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PSK-I Professional Scrum with Kanban level I

Exam Specification: Professional Scrum with Kanban Level I

Exam Name: Professional Scrum with Kanban Level I
Exam Code: PSK-I
Exam Duration: 60 minutes
Passing Score: 85%
Exam Format: Multiple-choice, multiple-answer

Course Outline:

1. Introduction to Scrum and Kanban
- Understanding the principles and values of Scrum
- Overview of the Kanban method and its principles
- Comparing Scrum and Kanban and their benefits

2. Scrum Framework
- Roles and responsibilities in Scrum
- Scrum events: Sprint planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective
- Scrum artifacts: Product Backlog, Sprint Backlog, and Increment

3. Kanban Principles and Practices
- Visualizing work using Kanban boards
- Managing work in progress (WIP) limits
- Continuous improvement through flow and cycle time analysis

4. Combining Scrum and Kanban
- Applying Kanban practices within the Scrum framework
- Using Kanban to manage the flow of work during a Sprint
- Kanban metrics and their use in Scrum

Exam Objectives:

1. Understand the principles and values of Scrum and Kanban.
2. Comprehend the Scrum framework, roles, and artifacts.
3. Learn the principles and practices of the Kanban method.
4. Understand how to combine Scrum and Kanban to optimize workflow and delivery.
5. Apply Kanban practices within the Scrum framework.
6. Utilize Kanban metrics to Excellerate flow and performance.

Exam Syllabus:

Section 1: Introduction to Scrum and Kanban (15%)
- Scrum principles and values
- Kanban principles and benefits
- Comparing Scrum and Kanban

Section 2: Scrum Framework (25%)
- Scrum roles and responsibilities
- Scrum events: Sprint planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint Review, and Sprint Retrospective
- Scrum artifacts: Product Backlog, Sprint Backlog, and Increment

Section 3: Kanban Principles and Practices (30%)
- Visualizing work with Kanban boards
- Setting and managing WIP limits
- Continuous improvement through flow and cycle time analysis

Section 4: Combining Scrum and Kanban (30%)
- Integrating Kanban practices in Scrum
- Using Kanban to manage flow within Sprints
- Applying Kanban metrics in Scrum
Professional Scrum with Kanban level I
Scrum Professional Questions and Answers

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DASM Disciplined Agile Scrum Master
PAL-I Professional Agile Leadership (PAL-I)
PSK-I Professional Scrum with Kanban level I
PSPO-I Professional Scrum Product Owner I
PSPO-II Professional Scrum Product Owner II
SAFe-DevOps SAFe 5 DevOps Practitioner (SDP)
SAFe-Practitioner SAFe 5 Practitioner (SP)
SSM SAFe 5 Scrum Master (SSM)
SAFe-RTE Certified SAFe Release Train Engineer (RTE)
DASSM Disciplined Agile Senior Scrum Master
PAL-EBM Professional Agile Leadership - Evidence Based Management (PAL-EBM)
Scrum-PSD Professional Scrum Developer (PSD)
Scrum-PSD-I Professional Scrum Developer (PSD-I)
Scrum-SPS Scaled Professional Scrum (SPS)
SAFe-Agilist SAFe-Agilist
SAFe-LPM SAFe 5.1 Lean Portfolio Manager
ASSM SAFe 5 Advanced Scrum Master (SASM)

