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Exam Code: QSSA2018 Practice exam 2022 by team
QSSA2018 Qlik Sense System Administrator Certification Exam

At least 6 months experience as an administrator of a Microsoft Windows Server-based environment
Experience working with Qlik Sense sites and the Qlik Management Console, to provide data and application governance, library maintenance, as well as user and application security
Experience managing the policies and options that run the Qlik Sense servers and apps
Experience creating rules and managing the visualization streams
Knowledge of networking and Active Directory configuration, proxies, intermediate web servers, load balancers, etc.
Familiarity with Windows tools and logs created (e.g., Event Viewer, Services Console, DCOM Console, Windows Registry)
Experience using NSLookUp, Telnet, Ping, NetStat, Fiddler, and other browser tools to troubleshoot connectivity, interoperability, configuration, performance, etc.

Plan Installation (20% of the exam)
Given a scenario, recommend environment architecture
Given a scenario, determine appropriate security strategies

Install System (22% of the exam)
Configure initial environment for Qlik Sense access
Configure multi-node deployment
Configure proxy and virtual proxies

Manage Content (34% of the exam)
Configure tasks based on business and system needs
Apply procedural concepts to organize external content (Content Library and Extensions)
Apply steps to manage streams and apps
Apply steps to manage privileges in the Qlik Sense deployment
Configure user roles and properties

Monitor and Maintain (24% of the exam)
Investigate Qlik Sense errors and issues
Given a scenario, demonstrate an understanding of how to monitor system performance
Apply the steps to perform a backup and restore
Apply the steps to perform upgrade(s)

Qlik Sense System Administrator Certification Exam
QlikView Administrator basics
Killexams : QlikView Administrator basics - BingNews Search results Killexams : QlikView Administrator basics - BingNews Killexams : W&M Finance Basics

Ever wondered how different funds are set up and why? Do you need assistance figuring out how to procure and spend university funds? You’ve come to the right place. Select the subjects below to learn more.

Introduction to Funds
Single column collapsible list.
What are university funds and their common sources?
All monies received and expensed by the university:
  • All monies received must be used for the benefit of the university and in support of its mission.
  • All monies expensed must be justified based on a bona fide business purpose tied to the university mission.
  • Although specific individuals by title or by type of fund may be authorized to determine how funds are used, all funds spent by the university are university funds.  Examples include: indirect costs allocated to individual principal investigators and faculty start-up funds. 
What are the most common sources of operating funds?
  • State general fund dollars*
  • Student tuition*
  • Student fees*
  • External sponsors through grants and contracts*
  • Indirect cost recoveries (aka Financial &Administrative Cost Recoveries) from grants and contracts*
  • Other user fees
  • Gifts from private donors and philanthropic organizations
  • Funds to support local programs or auxiliaries
* Funds are appropriated by the Commonwealth of Virginia
How can I spend state vs. local funds?

The source of operating funds governs how those funds can be used.

State (appropriated) funds

Must be spent in accordance with state policies and procedures.

Local university funds

Must be spent in accordance with university policies and procedures.

What are specific types of state funds?

Those funds appropriated by the Commonwealth to support higher education:

  • State general fund support from taxpayer dollars Tuition
  • State auxiliary funds (dining, housing, parking, student rec, etc.)
  • Grants  and contracts (sponsored research)
  • Indirect cost recoveries from grants and contracts
What are local university funds?

Funds received by the university to support its mission that are not appropriated by the state:

  1. Local program funds (e.g., fees to support the non-academic portion of travel abroad, W&M Choir Tour Fund, campus event revenue, etc.)
  2. Gifts and donations to the university (e.g., BOV private funds)
  3. Local auxiliary revenues (e.g., Highland, Tennis Center, Plumeri House, conference services, ID office, etc.)
  4. Revenue transferred to W&M (or VIMS) from one of our affiliated foundations to support university activities
Donor Funds
Single column collapsible list.
Gifts and donations
  • Donors to William & Mary may designate gifts to the university or to an affiliated foundation.
  • Although donors designate “new gifts” to an affiliated foundation, W&M has historical endowments that are managed directly by the and expendable funds that are deposited with the university. 
  • Often referred to as “BOV private funds” in recognition that the Board of Visitors has fiduciary responsibility over the management of those gifts.
  • Other gifts may be deposited to and managed by one of our affiliated foundations, including the W&M Foundation, Law School Foundation, Business School Foundation, Muscarelle Foundation, VIMS Foundation, etc.
Restricted vs unrestricted

Donors can designate gifts in the following ways:


Given to the university for a designated purpose (e.g., scholarships, professorship, specific program support). There are minimums associated with each type of restricted fund. In general, there are two types of restrictions:

  1. Specific Use
    • Pipe Organ Fund – to provide support for the purchase of a pipe organ for W&M’s music department.  Uses for this fund include the purchase, storage, delivery, installation and maintenance of the organ.
    • Sue Herzog Johnson Scholarship Fund in History – to provide scholarship support for a junior or senior level history major with a GPA of 3.5 or higher
  2. Program General Use
    • Center for the Liberal Arts (CLA) Fund  - monies are to be used to fund various initiatives associated with the CLA, including, but not limited to, course design, teaching technology, and faculty fellowships

Given to the university for the highest and best purpose (e.g., The Fund for William & Mary)

University Programs
Single column collapsible list.
Tying funds to the four programs

Expenditures for funds must be tied to programs.

