SSCP history - Systems Security Certified Practioner
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Exam Code: SSCP Systems Security Certified Practioner history 2023 by Killexams.com team|
SSCP Systems Security Certified Practioner
Exam Title : ISC2 Systems Security Certified Practitioner (SSCP)
Exam ID : SSCP
Exam Duration : 180 mins
Questions in exam : 125
Passing Score : 700/1000
Exam Center : Pearson VUE
Real Questions : ISC2 SSCP Real Questions
VCE practice exam : ISC2 SSCP Certification VCE Practice Test
Access Controls 16%
Implement and maintain authentication methods - Single/multifactor authentication
- Single sign-on
- Device authentication
- Federated access
Support internetwork trust architectures
- Trust relationships (e.g., 1-way, 2-way, transitive)
- Third party connections
Participate in the identity management lifecycle
- Identity and Access Management (IAM) systems
Implement access controls
Security Operations and Administration 15%
Comply with codes of ethics
- (ISC)² Code of Ethics
- Organizational code of ethics
Understand security concepts
- Least privilege
- Separation of duties
Document, implement, and maintain functional security controls
- Deterrent controls
- Preventative controls
- Detective controls
- Corrective controls
- Compensating controls
Participate in asset management
- Lifecycle (hardware, software, and data)
- Hardware inventory
- Software inventory and licensing
- Data storage
Implement security controls and assess compliance
- Technical controls (e.g., session timeout, password aging)
- Physical controls (e.g., mantrap, cameras, locks)
- Administrative controls (e.g., security policies and standards, procedures, baselines)
- Periodic audit and review
Participate in change management
- Execute change management process
- Identify security impact
- Testing /implementing patches, fixes, and updates (e.g., operating system, applications, SDLC) Participate in security awareness and training
Participate in physical security operations (e.g., data center assessment, badging)
Risk Identification, Monitoring, and Analysis 15%
Understand the risk management process
- Risk visibility and reporting (e.g., risk register, sharing threat intelligence, Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS))
- Risk management concepts (e.g., impact assessments, threat modelling, Business Impact Analysis (BIA))
- Risk management frameworks (e.g., ISO, NIST)
- Risk treatment (e.g., accept, transfer, mitigate, avoid, recast)
Perform security assessment activities
- Participate in security testing
- Interpretation and reporting of scanning and testing results
- Remediation validation
- Audit finding remediation
Operate and maintain monitoring systems (e.g., continuous monitoring)
- Events of interest (e.g., anomalies, intrusions, unauthorized changes, compliance monitoring)
- Source systems
- Legal and regulatory concerns (e.g., jurisdiction, limitations, privacy)
Analyze monitoring results
- Security baselines and anomalies
- Visualizations, metrics, and trends (e.g., dashboards, timelines)
- Event data analysis
- Document and communicate findings (e.g., escalation)
Incident Response and Recovery 13%
Support incident lifecycle
- Detection, analysis, and escalation
- Lessons learned/implementation of new countermeasure
Understand and support forensic investigations
- Legal and ethical principles
- Evidence handling (e.g., first responder, triage, chain of custody, preservation of scene)
Understand and support Business Continuity Plan (BCP) and Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP) activities
- Emergency response plans and procedures (e.g., information system contingency plan)
- Interim or alternate processing strategies
- Restoration planning
- Backup and redundancy implementation
- Testing and drills
Understand fundamental concepts of cryptography
- Symmetric/asymmetric encryption/Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC)
- Non-repudiation (e.g., digital signatures/certificates, HMAC, audit trail)
- Encryption algorithms (e.g., AES, RSA)
- Key strength (e.g., 256, 512, 1024, 2048 bit keys)
- Cryptographic attacks, cryptanalysis, and counter measures
Understand reasons and requirements for cryptography
- Integrity and authenticity
- Data sensitivity (e.g., PII, intellectual property, PHI)
Understand and support secure protocols
- Services and protocols (e.g., IPSec, TLS, S/MIME, DKIM)
- Common use cases
- Limitations and vulnerabilities
Understand Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) systems
Fundamental key management concepts (e.g., key rotation, key composition, key creation, exchange, revocation, escrow)
- Web of Trust (WOT) (e.g., PGP, GPG)
Network and Communications Security 16%
Understand and apply fundamental concepts of networking
- OSI and TCP/IP models
- Network topographies (e.g., ring, star, bus, mesh, tree)
- Network relationships (e.g., peer to peer, client server)
- Transmission media types (e.g., fiber, wired, wireless)
- Commonly used ports and protocols
Understand network attacks and countermeasures (e.g., DDoS, man-in-the-middle, DNS poisoning)
Manage network access controls
- Network access control and monitoring (e.g., remediation, quarantine, admission)
- Network access control standards and protocols (e.g., IEEE 802.1X, Radius, TACACS)
- Remote access operation and configuration (e.g., thin client, SSL VPN, IPSec VPN, telework)
Manage network security
- Logical and physical placement of network devices (e.g., inline, passive)
- Segmentation (e.g., physical/logical, data/control plane, VLAN, ACLs)
- Secure device management
Operate and configure network-based security devices
- Firewalls and proxies (e.g., filtering methods)
- Network intrusion detection/prevention systems
- Routers and switches
- Traffic-shaping devices (e.g., WAN optimization, load balancing)
Operate and configure wireless technologies (e.g., bluetooth, NFC, WiFi)
- Transmission security
- Wireless security devices (e.g.,WIPS, WIDS)
Systems and Application Security 15%
Identify and analyze malicious code and activity
- Malware (e.g., rootkits, spyware, scareware, ransomware, trojans, virus, worms, trapdoors, backdoors, and remote access trojans)
- Malicious code countermeasures (e.g., scanners, anti-malware, code signing, sandboxing)
- Malicious activity (e.g., insider threat, data theft, DDoS, botnet)
- Malicious activity countermeasures (e.g., user awareness, system hardening, patching, sandboxing, isolation)
Implement and operate endpoint device security
- Host-based firewalls
- Application white listing
- Endpoint encryption
- Trusted Platform Module (TPM)
- Mobile Device Management (MDM) (e.g., COPE, BYOD)
- Secure browsing (e.g., sandbox)
Operate and configure cloud security
- Deployment models (e.g., public, private, hybrid, community)
- Service models (e.g., IaaS, PaaS and SaaS)
- Virtualization (e.g., hypervisor)
- Legal and regulatory concerns (e.g., privacy, surveillance, data ownership, jurisdiction, eDiscovery)
- Data storage and transmission (e.g., archiving, recovery, resilience)
- Third party/outsourcing requirements (e.g., SLA, data portability, data destruction, auditing)
- Shared responsibility model
Operate and secure virtual environments
- Software-defined networking
- Virtual appliances
- Continuity and resilience
- Attacks and countermeasures
- Shared storage
|Systems Security Certified Practioner|
ISC2 Practioner history
Other ISC2 examsCISSP Certified Information Systems Security Professional - 2023
CSSLP Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional
ISSAP Information Systems Security Architecture Professional (ISSAP)
ISSEP Information Systems Security Engineering Professional
ISSMP Information Systems Security Management Professional
SSCP Systems Security Certified Practioner
CCSP Certified Cloud Security Professional (CCSP)
HCISPP HealthCare Information Security and Privacy Practitioner
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SECTION A (INDIAN HISTORY)
1. Growth of Nationalism
(i) Swadeshi Movement
Partition of Bengal and anti-Partition Movement, leading to the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement: causes, features and impact which should include the aggravation of the Moderate-Extremist clash, and the foundation of the Muslim League. The assessment of the movement should include the positive and negative features.