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Professional Scrum with Kanban level I
Question: 41
True or False: Scrum Events, Scrum Team Accountabilities, and Scrum Artifacts are augmented when using Scrum
with Kanban. For example, having a clear indicator of the age of active Sprint Backlog items may help the Scrum
Team during the Daily Scrum, helping them to better Inspect and Adapt their daily work.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
Adding Kanban to Scrum provides a technique to help the Scrum Team focus on driving a continuous flow of activity
but does not negate value provided by the Scrum Events, Scrum Artifacts, and Scrum Team Accountabilities. However,
flow-based metrics/charts & forecasts may get added to Scrum Events as per the Kanban Guide for Scrum Teams.
Question: 42
True or False: Work Item Age is a leading indicator for the length of the Scrum Teams feedback loop for that (in
progress) item.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
If an item is aging quite a bit it is certainly an indication that its Cycle Time will be high. Cycle Time throughout the
Scrum Teams definition of Workflow can also be considered the length of the teams feedback loop.
Question: 43
In the middle of a Sprint, a Product Owner has requested the Developers to add a new urgent item to their Sprint
Backlog. The team is currently at their WIP Limit.
Which would be the two most appropriate responses? (choose the two best answers)
A. Reject the urgent item because the WIP Limits do not allow it. Tell the Product Owner to wait until the next Sprint.
B. Add the urgent item to their Sprint Backlog but only start working on that new item when enough room frees up.
C. Take on the urgent item as an exception to the WIP Limits, pushing this item along on top of the existing flow and
note a WIP exception.
D. Adjust the WIP Limits to allow for taking on the extra item and update their definition of Workflow.
Answer: B,C
In case an item is pulled into the Sprint Backlog, the Developers need to figure out whether they can actually start it
right away. This depends on the WIP limits and the current WIP. If the team is at their WIP limit they shouldnt pull
in that new item until some room frees up. If their backlog items are pretty small, an empty WIP slot will free up pretty
quickly. If items are big, it can take a while.
The longer it might take to get a normal pull slot ready, the more pressure there might be to actually expedite this card,
going beyond the current WIP limits, and pushing this item along on top of the existing flow. The typical way to do
this is NOT to change the WIP limit definition but to go above WIP and note a WIP exception. These exceptions can
then be a subject for inspection and adaptation come time to retrospect.
Question: 44
Reducing batch sizes might have the following impact: (choose all that apply)
A. Highlight a need to Excellerate processes/infrastructure to reduce the pain of frequent costly overhead.
B. Improving efficiency due to faster feedback loops.
C. Lower efficiency due to overhead/transaction costs in case the batch size is too small.
D. Higher motivation due to seeing your work get done and deliver value earlier.
Answer: A,B,C,D
Reducing batch sizes is a powerful lever with many potential effects. Finding the right batch size requires inspection
and adaptation by the Scrum Team based on seeing their flow in action and the effect on different soft and hard
Question: 45
What can a specific work items Cycle Time metric be used for? (choose the best three answers)
A. To influence the teams Service Level Expectation (SLE).
B. To help the team inspect and adapt their process.
C. As a leading indicator to the length of feedback loop for that Work Item.
D. As a lagging indicator to the length of feedback loop for that Work Item.
E. To help the team inspect and adapt their Sprint in the Daily Scrum.
Answer: A,B,D
Cycle time metric is a lagging indicator of flow. It is available only after an item is actually finished from the
workflow perspective (e.g. reached a Done lane on the Kanban board). It is typically used to drive improvement work
as well as to be able to establish internal/external expectations as to the teams turnaround time on specific items.
WIP and Work Item Age are leading indicators for the length of feedback loop of a Work Item and inspecting and
adaptation of the Sprint at the Daily Scrum.
Question: 46
The basic metrics of flow that Scrum Teams using Kanban will need to track are: (choose the four best answers)
A. Lead Time
B. Velocity
C. Work in Progress (WIP)
D. Cycle Time
E. Throughput
F. Work Item Age
Answer: C,D,E,F
The four basic metrics of flow that Scrum Teams using Kanban need to track are as follows:
Work in Progress (WIP): The number of work items started but not finished.
Cycle Time: The amount of elapsed time between when a work item starts and when a work item finishes.
Work Item Age: The amount of time between when a work item started and the current time. This applies only to
items that are still in progress.
Throughput: The number of work items finished per unit of time.
Question: 47
Which of these are LEAST likely to be included in the definition of "Workflow" policies? (choose the best three
A. Definition of Done.
B. Work Item types.
C. Pull/prioritization policies.
D. A Gantt chart.
E. Service Level Expectations.
F. The Increment.
G. A Burndown chart.
H. Visualization policies.
I. WIP Limits.
Answer: D,F,G
The definition of "Workflow" includes a shared understanding within the Scrum Team of how work is defined (work
items), the start state of the process, the active states for the work items, and the finished state of the process.
This includes a description of:
Defined points at which the Scrum Team considers work to have started and to have finished.
A definition of the individual units of customer value that are flowing through the Scrum Teams system (most likely
Product Backlog Items (PBIs).
A definition of the workflow states that the PBIs flow through from start to finish (of which there must be at least one
active state).
Explicit policies about how work flows through each state (which may include items from a Scrum Teams definition
of "Done" and pull policies between stages). A definition of how Work in Progress (WIP) will be limited.
A set Service Level Expectation (SLE) that communicates a forecast of how long it should take to complete work
This definition of "Workflow" is a strategic level whereas specific tools and artifacts are tactical and executional level.
Question: 48
Which two items would you expect to see in a service level expectation (SLE)? (choose the best two answers)
A. A probability
B. A period off elapsed day
C. A forecasted date
D. A cost of engineering
Answer: A,B
An SLE forecasts how long it should take a given item to flow from start to finish within your workflow. The SLE
itself has two parts: a period of elapsed days and a probability associated with that period (e.g., "85% of work items
will be finished in 8 days or less" which can also be stated as "8 days with 85% confidence/probability").
Question: 49
Workflow can be thought of as the Scrum Teams policy for which of the following? (choose the best answer)
A. Defining when development is complete and validation begins.
B. How to get work done.
C. How to increase the Teams WIP limit.
D. What completed work looks like.
Answer: B
This is similar to how the Definition of Done can be considered the teams policies for what done looks like.
Question: 50
Littles Law is extremely valuable for directly predicting the future since it gives us a measure of what happened in the
past? (Choose the best answer)
A. True By understanding our Cycle Time we can use Littles Law to reduce our WIP limits.
B. False Relying only on your Cycle Time measurements may incorrectly influence you to cut your WIP limits.
Answer: B
Littles law cannot predict the future. For example, the effect of reducing WIP limits cannot be predicted it depends
on whether the Scrum Team can achieve effective flow with lower WIP limits.
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Agile Scrum Online Training