National standards classify university programs as follows:
  1. Educational & General (E&G)
  2. Student Financial Assistance (Scholarships & Fellowships)
  3. Sponsored Programs (Grants & Contracts)
  4. Auxiliary Enterprises (Ancillary programs that are not specific to the academic mission, but required to support the overall activities of the institution)
Educational & General (E&G) subprograms

Based on national accounting standards, E&G Programs are typically those that support the “academic mission” of the institution and are categorized into 7 related “subprograms”

  1. Instruction
  2. Research (not sponsored)
  3. Public Services
  4. Academic Support
  5. Student Services
  6. Institutional Support
  7. Operation & Maintenance of Plant (O&M)
Chart of Accounts

The collective rules and classifications of funds, accounts, programs, and indices tied to the university’s organizational structure makes up the university’s Chart of Accounts.

For more detailed information on the Chart of Accounts, training is available in Cornerstone.

Procuring & Spending
Single column collapsible list.
How do I procure and spend money?
  1. Is there a bona fide business purpose?
  2. Is this supporting standard university business?
  3. If it’s being supported by gifts/donations in the foundation(s), do I have a local fund index to which I can transfer revenues from the foundation to support the gift?
  4. If not, how do I create a local fund?
Why can't I spend money directly from a foundation?
  • Separation of foundation/university – foundations created to support the mission, but are not intended to be an operating arm of the university
  • State procurement law
  • More transparency/better management - understanding the scope of our business
How do I create a local fund?
Identify the unit's source of funding
  • If the fund will be supported by local program or auxiliary revenue, [[budget,contact the Budget Office]]
  • If expenses will ultimately be supported by funds in the CWMF, [[cbbrow, Nellie Brown]] should be your first point of contact.
  • If expenses will be supported by gifts to the university, Gift Accounting will work with the Budget Office to establish.
Budget Office

The Budget Office will work with foundation(s) and Data Control to establish in Banner with any necessary (e.g., donor) restrictions.

Does that mean EVERYTHING has to go through the university?

Private gifts and donations at our foundations provide the university with funds that allow us to take our programs and activities to the next level of excellence and provide flexibility to address unique needs.

University policies and procedures recognize that there will be instances outside of normal business operations when our foundations may spend money on our behalf.

HOWEVER, the intent is for standard program expenses (personnel expenses, standard office supplies and materials, program expenses, business travel, business meals, etc.) to be managed through the university with the foundation providing funds as “revenue” to offset the cost.

Well, can’t I just “split fund”?

The state audits the university to ensure that we are following state and university policies and procedures. If the university has a policy that limits expenditures at a certain level, “split funding” is viewed as a deliberate attempt to work around the policy. In addition, split funding raises the likelihood of an invoice being paid twice.

If you have unique instances that “just don’t fit” standard university business, the Office of Finance will work with you to see if it qualifies for a reasonable exception under the university’s policies or whether you should consult with an affiliated foundation to determine whether they can support the activity directly.

So, how do I spend university dollars to accomplish my business purpose?
First question should be, “How do I initiate purchases?”
  • Procurement Services provides support to campus for purchases of goods and services in accordance with laws of the Commonwealth and W&M.
  • If goods and services are procured properly, payment will be easy. 
Procurement Training

If you have not completed Fundamentals of Procurement Training, sign up in Cornerstone.

Other resources

Purchasing@W&M and the Procure-to-Pay Matrix

Signing Contracts

Don't sign contracts unless specifically authorized to do so with a written delegation from SVPFA and/or Provost

  • Even if delegated authority to sign, most delegations are CAPPED at $5,000
  • For additional information on contract management, see Contract Administration Training
Purchases less than $5,000

These may be handled through eVA (e-Procurement system) or through a small purchase credit card (SPCC).

eVA resources
SPCC resources
Procurements greater than $5,000 should ALWAYS be directed toProcurement Services.
Tools for business meals & catering
Chrome River

Business meals and Chrome River training are available in Cornerstone.

America to Go (ATG)

America To Go is the campus's online catering platform for on-campus food needs and is to be used for orders paid with university funds (state or local).

Managing the Budget
Single column collapsible list.
General expectations
Units will stay within budget.

If an unforeseen event places a unit in jeopardy of meeting budget, the issue should be elevated to the University Budget Office immediately to determine whether there are available resources to mitigate the issue or whether programmatic reduces need to be made.

Business units will reconcile all indices at least every 60 days.

No index should be in deficit for more than 60 days unless authorized by the Vice President for Finance & Technology.