(ii) Revolutionary Nationalism
The growth of revolutionary activities should explain what led to the development and concentrate on some well-known organizations: Abhinav Bharat, Yugantar, Anushilan Samiti.
2. Emergence of the Colonial Economy
(i) Development of the means of transport and communication. Transportation: a brief look at the development of the railways – other means can simply be mentioned.
(ii) Disruption of traditional economy: British revenue policy: impact on peasants and artisans; poverty and famines. A general account of the impact of the British rule on peasants and artisans. Revenue policy: the Permanent Settlement and Ryotwari Settlement should be done in some detail.
(iii)Development of modern industries. An account of the growth of large scale machine based industries in western India, its economic impact.
(iv) Colonial Forest Policy - impact on local communities. The Forest Acts of 1865 and 1894 to be studied critically. Political and economic impact of the Colonial Forest Policy on local communities.
3. Social and Religious Movements
(i) Impact of the modern ideas in Europe on Indian administrators. The characteristics of modern thought (liberalism, utilitarianism) to be very briefly explained as a background to British policy.
(ii) Reform Movements – Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Aligarh Movement. A critical look at each of the above movements.
(iii)Struggle against caste – Jyotirao Phule, Narayan Guru, Veerasalingam. A brief outline of their contributions.
(iv) The Women’s Question
The following Acts to be studied: Abolition of Sati 1829, Widow Remarriage 1856, Female Infanticide Prevention 1870 and Age of Consent 1891. The background and features have to be read critically to evaluate their impact on women.
4. Protest Movements against Colonial Rule
A brief account of the Indigo Uprising (1859), Deccan riots (1875), Munda Uprising (1899- 1900) and the response of the colonial authority.
5. Gandhian Nationalism (1916 – 1922)
(i) The launching of the passive resistance movement by Gandhi; background and main features of the movement. A general background of the development of Gandhian ideas of non-violence and satyagraha in South Africa. Brief summaries of the three localised satyagrahas: Champaran, Ahmedabad, and Kheda district.
(ii) Agitation against the Rowlatt Act, Jalianwala Bagh (1919), Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement (1919-1922). The reasons behind the Rowlatt Act and its main terms to be studied in brief. A general account of the satyagraha against the Act, leading to Jalianwala Bagh and the aftermath. The launching of the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movements; why Gandhi decided to support Khilafat. There should be a connected chronological account of the movement and its suspension after Chauri Chaura.
6. Gandhian Nationalism (1927 – 1934)
(i) Simon Commission: its boycott and the demand for Dominion Status by 1929; Lahore session and declaration of 'Poorna Swaraj' as the Congress objective. The reasons for sending the Commission in 1927 as well as its boycott should be briefly explained. A general account of the agitation against the Commission as well as a very brief account of the Nehru Report. The Lahore Session should be set against the expiry of the deadline by the Congress; the main points of the Poorna Swaraj Resolution.
(ii) Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934).
A general account of the development of the Movement and different strands within the Movement; main features of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The 1st and 2nd Round Table Conferences can be put very briefly in context. The resumption of the Movement, the Poona Pact (in the context of the Communal Award) should be touched upon.
SECTION B (WORLD HISTORY)
7. Impact of the second phase of industrialization in Europe during the late 19th and early 20th centuries
(i) Urbanisation, growth of working class: Workers’ movements.
Trade Union and Socialist Movements in Germany.
(ii) Growth of Women’s struggles for rights: Suffragette Movement.
Focus on Britain and WPSU: an account of demand for women’s right to vote until the election of 1919.
8. World War I: Causes, events leading to it; major changes in warfare and strategy; peace settlements
An outline of the main long-term causes: alliances, imperial rivalry, arms race, nationalism; short-term causes: events from 1908 to 1914: the Moroccan crisis, the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The main interests of the big powers in the Balkans should be briefly touched upon, particularly Russia and Austria-Hungary, as well as the growth of Balkan nationalism and the two Balkan Wars; the assassination at Sarajevo and how it developed into a major European War. Introduction of new technologies and strategies: trench warfare, use of gas, tanks, air warfare and submarines with one example for each. Reasons for US’s entry into the War and a brief account of its contribution. A brief explanation of the various causes for the defeat of the Central Powers.
9. Peace Settlements after World War I and the establishment of the League of Nations
Changes in the map of Europe after the Paris Peace Settlements; critical evaluation of the impact of the peace settlements. League of Nations – membership (absence of major powers); establishment of the mandates system; failure of collective security (Manchuria & Abyssinia).