Are you a professional working in a project management role and curious about Agile Scrum? Or maybe you are already using Agile project management with Scrum training but want to get a refresher or expand your knowledge. Whether you are new to Agile or have been running sprints, Drexel’s Goodwin College of Professional Studies offers paths and courses to get up to speed about Agile Scrum:

  • Professional Skill Tracks  – Be prepared for the hybrid job economy that demands professionals to have a blend of technical and essential “soft” skills. PSTs give you the flexibility to choose a foundational or advanced tracks to advance your career in project management. Visit The Skills Hub for more information>
  • Agile Scrum Courses (below) – These two-day workshops are designed for novice to experienced project management professionals who have limited to advanced knowledge and/or experience levels in Agile Scrum

Experience Levels

  1. No prior knowledge, some knowledge and/or experience with Agile
    Recommended courses: Agile Team and User Stories
  2. Moderate to advanced knowledge and/or experience with Agile 
    Recommended courses: Agile Team and User Stories
  3. Moderate to advanced knowledge and/or experience with Agile
    Recommended courses: Product Owner, Scrum Master, Business Analyst and Agile Tester

Drexel's Agile courses are aligned with the goals of the Project Management Institute's Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP)® credential. By enrolling in these courses, you can prepare for the certification test and earn the PDUs needed to maintain your status as an Agile pro. Along with the courses listed below, we also offer training in related areas like Lean Six Sigma, information technology and business analysis.

What is Agile? What is Scrum?

According to the State of Agile Survey, approximately 60 percent of projects are Agile—a project management approach based on delivering requirements iteratively and incrementally throughout the life cycle. Scrum is an Agile methodology that includes a simple set of principles and practices that help teams deliver products in short cycles, enabling fast feedback, continual improvement and rapid adaptation to change.

Scrum has the power to transform project management across every industry and every business. By using Scrum, you become more Agile, discovering how to react more quickly and respond more accurately to the inevitable change that is associated with projects.

