our vetting team makes sure they’re reported and listed.

In addition to legalities, our team always checks for medical credibility, good business practices, privacy practices and security, social impact, and the validity of any health claims a brand makes about a product. At-home testing services are required to abide by telehealth standards in the following circumstances:

  • Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)- and/or Certified Analytics Professional (CAP)-certified
  • guidance available to customers who test positive for an STD
  • prescription services available in the event of positive test results
  • physician orders for in-person lab testing available where necessary

With dozens of at-home testing kits available, it can be hard to choose the right one. After all, what does a good at-home STD testing kit look like? What should it entail? What do you need?

There’s no one-size-fits-all answer. Your needs will vary, depending on your situation and circumstances. Also, they may change over time.

This chart can help you determine which type of test is right for you.

If you think you’ll need help determining results from your at-home test, taking an in-office test may be preferable. It’s an immediate source of information, and an action plan can be created on-site in the case of a positive result.

Also, be sure the test you choose is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To determine whether the FDA approves a product, you can check the FDA’s website.

While every home STI testing service is different, most of the brands recommended here offer professional advice or support for memorizing test results at home.

If you do a fully at-home STI test, there is a risk that you’ll misinterpret your results. Lab-based tests can also be difficult to interpret if you have no medical background.

As such, it’s best to opt for a testing service where you have access to a healthcare professional who can discuss your results with you. They can help you interpret your results and advise you on treatments and safety.

STIs are infections transmitted from one person to another during vaginal, anal, and oral sex.

An STI is considered an STD when it causes symptoms. Usually, an infection is the first step on the road to potentially developing a disease.

Not all diseases start as infections. But in the case of STDs, they do. In both cases, STIs and STDs are used interchangeably, mostly because of the stigma that is associated with the term “STD.” We also use these interchangeably throughout the article.

According to the CDC, in 2018, 1 in 5 people in the United States had an STD or STI.

Although common, most people don’t realize they have an STI because most of these infections have no symptoms or only mild symptoms.

Common symptoms of STDs include:

  • pain during sex
  • urethral discharge or burning for people with a penis
  • genital ulcers
  • sores or bumps
  • itchiness
  • abdominal pain

Vaginal discharge can also be a symptom of an STD.

While most STIs are contracted through vaginal, anal, or oral intercourse, some can be transmitted through nonsexual means, such as blood transfusions and shared products, like needles and syringes.

Talk with a healthcare professional if one of your partners has recently tested positive for an STD or STI or if you’re experiencing possible symptoms of an STI.

The CDC recommends STD screenings from a healthcare professional in the following cases:

  • You’re between 13 and 64 years old and have never been tested for HIV.
  • You share needles. Your doctor may recommend annual HIV testing.
  • You have sex without a condom or other barrier methods. Your doctor may recommend annual HIV testing.
  • You have oral or anal sex regularly. Your doctor may recommend throat and rectal testing.
  • You’re pregnant. Your doctor will test you for hepatitis B and C, HIV, and syphilis.

If you have an STI but are experiencing more or worsening symptoms, like genital discharge or urinary symptoms, contact a healthcare professional to further evaluate your symptoms.

The CDC makes the following additional recommendations for screening:

  • People who are sexually active and assigned female at birth, people assigned male at birth, and people under 25 years old may want to undergo annual chlamydia and gonorrhea testing.
  • People who are sexually active and assigned male at birth who have sex with other people assigned male at birth may want to undergo testing as frequently as every 3 to 6 months.

Can you test yourself for an STD at home?

Our roundup of five at-home STD tests is a good starting point if you want to get tested without contacting a doctor.

Depending on the test, you may need to visit a lab for collection. Every other part of the process, including the lab order, payment, and results, is done online.

If you receive a positive test result, the testing kit company may offer a consultation with one of their doctors. During that consultation, you can discuss any next steps, such as further testing or treatment.

At this point, it’s also a good idea to contact your primary care doctor to share your results.

How do at-home and lab-direct STD tests work?

