SEND information source - SEND Endocrinology and Diabetes (Specialty Certificate Examination) Updated: 2023
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SEND SEND Endocrinology and Diabetes (Specialty Certificate Examination)
The Specialty Certificate Examination in Endocrinology and Diabetes (SEND) is a certification test designed for medical professionals specializing in endocrinology and diabetes. It assesses the candidate's knowledge and skills in diagnosing and managing endocrine and diabetes-related conditions. Here are the details of the SEND exam:
- Number of Questions: The SEND test typically consists of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and extended matching questions (EMQs). The exact number of questions may vary, but it generally ranges from 200 to 250 questions.
- Time Limit: The time allocated to complete the SEND test is usually around 4 hours. However, the duration may vary depending on the specific test requirements and the test delivery platform.
The SEND test covers a wide range of courses related to endocrinology and diabetes. The test assesses the candidate's knowledge in the following areas:
1. Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis:
- Recognizing signs and symptoms of various endocrine and diabetes-related disorders.
- Formulating differential diagnoses based on clinical presentations.
- Utilizing appropriate diagnostic tests and investigations.
2. Pathophysiology and Disease Mechanisms:
- Understanding the underlying mechanisms of endocrine disorders and diabetes.
- Exploring the hormonal regulation and feedback mechanisms.
- Grasping the molecular basis of endocrine and metabolic disorders.
3. Treatment and Management:
- Developing comprehensive management plans for endocrine and diabetes patients.
- Prescribing appropriate medications and therapies.
- Implementing lifestyle modifications and patient education.
4. Complications and Comorbidities:
- Identifying and managing complications associated with endocrine and diabetes conditions.
- Understanding the relationship between endocrine disorders and other medical conditions.
- Addressing comorbidities and managing multidisciplinary care.
5. Research and Evidence-Based Practice:
- Understanding the principles of research methodology and study design.
- Evaluating and interpreting scientific literature in the field of endocrinology and diabetes.
- Applying evidence-based practices in clinical decision-making.
The objectives of the SEND test are as follows:
- Assessing the candidate's knowledge and understanding of endocrine and diabetes-related disorders.
- Evaluating the candidate's ability to make accurate diagnoses and develop appropriate management plans.
- Testing the candidate's knowledge of pathophysiology, treatment options, and complications associated with endocrine and diabetes conditions.
- Verifying the candidate's understanding of research methodology and evidence-based practices in the field of endocrinology and diabetes.
The SEND test covers the following topics:
1. Endocrine Physiology and Pathophysiology
2. Diabetes Mellitus
3. Thyroid Disorders
4. Adrenal and Pituitary Disorders
5. Calcium and Bone Metabolism Disorders
6. Reproductive Endocrinology
7. Metabolic Disorders
8. Endocrine Oncology
9. Endocrine Emergencies
10. Miscellaneous Endocrine Disorders
It's important to note that the test content and syllabus may be periodically updated. Candidates are advised to refer to the official test board or regulatory body responsible for conducting the SEND test to obtain the most up-to-date information on test details, objectives, and syllabus. Additionally, candidates are encouraged to consult relevant study resources and reference materials recommended by the test board or authorized training providers to adequately prepare for the exam.
|SEND Endocrinology and Diabetes (Specialty Certificate Examination)|
MRCPUK Endocrinology information source
Other MRCPUK examsSEND SEND Endocrinology and Diabetes (Specialty Certificate Examination)
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SEND Endocrinology and Diabetes (Specialty Certificate
A 54-year-old woman was referred for assessment of low bone mineral density. Three months previously, after
complaining of bloating and flatulence, she had been found to have coeliac disease and had been started on a gluten-
free diet. She had no history of fracture and had not lost height. There was no family history of osteoporosis. Her only
medication was omeprazole.
serum corrected calcium2.42 mmol/L (2.20C2.60)
serum alkaline phosphatase122 U/L (45C105)
plasma parathyroid hormone7.9 pmol/L (0.9C5.4)
DXA scansee image
What is the most appropriate treatment?
