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Exam Code: SAA-C02 Practice exam 2023 by team
SAA-C02 AWS Certified Solutions Architect - Associate - 2023

Exam Number : SAA-C02

Exam Name : AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate

Questions : 65 questions

Questions Type : Either multiple choice or multiple response

Exam Type : Associate

Delivery Method : Testing center or online proctored exam

Time Allowed : 130 minutes to complete the exam

Language : Available in English, Japanese, Korean, and Simplified Chinese

Recommended AWS Knowledge

 1 year of hands-on experience designing available, cost-effective, fault-tolerant, and scalable distributed systems on AWS.

 Hands-on experience using compute, networking, storage, and database AWS services.

 Hands-on experience with AWS deployment and management services.

 Ability to identify and define technical requirements for an AWS-based application.

 Ability to identify which AWS services meet a given technical requirement.

 Knowledge of recommended best practices for building secure and reliable applications on the AWS platform.

 An understanding of the basic architectural principles of building in the AWS Cloud.

 An understanding of the AWS global infrastructure.

 An understanding of network technologies as they relate to AWS.

 An understanding of security features and tools that AWS provides and how they relate to traditional services.

The AWS Certified Solutions Architect - Associate examination is intended for individuals who perform a solutions architect role and have one or more years of hands-on experience designing available, cost-efficient, fault-tolerant, and scalable distributed systems on AWS.

Abilities Validated by the Certification

Effectively demonstrate knowledge of how to architect and deploy secure and robust applications on AWS technologies

Define a solution using architectural design principles based on customer requirements

Provide implementation guidance based on best practices to the organization throughout the life cycle of the project

Recommended Knowledge and Experience

Hands-on experience using compute, networking, storage, and database AWS services

Hands-on experience with AWS deployment and management services

Ability to identify and define technical requirements for an AWS-based application

Ability to identify which AWS services meet a given technical requirement

Knowledge of recommended best practices for building secure and reliable applications on the AWS platform

An understanding of the basic architectural principles of building on the AWS Cloud

An understanding of the AWS global infrastructure

An understanding of network technologies as they relate to AWS

An understanding of security features and tools that AWS provides and how they relate to traditional services

Domain 1: Design Resilient Architectures 30%

Domain 2: Design High-Performing Architectures 28%

Domain 3: Design Secure Applications and Architectures 24%

Domain 4: Design Cost-Optimized Architectures 18%

TOTAL 100%

Domain 1: Design Resilient Architectures

1.1 Design a multi-tier architecture solution

1.2 Design highly available and/or fault-tolerant architectures

1.3 Design decoupling mechanisms using AWS services

1.4 Choose appropriate resilient storage

Domain 2: Design High-Performing Architectures

2.1 Identify elastic and scalable compute solutions for a workload

2.2 Select high-performing and scalable storage solutions for a workload

2.3 Select high-performing networking solutions for a workload

2.4 Choose high-performing database solutions for a workload

Domain 3: Design Secure Applications and Architectures

3.1 Design secure access to AWS resources

3.2 Design secure application tiers

3.3 Select appropriate data security options

Domain 4: Design Cost-Optimized Architectures

4.1 Identify cost-effective storage solutions

4.2 Identify cost-effective compute and database services

4.3 Design cost-optimized network architectures

AWS Certified Solutions Architect - Associate - 2023
Amazon Certified Questions and Answers
Killexams : Amazon Certified mock test - BingNews Search results Killexams : Amazon Certified mock test - BingNews Killexams : Amazon Fires: Your questions answered

Why do the fires happen?

The fires are a direct result of soaring deforestation – often carried out to illegally claim land and to clear and prepare areas for cattle farming and agriculture. Deforestation comes first and fires follow.  

In the Brazilian Amazon, there has been a large increase in deforestation compared to last year – between 1 August 2019 and 31 July 2020, 9,205 sq km of rainforest were cleared, a rise of 33 per cent compared to the same period in 2018/19. This has led to fires raging again. The latest data from Brazil shows that fires in the Amazon this year are up 52% on the 10-year average.  