With both at-home and lab-direct tests, you’ll provide a sample. The samples may include blood, urine, anal, vaginal, or oral swabs.

The samples are submitted to a lab, and results are shared discreetly.

If you receive a positive STD result, contact your primary care clinician to discuss the best treatment option for you. Also, be prepared to notify any partners of the positive result.

How can I tell if I have an STD without going to the doctor?

An at-home test may confirm whether you have an STD, but it’s important to contact your doctor if you have symptoms of a possible infection. These symptoms may include:

  • vaginal or penile burning or discharge
  • frequent urination
  • pelvic or genital pain
  • sores or bumps around your genitals, anus, or mouth
  • atypical bleeding (bleeding other than menstruation)

How often should I get tested for STDs?

The CDC recommends that people ages 13 to 64 get tested for HIV at least once a year as part of their routine health checkup.

The CDC also recommends that sexually active women under 25 years old get tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia every year.

In addition, the CDC suggests that pregnant people get tested for syphilis, hepatitis B, and HIV early in their pregnancy.

Sexually active men who have sex with men may want to also get tested for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea annually.

If you experience symptoms at any time, don’t wait to get tested. The quicker you’re tested, the sooner you can begin treatment.

Are STD tests accurate?

Most modern STD tests are very accurate. Still, test accuracy can vary, depending on the type of trial and the test detection method.

Traditional in-office tests are more accurate than fully online tests, and home-to-lab tests are more accurate than self-collected tests. But all are highly efficient.

How reliable are at-home STD tests?

While in-office STD tests may be considered the most reliable, the at-home test kits on our list also have a reputation for being accurate.

It’s important that you don’t rely on home testing in place of contacting your doctor if you have any possible symptoms of an STD or STI or have other important questions about your overall health.

Does insurance cover STD tests?

Most insurance plans cover the cost of STD tests, as these tests are considered preventive and covered under the Affordable Care Act. But whether your plan covers a specific STD test depends on several factors, including your:

  • age
  • sex and gender
  • risk factors
  • pregnancy status

Also, the coverage of at-home tests varies.

To learn more about your specific options, talk with a nurse, a doctor, or your insurance company.

You can also find free or low cost STD testing sites across the country.

Testing for STDs and STIs regularly is important.

Testing can help prevent the transmission of STIs. It can also help you get the appropriate treatment if you have a viral, bacterial, or fungal infection, as many STDs and STIs can be treated or cured.

Contacting a doctor or other healthcare professional is generally the most reliable way to know whether you’ve contracted an STI or have an STD. But an at-home test is an excellent alternative. For many, an at-home test is a confidential and convenient option.

Kimberly Zapata is a mother, writer, and mental health advocate. Her work has appeared on several sites, including The Washington Post, HuffPost, Oprah, Vice, Parents, Health, and Scary Mommy — to name a few. When her nose isn’t buried in work (or a good book), Kimberly spends her free time running Greater Than: Illness, a nonprofit organization that aims to empower children and young adults working through mental health conditions. Follow Kimberly on Facebook or Twitter.

Kristeen Cherney is a freelance writer and PhD candidate who specializes in covering Topics related to mental disabilities, women’s health, skin health, diabetes, thyroid disease, asthma, and allergies. She’s also currently working on her dissertation, which explores intersections of disability studies and literacy studies. When she’s not researching or writing, Cherney enjoys getting outdoors as much as possible. She also practices yoga and kick-boxing.

Wed, 25 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Redgate introduces automated test data management solution to simplify workflows, enable efficient software delivery, and reduce risk No result found, try new keyword!In literally seconds, Redgate Test Data Manager performs classification, masking, subsetting and cloning by automatically discovering and classifying the data in a SQL Server, PostgreSQL, MySQL or ... Thu, 16 Nov 2023 03:50:00 -0600 en-US text/html Customer Service Representative Salary No result found, try new keyword!How Much Does a Customer Service Representative Make? Customer Service Representatives made a median salary of $36,920 in 2021. The best-paid 25% made $46,460 that year, while the lowest-paid 25% ... Tue, 14 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 What to know about calprotectin stool tests

A calprotectin stool test detects levels of calprotectin in stool. This protein indicates bowel inflammation. It can help diagnose and monitor conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

A calprotectin stool test, or a fecal calprotectin test, checks for inflammation in the intestines. With this type of test, a laboratory examines a person’s stool trial for calprotectin, which is a type of protein, to determine inflammation levels in the intestines.

