Shortest course for RACP exam in our RACP free pdf

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Exam Code: RACP Practice exam 2022 by Killexams.com team
RACP Royal Australasian College of Physicians exam (FRACP)

Domain 1: Clinical Process
THEME 1.1 – CLINICAL SKILLS
Learning objectives
1.1.1 Elicit the history and obtain other relevant data
1.1.2 Conduct an appropriate physical examination
1.1.3 Synthesise findings from history and physical examination to develop a differential diagnosis and management plan
1.1.4 Plan and arrange investigations appropriately
THEME 1.2 – PATIENT CARE AND THERAPEUTICS
Learning objectives
1.2.1 Manage general care in the unwell patient
1.2.2 Prescribe appropriate and safe pharmacotherapy
1.2.3 Incorporate health and wellness promotion in clinical practice
1.2.4 Manage patients with surgical problems
1.2.5 Facilitate ongoing care planning
THEME 1.3 – PROCEDURAL SKILLS
Learning objectives*
1.3.1 Prepare patient for procedure
1.3.2 Competently perform procedures relevant to Adult Medicine
1.3.3 Provide care following procedure

Domain 2: Medical Expertise
THEME 2.1 – MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE MEDICAL PROBLEMS
Learning objectives
2.1.1 Recognise and manage the critically ill patient
2.1.2 Manage specific acute medical problems
2.1.3 Communicate with patients and their families/carers in an emergency situation
THEME 2.2 – MANAGE PATIENTS WITH UNDIFFERENTIATED
PRESENTATIONS
Learning objectives
2.2.1 Manage patients with undifferentiated presentations
THEME 2.3 – MANAGE PATIENTS WITH DISORDERS OF ORGAN SYSTEMS
Learning objectives
2.3.1 Manage patients with disorders of the cardiovascular system
2.3.2 Manage patients with endocrine and metabolic disorders
2.3.3 Manage patients with disorders of the gastrointestinal system
2.3.4 Manage patients with non-malignant disorders of the haematological system.
2.3.5 Manage patients with disorders of the immune system
2.3.6 Manage patients with mental health disorders
2.3.7 Manage patients with disorders of the musculoskeletal system
2.3.8 Manage patients with disorders of the neurological system
2.3.9 Manage patients with disorders of the renal and genitourinary systems
2.3.10 Manage patients with disorders of the respiratory and sleep system
2.3.11 Manage patients with skin disorders
THEME 2.4 – MANAGE PATIENTS WITH DEFINED DISEASE PROCESSES
Learning objectives
2.4.1 Manage patients with neoplastic diseases
2.4.2 Manage patients with genetic disorders
2.4.3 Manage patients with infectious diseases
THEME 2.5 – MEDICINE THROUGHOUT THE LIFESPAN/GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
Learning objectives
2.5.1 Manage common presentations in adolescents
2.5.2 Manage common presentations in pregnancy
2.5.3 Manage common problems associated with the menopause
2.5.4 Manage problems in the older patient
2.5.5 Manage patients at the end of life

Royal Australasian College of Physicians exam (FRACP)
Certification-Board Australasian Questions and Answers
Killexams : Certification-Board Australasian Questions and Answers - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/RACP Search results Killexams : Certification-Board Australasian Questions and Answers - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/RACP https://killexams.com/exam_list/Certification-Board Killexams : CBSE Class 10 Maths Important Questions and Answers for 2022-23 : ALL Chapters

CBSE Class 10 Maths Important Questions and Answers:  In this article we have compiled the Important Questions with answers for Class 10 Maths board examinations 2022-23. These have been prepared for both Mathematics Standard and Mathematics Basic. The answers are also given for each chapter.

CBSE Class 10 Maths Important Questions and Answers for 2022-23: ALL Chapters

CBSE Class 10 Maths Important Questions and Answers:  In this article we have compiled the Important Questions for Class 10 Maths board examinations 2022-23. These important questions have been designed focusing on the latest changes in the syllabus, previous year paper patterns and the trial question paper for Mathematics Standard and Mathematics Basic published for the current academic year.  

CBSE Class 10 Mathematics curriculum consists of a theory written paper of 80 marks and internal assessment worth 20 marks. There are seven units in the syllabus wherein each unit encompasses several other sub-topics .

Let us have a look at the courses covered in the syllabus of CBSE Class 10 Mathematics:

Units

Unit Name

Marks

I

NUMBER SYSTEMS

06

II

ALGEBRA

20

III

COORDINATE GEOMETRY

06

IV

GEOMETRY

15

V

TRIGONOMETRY

12

VI

MENSURATION

10

VII

STATISTICS & PROBABILITY

11

 

Total

80

You can check the complete curriculum with the course content, question paper design, typology of questions and internal assessment details.

CBSE Class 10 Maths Syllabus 2022-23     

In the table below, we have linked the important questions with answers for each chapter in CBSE Class 10 Maths for 2022-23. Each article is prepared separately with various Multiple choice questions, Objective type questions, short answer questions for 2 marks, short answer questions for 3 marks, long answer questions and case study questions. 

You would notice that some chapters and courses have not been covered in the list of important Questions and Answers for CBSE Class 10 Maths 2022-23. This is because as per the rationalised syllabus some of these courses such as Chapter 11 Constructions and Areas of Triangles etc. have been removed from the syllabus for the 2022-23 board examination. 

CHECK CBSE Class 10 Maths DELETED Syllabus 2022-23

These questions have been prepared by subject experts after careful analysis of the syllabus, trial question paper, NCERT textbooks, previous year papers and other resources. Therefore, questions of such forms are more than likely to be asked in your examination. 

Hence, students should carefully practise these questions from each chapter to ensure best performance in the exam. 

ALSO CHECK:

CBSE Class 10 Maths trial Paper 2023 (Standard)

CBSE Class 10 Maths trial Paper 2023 (Basic)

Class 10 is one of the first deciding steps in a student’s academic life. It is important for students to give their best performance here so that they step into their future with more confidence. Thus, these important questions will help the candidates prepare for not only the Maths board exams but also their future. 

All the best!

To boost your preparation for CBSE Class 10 board exams, our subject experts have curated for you these practice papers. 