When companies become Agile, they have a greater chance of project success. If your company is using waterfall and exploring adopting Agile, consider about Agile project management with Scrum training for your employees. Talk to us about getting a complimentary training skills gap analysis and our multiple employee discount.

Agile Scrum Course Offerings

For further details upcoming course dates and information, please contact: goodwin.ce@drexel.edu or call 215.895.2154

Agile Scrum Team Workshop

Duration: 2 days

Dates: To be determined

Cost: $1,100

CEUs: 1.6

PDUs: 16

This two-day Agile Scrum training utilizes an immersive learning approach which allows you to practice the Agile Scrum techniques as you learn them. You will create Agile teams and simulate an real sprint using a chosen project. You will also conduct five scrum ceremonies while creating user stories, product backlogs, scrum boards, burn down charts, and participate in a daily meeting, demo and retrospective—all while using your chosen project as a case study for the exercises.

Register Now

User Story Workshop

Duration: 2 days

Dates: To be determined

Cost: $1,100

CEUs: 1.6

PDUs: 16

Learn how to define and manage high-level requirements effectively and demonstrate alternative ways of documenting requirements and managing changes using the Agile Scrum methodology. syllabus will also cover product backlog management including epic decomposition, acceptance criteria (Gherkin & Bullet technique), story point estimation, and prioritization.

Register Now

Product Owner Workshop

Duration: 2 days

Dates: To be determined

Cost: $1,100

CEUs: 1.6

PDUs: 16

As you move through the disciplines promoted by Scrum, you will gain a comprehensive understanding of the role of the Product Owner. Specifically, you will focus on the behaviors expected of this important Agile team member. Though many are familiar with the practice of establishing value and priority across projects, the Product Owner needs to consider value and priority across the features of a single project. This two-day course will explain the Product Owner’s role, responsibilities, prioritization consideration, commitment to the team, velocity and story points, and many other tips and tricks for helping the Agile team to succeed.

For further details upcoming course dates and information, please contact: goodwin.ce@drexel.edu or call 215.895.2154

Scrum Master Workshop

Duration: 2 days

Dates: To be determined

Cost: $1,100

CEUs: 1.6

PDUs: 16

This two-day course will provide you with a comprehensive understanding of the Scrum methodology while specifically reviewing the behaviors expected of a Scrum Master. This course is suitable for those practicing or looking to practice the art of the Scrum Master, but is highly valuable for others as well. The course specifically address, setting & adjusting the team’s velocity, facilitating the daily meetings, motivating the team, handling impediments, etc.

For further details upcoming course dates and information, please contact: goodwin.ce@drexel.edu or call 215.895.2154

Agile for Business Analysts

Duration: 2 days

Dates: To be determined

Cost: $1,100

CEUs: 1.6

PDUs: 16

In this two-day course, you gain an understanding about Agile business analysis. You will learn the similarities and differences of business analysis on an Agile project versus business analysis performed on Waterfall projects. Furthermore, you will understand how the business analysis role changes on an Agile team. A number of business analysis techniques suited for supporting Agile teams will be introduced as will the various standards available to the community to help make the transition from Waterfall to Agile. Since few organizations are purely Agile, you will also learn about delivery approaches that use a combination of practices from Waterfall and Agile. Throughout your learning, you will be introduced to the important concept of business analysis tailoring—the key skill used to adapt business analysis skills to all environments—regardless of the delivery life cycle selected.

For further details upcoming course dates and information, please contact: goodwin.ce@drexel.edu or call 215.895.2154

Agile for Testers

Duration: 2 days

Dates: To be determined

Cost: $1,100

CEUs: 1.6

PDUs: 16

This two-day Agile for Testers course looks at the Agile team issues that drive the need for a fully functional testing process and describes the components of such a process. It is designed to help Agile teams with an understanding of their role, the process and the deliverables associated with lighter-weight testing.