10. The Great Depression
Causes leading to the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and its impact on the economy of USA, Germany, Britain, France, & Japan.
11. Rise of Communism: Russia (1917-1939)
The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 - a brief account of events in 1917: March Revolution and its results; explanation of why the Provisional Government fell from power leading up to the November Revolution. Lenin and his consolidation of the Bolshevik state. Struggle for power between Stalin and Trotsky; Single party state under Stalin: the collectivisation of agriculture. The First and the Second Five Year Plans and the purges of 1937-1938.
12. Rise of Fascism: Italy (1919-39)
(i) Post-War discontent and the rise to power of Benito Mussolini. Conditions which gave rise to Fascism; a brief chronological account of the events which brought Mussolini to power from the election of 1921 to the march on Rome in October 1922.
(ii) Main features of Mussolini's domestic policy. Critical appraisal of Mussolini’s policies particularly his economic policy
13. Rise of Nazism: Germany (1933-39)
(i) Rise of Hitler to power and factors assisting his rise. Weaknesses of the Weimar Republic as a background to the rise of Nazism; events from 1932 onwards leading to Hitler becoming Chancellor of Germany in 1933; the reasons for his popularity among different groups should be explained.
(ii) The Nazi State: from 1933 onwards. Outline of the changes made by Hitler in government, the cultural life and education, army (the Night of the Long Knives), the economy and religious life. Escalation of the campaign against the Jews should be done in some detail, till the "Final Solution". Reasons why his policies were accepted among different groups.
14. Rise of Militarism: Japan (1919-37)
Reasons for militarism in the 1930s; expansion into China. Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbour.
The political, economic and ideological reasons for the rise of militarism and expansion into China should be explained (emphasis should be laid on the reasons for the attack on Manchuria and a brief account of it). The subsequent developments should be studied chronologically, emphasizing the declaration of a “New Order in East Asia” and the 1937 invasion of China.
PAPER II (PROJECT WORK)
Candidates will be required to undertake one project which may be any one of the following:
(i) A case study.
(ii) A field visit/ investigation.
iii)A local history
(iv) Interview/oral evidence
(v) Book review/ film review/ posters/ newspapers/ advertisements/ cartoons and art
The project must not be based primarily on the syllabus; students must be encouraged to produce original, creative and insightful perspectives on an allied aspect of the topic.
For example, if the theme is economic development in India, the project could be on a 5-year plan. However, it would have to deliver the historical perspective and impact.
The written outcome of the project, in the form of a 2000-word essay, should be structured as given below:
A. The research question
B. Abstract: it must contain the following information:-
• Reason for choosing the topic.
• Methods and material to be used in the investigation.
• Hypothesis: the conclusion the student is hoping to draw.
C. Main essay: it must follow the structure given below:-
• Background and context – to be discussed very briefly.
• Explanation of the theme and specific issue of the research question in the context of the background given above.
• Interpretation, Analysis and Critical Evaluation of a range of evidence: the research material gathered by the student
• Conclusion – whether hypothesis stands or not.
• Bibliography – a list of all material referred to in the essay, including print, electronic, oral & audio-visual material, referenced correctly, in a standard format
• Appendix – optional, only if it is crucial for the better understanding of the project essay.
List of Suggested Projects
2. Rabindranath Tagore
3. Bhagat Singh/ Chandrasekhar Azad/ Lala Lajpat Rai
4. Growth of Indian political organizations in the late 19th - early 20th centuries.
5. Change in British policy after 1857.
6. Industrialisation - Impact of the growth of industries on the life style of the people.
7. Birth of totalitarian ideologies - Fascism Communism.
8. Strands in the early 20th Century - military and economic rivalries.
9. League of Nations – Peacekeeping actions with regard to Collective Security and Weaknesses.
10. The 1920s Cultural Movement - Jazz Age.
11. Changes in nature of warfare – late 19th and early 20th century conflicts, World War I.
Defining and Assessing Productivity
Productivity has been defined as a measure of output per unit of input. Within the discipline of nursing, productivity is described as proof or evidence of how efficient the NP is in his/her labor, job setting, or how efficiently she/he handles resources and equipment (Martin, 2005). It is a measure of how well the health care provider meets the needs of the community she/he serves (Blumenthal, 1999; Martin, 2005). Frequently productivity is expressed in terms of numbers of patients seen per day or amount of reimbursement a provider brings to the practice. But productivity is really much more than that. Martin (2005) reminds providers that all successful practices build on the three A's: availability, affability, and ability.
How available the health care provider is to patients is crucial for productivity. Obviously the more available a health care provider is to the community served, the greater the client base. Martin (2005) states that being available to patients is essential: "you can't get 'em in if you're not there..." Availability speaks to both physical presence and the ability to move smoothly from one patient to the next. Providers who cannot move from patient to patient because of ancillary demands on their time are not "available."
Beyond the basic availability question of how many patients can the NP see in one day, is the issue regarding how much support the practice provides for seeing the number of patients expected. For example, does the practice provide the practitioner with adequate space and support staff to see patients efficiently; are support staff available to perform diagnostic and treatment regimes ordered by the practitioner (for example, blood work, immunizations, allergy injections, spirometry, dexascans, EKG, and diabetic education)? If this support is not available, the practitioner may find that a portion of his/her productivity includes functioning as the clinic nurse. Under these circumstances, traditional methods of collecting provider productivity will not capture the full value of the practitioner's efforts. Practitioners who function as both the clinic nurse and a clinic provider will clearly lower productivity as a provider. In the analysis of "how available is the practitioner," ancillary duties not performed by other providers will reduce provider revenue, but may be offset by the value of the ancillary duties to the clinic. If this is the case, simply reviewing billables will not provide an adequate picture of the productivity of the practitioner. On the other hand, if the clinic is focused on the income generation potential of the provider, all providers should be given similar supports.