CBSE Class 10 Practice Papers: All Subjects

Give this an attempt to analyse your strengths and weaknesses for the board exams.

Sat, 10 Dec 2022 00:01:00 -0600 text/html https://www.jagranjosh.com/articles/cbse-class-10-maths-important-questions-and-answers-all-chapters-1670585466-1
Killexams : Finding one certification on the road to another

NSW-based tourism operator Reflections is Australia’s first social enterprise holiday park, but it wants more.

Reflections Holiday Parks has, ironically, undergone a period of reflection. 

The NSW-based tourism operator already employs a for-purpose model, but wanting to stretch its impact even further, last year, it made the strategic decision to have B Corp certification by 2030.

“We decided we wanted to be and be seen as a proper quadruple bottom-line organisation,” explained Reflections CEO Nick Baker. 

“We didn’t want to be judged just on profit alone, but on our environmental [impact], our indigenous engagement, and our community and social factors. But how is that measured? We made a goal that we wanted to get B Corp certification.”

With leadership and stakeholders on board, the organisation began the assessment process, measuring positive impact across key areas including governance, environment and community – but it wasn’t that easy. B Corp certification requires a minimum of 80 points, and Reflections only scored 23.  

The organisation outlined the objectives it needed to obtain B Corp certification across a timeline leading to the end of the decade, but ended up finding the recognition of a different impact measurement in the process.

“Our goal is to get to 35 by June next year. We have goals mapped out and under each of those points, there’s a whole heap of things to do.

“I remember going to the Social Enterprise [World Forum] recently and just thinking, this is how we operate, this is what we want to be and be seen to be doing. 

“Profit for purpose turned into this notion of social enterprise, and it made logical sense to go after that [certification], and again reaffirm our direction, reaffirm how we’re different from others. It was a very visible means for the team to commit to so that everyone can see that this wasn’t empty rhetoric coming from the leadership group.

“Social enterprise, getting that certification and the realisation of that, and the way in which we think about the organisation and therefore the lens under which we employ and operate, will help us get more of those points.”

In November this year, Reflections Holiday Parks became the first holiday park group in Australia to be certified as a social enterprise through Social Traders. It joins 11 others in the travel and tourism category, including Hotel Etico and the Abbotsford Convent Foundation.

Reflections reinvests all profit made back into its 36 holiday parks and 43 community Crown reserves, which in the 2022 financial year totalled $9.1 million, and keeps built assets such as restaurants and bouncy castles to a minimum to better protect the natural environment.

Through partnering with an environmental consultant, the organisation earmarked approximately half a million dollars for the development of a revolving investment sustainability fund, which will help the organisation understand and reduce its footprint. 

As for the community side of the operations, Reflections created a social procurement process involving local employment and a regional-based supply chain. It also allows day visitors through its parks, which Baker says makes the organisation “a much more intrinsically linked part of the communities that [it’s] in”.

“We go out of our way to procure locally or through Supply Nation, Indigenous groups and social enterprises, and not to centralise procurement deals. We’ve made a decision that we are not going to have a centralised team that goes out and buys everything for the organisation. 

“Obviously, for things like soft drinks, we’re probably going to do that at a global scale, but wherever possible for services and goods, we will procure into local communities and work with them because we see that as a vital component of what we do and how we want to be seen.

“We encourage guests to go, shop and buy locally, rather than trying to keep them inside the park as other [operators] do. We view our job is to get them out into nature, and into the communities and connected with any indigenous operators.”

Baker says the move to become greener is spurred by a growing trend in sustainable tourism, and a desire to reconnect with nature post-COVID-19. But the path to achieving social enterprise certification was not without challenges. For example, some of Reflections’ parks operate at a loss, which impacts the local network the tourism operator has set up.

“We cross-subsidise our profitable parks, which are some of our coastal ones like Byron, Hawks Nest and Seal Rocks. But some of our parks that are inland and work massively with the local communities are not profitable. They’re loss making but we cross-subsidise with profits out of the other parks to help support those because they’re important to local communities.”

Baker also identified having a procurement policy that is well understood and respected by the entire organisation as being critical – as is the ability to record and quantify social and environment impact, particularly in combating claims of greenwashing which are plaguing organisations. 

“What we’re trying to do is understand how much water, waste, power, consumables and so on does it cost to have a person in our park. That would be a really good number for us to talk to [about] reductions.”

Baker’s advice for other organisations looking to become certified? “You have to really be in it. Knowing what social enterprises are around, why you want to get social enterprise [status], digging deep into the organisation… [and] having any shareholders, stakeholders and leadership groups not believing that you’re going to fall over,” he said.

“Lay down markers in this environmentally, culturally and socially aware space. The best way to do anything is to set yourself a goal, and for us, 2030 is the ultimate goal.”

Tue, 22 Nov 2022 15:10:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://probonoaustralia.com.au/news/2022/11/finding-one-certification-on-the-road-to-another/
Killexams : Does It Matter If Your Psychologist Is Board-Certified?

If you are looking for a psychologist for assessment and treatment, you may have noticed that some are board-certified and others are not. What does this mean? And is it important to you as a consumer? To answer these questions, one must first differentiate between licensure and board certification.

Board-certified psychologists are vetted through a challenging process.

Source: Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

In the U.S. and Canada, the minimum standard to practice psychology is a license issued by a state, district, or territory; psychologists may not practice without an active license. The license is based on educational requirements, documented supervised practice, and a test of general knowledge. While the written test (the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology) is standard for all psychologists, other requirements vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction (e.g., number of supervised clinical hours, number and type of continuing education hours to maintain the license).

Board certification, on the other hand, is not mandatory for psychologists in healthcare. It is a higher standard for the practice of psychology in specialty areas, such as clinical psychology or rehabilitation psychology. Many people take for granted that their doctors are board-certified, because almost all physicians are, yet most psychologists are not.

However, as the science of psychology has become more sophisticated, as evidence-based assessment and treatment research has honed the field, and roles and specialty areas of psychologists have expanded significantly, board certification has taken on greater significance. There are currently 16 specialty areas of psychology practice. The need for a mechanism to ensure competence in these areas is a matter of public concern.