Communicate early and often if there are problems.
Budget management tools
How can I see the complete budget picture for my area?

Qlik Sense budgets by fund, index and account with transaction information and trends (more functionality to come as tool is more fully developed).

If I’ve overspent in a given index/fund, how do I clear the expense?

Move the expense to an index with sufficient funds/budget. Recoveries from Foundations should be brought into local funds as revenue to offset expenditures in those funds. Expenses should not be offset using an expenditure recovery account unless that expense is truly being charged somewhere else.

If I’ve underspent my E&G funds, can I move expenses from other areas over to “use up” the funds?

Business units may not transfer expenditures from local funds to E&G funds. The expectation is that funds are charged originally to the correct fund source.

Need additional help or training?

Contact a member of the University Operations Office. For Banner training visit Cornerstone and search for “Banner Finance Tools”. You will find guidance on various subjects covering things from looking up budget and expense information, payment information, journal vouchers and more.

Fri, 28 Aug 2020 21:48:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : How to Set Up a Computer With Administrator Privileges

Ruri Ranbe has been working as a writer since 2008. She received an A.A. in English literature from Valencia College and is completing a B.S. in computer science at the University of Central Florida. Ranbe also has more than six years of professional information-technology experience, specializing in computer architecture, operating systems, networking, server administration, virtualization and Web design.

Wed, 19 Aug 2020 08:06:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Qlik supports Fujitsu’s data and analytics transformation strategy

Qlik announced that Fujitsu has implemented Qlik solutions to accelerate its data transformation processes and enable data-driven business operations across the entire organization.

Fujitsu, one of Japan's leading technology companies, is strengthening its data management capabilities by implementing a standardized approach to the management, collection, and use of data as part of its purpose to “make the world more sustainable by building trust in society through innovation.”

Fujitsu has deployed Qlik to 40,000 of its users, comprising approximately 33% of the company’s 120,000 employees worldwide. This is enabling an environment where employees can quickly gain insight from data and foster a data-driven culture throughout the organization, according to the company. Additionally, Qlik will support Fujitsu in expanding these capabilities to enable real-time data integration.

Fujitsu seeks to augment its data and analytics transformation strategy, enabling active intelligence using the results and know-how it has gained in infrastructure development, internal culture change, and human resource development to achieve real-time data-driven management.

“We have established a ‘Data Analytics Center’ to lead data-driven management throughout the Fujitsu Group and to promote the ‘OneData’ program as a platform to advocate data utilization,” said Yuzuru Fukuda, CIO and deputy CDXO of Fujitsu. “The direction and future potential of active intelligence realized by Qlik is in line with our measures to strengthen data-driven management, and we highly recommend Qlik.”

For more information about this news, visit  

Tue, 29 Nov 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Inventory Management Defined, Plus Methods and Techniques

What Is Inventory Management?

Inventory management refers to the process of ordering, storing, using, and selling a company's inventory. This includes the management of raw materials, components, and finished products, as well as warehousing and processing of such items. There are different types of inventory management, each with its pros and cons, depending on a company’s needs.

Key Takeaways

  • Inventory management is the entire process of managing inventories from raw materials to finished products.
  • Inventory management tries to efficiently streamline inventories to avoid both gluts and shortages.
  • Four major inventory management methods include just-in-time management (JIT), materials requirement planning (MRP), economic order quantity (EOQ) , and days sales of inventory (DSI).
  • There are pros and cons to each of the methods, reviewed below.

The Benefits of Inventory Management

A company's inventory is one of its most valuable assets. In retail, manufacturing, food services, and other inventory-intensive sectors, a company's inputs and finished products are the core of its business. A shortage of inventory when and where it's needed can be extremely detrimental.

At the same time, inventory can be thought of as a liability (if not in an accounting sense). A large inventory carries the risk of spoilage, theft, damage, or shifts in demand. Inventory must be insured, and if it is not sold in time it may have to be disposed of at clearance prices—or simply destroyed.

For these reasons, inventory management is important for businesses of any size. Knowing when to restock inventory, what amounts to purchase or produce, what price to pay—as well as when to sell and at what price—can easily become complex decisions. Small businesses will often keep track of stock manually and determine the reorder points and quantities using spreadsheet (Excel) formulas. Larger businesses will use specialized enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. The largest corporations use highly customized software as a service (SaaS) applications.

Appropriate inventory management strategies vary depending on the industry. An oil depot is able to store large amounts of inventory for extended periods of time, allowing it to wait for demand to pick up. While storing oil is expensive and risky—a fire in the U.K. in 2005 led to millions of pounds in damage and fines—there is no risk that the inventory will spoil or go out of style. For businesses dealing in perishable goods or products for which demand is extremely time-sensitive—2021 calendars or fast-fashion items, for example—sitting on inventory is not an option, and misjudging the timing or quantities of orders can be costly.

For companies with complex supply chains and manufacturing processes, balancing the risks of inventory gluts and shortages is especially difficult. To achieve these balances, firms have developed several methods for inventory management, including just-in-time (JIT) and materials requirement planning (MRP).