Affability addresses the health care experience from the patient's point of view. It requires health care providers to examine how pleasant, open, responsive, and approachable they are. Because the discipline of nursing is grounded in caring, most NPs do well on this measure. Nevertheless, we must review how patients view their interactions with us. On the whole, do patients feel comfortable with the provider? Does the provider listen to the patient, taking his/her concerns seriously? Additionally, the patient experience within the clinic should be reviewed. For example, how difficult it is for patients to contact the provider? Is the staff in the clinic responsive to patient needs? Do patients complain about the service or that the staff is rude? This is an important aspect of productivity as providers who spend a portion of every visit apologizing for rude or dismissive staff cannot function as smoothly as those who can dedicate the entire visit to the patient's health issues. Measurement of these key issues can be done through patient satisfaction surveys.
Ability is also important, not only of the health care provider but of the office staff as well. Is diagnostic data readily compiled for the health care provider to review? Incomplete and confusing medical records reduce the efficacy of the most capable practitioner and set the stage for missing key components of adequate followup. If practice records and scheduling are in disarray, and the practitioner must serve as the manager to alleviate these problems, the practitioner's revenue figures will be reduced. Support staff who cannot keep records, materials, and bookings up to date will negatively affect the patient's experience and, over time, will directly reflect on the patient's evaluation of the practitioner's competency. This directly impacts the productivity of the office, costing the practice patients and revenue (Martin, 2005).
Although Martin's (2005) three A's are one method for reviewing productivity, there are additional models to consider. Ability or NP competency must be held against a specific standard, and availability can be measured indirectly by the number of patients seen each day.
The causes of the Civil War and its cost to a young nation.
More from Wes about the causes of the Civil War.
What led to the outbreak of the bloodiest conflict in the history of North America?
A common explanation is that the Civil War was fought over the moral issue of slavery.
In fact, it was the economics of slavery and political control of that system that was central to the conflict.
A key issue was states' rights.
The Southern states wanted to assert their authority over the federal government so they could abolish federal laws they didn't support, especially laws interfering with the South's right to keep slaves and take them wherever they wished.
Another factor was territorial expansion.
The South wished to take slavery into the western territories, while the North was committed to keeping them open to white labor alone.
Meanwhile, the newly formed Republican party, whose members were strongly opposed to the westward expansion of slavery into new states, was gaining prominence.
The election of a Republican, Abraham Lincoln, as President in 1860 sealed the deal. His victory, without a single Southern electoral vote, was a clear signal to the Southern states that they had lost all influence.
Feeling excluded from the political system, they turned to the only alternative they believed was left to them: secession, a political decision that led directly to war.
The causes of the Civil War and its cost to a young nation.
With the rapid emergence of artificial intelligence, which is quickly making its way into the daily lives of individuals around the world, there are a lot of questions circulating about the new technology.
Artificial intelligence has existed for a long time, but its capacity to emulate human intelligence and the tasks that it is able to perform have many thinking about what the future of this technology will bring.
Here are answers to some of the big questions surrounding artificial intelligence.
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1. Who invented artificial intelligence?
There are major names that have often been credited as the founders of artificial intelligence. One such individual is Alan Turing, a British logician, computer scientist and mathematician who made major contributions to the field before his death in 1954. These include his creation of the Turing Machine, which implements computer algorithms, and his famous work "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem", concepts which paved the way for the function of modern computers.
Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts wrote "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity," which built on the artificial intelligence model started by Turing by describing a neural network, according to HistoryofInformation.com. A neural network enables computers to process information in a way that simulates human brain activity. John McCarthy is credited with coining the term in 1955, according to ComputerHistory.org. He also was the inventor of Lisp, which became the preferred programming language for AI work.
2. What are the artificial intelligence companies?
There are lots of players in the AI game. Many companies are widely using artificial intelligence as they conduct business and compete across the globe.
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One of the biggest artificial intelligence companies that has made a splash recently is OpenAI, which has a partnership with Microsoft. If you are not familiar with OpenAI, you are probably familiar with its product, ChatGPT.
ChatGPT has become one of the most talked about AI systems in history. It is "trained to follow an instruction prompt and provide a detailed response," according to the OpenAI website. When operating ChatGPT, a user can type whatever they want into the system, and they will get an AI-generated response in return.
ChatGPT has raised public concern, prompting some AI leaders like Elon Musk to call for ethical guidelines with respect to AI regulation.
OpenAI's ChatGPT has dominated the AI conversation of late, but many other companies are exploring, developing, and investing in the revolutionary technology.
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Google recently launched its own chatbot AI system called Bard. Adobe also offers AI products, including Sensei, which is billed to "bring the power of AI and machine learning to experiences" and Firefly, which employs generative AI technology.
Amazon also uses AI. If you have ever used Amazon, you are accustomed to seeing product recommendations. This is one way the company uses AI, by figuring out what kind of products you may be interested in purchasing based on your previous search and purchase history. Amazon also has its AI assistant Alexa hooked up to all its Echo devices. You can ask Alexa any question you like, and the system will deliver you an answer.
Apple offers the AI software Siri, which works similarly to Alexa. AI is also used in Apple Maps and with its face identification capabilities.
Baidu is a Chinese company, and is a competitor to Google. The platform has developed voice cloning technology which is regarded as highly authentic, prompting concerns of deepfakes. In 2018, its research arm claimed the ability to clone a human voice in 3 seconds.
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IBM is another AI pioneer, offering a computer system that can compete in strategy games against humans, or even participate in debates. JD.com, the Chinese e-commerce giant, has also made large investments in AI. Company founder Richard Liu has embarked on an ambitious path to be 100% automated in the future, according to Forbes.
Another commonly known company with strong artificial intelligence roots is Tesla, the electric vehicle company founded by Musk that uses AI in its vehicles to assist in performing a variety of tasks like automated driving.
3. How does artificial intelligence work?
An analysis of how artificial intelligence functions is difficult due to its extreme complexity.
Fundamentally, artificial intelligence works by "combining large amounts of data with fast, interactive processing and intelligent algorithms, allowing the software to learn automatically from patterns or features in the data," according to SAS.com.