Consequently, there are 3 primary reasons it may be important for you as a consumer to look for a board-certified psychologist.

1. Proven Expertise

Board certification is a higher standard of competence than a general license to practice psychology. The licensing process provides little to no assessment of real skills and competence as the test is a written test that primarily tests for knowledge. Unfortunately, knowledge doesn’t always translate to competence. (We can all think of someone who knows a lot but is unable to apply that knowledge in real situations.) Board certification indicates competence through the review of work samples and an oral examination of both foundational and functional competencies.

2. Consumer Protection

Board certification is a mechanism for the public to know that specific psychologists have met rigorous standards in academic knowledge, experience, and skill demonstration in their specialty. Additionally, board certification indicates that the psychologist maintains the currency of their specialty skills through documented continuing education and practice improvement, further demonstrating their commitment to providing high-quality and effective services.

3. Tool for the Identification of Specialty Providers

Board certification is a public credential that provides evidence that your psychologist has been vetted and deemed highly skilled. If you are seeking care for a specific issue, finding a clinician who has been board-certified in that area may be especially valuable.

Just as with the practice of specialty medicine, the importance and value of the board certification credential for psychologists has been recognized. The process of board certification provides the public with greater assurances than licensure alone, that their psychologist has the knowledge, skills, and abilities to assist them.

Mon, 21 Nov 2022 07:44:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/alpha-blog-charlie/202211/does-it-matter-if-your-psychologist-is-board-certified
Killexams : Should Board Certification Organizations Have to Meet Particular Standards?

Should organizations that bestow board certifications be required to meet particular standards? That was one of the questions debated by members of the American Medical Association's (AMA) House of Delegates at its meeting this week.

The delegates discussed on Tuesday a resolution that would amend AMA policy to say that board certification programs "must first meet industry standards for certification that include both a process for defining specialty-specific standards for knowledge and skills, and [that] offer an independent, external assessment of knowledge and skills for both initial certification and recertification in the medical specialty."

The resolution, brought by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), largely passed, although one part was referred for further study.

Growing anger over the expense and difficulty of the maintenance of certification (MOC) process instituted by the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) -- the dominant certification board -- sparked lawsuits and led to physicians pursuing alternative paths to MOC, like one from the National Board of Physicians and Surgeons (NBPAS), for example.

Many certifying boards beyond ABMS do set standards and grant physician certification based on independent assessment of knowledge and skills, but not all boards do this, "which diminishes the value of board certificates," argued Laura Stone McGuire, MD, alternate delegate for the AANS who spoke for the delegation.

"We believe this resolution is timely and prudent," she said. "Organized neurosurgery believes this improves existing AMA policy by clarifying the basic standards and principles embodied in specialty-specific board certification."

Not so fast, some delegates said. "We need to have a lot more study before we say that the NBPAS system is worthy of being killed," argued Ken Certa, MD, a delegate for the American Psychiatric Association (APA). "I think it needs more study than this [resolution] allows."

He moved to have the entire resolution referred to the AMA Board of Trustees for study and a report back.

Lee Tynes, MD, an alternate delegate for the APA who spoke for the Psychiatry Section Council, also argued for referral. "A fair number of my peers in the APA elected to go with NBPAS in response to maintenance of certification [requirements from ABMS]," he said. "It seems like this is indeed quite a complicated matter, and we support referral for study."

Frank Dowling, MD, who spoke for the New York delegation in favor of referral, added that, although that day's discussion revolved around the NBPAS, other alternative boards may also crop up. "Do these criteria fit fairly or are they helping to support the monopolies and excessive fees and all the other challenges we've worked hard in this AMA to fight back against?" he said.

In the end, the delegates voted narrowly -- 242-253 -- not to refer the entire resolution for study.

However, Certa then asked for the delegates to refer for study just the portion of the resolution that called for the AMA to "advocate for federal and state legislatures, federal and state regulators, physician credentialing organizations, hospitals, and other health care stakeholders ... to define physician board certification as establishing specialty-specific standards for knowledge and skills, using an independent assessment process to determine the acquisition of knowledge and skills for initial certification and recertification."

That amendment would mean that the AMA would lobby against what many psychiatrists have as their continuing certification, he said, suggesting it could further thin the ranks in an already small specialty. "This is not a trivial matter ... A lot of people who are currently board-certified in this way are not going to be able to practice," he said. "I'm sorry; I can't let this go without trying hard to get this referred so we can have a study of what the effects would be on my specialty and many other specialties."

Gregory Pinto, MD, speaking for the New York delegation, also argued in favor of referral of the one amendment. "The expensive and arduous process of ABMS maintenance of certification is a major source of the moral injury that causes physician burnout," he said. "We need to study this issue to get it right; we need to see the report back."

Anthony Geroulis, MD, a delegate from the American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery speaking on his own behalf, disagreed. "This is not a policy to pick on psychiatric friends of ours. This doesn't change anything for them," he said. "What it does is, it expands the opportunity for all the people here that [are] members in smaller organizations but qualified [via alternate] boards -- qualified with exams. This is not a question of paying $20 and getting a board certification; this is only respectable boards that qualify with all the things you have to do to become board-certified ... It does not change these other boards at all. I feel we should not be referring this and we should bring this to a vote."

Michael Carius, MD, a member of the Connecticut delegation who is also the current chair of the ABMS board of directors, too argued against referral. "Board certification in a given specialty is important in establishing a physician's competence to practice medicine in that specialty following the successful completion of a legitimate professional training program. Continuing certification is important in demonstrating continued competence in that specialty. Ultimately, both initial certification and continuing certification are equally important in enhancing the safety of medical care for patients and the public in general."

After the discussion, the delegates voted 340-145 in favor of referring that portion of the resolution, and passed the rest of it. The delegates will meet again in June 2023 in Chicago.