Some companies, such as financial services firms, do not have physical inventory and so must rely on service process management.

Accounting for Inventory

Inventory represents a current asset since a company typically intends to sell its finished goods within a short amount of time, typically a year. Inventory has to be physically counted or measured before it can be put on a balance sheet. Companies typically maintain sophisticated inventory management systems capable of tracking real-time inventory levels.

Inventory is accounted for using one of three methods: first-in-first-out (FIFO) costing; last-in-first-out (LIFO) costing; or weighted-average costing. An inventory account typically consists of four separate categories: 

  1. Raw materials — represent various materials a company purchases for its production process. These materials must undergo significant work before a company can transform them into a finished good ready for sale.
  2. Work in process (also known as goods-in-process) — represents raw materials in the process of being transformed into a finished product.
  3. Finished goods — are completed products readily available for sale to a company's customers.
  4. Merchandise — represents finished goods a company buys from a supplier for future resale.

Inventory Management Methods

Depending on the type of business or product being analyzed, a company will use various inventory management methods. Some of these management methods include just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing, materials requirement planning (MRP), economic order quantity (EOQ), and days sales of inventory (DSI). There are others, but these are the four most common methods used to analyze inventory.

1. Just-in-Time Management (JIT)

This manufacturing model originated in Japan in the 1960s and 1970s. Toyota Motor (TM) contributed the most to its development. The method allows companies to save significant amounts of money and reduce waste by keeping only the inventory they need to produce and sell products. This approach reduces storage and insurance costs, as well as the cost of liquidating or discarding excess inventory.

JIT inventory management can be risky. If demand unexpectedly spikes, the manufacturer may not be able to source the inventory it needs to meet that demand, damaging its reputation with customers and driving business toward competitors. Even the smallest delays can be problematic; if a key input does not arrive "just in time," a bottleneck can result.

2. Materials Requirement Planning (MRP)

This inventory management method is sales-forecast dependent, meaning that manufacturers must have accurate sales records to enable accurate planning of inventory needs and to communicate those needs with materials suppliers in a timely manner. For example, a ski manufacturer using an MRP inventory system might ensure that materials such as plastic, fiberglass, wood, and aluminum are in stock based on forecasted orders. Inability to accurately forecast sales and plan inventory acquisitions results in a manufacturer's inability to fulfill orders.

3. Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)

This model is used in inventory management by calculating the number of units a company should add to its inventory with each batch order to reduce the total costs of its inventory while assuming constant consumer demand. The costs of inventory in the model include holding and setup costs.

The EOQ model seeks to ensure that the right amount of inventory is ordered per batch so a company does not have to make orders too frequently and there is not an excess of inventory sitting on hand. It assumes that there is a trade-off between inventory holding costs and inventory setup costs, and total inventory costs are minimized when both setup costs and holding costs are minimized.

4. Days Sales of Inventory (DSI)

This financial ratio indicates the average time in days that a company takes to turn its inventory, including goods that are a work in progress, into sales. DSI is also known as the average age of inventory, days inventory outstanding (DIO), days in inventory (DII), days sales in inventory or days inventory and is interpreted in multiple ways.

Indicating the liquidity of the inventory, the figure represents how many days a company’s current stock of inventory will last. Generally, a lower DSI is preferred as it indicates a shorter duration to clear off the inventory, though the average DSI varies from one industry to another.

Inventory Management Red Flags

If a company frequently switches its method of inventory accounting without reasonable justification, it is likely its management is trying to paint a brighter picture of its business than what is true. The SEC requires public companies to disclose LIFO reserve that can make inventories under LIFO costing comparable to FIFO costing.

Frequent inventory write-offs can indicate a company's issues with selling its finished goods or inventory obsolescence. This can also raise red flags with a company's ability to stay competitive and manufacture products that appeal to consumers going forward.

What Are the Four Main Types of Inventory Management?

The four types of inventory management are just-in-time management (JIT), materials requirement planning (MRP), economic order quantity (EOQ) , and days sales of inventory (DSI). Each inventory management style works better for different businesses, and there are pros and cons to each type.

How Did Tim Cook Use Inventory Management at Apple?

Tim Cook is known as an inventory genius. “Inventory is like dairy products,” Cook is quoted saying. “No one wants to buy spoiled milk.” For this reason, inventory management can save a company millions.

What Is an Example of Inventory Management?

Let's look at an example of a just-in-time (JIT) inventory system. With this method, a company receives goods as close as possible to when they are actually needed. So, if a car manufacturer needs to install airbags into a car, it receives airbags as those cars come onto the assembly line instead of having a stock on supply at all times.

The Bottom Line

Inventory management is a crucial part of business operations. Proper inventory management depends on the type of business and what type of product it sells. There may not be one perfect type of inventory management, because there are pros and cons to each. But taking advantage of the most fitting type of inventory management style can go a long way.