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In other words, different types of artificial intelligence software are, in a sense, able to study and absorb the information that they need, allowing them to learn, adapt, and improve, in a way that mirrors human learning.
Artificial intelligence is an umbrella term that covers many different areas of technology.
There are four main types of artificial intelligence: reactive machines, limited memory, theory of mind and self-awareness, according to Govtech.com.
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Reactive machines refer to the most basic kind of artificial intelligence in comparison to others; this type of AI is unable to form any memories on its own or learn from experience.
Limited memory artificial intelligence, unlike reactive machines, is able to look into the past. A common example of a limited memory artificial machine is a self-driving car.
Theory of mind AI involves very complex machines that are still being researched today, but are likely to form the basis for future AI technology. These machines will be able to understand people, and develop and create complex ideas about the world and the people in it, producing their own original thoughts.
Finally, the last frontier in AI technology revolves around machines possessing self-awareness. While leading experts agree that technology such as chatbots still lacks self-awareness, the skill at which they engage in mimicry of humans, has led some to suggest that we may have to redefine the concepts of self-awareness and sentience.
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4. What was the foundation of AI?
Philosophy, mathematics, economics, neuroscience, psychology, computer engineering and linguistics have all been disciplines involved in the development of AI.
Scientists and researchers involved in these fields developed the most basic form of artificial intelligence: reactive machines. Reactive machines are the foundation of more complex AI.
This AI base has allowed for more advanced technology to be created, like limited memory machines.
5. What does the future of AI hold?
In the future, we may envision fully self-driving cars, immersive movie experiences, robots with advanced abilities, and AI in the medical field. The applications of AI are wide-ranging and are certain to have a profound impact on society.
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AI has already advanced so rapidly that it is hard to predict what will happen just a few years from now. What is likely to happen is that AI will make its way into pretty much every part of our lives and every facet of our economy in some fashion.
AI could be used more in healthcare to do things like make diagnoses and help doctors make decisions about a patient's care.
AI may also be used more to perform simple everyday tasks, like assist with household chores.
Self-driving cars will likely become widespread, and AI will play a large role in manufacturing, assisting humans with mechanisms like robotic arms.
Even the entertainment industry is likely to be impacted by AI, completely changing the way that films are created and watched.
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Strong AI is also a possibility in the future. Right now, strong AI only exists in the domain of Hollywood films, but with rapid technological advancement, science fiction may become reality. Strong AI is essentially a type of artificial intelligence that seeks to create intelligent machines able to emulate the human mind.
While it is hard to predict the future of AI, undoubtedly it will have a major impact on human lives and there will be few industries which do not feel its effects.
6. How has AI changed the world?
AI has changed a lot of fundamental aspects of day to day life, especially when it comes to work and the ways we communicate with one another.
AI has made lots of things easier for humans, like being able to use a GPS on our phones to get from point A to point B instead of the alternative of using a paper map to get directions. The more advanced AI that is being introduced today is changing the jobs that people have, how we get questions answered and how we are communicating.
Lots of jobs have already been affected by AI and more will be added to that list in the future. A lot of automated work that humans have done in the past is now being done by AI as well as customer service-related inquiries being answered by robots rather than by humans. There are also lots of different AI software being used in tech industries as well as in healthcare.
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AI has changed the way people learn, with software that take notes and write essays for you and has also changed the way we find answers to questions. There is very little time spent going through a book to find the answer to a question, because answers can be found with a quick Google search. Better yet, you can ask your phone a question and an answer will be verbally read out to you. You can also ask software like ChatGPT or Google Bard practically anything and an answer will be quickly formatted for you.
With chatbots on the rise, AI has also changed the way we communicate with others. Now, you can have ongoing conversations with a bot and get an immediate response, like with Snapchat's My AI feature.
It has also changed the way we conduct daily tasks like commutes with self-driving cars and the way we do daily chores with tools like robotic vacuum cleaners.
These are just a few ways AI has changed the world, and lots more changes will come in the near future as the technology expands.
7. What are some key AI events in history?
Even though AI is being talked about now more than ever, the tech has been around for quite a while and there are many historical milestones for the technology that has happened over a long range of time.
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One of the earliest key events in AI was the development of the Turing Machine by Turing, and his famous work "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem", concepts which paved the way for the function of modern computers. This all took place before his death in 1954.
Another key moment in AI came when McCarthy coined the term "artificial intelligence" and created the LISP language for the IBM 704 computer in 1958.
In the late 1990s, there was the creation of the robot pet dog, released by Sony.
When AI started to become more advanced, it began to surpass humans at certain things. For example, in 2011, IBM's Watson computer competed against past "Jeopardy" winners and won by large margins. In 2016, Google DeepMind's AlphaGo beat the Go world champion Lee Sedol.
There have also been historical AI events that have happened in the media, such as in the movie "2001: A Space Odyssey" where an AI called HAL 9000 is introduced. Some other monumental AI-related movies are "I, Robot," "Blade Runner," "WALL-E" and "The Matrix."
The U.S. has experienced many outbreaks over the last few centuries. These includes three waves of cholera and the 2020 spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
An epidemic is defined by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a sudden increase in the number of cases of an infectious disease within a community or geographic area during a specific time period.
A spike in the number of cases of the same illness in an area beyond what health officials expect to see is an outbreak. The terms may be used interchangeably, though epidemics are often considered more widespread.
Over the years, many outbreaks of infectious diseases have occurred and spread across the United States.
Smallpox came to North America in the 1600s. Symptoms included high fever, chills, severe back pain, and rashes. It began in the Northeast and the Native American population was ravaged by it as it spread to the west.
In 1721, more than 6,000 cases were reported out of a Boston population of 11,000. Around 850 people died from the disease.
In 1770, Edward Jenner developed a vaccine from cow pox. It helps the body become immune to smallpox without causing the disease.
Now: After a large vaccination initiative in 1972, smallpox is gone from the United States. In fact, vaccines are no longer necessary.