A . alendronic acid alone
B . alendronic acid, and calcium and vitamin D
C . calcium and vitamin D
D . calcium and vitamin D, and intravenous zoledronic acid
E . strontium ranelate
A 36-year-old man of South Asian origin presented acutely with a widespread pruritic rash involving the extensor
surfaces of the limbs.
On examination, he was moderately obese with a body mass index of 33 kg/m2 (18C25), and the rash was
erythematous, with multiple small papules with yellow centres.
fasting plasma glucose11.0 mmol/L (3.0C6.0)
haemoglobin A1c109 mmol/mol (20C42)
serum cholesterol8.0 mmol/L (<5.2)
serum HDL cholesterol0.80 mmol/L (>1.55)
fasting serum triglycerides31.00 mmol/L (0.45C1.69)
What is the most likely diagnosis?
A . dermatitis herpetiformis
B . eruptive xanthoma
C . granuloma annulare
D . nodular prurigo
E . tinea cutis
A 26-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus attended a carbohydrate-counting course to facilitate tighter glucose
control. He estimated that his carbohydrate ratio was 1:10 and 1 unit correction dose reduced his glucose by 3.0
He planned to eat a meal containing 50 g of carbohydrate. His pre-meal glucose was 16.0 mmol/L with a target blood
glucose of 7.0 mmol/L.
What is the correct dose of bolus insulin (units) that he should administer?
A . 2
B . 4
C . 6
D . 8
E . 10
A 26-year-old woman was recovering from diabetic ketoacidosis and had been switched to her usual basal bolus
insulin regimen. Her capillary blood glucose measurements during the day were high but fasting plasma glucose was in
the range 5.0C7.0 mmol/L (3.0C6.0). She was drinking and eating normally.
On examination, her pulse was 76 beats per minute and her blood pressure was 106/66 mmHg. Urinalysis showed
serum sodium143 mmol/L (137C144)
serum potassium4.4 mmol/L (3.5C4.9)
serum bicarbonate22 mmol/L (20C28)
serum creatinine72 Ķmol/L (60C110)
plasma glucose 2 h after breakfast21 mmol/L
What is the most appropriate next step in management?
A . change to twice daily pre-mixed insulin
B . increase basal insulin at bed time
C . increase bolus insulin with meal
D . start glucose 5% with intravenous insulin
E . start variable-rate intravenous insulin infusion
An 18-year-old man presented to the thyroid clinic complaining of a lump in his neck that had been present for 9
weeks. It was not painful. At the age of 12, he had developed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and had undergone a
bone marrow transplant preceded by total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide.
On examination, he was euthyroid. There was a 1.5-cm firm mass on the left side of the neck, which moved when he
serum thyroid-stimulating hormone1.9 mU/L (0.4C5.0)
serum free T416.8 pmol/L (10.0C22.0)
What is the most appropriate initial course of action?
A . CT scan of neck and thorax
B . FDG-PET-CT scan
C . surgical referral for hemithyroidectomy
D . technetium-99m scintigraphy scan of thyroid
E . ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the nodule
A 26-year-old woman was urgently referred to clinic with a 6-week history of retroorbital headaches and deteriorating
vision. Her past medical history was unremarkable, although on questioning she admitted that she had recently found it
increasingly difficult to cope with her busy job.
On examination, her pulse was 60 beats per minute and regular, and her blood pressure was 110/75 mmHg lying and
90/60 mmHg standing. She was pale and had dry skin. Visual acuities were reduced (6/12 right; 6/24 left), and she had
a bitemporal inferior quadrantanopia.
serum sodium132 mmol/L (137C144)
serum potassium4.0 mmol/L (3.5C4.9)
short tetracosactide Synacthenģ test (250 micrograms):
serum cortisol (30 min after tetracosactide)185 nmol/L (>550)
plasma follicle-stimulating hormone2.7 U/L
plasma luteinising hormone3.5 U/L
serum prolactin1050 mU/L (<360)
serum thyroid-stimulating hormone0.3 mU/L (0.4C5.0)
serum free T48.0 pmol/L (10.0C22.0)
serum insulin-like growth factor 14.7 nmol/L (7.5C37.3)
MR scan of brainsee image
What is the most likely diagnosis?