  • Joyce Frieden oversees MedPage Today’s Washington coverage, including stories about Congress, the White House, the Supreme Court, healthcare trade associations, and federal agencies. She has 35 years of experience covering health policy. Follow

Thu, 17 Nov 2022 08:03:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.medpagetoday.com/meetingcoverage/ama/101814
Killexams : Questions and Answers from the ‘Car Doctor’

Q. First time reaching out. I have a 2013 Honda Civic. Lately, I have been hearing a weird sound from the rear of the car. Almost sounds as if something is banging around in the trunk, but my trunk is empty. Thought it was a loose pipe of some sort, but after checking quickly under the car, I didn’t see anything obvious hanging. Could it be the gas tank at all?

A. Great idea to look in the truck I have seen loose spare tires, jacks, lug wrenches, soda and soup cans. At this point the car needs to go on a lift and look for loose or worn suspension bushings and worn strut mounts. The issue could also be a loose baffle in the muffler. It shouldn’t take more than 30 minutes to find the source of the noise and to rule out if it is a safety issue.

Q. I own a 2022 Subaru Forester when I turn off the car there is a noise that starts. I recorded a video and had the Subaru dealer look at it and they tell that is nothing, they didn’t find anything with my car. Is it nothing?

A. Great idea to record the noise. More than likely the noise is the heat shield that surrounds the exhaust system expanding and contracting as it cools. In the past I have seen manufacturers add shims to fill the gap and quiet the noise. Where the car is new I would give the dealer a little time to see if Subaru has come up with a fix to quiet the noise.

Q. My question is how long does diesel fuel stay fresh in a car? Can I add Stabil to diesel or is that for gas engines only?

A. I have seen untreated diesel fuel last six months or more. Over time untreated diesel fuel will become sludgy and can even grow an algae like substance. Stabil does have a product specifically for diesel engines and if are storing a diesel-powered vehicle for anytime it would be best to use a fuel additive.

Q. I have a 2018 Nissan Murano SL with approximately 38,000 miles. I have bled and flushed brakes in the past before but decided to try using a pressure bleeder. I read in the service manual to either disconnect the ABS (anti-lock brakes) control unit or negative battery cable when bleeding brakes. I’d like to not disconnect battery, so I attempted to disconnect the ABS module, which is near impossible to reach without removing parts. Is it absolutely necessary that the ABS module be disconnected, will there be any adverse effects? In the past on older vehicles I never had an issue but I’m unsure how to proceed with these newer vehicles.

A. Nissan is very specific to disconnect the battery of the module to prevent any damage to the anti-lock brake system. ABS brake systems will sometimes need to use a scan tool to cycle the ABS system to remove any air. Changing brake fluid is a great idea every three to four years, but as a bit of a cheat, siphon out some (no all) of the fluid from the master cylinder. If you do this at each oil change you will “freshen” up the brake fluid.

Q. I have a 2022 Infiniti QX 60. Bought brand new with 3000 miles. With my vehicle running, pulling into a parking space that is on an incline, foot on the brake pedal, and then placed into park. With the foot still on the brake pedal, turn off the motor. The vehicle will roll back approximately 2 to 3 inches after you remove your foot from the brake pedal. The dealership has said they’ve tested other new vehicles on the lot and that they all do this. This is a scary situation as someone may be exiting from the other doors, you still have your foot on the brake, they open the door and can be in a tight situation where the car will roll backwards, as you let your foot off the brake pedal. Or you could open the door yourself and an object could be next to the side of your driver’s door. I Got my driver’s license in 1965, and never had any other vehicle that did this or it was in one that did this. Having worked on cars and knowing what 1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 stands for, helps when you’re talking to the mechanics in the shop. I still have my 1970 AMX race car. The standard answer is they all do it which I don’t agree with. Appreciate any help that you can give me.

A. The 2022 Infiniti QX has the new nine-speed automatic transmission that replaced the less than desirable CVT transmission. I agree that three inches of roll back is too much, and I would personally want to test another vehicle for comparison. Infiniti is a little cheeky about this. In the owner’s manual it states that you should always apply the parking brake when stopped and the “park” position is not a substitute for the parking brake. At this point I haven’t been able to locate any technical bulletins about this issue. If in fact “they all do it” it may be an undesirable characteristic of this transmission. By the way in my opinion the AMC AMX is one of the most underappreciated muscle cars of its time. Readers if you are wondering, 1-8-4-3-6-5-7-2 is the firing order for a small block Chevy engine.

Got a car question, email the Car Doctor for a personal reply. jpaul@aaanortheast.com

Fri, 02 Dec 2022 21:01:00 -0600 By John Paul, Senior Manager, Public Affairs and Traffic Safety, AAA Northeast en-US text/html https://www.saratogian.com/2022/12/03/questions-and-answers-from-the-car-doctor-94/
Killexams : Plastics and Human Rights: Questions and Answers

Plastic production, use, and disposal have significant impacts on human rights. Plastics contain toxic chemical additives, which can pose significant threats to human health. Because they are made of fossil fuels, plastics are driving the climate crisis, which in turn threatens human rights.

On November 28, 2022, countries around the world will begin to negotiate a new Global Plastics Treaty. The negotiations are based on a resolution by the United Nations Environment Assembly, mandating the creation of a legally binding instrument by the end of 2024 to end plastic pollution. The world is drowning in plastic, and the creation of this mandate recognizes the urgency of addressing the problem for the benefit of human beings and the environment. As negotiations proceed, the countries involved should ensure that the treaty addresses plastics in a way that protects human rights.

Each year, more than 300 million metric tons of plastic is created. Many plastic products are single use, cannot be recycled, and remain in the environment for decades or centuries. Only 9 percent of plastic ever produced has been recycled, while the remaining plastic waste is dumped, landfilled, incinerated, or litters the environment. Of all plastic produced, 79 percent has accumulated in landfills, informal dumpsites, or the natural environment, and 12 percent has been incinerated.  

This document examines the ways that plastic production, use, and disposal threaten human rights, and why governments should take immediate steps to limit plastics to meet their human rights obligations.

Why are plastics a human rights issue?

The production, use, and disposal of plastic generates harmful effects on human health and the environment. International human rights law obligates governments to address such harms and to respect, protect, and fulfill the rights to health, water, access to information, and a healthy environment.