Tue, 06 Dec 2022 09:59:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Best Credit Cards Of December 2022

The most important thing to remember when looking at credit cards is that the best card for you is the one that meets your needs. Our list is meant to be a guideline, but be sure to think about where and how much you spend before hitting the apply button.

How Do Credit Cards Work?

A credit card can be used to make a purchase of goods or services in-person or online. When you apply for and are approved for a credit card, you’re given a line of credit based on your credit score and other factors like your income.

A potential advantage to using a credit card over paying cash or a debit card is that a credit card can function like a short-term loan. By using a credit card, you’ll normally have until the end of the credit card billing period (also known as a grace period) to pay back from your bank account what you charged to the card. You can also earn rewards like cash back or travel rewards with some types of cards, along with extras like purchase and travel protections. The downside is that if you don’t pay the entire amount that you charged to your card, you’ll accrue interest on your purchases which can be expensive over time.

How Do Credit Card Rewards Work?

When you make a purchase on a rewards credit card, you’ll earn a percentage back on your spending as either cash back, points or miles depending on the type of card and what type of rewards it’s offering. Airline credit cards, for example, will typically earn miles, cash-back cards will earn you cash back and general purpose rewards cards may earn points that can be used for things like a statement credit or to redeem for travel, merchandise or other options.

Some rewards credit cards will earn the same flat-rate back on all spending, like a card that earns 2% back on every purchase. Others have tiered rewards where a certain type of purchase, like gas or groceries, may earn at a higher reward rate than other types of purchases. Before choosing a rewards card, it’s important to consider your spending habits and the type of rewards you think you’ll get the most benefit from and then compare that to the various options available to you.

How To Maximize Credit Card Rewards

Maximizing credit card rewards can be done both while earning and redeeming.

To maximize the number of credit card rewards you earn, you’ll need to choose a credit card that offers strong earnings on the types of purchases you make most. Cards with category bonuses in groceries, gas or travel might allow you to earn 3% or more on eligible purchases. If your purchases are all over the place, you may do best with a flat-rate 2% cash-back card.

You can also maximize the value of your credit card rewards when redeeming rewards. Most importantly, you should focus on rewards that match your goals—whether that’s airline miles, flexible points, cash back or other rewards. Then, compare redemption options to see if any in particular are worth more. The best redemptions typically yield a minimum of 1 cent per point.

How Does Credit Card Interest Work?

Most credit cards calculate interest using the average daily balance method, which means your interest is compounded and accumulates every day, based on your daily rate of interest. In other words, every day your finance charges are based on the balance from the day before.

How To Calculate Credit Card Interest

The daily rate of interest is determined by dividing your card’s APR by 365 to find the daily rate of interest and then multiplying that number by your balance. For example, to determine the average daily balance on a card with a $10,000 balance on the first day of the billing cycle and an APR of 17%, you’d divide 17 by 365, which equals a daily rate of 0.0466%. This means the next day, your card would have a balance of $10,004.66, which is what you get when you multiply the balance of $10,000 by 1.000466.

Since the average daily balance is compounded, each day’s calculation is based on the day before.

APR vs. APY vs. Interest

APR is a card’s annual percentage rate over the course of a year. A balance of $10,000 with an APR of 17% would accumulate $1,700 in interest. But since most credit cards use an average daily balance method to calculate interest, it can be an incomplete view to look at a card’s APR and try to estimate how much you’d pay in interest.

APY is not a term typically applied to credit cards as it refers to the amount of interest you’d earn over the course of a year on things like deposit accounts such as savings accounts and certificates of deposit (CDs).

In other words, APR refers to the amount of interest you’d pay on a credit card balance or other line of credit and APY refers to the amount of interest you can earn on a deposit account.

Credit Card Application

In general, there are several steps to applying for a credit card: First, check your credit score through a credit card issuer or by ordering it from one of the three main credit agencies. Once you know where you stand with your credit score, decide which type of card will be the best for you based on what you’re planning to use it for. Credit cards typically fall into one of three categories: rewards, low APR or credit-building.

How To Apply for a Credit Card

Choosing the right card may be difficult, but applying for the card you’ve chosen is easy. Most cards can be applied for online, although you can go to the issuing bank and apply in person or call on the phone. If you’re approved, the next step is to make sure you understand the card’s terms and conditions listed in the fine print of the cardmember agreement.

How To Get Pre-Approved for a Credit Card

Many issuers, including American Express, Bank of America, Capital One, Chase, Citibank, Deserve and Discover will let you check to see if you’re pre-qualified for any of their cards. Keep in mind that pre-qualification doesn’t ensure approval. The exception to this rule is American Express, which now will provide you an indication of approval with only a soft pull of your credit report.

Checking whether you’re pre-qualified is often as easy as entering your name and address on the card issuer’s website and then perusing offers, if any, that are available to you. This will not impact your credit score.

How To Improve Your Credit Score

There are several steps you can take to improve your credit score. First, check your credit report to make sure there aren’t any errors that could be having an adverse effect. Paying your bills on time, every time will have the single biggest impact on your score. After payment history, the next biggest factor in your credit score is the amount of debt you have. Since credit reporting agencies don’t have your income information, they use something called credit utilization instead of a debt-to-income ratio.