A . autoimmune hypophysitis
B . craniopharyngioma
C . non-functioning pituitary adenoma
D . prolactinoma
E . Rathkeís cleft cyst
A 46-year-old man of European descent was reviewed in the diabetes clinic. He had type 2 diabetes mellitus, which
had been diagnosed 6 months previously. He had been symptom free and was a non-smoker but had a family history
of cardiovascular disease. He exercised regularly and had managed to lose 8 kg.
On examination, his blood pressure was 148/76 mmHg, his weight was 76 kg and his body mass index was 24 kg/m2
urinary albumin:creatinine ratio0.6 mg/mmol (<2.5)
serum cholesterol5.6 mmol/L (<5.2)
serum HDL cholesterol0.90 mmol/L (>1.55)
fasting serum triglycerides2.20 mmol/L (0.45C1.69)
According to NICE guidelines (CG181, July 2014), what is the most appropriate management of his lipid profile?
A . assess cardiovascular risk using UKPDS risk engine
B . observe and repeat lipid profile in a few months
C . start a fibrate
D . start a statin
E . start nicotinic acid
A 45-year-old woman was found to be hypertensive by her general practitioner. She was otherwise well and was not
taking any medication. However, she regularly ate health food containing liquorice. There was no family history of
On examination, her blood pressure was 170/110 mmHg.
serum sodium140 mmol/L (137C144)
serum potassium3.8 mmol/L (3.5C4.9)
serum creatinine70 Ķmol/L (60C110)
plasma renin activity (after 30 min supine)0.5 pmol/mL/h (1.1C2.7)
plasma aldosterone (after 30 min supine)450 pmol/L (135C400)
During the investigations, her blood pressure was controlled with doxazosin.
What is the most likely diagnosis?
A . apparent mineralocorticoid excess
B . Gitelmanís syndrome
C . primary hyperaldosteronism
D . pseudohyperaldosteronism
E . renal artery stenosis
A 20-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of lethargy and weakness. His brother had been found to have
adrenal failure at the age of 18. He had two sisters who were well and there was no other family history of endocrine
On examination, his blood pressure was 100/60 mmHg.
serum sodium136 mmol/L (137C144)
serum potassium4.8 mmol/L (3.5C4.9)
short tetracosactide (Synacthenģ) test (250 micrograms):
baseline serum cortisol100 nmol/L
serum cortisol (30 min after tetracosactide)250 nmol/L (>550)
What is the most important diagnosis to consider?
A . adrenoleucodystrophy
B . autoimmune hypoadrenalism
C . familial glucocorticoid resistance
D . isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency
E . tuberculosis
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Transparency is critical to our credibility with the public and our subscribers. Whenever possible, we pursue information on the record. When a newsmaker insists on background or off-the-record ground rules, we must adhere to a strict set of guidelines, enforced by AP news managers.
¬†Under AP's rules, material from anonymous sources may be used only if:
¬†1. The material is information and not opinion or speculation, and is vital to the report.
¬†2. The information is not available except under the conditions of anonymity imposed by the source.
¬†3. The source is reliable, and in a position to have direct knowledge of the information.
¬†Reporters who intend to use material from anonymous sources must get approval from their news manager before sending the story to the desk. The manager is responsible for vetting the material and making sure it meets AP guidelines. The manager must know the identity of the source, and is obligated, like the reporter, to keep the source's identity confidential. Only after they are assured that the source material has been vetted by a manager should editors and producers allow it to be used.