For further details upcoming course dates and information, please contact: goodwin.ce@drexel.edu or call 215.895.2154

Agile Scrum Basics For Professionals

Duration: 1 day

Agile Scrum Basics for Professionals is a seven-hour non-credit course designed for leaders and practitioners across a variety of industries to learn how the Agile Scrum methodology and framework can streamline your projects.

Learn More

Agile Scrum career pathways:

There are many job opportunities for professionals with experience and certification in Agile Scrum. When you start as a Certified Product Owner, Certified Scrum Master or Certified Scrum Developer, you can then move on to Certified Scrum Professional. Once you are that level, you then have teaching and coaching capabilities as a Certified Scrum Trainer, Certified Enterprise Coach or a Certified Team Coach.

Agile Scrum career pathway flowchart

Project Management Institute Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP)

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How Much Does Scrum Master Certification Cost?

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

If you’ve been looking at scrum master certification programs, you may have noticed a wealth of information online—but not that many details about cost. Earning Scrum Master certification often entails course fees, test fees and renewal fees, though not every certification involves all of these.

In this article, we give you a breakdown of scrum master certification costs.

What Are Scrum Master Certifications?

A scrum master certification shows that you understand the principles of the scrum framework and are qualified to lead scrum teams within that framework. Below are several options for earning scrum master certification. Some of these credentials are entry-level, and others are geared toward experienced scrum professionals.

Certified ScrumMaster (CSM®)

The CSM designation is an entry-level certification administered by Scrum Alliance. This credential covers the foundational elements of the scrum framework and signifies that you have a solid understanding of scrum and agile methodologies and can lead scrum teams to achieve their goals effectively.

Advanced Certified ScrumMaster (A-CSM®)

Also administered by the Scrum Alliance, the A-CSM certification serves those who have already completed their CSM and want to continue advancing their careers. This course provides in-depth training on increasing team accountability and scaling scrum and agile to multiple teams.

Certified Scrum Professional – ScrumMaster (CSP®-SM)

This course is administered by Scrum Alliance as well. It’s designed for experienced practitioners who want to build on their previous training and learn more about motivating their teams to Excellerate on scrum and agile methodologies. You must have A-CSM certification to be eligible for CSP-SM.

The Disciplined Agile® Scrum Master (DASM)

The DASM certification is administered by the Project Management Institute (PMI). This designation focuses on reaching organizational goals by combining fundamental principles of the agile methodology with the strategies of frameworks like scrum and kanban.

Disciplined Agile® Senior Scrum Master (DASSM) Certification

PMI also administers the DASSM certification. This certification serves those who are experienced in agile methodology by developing their skills so they can manage multiple agile teams and initiatives.

Professional Scrum Master™ (PSM)

There are multiple levels of this certification, all administered by Scrum.org.

  • PSM I. There are no course requirements for this certification, so it best serves those who already know the scrum framework. Scrum.org suggests that candidates study the Scrum Guide or take an optional course before sitting for the exam.
  • PSM II. This course picks up where Scrum.org’s PSM I course left off. There are no course requirements. An in-depth test involves real-world scenarios, so candidates should have a strong knowledge of scrum principles before they take the exam.
  • PSM III. Scrum.org offers this certification to seasoned scrum professionals who want to continue to build their careers. This is a good option for those who want to mentor and coach individuals or teams working within the scrum framework. There are no course requirements.

Registered Scrum Master™ (RSM)

Scrum Inc. administers this entry-level certification, which covers the basics of scrum. Candidates learn to create a product backlog, prioritize tasks and manage a burndown chart.

How Long Do Scrum Master Certifications Take?

For each certification, you can expect to spend around two days on coursework and one day on the exam. This timeline doesn’t include preparation time, so your time commitment may vary depending on how much you need to study. All up, you could spend anywhere from a few days to a few weeks working toward your certification.

How Much Does Scrum Master Certification Training Cost?

Costs vary depending on which training partner you choose for your certification. Some certification providers require candidates to complete their courses through specific training partners, so make sure to check before signing up for scrum master certification training.

Below, we provide a general idea of what training costs for each Scrum Master certification.