Credit utilization is the amount of debt you owe relative to the amount of credit you have. So if you have a balance of $3,000 on a card with a $10,000 limit, you’re using 30% of your credit. Total credit utilization is based on the aggregate amount across all your lines of credit, both what you owe and how much you have available. It’s typically suggested that utilization of 30% or below should be the goal.

Credit Cards for Good Credit

What is considered a good credit score can vary among lenders, and you typically aren’t told what a particular lender’s exact cutoff point is between a good credit score and a bad one. However, FICO, the most widely known credit scoring model, shares some helpful information you can use as a guide. The most common scores feature a scale of 300 to 850. On that scale, a credit score between 670 and 739 is generally considered “good.”

You can check out Forbes Advisor’s list of best cards for good credit to see what might work for your particular circumstances.

Credit Cards for Fair Credit

The definition of a fair credit score varies among lenders, and you typically aren’t told what a particular lender’s exact cutoff point is between a good credit score and a fair one. However, FICO, the most widely known credit scoring model, shares some helpful information you can use as a guide. The most common FICO scores feature a scale of 300 to 850. On that scale, a credit score between 580 and 669 is generally considered fair.

You can check out Forbes Advisor’s list of best cards for fair credit to see what might be a fit for your particular circumstances

Credit Cards for Bad Credit

While there’s no exact number that counts as the threshold between “bad” and “good” credit, generally a FICO Score below 580 is considered very poor and between 580 and 669 is considered fair.

The lower your credit score, the more limited your options when it comes to credit cards. Someone with bad credit will typically only be able to get approved for a secured card or a card with higher-than-average interest rates and other additional fees. See Forbes Advisor’s list of best credit cards for bad credit to see what some of the options are if your credit isn’t stellar.

What Are the Three Credit Bureaus?

There are three major credit bureaus in the U.S.:

  • Experian
  • Equifax
  • TransUnion

Each of these agencies may use a slightly different method of evaluating your credit behavior, so it’s not uncommon to have a slightly different credit score with each agency. All three companies serve the same function: to analyze your credit behavior to generate a three-digit credit score used to determine your creditworthiness and in turn, the rates you’ll be offered on loans like a credit card or a mortgage.

Sat, 10 Dec 2022 21:24:00 -0600 Caroline Lupini en-US text/html
Killexams : Portfolio Management: Definition, Types, and Strategies

What Is Portfolio Management?

Portfolio management is the art and science of selecting and overseeing a group of investments that meet the long-term financial objectives and risk tolerance of a client, a company, or an institution.

Some individuals do their own investment portfolio management. That requires a basic understanding of the key elements of portfolio building and maintenance that make for success, including asset allocation, diversification, and rebalancing.

Key Takeaways

  • Investment portfolio management involves building and overseeing a selection of assets such as stocks, bonds, and cash that meet the long-term financial goals and risk tolerance of an investor.
  • Active portfolio management requires strategically buying and selling stocks and other assets in an effort to beat the performance of the broader market.
  • Passive portfolio management seeks to match the returns of the market by mimicking the makeup of an index or indexes.

Understanding Portfolio Management

Professional licensed portfolio managers work on behalf of clients, while individuals may choose to build and manage their own portfolios. In either case, the portfolio manager's ultimate goal is to maximize the investments' expected return within an appropriate level of risk exposure.

Portfolio management requires the ability to weigh strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats across the full spectrum of investments. The choices involve trade-offs, from debt versus equity to domestic versus international, and growth versus safety.

Passive vs. Active Management

Portfolio management may be either passive or active.

  • Passive management is the set-it-and-forget-it long-term strategy. It may involve investing in one or more exchange-traded (ETF) index funds. This is commonly referred to as indexing or index investing. Those who build indexed portfolios may use modern portfolio theory (MPT) to help them optimize the mix.
  • Active management involves attempting to beat the performance of an index by actively buying and selling individual stocks and other assets. Closed-end funds are generally actively managed. Active managers may use any of a wide range of quantitative or qualitative models to aid in their evaluations of potential investments.

Key Elements of Portfolio Management

Asset Allocation

The key to effective portfolio management is the long-term mix of assets. Generally, that means stocks, bonds, and cash equivalents such as certificates of deposit. There are others, often referred to as alternative investments, such as real estate, commodities, derivatives, and cryptocurrency.

Asset allocation is based on the understanding that different types of assets do not move in concert, and some are more volatile than others. A mix of assets provides balance and protects against risk.

Investors with a more aggressive profile weight their portfolios toward more volatile investments such as growth stocks. Investors with a conservative profile weight their portfolios toward stabler investments such as bonds and blue-chip stocks.

Rebalancing captures accurate gains and opens new opportunities while keeping the portfolio in line with its original risk/return profile.


The only certainty in investing is that it is impossible to consistently predict winners and losers. The prudent approach is to create a basket of investments that provides broad exposure within an asset class.