¬†Reporters should proceed with interviews on the assumption they are on the record. If the source wants to set conditions, these should be negotiated at the start of the interview. At the end of the interview, the reporter should try once again to move onto the record some or all of the information that was given on a background basis.
¬†The AP routinely seeks and requires more than one source when sourcing is anonymous. Stories should be held while attempts are made to reach additional sources for confirmation or elaboration. In rare cases, one source will be sufficient ‚Äď when material comes from an authoritative figure who provides information so detailed that there is no question of its accuracy.
¬†We must explain in the story why the source requested anonymity. And, when it‚Äôs relevant, we must describe the source's motive for disclosing the information. If the story hinges on documents, as opposed to interviews, the reporter must describe how the documents were obtained, at least to the extent possible.
The story also must provide attribution that establishes the source's credibility; simply quoting "a source" is not allowed. We should be as descriptive as possible: "according to top White House aides" or "a senior official in the British Foreign Office." The description of a source must never be altered without consulting the reporter.
¬†We must not say that a person declined comment when that person the person is already quoted anonymously. And we should not attribute information to anonymous sources when it is obvious or well known. We should just state the information as fact.
Stories that use anonymous sources must carry a reporter's byline. If a reporter other than the bylined staffer contributes anonymous material to a story, that reporter should be given credit as a contributor to the story.
¬†All complaints and questions about the authenticity or veracity of anonymous material ‚Äď from inside or outside the AP ‚Äď must be promptly brought to the news manager's attention.
¬†Not everyone understands ‚Äúoff the record‚ÄĚ or ‚Äúon background‚ÄĚ to mean the same things. Before any interview in which any degree of anonymity is expected, there should be a discussion in which the ground rules are set explicitly.
These are the AP‚Äôs definitions:
On the record. The information can be used with no caveats, quoting the source by name.
Off the record. The information cannot be used for publication. Background. The information can be published but only under conditions negotiated with the source. Generally, the sources do not want their names published but will agree to a description of their position. AP reporters should object vigorously when a source wants to brief a group of reporters on background and try to persuade the source to put the briefing on the record.
Deep background. The information can be used but without attribution. The source does not want to be identified in any way, even on condition of anonymity.
In general, information obtained under any of these circumstances can be pursued with other sources to be placed on the record.
ANONYMOUS SOURCES IN MATERIAL FROM OTHER NEWS SOURCES
Reports from other news organizations based on anonymous sources require the most careful scrutiny when we consider them for our report.
AP's basic rules for anonymous source material apply to material from other news outlets just as they do in our own reporting: The material must be factual and obtainable no other way. The story must be truly significant and newsworthy. Use of anonymous material must be authorized by a manager. The story we produce must be balanced, and comment must be sought.
Further, before picking up such a story we must make a bona fide effort to get it on the record, or, at a minimum, confirm it through our own reporting. We shouldn't hesitate to hold the story if we have any doubts. If another outlet‚Äôs anonymous material is ultimately used, it must be attributed to the originating news organization and note its description of the source.
¬†Anything in the AP news report that could reasonably be disputed should be attributed. We should provide the full name of a source and as much information as needed to identify the source and explain why the person s credible. Where appropriate, include a source's age; title; name of company, organization or government department; and hometown. If we quote someone from a written document ‚Äď a report, email or news release -- we should say so. Information taken from the internet must be vetted according to our standards of accuracy and attributed to the original source. File, library or archive photos, audio or videos must be identified as such. For lengthy stories, attribution can be contained in an extended editor's note detailing interviews, research and methodology.
Aims & Scope
Nature Reviews Endocrinology aims to be the premier source of reviews and commentaries for the scientific communities we serve. We strive to publish¬†articles that are authoritative, accessible and enhanced with clearly understandable figures, tables and other display items. We want to provide an unparalleled service to authors, referees and readers, and we work hard to maximize the usefulness and impact of each article. The journal publishes¬†Research Highlights, Comments, News & Views, Reviews, Consensus Statements and Perspectives relevant to researchers and clinicians working in the fields of¬†endocrinology and metabolism, with our broad scope ensuring that the work we publish¬†reaches the widest possible audience. This page gives more detail about the aims and scope of the journal.