The plastic life cycle begins with oil and gas extraction. Ninety-nine percent of plastics are made of fossil fuels, including oil and gas, and plastics and petrochemicals are estimated to drive 30 percent of the growth in oil demand by 2030 and nearly half of the growth in oil demand by 2050. Oil and gas production can emit toxic chemicals through drilling operations, mechanical equipment, storage tanks, and transportation of fuels. For example, benzene, a carcinogenic compound, is often emitted from petroleum operations into the water, soil, and air, which can threaten the health of nearby communities.

Plastic production and manufacturing turns fossil fuel raw materials and chemical additives into plastic that can be used to make packaging, consumer products, and other goods. The refining and manufacturing processes pose threats to human rights, particularly to communities living close to petrochemical production facilities and refineries, by emitting harmful pollutants into the air and water. Refineries and plastic production facilities are often located in low-income and marginalized communities and communities of color, which are disproportionately impacted by pollution and environmental harm.

Plastic products are then used by consumers and in industrial activities. Some studies have linked ingested plastic particles with impacts on cell function, chronic inflammation, and disruptions to the endocrine system. Currently, plastic producers around the world are not required to identify chemical additives in their products, so consumers are not able to access information about the chemical makeup of plastics and their potential impacts on their health.

After use, some plastic is recycled and returns to the plastic production stage. Most plastic is disposed of in formal landfill or informal dumpsites or is incinerated at an industrial facility or disposed of through open burning. When plastic is dumped or landfilled, it naturally breaks down into microplastics, polluting the soil, water, air, wildlife, and human bodies. Methods to dispose of plastic waste, including incineration, contribute to short-term and long-term health effects as harmful chemicals and particulate matter are released into the air.

Why are plastics an increasing problem?

Since the 1950s, plastic has evolved from being a less common, multiuse material to being ubiquitous in modern equipment, packaging, textiles, and other common goods. Global annual plastic production has soared from two million metric tons in 1950 to 380 million metric tons in 2015, a 190-fold increase.

Not only has plastic use increased over exact decades, but plastic production is also projected to triple from 2015 to 2060. Plans to scale up the plastic industry are largely driven by the world’s largest oil and gas producing companies, alongside consumer goods companies. As countries around the world begin to address their dependence on oil and gas as a source of energy, fossil fuel producing companies are increasing investments in plastic and petrochemical production, as well as increasing capacity to make plastic, as an alternative area of growth.

The same fossil fuel companies have led decades-long disinformation campaigns to advance the myth that plastic is recyclable, while internal industry documents as early as the 1970s show that plastic producers knew recycling wasn’t an acceptable solution.

How do plastics contribute to the climate crisis?

Plastics are a major contributor to climate change. The extraction, transport, and refining of oil and gas, their conversation into the raw materials for plastics, and the transportation and burning of plastic waste all emit significant quantities of greenhouse gases, which are contributing to the climate crisis. In 2019, global production, disposal, and incineration of plastic emitted 850 million metric tons of CO2e, or carbon dioxide equivalent, as much as would be emitted by 189 500-Megawatt coal power plants.

If plastic use continues to grow as projected, by 2050 the greenhouse gas emissions from plastic production and incineration will reach 15 percent of the global carbon budget, making global climate goals extremely difficult, if not impossible, to reach.

What makes plastics toxic?

Chemical additives are added to plastics during production to change or enhance performance, functionality, or other properties of the plastic production. While chemical additives give plastic products qualities that make them useful, they can also be toxic environmental pollutants and harmful to human health. For example, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are common chemical additives in plastic that are known to harm human health and are linked with cancer and harm to reproductive systems.

How do plastics affect at-risk groups and marginalized communities? 

Exposure to toxins in plastic products – and emitted during disposal – can have particular and unique impacts on children, women, and pregnant and older people due to biological factors. Women exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals, including BPA, are at increased risk of polycystic ovarian syndrome and recurrent miscarriages. Exposure to these chemicals prior to and during childbearing years can result in increased likelihood of children being born with disabilities. Children, when exposed to the same levels of air pollution as adults, are at risk for more acute health impacts due to their rapid development. Children growing up in areas with high levels of industrial air pollution are likely to have reduced lung function. Exposure to chemicals may lead to harmful effects that do not appear until puberty or adulthood.

Older people are also particularly affected. As the human body ages, changes in organ functioning may make it harder for people’s bodies to process environmental pollutants, including toxins emitted during plastic recycling. A slower metabolism, coupled with earlier-life exposure, can lead to pollutants remaining in older people’s bodies for a longer period than for younger adults, increasing their exposure to toxins.

Isn’t recycling the solution to the plastics crisis?

No. While recycling is often portrayed as a positive, environmentally friendly practice, when plastic is recycled, it releases pollutants and toxins into local environments, threatening the health of those working in and living nearby recycling facilities.

Human Rights Watch documented that plastic recycling in Turkey – the largest recipient of plastic waste exports from the European Union – is harming people’s health. Pollutants and toxins emitted from recycling affect workers, including children, and people living near recycling facilities. Workers and residents of neighboring communities described respiratory problems, severe headaches, skin ailments, lack of protective equipment, and little to no access to medical treatment for occupational illnesses. Many of the facilities Human Rights Watch visited were located dangerously close to homes, in contravention of Turkish laws and environmental regulations.

Why is plastic waste being shipped around the world?

Countries in the Global North, including the United States, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, and European Union member states, have routinely exported their plastic waste as “recycling” to countries with weak or nonexistent environmental regulations, low labor costs, and little government oversight on environmental and labor rights violations. They do so because they lack the physical infrastructure to recycle it domestically, and profits can be made by selling it to companies in other countries for processing. In this way, they externalize the health, environmental, and economic costs of their high consumption economies instead of reducing levels of consumption or investing in waste management.

For decades, China was the world's single largest importer of plastic waste, importing approximately 45 percent of global plastic waste from 1992 to 2016. Due to the high environmental impacts of plastic waste, the Chinese government created what it calls its National Sword Policy in January 2018, which banned the import of most plastic waste. So exporting countries have searched for new places to send their waste, and Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Turkey have recently become key destinations for the world’s plastic waste exports.

What is the Global Plastics Treaty?