One humid summer, refugees fleeing a yellow fever epidemic in the Caribbean Islands sailed into Philadelphia, carrying the virus with them.
Yellow fever causes yellowing of the skin, fever, and bloody vomiting. During the 1793 outbreak, it’s estimated that the 10 percent of the city’s population died and many others fled the city to avoid it.
A vaccine was developed and then licensed in 1953. One vaccine is enough for life. It’s mostly recommended for those 9 months and older, especially if you live or travel to high risk areas.
You can find a list of countries where the vaccine is recommended for travel on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website.
Now: Mosquitoes are key to how this disease spreads, particularly in areas such as Central America, South America, and Africa. Eliminating mosquitoes has been successful in controlling yellow fever.
While yellow fever has no cure, someone who does recover from the illness becomes immune for the rest of their life.
The United States had three serious waves of cholera, an infection of the intestines, between 1832 and 1866. The pandemic began in India and swiftly spread across the globe through trade routes.
New York City was the first U.S. city to feel the impact. Between 5 and 10 percent of the total population died in large cities.
It’s unclear what ended the pandemic, but it may have been the change in climate or the use of quarantine measures. By the early 1900s, outbreaks had ended.
Immediate treatment is crucial because cholera can cause death. Treatment includes antibiotics, zinc supplementation, and rehydration.
Now: Cholera still causes nearly 95,000 deaths a year worldwide, according to the CDC. Modern sewage and water treatment have helped eradicate cholera in some countries, but the virus is still present elsewhere.
You can get a vaccine for cholera if you’re planning to travel to high risk areas. The best way to prevent cholera is to wash your hands regularly with soap and water and avoid drinking contaminated water.
Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection that can occur after strep throat. Like cholera, scarlet fever epidemics came in waves.
Scarlet fever most commonly affects children ages 5 to 15. It’s rare in children under 3. Adults who are in contact with sick children have an increased risk.
Older studies argue that scarlet fever declined due to improved nutrition, but research shows that improvements in public health were more likely the cause.
Now: There’s no vaccine to prevent strep throat or scarlet fever. It’s important for those with strep throat symptoms to seek treatment quickly. Your doctor will typically treat scarlet fever with antibiotics.
One of the biggest typhoid fever epidemics of all time broke out between 1906 and 1907 in New York.
Mary Mallon, often referred to as “Typhoid Mary,” spread the bacterial infection to about 122 New Yorkers during her time as a cook on an estate and in a hospital unit.
About 5 of the 122 New Yorkers who contracted the illness from Mary Mallon died. The CDC cites a total of 13,160 deaths in 1906 and 12,670 deaths in 1907.
Medical testing showed that Mallon was a healthy carrier for typhoid fever. Typhoid fever can cause sickness and red spots to form on the chest and abdomen.
A vaccine was developed in 1911, and an antibiotic treatment for typhoid fever became available in 1948.
Now: Today typhoid fever is rare. But it can spread through direct contact with people who have the virus, as well as consumption of contaminated food or water.
H1N1 is a strain of flu that still circulates the globe annually.
In 1918, it was the type of flu behind the influenza pandemic, sometimes called the Spanish flu (though it didn’t actually from come Spain).
After World War I, cases of the flu slowly declined. None of the suggestions provided at the time (wearing masks, drinking coal oil) were effective cures. Today’s treatments include bed rest, fluids, and antiviral medications.
Now: Influenza strains mutate every year, making last year’s vaccinations less effective. It’s important to get your yearly vaccination to decrease your risk for the flu.
Diphtheria peaked in 1921, with 206,000 cases. It causes swelling of the mucous membranes, including in your throat, that can obstruct breathing and swallowing.
Sometimes a bacterial toxin can enter the bloodstream and cause fatal heart and nerve damage.
By the mid-1920s, researchers licensed a vaccine against the bacterial disease. Infection rates plummeted in the United States.
Now: Today more than 80 percent of children in the United States are vaccinated, according to the CDC. Those who contract the disease are treated with antibiotics.
Polio is a viral disease that affects the nervous system, causing paralysis. It spreads through direct contact with people who have the infection.
Outbreaks occurred regularly in the United States through the 1950s, with two major polio outbreaks in 1916 and in 1952. Of the 57,628 reported cases in 1952, there were 3,145 deaths.
In 1955, Dr. Jonas Salk’s vaccine was approved. It was quickly adopted throughout the world. By 1962, the average number of cases dropped to 910. The CDC reports that the United States has been polio-free since 1979.
Now: Getting vaccinated is very important before traveling. There’s no cure for polio. Treatment involves increasing comfort levels and preventing complications.
A major flu outbreak occurred again in 1957. The H2N2 virus, which originated in birds, was first reported in Singapore in February 1957, then in Hong Kong in April 1957.
It appeared in coastal cities in the United States in the summer of 1957.
The estimated number of deaths was 1.1 million worldwide and 116,000 in the United States.
This pandemic is considered to be mild because it was caught early. Scientists were able to develop a vaccine based on the knowledge from creating the first flu vaccine in 1942.
Now: H2N2 no longer circulates in humans, but it still infects birds and pigs. It’s possible that the virus may again jump from animals to humans in the future.
Measles is a virus that causes fever, runny nose, cough, red eyes, and sore throat, and later a rash that spreads over the whole body.
It’s a very contagious disease that spreads through the air. Almost all children caught measles prior to the vaccine. In the second part of the 20th century, most cases were due to inadequate vaccination coverage.
Doctors began to recommend a second vaccine for everyone. Since then, each year has typically had fewer than 1,000 cases, though this was surpassed in 2019.
Now: The United States has experienced smaller outbreaks of measles in latest years. The CDC states that unvaccinated travelers who visit abroad can contract the disease. When they come home to the United States, they pass it on to others who aren’t vaccinated.
Be sure to get all the vaccinations your doctor recommends.
One of Milwaukee’s two water treatment plants became contaminated with cryptosporidium, a parasite that causes the cryptosporidiosis infection. Symptoms include dehydration, fever, stomach cramps, and diarrhea.