Nature Reviews Endocrinology¬†is part of the¬†Nature Reviews¬†portfolio of journals. To learn more about Nature Reviews, check out this animation¬†and the Nature Reviews¬†page.¬†You can also find a summary of the editorial input and checks here.
About the Editors
Information on other journal staff.
Journal metrics for Nature Reviews Endocrinology.
Click here to find out what's on the Endocrinology conference circuit and which meetings will be attended by the editors of Nature Reviews Endocrinology.
General editorial inquiries and correspondence should be addressed to the Editor, at email@example.com.
Inquiries about the status of a manuscript should be addressed to the Editorial Assistant, at firstname.lastname@example.org.
To inquire about institutional access, advertising or marketing, visit the¬†contact page for further contact information.
The correct abbreviation for abstracting and indexing purposes is Nat. Rev. Endocrinol.
ISSN and EISSN¬†
The international standard serial numbers (ISSN) for Nature Reviews Endocrinology are 1759-5029 (print) and 1759-5037 (online).
The information and material contained in this publication is for educational, research and information purposes only, not to address any particular or individual requirements. While every care is taken to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinions or statements appear in this journal at time of publication, it is possible that such information and material may be incorrect or out of date (science and our understanding is constantly evolving) and hence should be considered as part of the wider scientific record and not be considered as a definitive standalone statement or as a substitute for appropriate professional judgment. You should independently check any information and material and use your own good judgment before doing or not doing anything on the basis of such information or material. To the fullest extent permitted by law, the journal publisher, employees, officers and agents accept no liability whatsoever for the reliance on the content or the consequences of any inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement. Readers are advised that the new methods and techniques involving drug usage and treatments described within any Springer Nature journal should only be followed in conjunction with the drug manufacturer‚Äôs own published literature.
Nature Reviews: let us guide you
Finding it hard to navigate the flood of scientific literature? The Nature Reviews journals filter and highlight the most impactful research. Watch this animation to learn more.
Use this graphic organizer to help students compare and contrast information from different sources of their choosing while researching a relevant topic.¬†Guiding questions¬†help students closely examine each source for credibility and reliability, and reflection questions on the second page get students to dig deeper into similarities and differences between types of sources.¬†This worksheet provides essential practice¬†evaluating sources for research, an important part of a middle school literacy curriculum.
For additional value, check out the accompanying¬†Evaluating Sources for Research lesson plan.
View aligned standards
We live in a time when we are constantly worried about our safety and privacy while searching the internet. Particularly knowing that we have entered our contact and financial information on multiple websites.
What is perhaps most unnerving is learning that our personal information has somehow made its way to a people search site, easily accessed by Google even though we did not choose to provide our information to these services.
People-Search sites make your personal information easy to find
It is estimated that there are over 300 million searches a day for personal names and information, accessed by billions of people-search websites indexed by Google.
Understandably, this makes people very concerned about their privacy and just how much information about them is out there and easily accessed by the internet.
How does your private information get to these 'people search' sites?
Data brokers collect, analyze and sell personal information about you for various purposes. Some of the sources that data brokers use to obtain data are:
Public records: These are documents or information that are available to anyone by law, such as census data, voter registration, court records, property deeds, licenses, etc. Data brokers can access these records online or offline and compile them into databases.
Online activity: This includes the websites you visit, the searches you make, the ads you click on, the products you buy, the reviews you write, the social media posts you like or share, etc.
Data brokers can track your online behavior using cookies, web beacons, device identifiers and other technologies. They can also buy data from other websites or platforms that you use or sign up for.
Offline activity: This includes the purchases you make in physical stores, the subscriptions you have, the surveys you fill out, the loyalty programs you join, the events you attend, etc. Data brokers can obtain this data from retailers, marketers, publishers or other sources that have your consent to share your information.