In March 2022, the United Nations Environment Assembly agreed to draft a multilateral environmental treaty addressing the global plastics crisis. The mandate paves the way for countries to establish a legally binding instrument to address the impacts of plastics throughout their lifecycle. 

What are some key steps governments can take to ensure the Global Plastics Treaty enhances respect for human rights?

Governments in the UN Environmental Assembly should negotiate and adopt a plastics treaty that protects and respects human rights. A comprehensive and rights-respecting Global Plastics Treaty requires the meaningful participation of civil society. Such participation should include representation from people most at risk from the harm of plastic production, use, and disposal, including Indigenous people, people with disabilities, older people, children and young people, women, waste pickers and workers in the informal economy, labor unions, minorities, and people living in poverty.

Some key elements of a global plastics treaty that would protect human rights are requirements to:

  1. Take steps to decrease the production and consumption of plastic.
  2. End the production of unnecessary virgin plastic.
  3. Increase transparency about chemical additives in plastics and limit the addition of harmful chemical additives in plastic products.
  4. Protect the rights to health, water, food, and a healthy environment of at-risk populations and marginalized communities affected by plastic pollution.
Tue, 22 Nov 2022 21:02:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.hrw.org/news/2022/11/23/plastics-and-human-rights-questions-and-answers
Killexams : Questions surround election board vote certification on Monday

The Luzerne County Board of Elections will hold a special meeting on Monday to certify the results of the county’s Nov. 8 general election, which was marred by a shortage of ballot paper that caused a judge to order polls to stay open an extra two hours.

However, it appeared unclear as of Sunday whether the election board will vote to certify the election results at its 10 a.m. meeting at the county courthouse in Wilkes-Barre.

Monday is the state-mandated deadline for counties to certify election results. If the board does not certify the results, it would leave the county in uncharted territory, Chairwoman Denise Williams said.

The chances the board would vote to certify appeared to Strengthen Sunday evening, after acting Election Director Beth Gilbert McBride sent an email to the board that addressed concerns board members had expressed since last Wednesday.

That was the day McBride released a ballot reconciliation spreadsheet that compared vote totals on voting machine ballot tape with totals in numbered voter lists compiled by poll workers at polling sites.

Williams, in an email to election officials, said she had concerns over discrepancies in the spreadsheet, some of which were significant.

She repeated those concerns Sunday, saying she was not sure she could vote to certify the election results until McBride and the election bureau explained the discrepancies.

Election board member Daniel Schramm also said he had concerns about the discrepancies and was not sure whether he would vote to certify the election results.

Then McBride sent a detailed message to the board Sunday afternoon, explaining that many apparent discrepancies resulted from clerical errors and improper procedures some poll workers used during a stressful Election Day.

“It is essential to remember that the numbers on the numbered voter lists, where voters check in at the precinct, are a human process,” McBride wrote.

Poll workers had been instructed not to include the names of voters who cast provisional ballots on the numbered voter lists, McBride wrote.

Despite that, some poll workers included provisional voters on the voter lists they compiled, which caused apparent discrepancies in vote totals, she wrote.

There were a larger-than-usual number of provisional ballots, many of them cast by voters who requested but did not receive a mail-in ballot. Also, all voters who voted at polling sites between 8 p.m. and 10 p.m. cast provisional ballots.

Large discrepancies at polling sites in Wyoming and Ross Twp. that were listed on the reconciliation spreadsheet were caused by clerical errors, McBride wrote.

That explanation seemed to satisfy Schramm, though he said he would not commit to voting for certification until he hears further information at Monday’s meeting.

“It looks like all questions we had were answered,” Schramm said Sunday evening. “But I have to listen to everything that happens tomorrow.”

Williams said she wants to hear details about provisional ballots on Monday before she decides how to vote.

“I want to hear more (about) provisional ballot voters at each poll and discrepancies based on provisional ballots,” she said.

At least 150 county residents attended the election board’s Nov. 14 meeting to complain about the ballot paper shortage and other problems.

Many of them blasted the board and election bureau leadership. Some called for a do-over election and urged the board not to certify the Nov. 8 election results.

Since then, citizens and some county council members have publicly urged the board not to certify the results.

Instructions on remote participation in Monday’s election board meeting are posted to the county website, https://is.gd/bOtOgB.

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Sun, 27 Nov 2022 11:50:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.wfmz.com/news/state/questions-surround-election-board-vote-certification-on-monday/article_8bfd51b8-f9f6-513d-9804-3c4fbafbe3f1.html
Killexams : International Security Certification Board Certifies The First Government Polygraph Unit In Colombia

The International Security Certification Board., an industry-leading provider of business-to-business and business-to-government compliance & background check solutions and certification organization, announced today that it has formalized & certified the polygraph examiners for the elite Colombian military's naval credibility assessment unit.

BOGOTÁ, Colombia, Nov. 23, 2022 /PRNewswire-PRWeb/ -- International Security Certification Board is the first independent certification board awarded ISO / IEC 17024:2012 accreditation by the National Accreditation Organization of Colombia (ONAC, Organismo Nacional de Acreditación de Colombia) for the polygraph and credibility assessment sector in Colombia and the world.

Colombia's military and law enforcement agencies rely on polygraphs as an essential tool to identify and deter crime and corruption in its ranks. However, most traditional polygraph training programs in Colombia and Latin America were formerly offered by unlicensed institutions that did not follow government laws and standards, issuing certificates not recognized by federal or state education authorities. For the polygraph government community, this was a problem due to the many lawsuits being received. The goal was to formalize and certify the polygraph examiners of the elite Colombian unit with the Ministry of Education of that country.

For the past three months, we have worked with CIPE International Ltda, our subsidiary company in Colombia, accredited by the local education authorities, to test the polygraph examiners' knowledge and abilities. Today, all Colombian military's naval credibility assessment unit members are listed with the Ministry of Education of Colombia. The ceremony will take place in Bogota, Colombia, on November 26, 2022.

"Today, the formalization and certification of the Colombian military's naval credibility assessment unit have paved the way for other law enforcement and military agencies in the region to correct the irregular certificates of their polygraph examiners," said Mark R. Bartch, CEO of International Security Certification Board. "In a lawsuit, the question about the validity of a polygraph training certificate will no longer be an issue. I am excited and proud to have been part of this project."