Diversification involves spreading the risk and reward of individual securities within an asset class, or between asset classes. Because it is difficult to know which subset of an asset class or sector is likely to outperform another, diversification seeks to capture the returns of all of the sectors over time while reducing volatility at any given time.

Real diversification is made across various classes of securities, sectors of the economy, and geographical regions.


Rebalancing is used to return a portfolio to its original target allocation at regular intervals, usually annually. This is done to reinstate the original asset mix when the movements of the markets force it out of kilter.

For example, a portfolio that starts out with a 70% equity and 30% fixed-income allocation could, after an extended market rally, shift to an 80/20 allocation. The investor has made a good profit, but the portfolio now has more risk than the investor can tolerate.

Rebalancing generally involves selling high-priced securities and putting that money to work in lower-priced and out-of-favor securities.

The annual exercise of rebalancing allows the investor to capture gains and expand the opportunity for growth in high-potential sectors while keeping the portfolio aligned with the original risk/return profile.

Active Portfolio Management

Investors who implement an active management approach use fund managers or brokers to buy and sell stocks in an attempt to outperform a specific index, such as the Standard & Poor's 500 Index or the Russell 1000 Index.

An actively managed investment fund has an individual portfolio manager, co-managers, or a team of managers actively making investment decisions for the fund. The success of an actively managed fund depends on a combination of in-depth research, market forecasting, and the expertise of the portfolio manager or management team.

Portfolio managers engaged in active investing pay close attention to market trends, shifts in the economy, changes to the political landscape, and news that affects companies. This data is used to time the purchase or sale of investments in an effort to take advantage of irregularities. Active managers claim that these processes will boost the potential for returns higher than those achieved by simply mimicking the holdings on a particular index.

Trying to beat the market inevitably involves additional market risk. Indexing eliminates this particular risk, as there is no possibility of human error in terms of stock selection. Index funds are also traded less frequently, which means that they incur lower expense ratios and are more tax-efficient than actively managed funds.

Passive Portfolio Management

Passive portfolio management, also referred to as index fund management, aims to duplicate the return of a particular market index or benchmark. Managers buy the same stocks that are listed on the index, using the same weighting that they represent in the index.

A passive strategy portfolio can be structured as an exchange-traded fund (ETF), a mutual fund, or a unit investment trust. Index funds are branded as passively managed because each has a portfolio manager whose job is to replicate the index rather than select the assets purchased or sold.

The management fees assessed on passive portfolios or funds are typically far lower than active management strategies.

Frequently Asked Questions

What Are the Types of Portfolio Management?

Broadly speaking, there are only two types of portfolio management strategies: passive investing and active investing.

Passive management is a set-it-and-forget-it long-term strategy. Often referred to as indexing or index investing, it aims to duplicate the return of a particular market index or benchmark and may involve investing in one or more exchange-traded (ETF) index funds.

Active management involves attempting to beat the performance of an index by actively buying and selling individual stocks and other assets. Closed-end funds are generally actively managed.

What Is Asset Allocation?

Asset allocation involves spreading the investor's money among different asset classes so that risks are reduced and opportunities are maximized.

Stocks, bonds, and cash are the three most common asset classes, but others include real estate, commodities, currencies, and crypto.

Within each of these are sub-classes that play into a portfolios allocation. For instance, how much weight should be given to domestic vs. foreign stocks or bonds? How much to growth stocks vs. value stocks? And so on.

What Is Diversification?

Diversification involves owning assets and asset classes that have been shown over time to move in opposite directions. When one asset class performs poorly, other asset classes usually prosper.

This provides a cushion to your portfolio, offsetting losses.

Moreover, financial mathematics shows that proper diversification can increase a portfolio's overall expected return while reducing its riskiness.

What Is the Objective of Portfolio Management?

The objective of portfolio management is to create and maintain a personalized plan for investing over the long term in order to meet an individual's key financial goals.

This means selecting a mix of investments that matches the person's responsibilities, objectives, and appetite for risk. Further, it means reevaluating the genuine performance of the portfolio over time to make sure it is on track and to revise it as needed.

What Does an Investment Portfolio Manager Do?

An investment portfolio manager meets with a client one-on-one to get a detailed picture of the person's current financial situation, long-term goals, and tolerance for risk.

From there, the portfolio manager can draw up a proposal for how the client can meet their goals. If the client accepts the plan, the portfolio can be created by buying the selected assets.

The client may start out by contributing a lump sum, or add to the portfolio's balance periodically, or both.

The portfolio manager takes responsibility for monitoring the assets and making changes to the portfolio as needed, with the approval of the client.

Portfolio managers generally charge a fee for their service that is based on the client's assets under management.

The Bottom Line

Anyone who wants to grow their money has choices to make. You can be your own investment portfolio manager or you can hire a professional to do it for you. You can choose a passive management strategy by putting your money in index funds. Or, you can try to beat the markets by moving your money more frequently from one asset to another.