If a person is experiencing symptoms that indicate an issue with the intestines, a calprotectin stool test can help doctors tell the difference between inflammatory and noninflammatory causes. Bacterial infections can cause inflammation, as can IBD.

It is important to note that calprotectin test results are more representative of inflammation in the colon than inflammation in the small intestine. This means that the test cannot always accurately detect all forms of IBD. Crohn’s disease, for example, may only affect the small intestine.

This article will look at how the calprotectin stool test works, when a person may take one, and what to expect while doing so.

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell. If a person has any inflammation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, neutrophils travel to the area of inflammation. They then release calprotectin, which is a protein. This release of calprotectin causes higher levels of the protein in the person’s stool.

A calprotectin stool test measures the amount of calprotectin in the stool to show how much inflammation is present in the intestines.

A calprotectin stool test is noninvasive, and people only have to provide a stool sample. The laboratory will provide a clean container for the sample. There should be no urine or water present, as this could contaminate the sample.

A doctor may request a calprotectin stool test if a person has symptoms that could indicate that they have IBD. Such symptoms include:

A calprotectin stool test can help a doctor find out if a person has IBD or a noninflammatory bowel condition, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Doctors may also use a calprotectin stool test for a person who has already received a diagnosis of IBD. They can use the test to check if their inflammation levels have decreased in order to find out if their treatment plan is working effectively.

They may also use a calprotectin stool test if a person has an IBD flare. This can help them determine how severe the person’s levels of inflammation are compared with their baseline levels.

Once the laboratory receives the stool sample, it will test calprotectin levels using a method called enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

According to a 2021 article, ELISA is the gold standard in immunoassays. An immunoassay is a test that uses an antibody to bind to a specific substance to show how much of a particular substance is present in a person’s bodily fluids.

An ELISA test can detect substances such as:

  • antibodies
  • antigens
  • proteins
  • glycoproteins
  • hormones

According to one 2017 article, ELISA testing is effective, and it is rare to get false-positive or false-negative results.

The article also notes that, in some cases, a person may be able to carry out a calprotectin stool test at home. They can use a sampling device to extract the correct amount of trial for testing. They can then use an app on their smartphone to analyze the results.

However, test reliability may vary depending on the manufacturer of the kit.

According to the same 2017 article above, normal and abnormal ranges of calprotectin are generally as follows:

  • Calprotectin levels of 50–200 micrograms per milligram (μg/mg) are usually normal. This level may indicate a slight elevation of calprotectin levels, but it is not usually enough to warrant further investigation.
  • Calprotectin levels higher than 200 μg/mg may indicate an inflammatory condition.
  • Calprotectin levels of 500–600 μg/mg will almost definitely indicate an inflammatory condition.

It is important to note that normal and abnormal ranges of calprotectin can vary between different test kits and by location due to sanitation and the prevalence of intestinal infections.

A doctor may recommend a calprotectin stool test for two main reasons: to diagnose a condition or to monitor an existing one.

When diagnosing a condition

A person may need a calprotectin test if they have any symptoms that could indicate inflammation in the intestines. These symptoms include:

  • frequent diarrhea
  • abdominal pain
  • fatigue
  • bloody stool
  • weight loss

When monitoring an existing diagnosis

A doctor may also use a calprotectin test if a person already has IBD. By showing levels of inflammation, the test can help the doctor monitor the condition, find out if treatment is working, or determine the severity of a flare.

A calprotectin stool test is a noninvasive test. There is no need for any preparation of the bowel beforehand.