But this isn’t just a problem for Brazil and other Latin American countries to solve alone. The destruction of amazing rainforests is often driven by global demand for products that may have come from deforested land – including demand from right here in the UK. We must be a part of the solution. 

How does the situation this year compare to previous years? 

This year, severe new threats are adding to the ongoing destruction of the Amazon. While the world is focused on the global COVID-19 pandemic, new laws have been proposed by the Brazilian Government that threaten the rainforest and indigenous peoples who have lived there for generations – vital protectors of the forest.  

Encouraged by the words and actions of the Brazilian Government, illegal invaders are snatching more and more land from protected areas, and from indigenous peoples that have relied on it for their food and survival for generations. Covid-19 has led to reduced law enforcement, making it easier for these invaders to steal what isn’t theirs.   

And now these illegal invaders are spreading Covid-19 too – with potentially devastating impacts for the Amazon’s indigenous groups and local communities. The spread of disease is taking lives and creating even greater challenges for them to protect their lands. These groups urgently need our support.    


How is coronavirus affecting the Amazon? 

COVID-19 poses an extreme threat to the very survival of the indigenous peoples of the Amazon, who have limited means of combatting the virus. These are communities on the frontline of protecting the Amazon, their home, where they have lived for generations.   

 In Brazil, the pandemic has meant reduced law enforcement on the ground, meaning indigenous lands and other protected areas are increasingly being illegally invaded by miners, loggers and cattle ranchers who – as well as stealing land that isn’t theirs and causing deforestation – spread this highly contagious virus.  

Sadly, the combination of COVID-19 and fires will also be even more deadly to the people of the Amazon. Smoke and other air contamination of the fires will cause respiratory complications, only adding to the health problems caused by the virus.  

Hasn’t the Brazilian Government banned fires in the Amazon? Surely this shows they’re doing what they can? 

While it’s welcome that the Brazilian Government announced a 120-day ban on fires in the Amazon, the issue doesn't end there. Deforestation in the area has been rising – often encouraged by the Government’s rhetoric – and at some point, these areas of dead wood will be burnt to clear the ground. The underlying problem of deforestation is still not being properly tackled. 


How much of the Amazon has been lost and is there a ‘tipping point’?

Shockingly, around 17% of the Amazon has already been destroyed. But this doesn’t tell the whole story. While it may look like there is a lot of forest still standing, we are moving perilously close to a ‘tipping point’ – where the rainforest is unable to sustain itself and the Amazon as we know it would breakdown for good.     

Scientific research has shown that the Amazon will reach a ‘tipping point’ if deforestation and climate change continue, causing large parts of the Amazon to transform to a drier, degraded savannah. We don’t know for sure where the tipping point is, but some scientists believe that it could come if we destroy around 5% more.  

If we go over the edge, the world’s biggest rainforest will be deformed – with devastating impacts for our climate. Huge chunks of the Amazon would stop functioning as they should, becoming drier, like a savannah, and releasing vast amounts of carbon, usually stored in the trees, into the atmosphere. The transformation would also have dire consequences for biodiversity and for regional rainfall patterns. 

Once we hit a tipping point, there’s no return. The Amazon as we know it will be gone forever, and we will have lost the fight against climate change. It’s as simple as that.     

You can read more about the science behind Amazon’s tipping point here

What’s this got to do with the UK? Isn’t this a problem for the Brazilian Government? 

While the Brazilian Government should certainly be doing more, the immediate threats to the Amazon are also symptoms of a deeper illness. The destruction of amazing rainforests is in part driven by global demand and international finance for products that may have come from deforested land. We can’t shy away from the fact that some products sold right here in the UK may have played a part in the destruction of nature around the globe, including in the Amazon.  

This means we can – and we must – be part of the solution. Through world-leading new laws in the Environment Bill and robust trade deals as we exit the EU, the UK Government can make sure that no products sold to us in the UK are fuelling the fires in the Amazon or destroying nature around the world. But they’ll only act if enough of us speak up. You can tell them to act here.  

What products are causing deforestation that I should avoid?