Data brokers use various methods to link data from different sources and create detailed profiles of individuals. They may use personal identifiers such as name, email address, phone number or Social Security number to match data across sources.
How data brokers use your data
Data brokers sell or license their data products to third parties for various purposes, such as:
People search and background check: Data brokers provide data to help individuals or businesses find or verify information about other people. They may also help conduct background checks for employment, dating, renting, etc.
Marketing and advertising: Data brokers provide data to help marketers and advertisers target potential customers based on their interests, preferences, behaviors, demographics, etc. They may also help measure the effectiveness of marketing campaigns and optimize ad delivery.
Risk mitigation and fraud prevention: Data brokers provide data to help businesses verify the identity and creditworthiness of customers or partners. They may also help detect and prevent fraud, identity theft, money laundering, etc.
There are few laws that limit what data they can collect and how they can use it. There are also a few ways for you to control or access your own data. Some data brokers offer opt-out options for you if you do not want your data to be collected or shared.
However, these options are often hard to find or use and may not be effective in removing all traces of data from their databases.
Ways to protect your personal information
This begs the question, is there a way to protect your personal information or at least control how much of your information is accessible via search engines?
Request your personal information be removed from 'people search' sites
The answer is yes.¬†While it is possible for you to go to each site and manually request your information be removed, you‚Äôd be doing this non-stop.¬†Unfortunately, there is no regulation when it comes to these data brokers; just because you remove your data from the web doesn‚Äôt mean the data brokers aren‚Äôt going to resell it again months from now.
Invest in removal services
Therefore, investing in removal services is a worthwhile option for protecting your privacy and security online. A hacker can't easily use you as a target if they can't find your information on the internet. Data broker sites run by scammers get fed with the personal data a hacker steals from you, including email addresses, Social Security numbers and more. They do this so that they can sell the information to third parties and make a profit.
While no service promises to remove all your data from the internet, subscribing to a good removal service is the most effective way to constantly monitor and automate the process of deleting your information from hundreds of sites continuously.¬†
Use Google's privacy tool to remove your personal information
You can also use Google's privacy tool to remove your personal information from their search engine. Google‚Äôs "Results about You" tool was rolled out last year. Google says it has been working hard to make things better since it first launched its software.¬†
It launched with the intention of allowing users to request the removal of personal information that pops up during Google searches. Personal information can include a phone number, email address, address or even unwanted images.¬†You can request the removal of Google search results that divulge your personal information.
Use alias email addresses
One other way to safeguard your personal data from being exposed on "people search" sites is to use¬†alias email addresses. An alias email address is an additional email address that can be used to receive emails in the same mailbox as the primary email address. It acts as a forwarding address, directing emails to the primary email address.
In addition to creating throwaway email accounts for online sign-ups and other circumstances where you would not want to disclose your primary email address, alias email addresses are helpful for handling and organizing incoming communications.
Sometimes, it's best to create various email aliases so that you don't have to worry about getting tons of spam mail and having your email eventually stolen in a data breach. An alias email address is a great way for you to stop receiving constant spam mail by simply deleting the email alias address.
Kurt's key takeaways
"People-search" sites and data brokers pose a serious threat to your privacy and security. They collect, sell and expose your personal information without your consent or knowledge. You can fight back by deleting your data from their databases and using reliable tools and services that safeguard your identity and data.
How do you feel about the way data brokers and "people search" sites collect and use your personal information? Have you ever tried to remove your data from their databases? If so, what was your experience? Let us know by writing us at Cyberguy.com/Contact
For more of my tech tips and security alerts, subscribe to my free CyberGuy Report Newsletter by heading to Cyberguy.com/Newsletter
Answers to the most asked CyberGuy questions:
Copyright 2023 CyberGuy.com.¬†All rights reserved.