Usually, a doctor will collect a stool trial from the person and send it away to a laboratory to test. Some doctors or laboratories may provide a person with instructions on how to collect the trial at home. The laboratory will also provide a clean container for the trial to prevent any potential contamination. The person must make sure that the stool trial does not contain any urine or water.

The doctor will then notify the person once they receive the results of the test. After interpreting the results, they may carry out further testing if the results show moderate-to-high levels of inflammation.

If a person has low or normal calprotectin levels, it may signify that there is no inflammation in the colon or that a noninflammatory condition may be causing symptoms.

The time frame for test results will vary depending on the laboratory carrying out the test. After the laboratory tests the stool sample, it may take several days for the results to become available.

If a person has taken a home test, they may receive their test result within a few hours.

Low or normal calprotectin levels may signal a noninflammatory bowel condition, such as IBS, or a viral infection in the GI tract.

According to the 2017 article, if a person has a calprotectin level of 50–200 μg/mg, they may require a second test several weeks after the first to check if these levels are still slightly elevated. Slightly elevated calprotectin levels usually do not require any further course of action, as the risk of any inflammatory condition is low.

Moderate calprotectin levels, or levels that have increased from one test to the next, could be a sign of inflammation or the worsening of a condition. A doctor may choose to carry out further testing to investigate. This may take the form of endoscopy.

A calprotectin stool test is a noninvasive test to measure calprotectin levels in a person’s stool sample. Levels of calprotectin, which is a type of protein, in the stool can indicate levels of inflammation in the intestines.

A person may require a calprotectin stool test if they have symptoms of inflammation in the intestines, such as frequent diarrhea, stomach pain, or bloody stool.

The results of a calprotectin stool test can help a doctor determine whether a person has an inflammatory or noninflammatory condition of the intestines. They may also use a calprotectin stool test to monitor an existing IBD diagnosis.

Thu, 29 Jul 2021 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
How to Test If a Router Is Overloaded
  • 1.

    Open a new browser session and perform some low-bandwidth activities like visiting the homepage of a website. Visit one page at a time, rather than running multiple tabs. Do this one at a time for each computer or other device connected to your home network. If you encounter performance problems at any point, then you probably have a different problem from router overload because the router should easily handle this work volume.

  • 2.

    Perform a high-bandwidth activity next, such as downloading a large file, loading many tabs at once, or playing an online game like "Second Life" or "World of Warcraft." Do this for each device on your network one at a time. If you experience intermittent dropped connections or broken downloads, especially if it occurs on different devices, that may indicate router overload.

  • 3.

    Determine whether the performance issue results only when you simultaneously use the Internet on a specific combination of devices on your home network, or if it results with any combination of simultaneous device use. For this test use the Internet as you would normally, rather than limiting use to a low-bandwidth activity. Router overload would cause slow performance on any combination of devices, whereas performance issues that occur only with a specific combination of devices indicate a different problem, either with one of those devices or with its connection to the router. If you only have one device connected to your home network, skip this step.

  • 4.

    Inspect your router’s firewall settings to see whether they might be causing a performance bottleneck. You can check these settings through the router’s control panel software on your computer, usually by typing the IP address “” (without quotes) into your browser’s address bar. If that doesn’t work, check your router user manual. If you don’t know enough about firewall settings to inspect them knowledgeably, simply disable the router firewall entirely and see if that resolves the performance issue. If it does, you can consult with a technician, geek friend or the user manual to figure out what settings you need to change to run the firewall without overloading the router.

  • 5.

    Compare performance speeds between regular Internet usage and peer-to-peer filesharing. “Regular” Internet usage includes universal activities like visiting websites and sending email, where you typically interact with centralized Web servers. Peer-to-peer filesharing, by contrast, can overload a router’s CPU even at relatively low levels of bandwidth usage because the router must handle information coming in from many different networks. This limitation only affects cheap or older routers with limited CPU capacity. If you don’t engage in filesharing, skip this step as it can’t be a source of router overload.