There are some important things we can all do to minimise the environmental impact of the products we buy – for example checking that wood or paper products are FSC certified, or that any palm oil in the products we buy is RSPO certified.  

But the scary truth is that it’s often not possible to know where deforestation might be hiding –particularly when it comes to our food. Soy, for example, which is sometimes linked to the destruction of nature, is often a hidden ingredient: it’s actually used as animal feed in meat and fish products. There’s no way to tell whether this is the case, or whether the soy used came from deforested land or not. That’s why we need the UK Government to introduce new laws that make sure no products imported to the UK are linked to the destruction of nature around the world.  

So, while trying to avoid certain products and eating more sustainably is a great start, one of the most powerful things you can do is actually letting the UK Government know that you want to see new laws introduced as a matter of urgency.  


How have the fires affected wildlife in the Amazon?

Despite covering only 1% of the planet’s surface, the Amazon is home to 10% of all the wildlife species we know about. This includes many iconic species: for example it’s estimated that over 70% of jaguars live in the Amazon. This means that every hectare of the Amazon that is destroyed puts wildlife at risk.  

The best way of protecting wildlife like jaguars is to protect their home. We’ve worked in the Amazon for over 40 years, supporting indigenous peoples and local communities to protect their land and halt deforestation. And we've helped Amazon countries to create and manage protected areas and recognise indigenous peoples’ land rights.   


What is WWF doing to help?

We’re working in partnership with local communities and organisations to respond to the fires, and campaigning to tackle the underlying causes of deforestation in the Amazon and beyond.  

Thanks to your support, communities on the frontline have received vital equipment and training to respond to the fires, certain indigenous communities now have access to drones and training so they can monitor and protect their land from deforestation and other illegal activities, and indigenous groups trying to avoid the spread of COVID-19 have received emergency supplies. These are just some of the ways we’ve helped protect the Amazon and its people: every hectare we protect together could be vital.   

But to put a stop deforestation and the fires it leads to for good, we need to tackle the underlying causes of forest destruction. That’s why we’re campaigning for stronger action from governments around the world to tackle the underlying problems and policy setbacks that cause deforestation in the Amazon and beyond. 

 This includes calling on the UK Government to bring in new laws that would make sure products imported to the UK aren’t fuelling the demand for deforested land, and supporting WWF in Brazil to campaign for stronger action from the Brazilian Government.  


How can I help?

Each and every one of us can do something to help the Amazon and its people – together we are powerful. Whether it’s standing with indigenous peoples at this challenging time, calling for our Government to make sure they’re not adding fuel to the fire, or simply spreading the word – inaction is not an option. 


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Killexams : 'Sexist' Amazon Alexa didn't answer Lionesses question

Amazon has been accused of sexism after its Alexa voice assistant was unable to respond to a question about the Lionesses' semi-final victory at the Women's World Cup.

When asked on Wednesday "for the result of the England-Australia football match today" it said there was no match.

"This was an error that has been fixed," an Amazon spokesperson said.

Academic Joanne Rodda - who alerted the BBC - said it showed "sexism in football was embedded in Alexa".

Dr Rodda, a senior lecturer in psychiatry at Kent and Medway Medical School - with an interest in artificial intelligence (AI), said she had only been able to get an answer from Alexa when she specified it was women's football she was interested in.

"When I asked Alexa about the women's England-Australia football match today it gave me the result," she told the BBC.

The BBC was able to replicate what she had found on Alexa.

Responding to Amazon saying it had remedied the situation, Dr Rodda told the BBC it was "pretty sad that after almost a decade of Alexa, it's only today that the AI algorithm has been 'fixed' so that it now recognises woman's World Cup football as 'football'".

Amazon admits its device made an error

Amazon told the BBC that when a customer asks Alexa a question, information is pulled from a variety of sources, including Amazon, licensed content providers, and websites.

It added that it had automated systems which use AI to understand the context and pull out the most relevant information, but the systems got it wrong in this case.

The firm said it expected the systems to get better over time, adding that it has teams dedicated to help prevent similar situations in the future.

Dr Rodda also questioned the extent to which the problem had actually been fixed, saying she still found similar problems with the Women's Super League.