About International Security Certification Board
International Security Certification Board is the leading provider of risk prevention solutions focusing on professional certification for the government, polygraph and compliance industry, fraud prevention, and AML/KYC compliance data solutions. Today, over 3,000 organizations in more than eight countries count on intelligence from International Security Certification Board solutions to make more informed and effective decisions.

For more information, visit: http://www.iscertificationboard.org

Media Contact

Richard Garces, International Security Certification Board, 57 3146327031, info@iscertificationboard.org

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SOURCE International Security Certification Board

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Wed, 23 Nov 2022 03:39:00 -0600 text/html https://www.benzinga.com/pressreleases/22/11/n29843142/international-security-certification-board-certifies-the-first-government-polygraph-unit-in-colomb
Killexams : Election certification delays few, but a 'test run' for 2024

Before November, election officials prepared for the possibility that Republicans who embraced former President Donald Trump's lies about voter fraud would challenge the verdict of voters by refusing to certify the midterm results.

Three weeks after the end of voting, such challenges are playing out in just two states, Arizona and Pennsylvania, where Democrats won the marquee races for governor and Senate.

Legal experts predict the bids are doomed because local governmental agencies typically don't have the option to vote against certifying the results of their elections. But experts also say the delays are a signal that the United States must brace itself for similar disruptions in the next presidential contest.

“It is one of the few places where election deniers have a lever of power,” Rick Hasen, a law professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, said of the local political authorities responsible for certifying election results in most states. “It’s a good test run for 2024, showing state courts they’re going to have to step in.”

For now, the certification delay in a smattering of rural counties in just two states reflects the limited ability of election conspiracy theorists to disrupt the midterms. One rural Arizona county has drawn court challenges after its refusal to certify, but a second one that was flirting with blocking certification backed off amid legal threats.

In Pennsylvania, a handful of the state's 67 counties have delayed certification because of recounts demanded by local conspiracy theorists in scattered precincts. But in most states, certification has gone smoothly.

“Before Election Day, I thought Republicans would exploit the certification process to undermine election results,” said Marc Elias, a Democratic lawyer who has sued to compel the lone Arizona county to certify.

That there's only one county delaying so far in that important battleground state, where Republican candidates who denied Joe Biden's victory in the 2020 presidential race ran unsuccessfully for governor and secretary of state, is “good news, and a bit of a surprise,” Elias said.

In Wisconsin, where Trump pressured Republican lawmakers to decertify the 2020 results, the chair of the state elections commission certified the results of the midterm election during a quick meeting Wednesday without fanfare. Minnesota, where the failed Republican secretary of state candidate had cast doubt on the legitimacy of the 2020 presidential election, the state canvassing board certified this year's results without drama on Tuesday.

The smooth outcome in most of the country is a reflection of the diminished opportunities election conspiracy theorists have to control elections after a number of their candidates were routed in statewide elections for positions overseeing voting. They're largely left with a footprint in conservative, rural counties. Still, that's enough to cause headaches for having the election results certified on a statewide basis, raising concerns about how rural counties might respond after the next presidential election.

The movement that embraces Trump's lies about voting hoped it would have many more levers after November. Candidates who backed Trump's efforts to overturn the 2020 election ran for top posts with power over state voting — including secretary of state, which in most states is the top election position — in five of the six swing states that were key to Trump's 2020 loss. They lost every race in each of those states.

Democratic Secretary of State Katie Hobbs defeated Trump-backed Republican Kari Lake in the race for Arizona governor, flipping it out of the GOP category, and a Democrat also won the race to replace Hobbs. A Democrat defeated an election conspiracy theorist running for Nevada secretary of state, shifting another swing-state election office from the GOP.

On the local level, the picture is blurrier.

There are more than 10,000 local election offices in the country that follow guidelines set by secretaries of state or other agencies that their states designate as the top election authorities. That's where conspiracy theorists won at least some new offices and still have the power to disrupt proceedings.

During the June primary in New Mexico, rural Otero County refused to certify the results of its election, preventing the state from making the winners official until the state Supreme Court ordered it to act. That set a template that election lawyers feared would be vastly replicated in the weeks after the midterms. But this time, even Otero County certified its winners without a delay. New Mexico's canvass board certified the statewide results Wednesday.

In Michigan, where a GOP slate of election conspiracy theorists was defeated in statewide races, the Republican candidate for secretary of state, Kristina Karamo, implored the state's bipartisan board of canvassers not to certify the election during a hearing this week. Karamo insisted there had been widespread fraud, even though she lost her race against Democratic Secretary of State Jocelyn Benson by more than 13 percentage points.

Tony Daunt, the Republican chair of the certification board, responded by blasting candidates who “feed into this nonsense” by making “claims that fire everybody up because it’s a short-term gain for them, and that’s dangerous to our system.” The board unanimously certified the election.

In Pennsylvania, the most prominent certification hiccup has come in Luzerne County, north of Philadelphia, which voted for Trump by 14 percentage points in 2020. County commissioners delayed certifying the election on Monday after one Democrat abstained from voting following an Election Day fiasco in which the election office ran out of ballots.

The Democrat, Daniel Schramm, joined the two other Democratic commissioners on the five-member board Wednesday to certify the vote after telling reporters he was confident no citizen was unable to vote. Certification is being delayed in a few other counties after local Republican committees and voters requested recounts.

In Arizona, the two Republicans on Cochise County's three-member county commission blew past Monday's certification deadline, saying they needed more information on the certification of vote tabulators, even though there have been no problems with voting or ballot counting in their county.

The secretary of state's office has sued, saying that it must certify the state's elections by Dec. 8.

“The only legal effect this has is to disenfranchise all their voters,” said David Becker of the Center for Election Innovation.

The efforts to delay certification are dangerous even if they're doomed to fail, Becker and others said. They continue to sow discontent and distrust of voting and democracy.

David Levine, a former election official who is a fellow with the Alliance for Securing Democracy, noted that conspiracy theories about elections have reached such a fever pitch in Arizona that Bill Gates, the Republican chair of the county commission in Maricopa County, which includes Phoenix. has been given additional security by the local sheriff.