  • Thu, 19 Nov 2015 18:05:00 -0600 en-US text/html
    West Red Lake Gold Announces Positive Metallurgical Test Results from Rowan Mine Deposit

    VANCOUVER, British Columbia, Nov. 15, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- West Red Lake Gold Mines Ltd.(“West Red Lake Gold” or “WRLG” or the “Company”) (TSXV: WRLG)(OTCQB: WRLGF) is very pleased to announce positive metallurgical test results from the Rowan Mine Deposit, which is part of the 100% owned Rowan Property located in the prolific Red Lake Gold District of Northwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Highlights of Metallurgical Test Results

    The Rowan Mine Deposit exhibits an excellent response using conventional metallurgical techniques with a very high percentage of Gravity Recoverable Gold (“GRG”). As expected, the GRG component occurs as coarse gold, which is also seen at Madsen and the satellite deposits Russet, Fork and Wedge (the “Satellites”). The metallurgical test work was completed using the Madsen Mill Flowsheet with the same specifications and parameters currently in place at the Madsen Mill.

    • Test work completed on the Rowan Master Composites (“MCs”) indicates that Rowan veinmaterial can be processed through the Madsen Mill with minor changes to the existing flowsheet.
    • The results indicate the MCs tested produce very high gravity recovery with overall gold extraction above 98% after a 48-hour cyanide leach of the gravity tailings.
    • Gravity Recoverable Gold (GRG) ranged from 75.8% to 94.9% and the gold was found to be coarse to very coarse.
    • At a primary grind of 80% passing (P80) 75 microns, very low cyanide consumptions, below 0.23 kilogram per tonne (“kg/t”), were required to achieve gold extractions above 98%.

    Shane Williams, President & CEO, stated, "The results of this first phase of metallurgical test work at Rowan have exceeded our expectations, and represent a significant step forward in de-risking this high-grade resource. It is very encouraging to see gold recoveries in the order of 98% using the same process flow sheet as the Madsen Mill. Furthermore, the high percentage of gold that is able to be extracted via gravity methods only further increases our confidence in the Rowan Deposit as a future source of high-grade, easily recoverable gold ounces that could potentially add a significant boost to the overall production profile at Madsen.”

    Details of Metallurgical Program

    The metallurgical test program (the “Program”) was completed by Base Metallurgical Laboratories (“BaseMet”), a leading metallurgical testing and consulting firm based in Kamloops, British Columbia. The test work was completed on four (4) MC samples representative of Rowan vein zones 101, 102, 103 and 104 (“MC-101”, “MC-102”, “MC-103” and “MC-104”, respectively). The MC samples were created from contiguous intervals of material from 14 NQ-diameter diamond drill holes throughout the Rowan deposit. The metallurgical test program was designed and supervised by Kelly McLeod, P.Eng. (K-Met Consultants, Inc.).

    TABLE 1 shows the head grades for the four MCs. Due to the nuggety nature of the gold in the material, MC head grades vary with each test charge – for example, a range of 4.6 to 15.3 g/t Au was measured during the leach tests.

    TABLE 1. Head Assays for the Four Master Composites from BaseMet

    Products Assays
    Au (g/t) Ag (g/t) As (g/t) Cu (%) Fe (%) S (%) C (%)
    MC 101 Hd 1 5.56 2.0 96 0.008 2.06 0.50 0.33
    MC 101 Hd 2 6.32 1.3 104 0.008 2.08 0.52 0.34
    Average 5.94 1.7 100 0.008 2.07 0.51 0.34
    MC 102 Hd 1 11.10 1.5 412 0.004 1.62 0.41 0.46
    MC 102 Hd 2 8.01 2.6 324 0.004 1.58 0.47 0.46
    Average 9.56 2.1 368 0.004 1.60 0.44 0.46
    MC 103 Hd 1 3.22 2.8 1754 0.018 5.44 1.95 0.61
    MC 103 Hd 2 3.40 2.8 1470 0.017 5.64 1.88 0.64
    Average 3.31 2.8 1612 0.018 5.54 1.92 0.63
    MC 104 Hd 1 3.67 1.6 12 0.013 14.2 0.89 0.55
    MC 104 Hd 2 1.00 1.6 12 0.013 13.9 0.87 0.55
    Average 2.34 1.6 12 0.013 14.1 0.88 0.55