An initial study indicated 403,000 people became ill and 69 people died, according to the Water Quality & Health Council, making it the largest waterborne outbreak in United States history.
Most people recovered on their own. Of the people who died, the majority had compromised immune systems.
Now: Cryptosporidiosis is still a yearly concern. The CDC reports that cases increased by 13 percent per year between 2009 and 2017. The number of cases and outbreaks vary in any given year.
Cryptosporidium spreads through soil, food, water, or contact with contaminated feces. It’s one of the most common causes of illness to occur through summer recreational water use and can easily be spread from farm animals or in childcare settings.
Be sure to practice good personal hygiene, such as washing hands, when camping, or after touching animals. Refrain from swimming if you have diarrhea.
In the spring of 2009, the H1N1 virus was detected in the United States and spread quickly across the country and the world. This outbreak made headlines as the swine flu.
The CDC estimates that there were 60.8 million cases, 274,304 hospitalizations, and 12,469 deaths in the United States.
Globally, 80 percent of this outbreak’s deaths were estimated to have occurred in people younger than 65.
In late December 2009, the H1N1 vaccine became available to everyone who wanted it. Virus activity levels began to slow.
Now: The H1N1 strain still circulates seasonally, but it causes fewer deaths and hospitalizations. Influenza strains mutate every year, making the previous year’s vaccinations less effective. It’s important to get your yearly vaccination to decrease your risk for the flu.
Pertussis, known as whooping cough, is highly contagious and one of the most commonly occurring diseases in the United States. These coughing attacks can last for months.
Infants too young for vaccination have the highest risk for life-threatening cases. During the first outbreak, 10 infants died.
A whooping cough outbreak comes every 3 to 5 years. The CDC reports that an increase in the number of cases will likely be the “new normal.”
Now: The occurrence of the disease is much less than it was. The CDC recommends all people need the vaccine, but that pregnant women get a vaccination during the third trimester to optimize protection at birth.
It’s also recommended that all children, and anyone who hasn’t previously been vaccinated, get the vaccine.
First documented in 1981, the epidemic known today as HIV appeared to be a rare lung infection. Now we know that HIV damages the body’s immune system and compromises its ability to fight off infections.
AIDS is the final stage of HIV and, according to the CDC, in 2018 it was the 9th leading cause of death in the United States among people 25 to 34 years old. Just because a person gets HIV doesn’t mean they’ll develop AIDS.
HIV may be transmitted sexually or through blood or body fluids from person to person. It can be transmitted from mother to unborn baby if not treated.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (or PrEP) is a way for high risk populations to avoid HIV infection before exposure. The pill (brand name Truvada) contains two medicines that are used in combination with other medicines to treat HIV.
When someone is exposed to HIV through sexual activity or injection drug use, these medicines can work to keep the virus from establishing a permanent infection.
The CDC believes that for the first time in modern history, the world has the tools to control the HIV epidemic without a vaccine or cure, while laying the groundwork to eventually end HIV.
Controlling the epidemic requires reaching high risk groups with treatment and prevention.
Now: While there’s no cure for HIV, transmission risk can be decreased through safety measures, like making sure needles are sterilized and having sex with barrier methods.
Safety measures can be taken during pregnancy to prevent the syndrome from being transmitted from mother to child.
For emergencies, PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) is a new antiretroviral medicine that prevents HIV from developing within 72 hours.
The SARS-CoV-2 virus, a type of coronavirus that causes the disease COVID-19, was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in late 2019. It seems to spread easily and sustainably in the community.
Cases have been reported all over the world, and as of late May 2020, there were over 1.5 million cases and over 100,000 deaths in the United States.
The disease can be life threatening, and older adults and people who have preexisting medical conditions, like heart or lung disease or diabetes, seem to be at higher risk for developing more serious complications.
Primary symptoms include:
Educating yourself about current disease outbreaks can help you understand what precautions you should take in order to keep you and your family safe and healthy.
Take the time to search for ongoing epidemics by visiting the CDC’s Current Outbreak List, especially if you’re traveling.
Protect yourself and your family
The good news is that most outbreaks listed here are rare and, in some cases, preventable. Make sure your family is up to date on their vaccinations before traveling, and get the latest flu vaccines.
Simple steps in the kitchen and food safety techniques can also prevent you and your family from contracting or transferring infections.
It came, it conquered, then it drove home.
A 1960 Chevrolet Corvette that finished second in its class in the 1960 24 Hours of Le Mans is coming up for auction and expected to sell for a championship price.
The car was one of four Corvettes that competed in the race, marking the first time the American sports car would make an appearance.
Three were entered by racing powerhouse Briggs Cunningham, while this one was campaigned by the small Camoradi USA Racing team.
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Camoradi had a base of operations for its racing efforts in Modena, Italy, and drove the car to the track for the race, as was not uncommon in the day.
It was entered along with three of the team's Maserati Tipo 61 cars that ran in a different class.
One of Cunningham's cars finished eighth overall and won the GT5.0 class, which was made up of just the four Corvettes. The other two failed to make it to the end, due to an accident and a fire.
Fred Gamble and Leon Lilley teamed up to drive the Carmoradi Corvette and completed the trip twice around the clock on a single set of racing tires for a 10th place finish and second in class, just six laps behind the Cunningham car.
Unfortunately, the regulations at the time required cars to reach a minimum target distance and the 2,307.7 miles it covered came up short, so it was technically not classified in the final standings.
The result was added to another second place at the 12 Hours of Sebring race in Florida, also behind a Corvette, a win at the Cuban Grand Prix and several other podium finishes.
The moral victory at Le Mans was secured, however, and the car driven back to Modena after the street tires were put back on, according to Vette Vues.
Later that year, the car was crashed in a road accident in Switzerland, where it remained and passed through several owners before ended up disassembled and stored away in 1981. It was discovered in that condition by American car collector Loren Lundberg in 1995 and brought back to the U.S. to be restored.