"Out of interest, I just asked Alexa who Arsenal football team are playing in October," she said.

"It replied with information about the men's team, and wasn't able to deliver an answer when I asked specifically about women's fixtures.

The incident highlights the issue of bias being embedded in systems powered by the booming AI sector.

That rapid growth has led some to warn that AI could threaten humanity's future - but others, including the EU's competition chief Margrethe Vestager, say it's the potential for AI to entrench existing prejudices that is a bigger concern.

That is because AI is only as good as the data that has been used to train it. AI tools are trained on vast datasets and the onus is on the developers to ensure that they are sufficiently diverse, which they aren't always.

An added difficulty is that once bias is embedded it is not always straightforward to make a tool "unlearn" its training - sometimes the only option is to start again, which firms may be reluctant to do given the huge costs of creating AI in the first place.

Being overlooked by an algorithm is only going to become an increasingly problematic experience as AI tools decide not only what we see and hear but also how much we pay for things like car insurance, and perhaps what healthcare we require.

Thu, 17 Aug 2023 02:27:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : WD refused to answer our questions about its self-wiping SanDisk SSDs

WD refused to answer our questions about its self-wiping SanDisk SSDs

WD refused to answer our questions about its self-wiping SanDisk SSDs


Months later, the company has nothing to say for itself.

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An image showing the SanDisk Extreme Pro Portable SSD
Don’t buy the SanDisk Extreme.
Image: Western Digital

Eleven days ago, we sent these questions to Western Digital’s head of PR and published them publicly on The Verge:

  • Why are these drives still on sale?
  • Will you offer free data recovery services to affected customers? When?
  • Are you proactively warning customers and retailers who have already purchased these drives that significant data loss is possible?
  • If not, why not?
  • What, exactly, is going wrong with these drives? 
  • How did this happen? 

What’s the fuss? For months, the company has been laughably silent about how its pricey portable SanDisk Extreme SSDs might lose all your data. It happened to my colleague Vjeran Pavic twice. It happened to Ars Technica. It happened to PetaPixel.

Months after our inquiries, Western Digital continues to sell these drives due to deep discounts, fake Amazon reviews, and issues with Google Search that rank favorable results far higher than warnings about potential failures.

We have now received a response from Western Digital head of PR Robin Schultz, but nothing about the company’s stance has changed. Schultz repeatedly refused to answer any of our questions. Her statement doesn’t even contain an acknowledgment of the issue and has no specific timeline for any real answers.

The only reason we’re printing Western Digital’s statement is so you can see it for yourself:

In response to accurate reports of concerns about specific Western Digital portable SSD products, we want to assure our valued customers that we are taking all measures necessary to address any product-related issues. We understand the significance of our products to our customers and we take these matters very seriously. We are conducting a comprehensive review to gain a thorough understanding of the issues.

After getting the statement, we asked Schultz three times whether Western Digital would answer our questions. Each time, she deflected. She also wouldn’t provide any idea of when the company might share its conclusions — if ever.

There is one possible reason Western Digital is finally speaking up and yet saying nothing: the company just got sued. As The Register reports, California resident Nathan Krum has filed a prospective class action lawsuit, citing breach of contract, fraudulent and unfair business practices, and many other claims. Krum is suing over both the SanDisk Extreme drive itself and damages for any data lost. You can read the full complaint at the bottom of this story.

And that’s just lawsuit number one: Ars Technica reports there are two more. Three SanDisk SSD lawsuits in total, each seeking class-action status for the same failures.

Western Digital was already forced into a class action settlement over a previous questionable practice: in 2020, the company brazenly tried to sneak SMR drives into its “WD Red” lineup marketed for network-attached storage devices. The company paid $5.7 million to settle those claims.

The company’s tricks didn’t end there: Western Digital’s NAS disks have started triggering warnings even if there’s nothing wrong with a drive, seemingly to scare people into buying new ones simply after three years have gone by.

I won’t be buying a Western Digital or SanDisk product anytime soon.

Update, 12:25AM ET: Added that there are actually three lawsuits, not just one, against WD.