    Discussion of the Metallurgical Program Results

    The preliminary test work completed on the Rowan MCs indicates the material can be processed through the Madsen Mill with minor changes to the existing flowsheet. The results indicate the MCs tested produced very high gravity recovery with overall gold extraction after a 48-hour cyanide leach of the gravity tailings above 98%. Like Madsen, the leach tests were completed at low cyanide consumptions and successfully achieved the target Cyanide Weak Acid Dissociable (“CNWAD“) in the final tailings of less than 1 ppm using the previously established Madsen conditions for cyanide destruction.

    Mineralogy and Comminution

    Bulk Mineralogy Analysis (“BMA”) was completed on all four MC samples. As observed at Madsen and the Satellite deposits, the main sulphides present are pyrrhotite followed by pyrite. Sphalerite is also present at Rowan and tends to often be spatially associated with visible gold.


    FIGURE 1. Sulphur Deportment Chart showing relative abundance of sulphide minerals in the Rowan Master Composites.

    Comminution test work conducted on the MCs yielded the following results:

    • The Rowan samples tested were harder than the Madsen and Satellite deposits.
    • The Bond Ball Work Index (“Bwi”) for the Rowan MCs ranges from 16.2 to 18.2 kilowatt-hour per tonne (“kWh/t”) – for comparison Madsen ranges from 9.7 to 17.1 kWh/t and averages 14.4 kWh/t.
    • The SAG Mill Comminution (“SMC”) test results are outlined in TABLE 3 below.

    TABLE 2. Bond Work Index Summary for Rowan Master Composites.

    Sample ID
    Bond BWI @ 106µm CSS
    F80-μm P80-μm Gpr kW-hr/t
    MC-101 2493 74 1.02 17.2
    MC-102 2537 75 1.1 16.2
    MC-103 2284 76 1.08 16.8
    MC-104 2625 74 0.94 18.2

    TABLE 3. SMC Test Results Summary for the Rowan Master Composites.

    Sample ID
    Size Fraction
    Tested (mm)

    DWi  DWi  Mia Mih Mic
    kWh/m3 % kWh/t kWh/t kWh/t
    MC-101 22.4 - 19.0 10.4 90.0 27.1 21.8 11.3
    MC-102 22.4 - 19.0 10.8 90.2 27.9 22.7 11.8
    MC-103 22.4 - 19.0 12.5 98.0 29.8 25.0 12.9
    MC-104 22.4 - 19.0 13.4 99.0 31.6 26.8 13.9
    Sample ID
    MC-101 89.7 0.30 2.76 0.25 12.2 26.9
    MC-102 100.0 0.26 2.76 0.24 12.4 26.0
    MC-103 83.5 0.28 2.91 0.21 13.7 23.4
    MC-104 80.5 0.27 2.89 0.19 14.2 21.7

    Gravity Tests

    • Gravity Recoverable Gold (GRG) test work was completed on MC-101, -102 and -103.
    • All three MCs have a significant amount of coarse gravity gold.
    • MC-101, MC-102 and MC-103 had a GRG of 93.0%, 94.9% and 75.8%, respectively.
    • The gravity component is coarse to very coarse as seen in the Madsen and Satellite deposits.