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Bizarrely, its original V8 engine and four-speed transmission had been removed and sent to New Zealand, where they were used in a racing powerboat that was subsequently lost at sea. Period-correct replacements were acquired, and the Corvette is now in the same condition it was when it raced at Le Mans.
The car is set to cross the block at the Mecum Auctions event in Indianapolis on May 20, where it is expected to sell for approximately $2 million, which would be among the five highest prices paid for a Corvette, not counting charity auctions.
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The all-time record currently stands at $3.85 million, which was paid for a rare 1967 L-88 convertible in 2014.
The Drive had an interesting post recently, about someone noticed a procurement from the U. S. Air Force to reverse engineer the B-2 bomber’s Load Heat Exchanger (whatever that is). You’d think if the Air Force wanted to reverse engineer something, they’d be looking at another country’s aircraft. What can this mean?
Presumably, the original plans for the system have been lost, or maybe the company who made them is long gone and the tooling to create new ones along with it. Then again, maybe the assembly needs parts that you can no longer get. The Drive has another interesting speculation: perhaps the plans were so secret that were accidentally destroyed.
You don’t hear much about the B-2. There are only 20 left of the 21 built, at least that we know about. Original plans in the 1980s called for 132, but the end of the Cold War spelled the end for the stealth bomber. They get an overhaul every nine years. The Drive also speculates that this may be part of the Air Force’s desire to digitize spare parts and use 3D printing, but — honestly — it doesn’t sound that way to us. Especially since the fleet will retire no later than 2032, so whatever is replaced is only needed for a decade.
If you think you want to have a go, here’s the help wanted ad from the Air Force. If you read the text, it’s pretty clear they have some defective units that need replacement and it sounds like no one knows how to do it with existing materials. Not many of us get to design things that are still working nearly three decades later. Keeping a supply of parts and even know-how for something built in the 1990s isn’t trivial. Something to think about if you design something with a long service life.
The B-2 is a stealth bomber and while one did crash, it wasn’t shot down. The F-117A — the stealth fighter — was shot down against all odds, though. While the B-2 appears to be quite a plane, we prefer our bombers a little bit older. Still, you might enjoy the video below about the B-2’s chief engineer, although he doesn’t mention the Load Heat Exchanger.
While I had heard about the controversy surrounding Netflix’s “docudrama” Queen Cleopatra, I hadn’t been tracking it much since it was actually released a few days ago. It’s #6 in Netflix’s Top 10 list, and I don’t think I’ve seen it go all that much higher than that.
However, the show has done something I didn’t think was even possible. It has not just the lowest audience score in Netflix history, it has essentially the lowest audience score possible on Rotten Tomatoes, a 1%. Not a 10%, a 1%. (Update: It just ticked up to 2%. Still an unprecedented low)
There aren’t many critic reviews in, but those are low as well, with the show sitting at a 13%. But those audience scores? I’ve never seen anything like this. Not with bad shows. Not with politically controversial shows prone to review bombing. Never this bad, not in Netflix history. Honesty, I think not even in TV history, at least with this many reviews in (over a thousand).
I’ve previously written about series with low Netflix review scores. The last time I broached this Topic was when Netflix’s now-cancelled Resident Evil adaptation scored a 22% with fans, one of the lowest I’d ever seen on the service. That was low compared to other high profile Netflix misses, Jupiter’s Legacy with 73%, Space Force with 77%, Haters Back Off with 76%, Resident Evil: Infinite Darkness with 39%. Fans usually rate things higher than critics, even bad shows, and the point being, a 1% audience score seems borderline mathematically impossible, even with the controversy the film has attracted.
The issue is the conceptualization of what purports to be a historical documentary saying that Cleopatra was a black “African queen,” as this season was supposed to be the first in a series covering different queens from the continent. But there is not terribly credible evidence that Cleopatra was black, and instead she was of Macedonian Greek descent. The country of Egypt in particular has taken offense to the show altering their history this dramatically and portraying it as something they believe is non-factual in a series that is meant to be a documentary.
The creator of the series, Tina Gharvi, has defended the casting choice:
Ghavri has been celebrating the show’s placement on Netflix’s lists, and continues to advocate for the decision:
But this has not resonated with critics or audiences. The low scores are no doubt overwhelmingly because of the casting choice and historical alterations, but the show at its core does not seem to be terribly good even outside of that. I have genuinely never seen a show review like this before, and I’ll be curious if Netflix will renew the series so it can spotlight other African queens who will no doubt be less controversial.
Update (5/15): Curiosity got the better of me, given the extremely low scores which had to be about more than simply the main controversy surrounding the series. If it was at least good, it would have some scores offsetting that.
It is not a huge shock to report that the show is...not good. While historical accuracy aside, Cleopatra Adele James is actually quite good in the part from what I saw (I could only do part of the first episode before I remembered I had about 12 other better shows to watch), the entire thing comes off like one of those bad historical re-enactment dramas I used to watch on the History Channel with my parents as a kid. The information, often inaccurate it seems, is also just very dull, and the entire thing feels like a dry soap opera. I am not shocked the critics are rejecting alongside fans not really even mentioning the issue of the Cleopatra’s casting.
Since I first wrote this article, the critic score has ticked down to 11% and the user score has ticked up to 2% with over 2,5000 reviews in now. Again, this is still the lowest score I’ve ever seen with the most reviews counter, the lowest by a pretty significant margin certainly for Netflix, at least. It speaks again to Netflix’s lapsed quality control where projects that probably never should have seen the light of day are instead giving a spotlight. This is far from the worst thing that’s ever aired on Netflix, despite these scores, but no, I’m not sure it should have actually made it to release. It’s still at #6 on the Top 10 list, and I expect it to quickly slide down from there.
If you do want to judge it for yourself, it’s only four, 45 minute episodes long, which was admittedly more of an investment that I wanted to make, but it’s relatively little compared to other series. or you could save yourself the time and read Cleopatra’s Wikipedia entry, which would be probably more accurate information and less painful to watch.
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Pick up my sci-fi novels the Herokiller series and The Earthborn Trilogy.
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