In any case, you'll want to pay attention to the basics of portfolio management: pick a mix of assets to lower your overall risk, diversify your holdings to maximize your potential returns, and rebalance your portfolio regularly to keep the mix right.

Tue, 22 Mar 2022 07:16:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : What Are SBA Loan Requirements? No result found, try new keyword!Small Business Administration loans can provide flexible financing options at competitive terms if you're starting or growing a small business. Depending on the type of loan, it can be used for a ... Wed, 29 Jul 2020 20:10:00 -0500 text/html Killexams : Treasury management should be top of mind for startup founders

Liquidity is your company’s lifeline. With it, you have a fighting chance of achieving your vision, but when you’re out of money, you’re on the course to ruin.

It’s no secret that the startup funding environment isn’t what it was a year ago. As interest rates have climbed, debt has become more expensive, and the bar for securing it has only grown taller. According to CB Insights’ latest State of Venture report, total venture funding declined 34% in Q3 2022 compared to the previous quarter.

The fundraising environment isn’t getting easier, and that’s adding even more pressure on founders and startup teams to make the most of their current cash reserves. Treasury management is one way to do that.

Whether you need to extend the runway you’ve secured so far or just closed an extension, here are a few reasons treasury management should be at the top of your list of priorities as a founder and what you can do today to get started with it if you haven’t already.

Your cash reserves mean nothing if you aren’t able to access them in time to pay for your ongoing expenses.

Inflation has made everything more expensive, meaning your current cash reserves won’t go as far as they would have a few years ago.

Thu, 01 Dec 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : We are struggling due to unpaid royalties— musicians

Musicians have urged the government to help them collect royalties from consumers of their art across the country.

They narrated the deplorable state in which some were living in blaming their plight on unpaid royalties alongside neglect of the music industry by relevant authorities.

Some said despite being in the industry for over 40 years, they had nothing to show as achievement for their work even though their songs were being consumed by lots of people in the country.

“Musicians’ suffering must come to an end. It’s wrong for musicians to struggle with life to a point that they can’t afford paying their house rents, pay school fees for their children, and afford basic needs. Majority live in deplorable state, it’s a shame,” Pastor Mary Wambui said.

The musicians addressed the press during the Music Copyright Society of Kenya’s 31st Annual General Meeting at a Machakos hotel on Tuesday.

“We are supporting the government because we have lived bottom – up lives for a long time. We plead with President William Ruto’s administration to uplift us. Some of us are unable to pay rent while their music is played everywhere,” Wambui said.

Nancy Torome said she started singing in 90’s but the industry had never been fair to them.

“Our government should consider musicians. As a gospel artiste, I pray that God opens ways in the industry so that we have a stable foundation,” Torome said.

MCSK national chairman Lazarus Muli said the society had been in existence for 40 years.

Muli likened MCSK members to Israelites who suffered many years before God answered their prayers.

He said their current predicament was heightened by the fact that MCSK licence was at some point revoked for 2 – 3 years over leadership wrangles.

“There is no corruption in the society. For the last 2 – 3 years our license was revoked and other parties issued.” 

Muli said MCSK had been unstable due to accrued debts and hard stance on the members by KRA.

He assured members that since they had laid down workable structures to help in debts collection, they would receive good amount of money as their royalties distributions on December 15, 2022.

Muli said the government should consider them for the proposed hustlers’ fund since musicians were hustlers.

MCSK CEO Dr Ezekiel Mutua said the society was founded in 1983 stating that members will be celebrating its 40 years existence in 2023.

Mutua said the society was getting back to life stronger, better, vibrant and serving members more effectively and efficiently.

“We are grateful having this AGM at a time when we just had new government in office. It sets the tone on how we are going to operate in the next five or 10 years in line with the new government’s philosophy,” Mutua said.

He said the society shouldn’t be underrated since it has 15,000 members. 

“This is an industry that is represented everywhere. The suffering of musicians is because of piracy, lack of proper policies that recognises music as a career,” Mutua said.

He urged consumers of pirated musical works to pay for them through licenses.

“The matatu industry can’t operate without music, they play music day and night. We are asking them to obtain licenses going forward,” he said.

He said PSVs owe musicians lots of money since they hadn’t paid since 2019.

Mutua said there was no money to distribute to musicians in form of royalties since there were no collections.

“People aren’t paying, the media industry owes us over Sh300 million. The collection of royalties is a critical component of distribution, you can’t distribute what you haven’t collected,” Mutua said.

He asked for re-enforcement from the National Police Service to help them collect the debts.

“When we call on police for re-enforcement, it’s in the constitution. We can’t collect on our own. The only reason we can be organised and operate as a civilised society, collect money from the users of copyrighted musical works is to have re -enforcement,” Mutua said.

“It can’t be business as usual. If you are using music belonging to our members, pay for the copyright. Obtain a license from MSCK, ensure you use that music in a legal way,” he said.

Thu, 17 Nov 2022 17:51:00 -0600 en-KE text/html
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