    Leach Tests

    • The leach tests were completed using the Madsen Mill Flowsheet.
    • The gold extraction at 24 hours (residence time in the Madsen leach circuit) was above 95% for all four MCs tested with high gravity recovery – for comparison, the Madsen mill averaged 95%.
    • The final extractions at 48 hours were above 98% with cyanide consumptions below 0.23 kg/tonne.
    • High gravity recoveries to the pan concentrate of over 67% were recorded with the exception of MC-103 which had a recovery of 42.3%. Operational data from the Madsen mill averaged 45% recovery to the pan concentrate.
    • Due to the coarse nature of the Rowan gold and slightly slower leach kinetics of MC-102 an additional leach tank will be added to the flowsheet.
    • The Madsen detox circuit is designed for 1 hour residence time, 5:1 SO2:CNWAD and 30 mg/L CuSO4.5H2O with a target of less than 5 ppm CNWAD.
    • The cyanide destruction test work completed on the MC’s indicates the Rowan material can achieve a final tailings CNWAD of less than 1 ppm Au following the Madsen design parameters and flowsheet.


    FIGURE 2. Leach Kinetics for MC Samples MC-101, -102, -103 and -104.

    Additional Test Work and Opportunities

    Additional metallurgical test work at Rowan will include PFS-level studies to confirm extraction with varying head grades, as well as running the flowsheet on a number of variability samples from throughout the Rowan deposit.


    The Rowan Mine Target consists of more than seven sub-parallel, near-vertical, east-west trending veins that are currently defined over a strike length of approximately 1.1 km– mineralization remains open along strike and at depth. The orientation of the veins at the Rowan Mine tend to follow the direction of D2 deformation, which is oriented in an east-west direction over this part of the property. Individual mineralized vein zones usually average 1.0 to 1.5m in thickness, with an overall thickness of the Rowan vein corridor at around 115m. Gold mineralization is typically localized within quartz-carbonate veins hosted within and along the ‘footwall’ margin of a porphyritic felsic intrusive, with increased grades often associated with the presence of visible gold and base metal sulphides (e.g. galena, sphalerite). High-grade dilation zones or ‘ore chutes’ along the Rowan vein trend have been recognized as important controls for localizing thicker and higher-grade zones of gold mineralization. The position and geometry of these dilation zones is well understood at Rowan.

    The drilling completed at the Rowan Mine Target in 2023 has been focused on validating historical data across the Inferred Resource, and also infilling apparent gaps in the analytical data set which was a product of very selective sampling techniques implemented during previous drilling campaigns. Assay results received from the 2023 drilling program continue to confirm our thesis that quartz veining and gold mineralization continue at depth and along strike, with grades consistent with, or higher than those outlined in the current Inferred Mineral Resource which remains open in all directions. For example, the 100 Vein Zone - which is the furthest north vein currently modeled within the overall Rowan vein corridor - was previously interpreted to be a lower grade portion of the block model. recent drilling has confirmed that higher grades are present within the 100 Vein Zone below 150m elevation, suggesting that gold grades are increasing at depth within this zone which is a trend that has been observed elsewhere in the Red Lake district. Drilling at the Rowan Mine Target area will continue with an emphasis on infill and expansion of the existing high-grade mineral resources.


    Drilling completed at the Rowan Property consists of oriented NQ-sized diamond drill core. All drill holes are systematically logged, photographed, and sampled by a trained geologist at WRLG’s Mt. Jamie core processing facility. Minimum allowable trial length is 0.5m. Maximum allowable trial length is 1.5m. Standard reference materials and blanks are inserted at a targeted 5% insertion rate. The drill core is then cut lengthwise utilizing a diamond blade core saw along a line pre-selected by the geologist. To reduce sampling bias, the same side of drill core is sampled consistently utilizing the orientation line as reference. For those samples containing visible gold (“VG”), a trained geologist supervises the cutting/bagging of those samples, and ensures the core saw blade is ‘cleaned’ with a dressing stone following the VG trial interval. Bagged samples are then sealed with zip ties and transported by WRLG personnel directly to SGS Natural Resource’s Facility in Red Lake, Ontario for assay.