“When you give legitimacy to baseless accusations about the election process, there is a concern that more of that will occur," Levine said.

Maricopa County, which includes Phoenix, certified its election results on Monday, after dozens of attendees demanded the board not do it. Some complained about printer malfunctions in the county, the state's most populous, that led to confusion and long lines on Election Day — even though Maricopa officials said everyone had a chance to vote and that all legal ballots were counted.

In other counties, activists also spoke out against certification, though unsuccessfully. In Yavapai County, north of Phoenix, a woman who gave her name as Nancy Littlefield, wearing a hoodie patterned on the American flag, made clear that part of her objections were because she simply didn't like the outcome of the election.

She urged Yavapai board members not to certify the vote because “I moved from California so I could be free and live my life and have my voice heard.”

———

Associated Press writers Joey Cappelletti in Lansing, Michigan; Jonathan J. Cooper and Anita Snow in Phoenix; Christina A. Cassidy in Atlanta; and Mark Scolforo in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, contributed to this report.

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Follow the AP’s coverage of the 2022 midterm elections at https://apnews.com/hub/2022-midterm-elections

Tue, 29 Nov 2022 15:25:00 -0600 en text/html https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/wireStory/election-certification-delays-test-run-2024-94190557
Killexams : Questions and Answers from the ‘Car Doctor’

Q. I have a 1998 Ford Crown Victoria that is losing coolant, I have checked the system for leaks and haven’t found any. Even after being parked for a few days there are no wet spots on the ground. The oil is clean with no signs of no moisture in it. I am adding about a quart of coolant a week, what is the issue.

A. The problem is most likely a leaking cylinder head gasket. The standard procedure is to pressure test the cooling system and if the system holds pressure, then the next step is to look for an internal leak. You can purchase a kit that uses a special chemical to look for exhaust gases in the cooling system. These kits are $35-$50 and are easy to use and quite accurate.

Q. My daughter has a 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid. Lately the car has started to vibrate/slide as she brakes, as if the ABS system is engaging even though the road is clear and dry. The light with the squiggly lines will appear briefly. No other lights activate. Our mechanic has been able to experience the issue but has not been able to fix the issue. Any advice?

A. The anti-lock brake system uses sensors at each wheel that monitor wheel rotation. What you describe as a phantom ABS application can usually be traced to a rusted or cracked ABS tone wheel. A careful inspection and some testing should be able to pinpoint the problem.

Q. My Mazda 2014 CX-9 has about 55,000 miles on it. During a couple of four-hour drives on the highway I noticed a hum coming from the car. After some novice detective work figured it to be the right rear wheel bearing/hub was the problem. I removed the assembly and replaced it with a “sorry to say” economy brand part I purchased online. I road tested it and for about 300 miles of highway driving, no sounds. Unfortunately, after a few hundred more miles the same “hum” is back, although less intense. I did more internet research, and some comments were that this brand failed prematurely. And other sites mentioned a bit of a sophisticated install process. The replacement of this bearing hub is straightforward: remove defective part and install replacement. Four bolts hold the assembly to the rear axle assembly, and you just remove and reinstall the axel nut. Mixed recommendations on the torque specs for the axel nut: 200ftlbs/258ftlbs. Do you think I just got a lemon part? Did I install it incorrectly? Not like the old days when you’d repack the wheel bearings and “set” them with rotating the wheel and tightening and backing off the holding nut.

A. I suspect you may have gotten an inferior part. You are correct the replacement of the bearing is fairly simple. According to AllData the technical database I use, the attachment bolts should be tightened to 58–75-foot pounds and the axle nut is tightened to 175-202 foot pounds of torque.

Q. I have three simple questions that I can’t get an answer for so I’m coming to you. What window wash fluid do you recommend, especially in the cold Northeast states, are there any window treatment products do you recommend that shed water or prevent fogging and are gas additives worth the money? My car is a 2015 Kia Soul, but I’m sure the advice applies to most cars.

A. When choosing windshield washer fluid (which is basically soap, water and alcohol) look for fluid that will protect against freezing to at least 20 degrees below zero. Some fluids will have additives that do a better job of removing bugs and other debris and some will bead water. What ever fluid you choose, the best results come from a clean windshield. Clean the windshield inside and out with a good quality window cleaner and then go over the windshield with a clean microfiber cloth. Regarding window treatments, I have tried some and had mixed results, so I tend to stay away from them. If you are trying to prevent fogging, first make sure your defroster is set to fresh air. Fogging happens when there is a temperature differential of the inside and outside of the windshield. A DIY method to prevent fogging is to clean the window with shaving foam. I haven’t tried it on my car but it works on my bathroom mirror. Regarding fuel additives, adding a fuel injector cleaner periodically and using a gas line antifreeze just before cold winter temperatures can’t hurt, although typically not necessary if you use quality fuel and keep the fuel tak at least half full to prevent moisture.

Q. My 2008 Suzuki XL7, runs great but the RPM (idle speed) will dip or hesitate? Again, it runs great on the highway. I think it’s the timing belt or serpentine belt is off, what do you think?

A. A worn timing or serpentine won’t cause an engine to idle poorly. I suspect there is a fuel issue. This could be a clogged/dirty fuel injector, vacuum leak or even a sticking exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve.

Q. Let me first say that I enjoy the insight that comes from you on both your radio show and Newsday. My question is about thread sealant. When doing routine repairs on my vehicles (brakes, suspension etc.) is it advisable to use thread sealant as an additional measure of safety or is it ok to just tighten nuts and bolts according to manufacturer’s specification?

A. Topically use a thread locker (Loctite is one) when that bolt is under extreme stress or instructed to by the vehicle manufacturer. If the fasteners are something that is something that are removed periodically, I wouldn’t use thread locker, just tighten to manufactures specifications.

Got a car question, email the Car Doctor for a personal reply. jpaul@aaanortheast.com

Fri, 25 Nov 2022 22:00:00 -0600 By John Paul, Senior Manager, Public Affairs and Traffic Safety, AAA Northeast en-US text/html https://www.saratogian.com/2022/11/26/questions-and-answers-from-the-car-doctor-93/
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