Lainie Petersen writes about business, real estate and personal finance, drawing on 25 years experience in publishing and education. Petersen's work appears in Money Crashers, Selling to the Masses, and in Walmart News Now, a blog for Walmart suppliers. She holds a master's degree in library science from Dominican University.
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A new study published in August 2023 looked at ‚Äúinformation overload‚ÄĚ for parents (translation: when you feel overwhelmed and stressed by the amount of information available to you, resulting in feeling more confused than knowledgeable). When a parent experiences information overload, they may have more difficulty making informed decisions. Information overload can happen when there is too much information, when the information is too complex, or when it is contradictory.
This study included 214 parents of children under four years old in Sweden and examined how parents‚Äô online search habits were related to their self-efficacy (translation: parents who don‚Äôt see themselves as effective parents‚ÄĒthink of it as parenting confidence) and experience of information overload.
The Main Findings
The study found that parents with lower levels of parenting self-efficacy (aka lower parenting confidence) showed increasing rates of searching for parenting information online over time. However, the relationship didn‚Äôt go the other way‚ÄĒmore searching online wasn‚Äôt related to increased self-efficacy in a parent. Translation: Less confident parents are more likely to feel like they need to search for more and more information online but this online research doesn‚Äôt lead to parents feeling more confident. The authors state that ‚Äúparents might need help to digest, understand, and apply the information gathered online for it to strengthen their [parenting self-efficacy].‚ÄĚ
Experiencing information overload also predicted lower parental self-efficacy and significantly increased online searching a year later. Translation: Parents who experienced information overload felt like less effective parents and were still looking for the answers they needed a year later. The researchers suggested that ‚Äúparents who lack the tools to deal with online information might feel overwhelmed by it, and the confusion and stress it generates may lower their feelings of self-efficacy.‚ÄĚ
Does the Quality of the Website Matter?
The study also asked parents about what types of websites they visited for parenting information and compared parents who used only reputable government-run websites to those who also used non-governmental websites for information (which may be more likely to be inaccurate or provide conflicting information). This study was conducted in Sweden, which has many helpful government-run websites.
Parents who used both governmental and non-governmental websites reported higher levels of information overload than those who only used governmental websites. In addition, in parents who used only government websites, information overload did not predict lower levels of self-efficacy. Translation: Parents who use more reputable and accurate websites may be less likely to experience information overload from online searching, which helps to preserve their parenting confidence. Researchers suggested that parents who access a wide variety of sources may not only be exposed to more information but also to more conflicting information.
This may make them feel less confident about what the ‚ÄĚright‚ÄĚ parenting approaches might be. Additionally, if parents are getting more information from unreliable sources, they might try ineffective parenting strategies, which could fail and harm their confidence in their parenting skills. This might create a negative cycle in which conflicting or confusing information online makes parents feel less effective, which then leads to more online searching, and only increases the experience of information overload that further harms their parenting confidence.
This was a small study based on an online survey‚ÄĒit included mostly highly educated mothers so may not represent the average parent. Because data came from an online survey, it may have been more likely to include parents who search online more frequently.
The researchers also did not look at the child‚Äôs behavior problems‚ÄĒa more challenging child could lead to both more online searching and feeling less effective as a parent. All data was also based on self-report which is likely biased. For example, most people over-report time spent online. The data was also collected during the pandemic‚ÄĒwhen more parents were likely to be overwhelmed and searching for information online due to a lack of social support.
Another limitation of this study is that it did not distinguish between reliable and unreliable nongovernmental websites. Likely, some of the parents using both government and non-governmental websites were still only getting information from reputable sources, which would affect their group‚Äôs outcome. Parents who use websites that are not based on reliable sources and professional knowledge may show even higher rates of information overload and lower parental self-efficacy than this study suggests.
This study was conducted in Sweden, which has a popular government-run website providing accessible health and parenting information. In countries without such government-provided websites, other reputable sources that are fact-checked and run by experts serve a similar role to the governmental websites in this study.
So how do you find reputable information online without getting overwhelmed?
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