    Samples are then prepped by SGS, which consists of drying at 105°C and crushing to 75% passing 2mm. A riffle splitter is then utilized to produce a 500g course reject for archive. The remainder of the trial is then pulverized to 85% passing 75 microns from which 50g is analyzed by fire assay and an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) finish. Samples returning gold values > 10 g/t Au are reanalyzed by fire assay with a gravimetric finish on a 50g sample. Samples with visible gold are also analyzed via metallic screen analysis (SGS code: GO_FAS50M). For multi-element analysis, samples are sent to SGS’s facility in Burnaby, British Columbia and analyzed via four-acid digest with an atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) finish for 33-element analysis on 0.25g trial pulps (SGS code: GE_ICP40Q12). SGS Natural Resources analytical laboratories operates under a Quality Management System that complies with ISO/IEC 17025.

    West Red Lake Gold’s Rowan Property presently hosts a National Instrument 43-101 (“NI 43-101”) Inferred Mineral Resource of 2,790,700 t at an average grade of 9.2 g/t Au containing 827,462 ounces of gold with a cut-off grade of 3.8 g/t Au (NI 43-101 Technical Report, entitled “Technical Report and Resource Estimate on the West Red Lake Project” authored by John Kita, P.Eng., dated December 13, 2022 and filed December 30, 2022 on The Inferred Mineral Resource is located in the area of the historic underground Rowan Mine site and situated within a 1.8 km strike length portion of the regional scale Pipestone Bay St Paul Deformation Zone. 

    The technical information presented in this news release has been reviewed and approved by Will Robinson, P.Geo., Vice President of Exploration for West Red Lake Gold and the Qualified Person for exploration at the West Red Lake Project, as defined by NI 43-101 “Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects”.


    West Red Lake Gold Mines Ltd. is a mineral exploration company that is publicly traded and focused on advancing and developing its flagship Madsen Gold Mine and the associated 47 km2 highly prospective land package in the Red Lake district of Ontario. The highly productive Red Lake Gold District of Northwest Ontario, Canada has yielded over 30 million ounces of gold from high-grade zones and hosts some of the world's richest gold deposits. WRLG also holds the wholly owned Rowan Property in Red Lake, with an expansive property position covering 31 km2 including three past producing gold mines - Rowan, Mount Jamie, and Red Summit.



    “Shane Williams”

    Shane Williams        
    President & Chief Executive Officer


    Amandip Singh, VP Corporate Development
    Tel: 416-203-9181
    Email: or visit the Company’s website at

    Neither the TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release.

    Certain statements contained in this news release constitute "forward-looking statements". When used in this document, the words "anticipated", "expect", "estimated", "forecast", "planned", and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements or information. These statements are based on current expectations of management, however, they are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause genuine results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements in this news release and include without limitation, statements relating to the Rowan Property potential and the Company’s future objectives and plans. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these statements. West Red Lake Gold Mines Ltd. does not undertake any obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements as a result of new information, future events or otherwise after the date hereof, except as required by securities laws.

    Forward‐looking statements involve numerous risks and uncertainties and genuine results might differ materially from results suggested in any forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, among other things, market volatility; the state of the financial markets for the Company’s securities; fluctuations in commodity prices and changes in the Company’s business plans.In making the forward looking statements in this news release, the Company has applied several material assumptions that the Company believes are reasonable, including without limitation, that the Company will continue with its stated business objectives and its ability to raise additional capital to proceed. Although management of the Company has attempted to identify important factors that could cause genuine results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements or forward-looking information, there may be other factors that cause results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. There can be no assurance that such statements will prove to be accurate, as genuine results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Accordingly, readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements and forward-looking information. Readers are cautioned that reliance on such information may not be appropriate for other purposes. The Company does not undertake to update any forward-looking statement, forward-looking information or financial out-look that are incorporated by reference herein, except in accordance with applicable securities laws. The Company seeks safe harbor.

    For more information on the Company, investors should review the Company’s continuous disclosure filings that are available at 

    Photos accompanying this announcement are available at

    Primary Logo

    Tue, 14 Nov 2023 22:46:00 -0600 en text/html

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