  • CSM. Course fees are typically between $350 and $1,300.
  • A-CSM. Course fees are typically between $700 and $1,500 but may be lower or higher depending on who is teaching the course.
  • CSP-SM. Course fees are typically between $850 and $1,800.
  • DASM. PMI’s online, two-day course costs $399 for PMI members or $499 for nonmembers. Alternatively, a two-day course through one of PMI’s authorized training partners may cost between $700 and $1,700.
  • DASSM. PMI’s online, two-day course costs $399 for PMI members and $499 for nonmembers. You may also take a two-day course through one of PMI’s authorized training partners, which typically costs between $695 and $1,700.
  • RSM. The training for this certification is a two-day course that costs $1,995 and includes the cost of the exam.

How Much Do the Scrum Master Certification Exams Cost?

  • CSM. Up to two test attempts are included with the cost of the course. Additional retakes cost $25.
  • A-CSM. Up to two test attempts are included with the cost of the course. Additional retakes cost $25.
  • CSP-SM. Up to two test attempts are included with the cost of the course. Additional retakes cost $25.
  • DASM. One test attempt is included with the cost of the course. You must take the test within 60 days after completing the course. You may have two additional retakes for $150 per attempt within that same period.
  • DASSM. One attempt is included with the cost of the course. You must take the test within 60 days after completing the course. You may have two additional retakes for $150 per attempt within that same period.
  • PSM I. The test is $200 per attempt. Unlimited retakes are available for $200 per attempt.
  • PSM II. The test costs $250 per attempt. Unlimited retakes are available for $250 per attempt.
  • PSM III. The test cost is $500 per attempt. Unlimited retakes are available for $500 per attempt.
  • RSM. Up to two attempts are included with the cost of the course. Additional retakes cost $25. All exams must be taken within 30 days of completing the course.

How Much Are Scrum Master Renewal Fees?

  • CSM: $100 every two years
  • A-CSM: $175 every two years
  • CSP-SM: $250 every two years
  • DASM: $20 for PMI members, $50 for nonmembers, annually
  • DASSM: $50 annually
  • PSM I: No renewal fee
  • PSM II: No renewal fee
  • PSM III: No renewal fee
  • RSM: $50 annually

The Bottom Line

When all is said and done, expect to pay between $200 and $1,995 for your certification course and test combined. You might then pay $25 to $500 for each retake, depending on the certification.

While a few certifications (namely the PSM credentials) are valid for a lifetime, most require a renewal fee annually or every two years. Renewal fees can range from $20 to $250.

Sun, 31 Dec 2023 23:38:00 -0600 Sheryl Grey en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/education/scrum-master-certification-cost/
Benefits of Agile Methodology & Scrum Processes
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Agile processes are focused on the rapid and repeatable delivery of products or projects. Today, more and more companies across industries—including IT, manufacturing, marketing and communications, healthcare, and construction—are implementing Agile methodologies and development practices to help Excellerate project management skills and stay competitive. For Agile to be effective and to maximize business value, they depend on continuous iterative planning and feedback loops—and the Scrum process allows you to do so quickly and effectively.

Traditional waterfall project management assumes you will map everything from the beginning through one streamlined process. Agile reflects the changing nature of requirements and feedback throughout the process of project delivery. It is a methodology where you apply an iterative approach to project management. Instead of delivering a final product to a client at an end deadline, you are constantly consulting with the client and stakeholders throughout smaller deliveries and feedback sessions or “sprints.” Living up to its name, Agile project management allows you to be nimble and responsive to the changing needs of your client and your team.

Scrum is an implementation of the Agile methodology. A Scrum meeting is focused on how you organize team roles, update client feedback and the latest changes in requirements. During this process, teams regroup to make sure the project is on task, on time and on budget. During Scrum meetings, project leaders and teams identify the steps, resources and personnel needed to complete a task.

Why Use Agile Methodology & Scrum Processes?

  • Faster results

    Agile allows you faster product releases and ability to adapt to customer response and client feedback. Agile has a greater ability to certain project completion on time and on budget. Rather than responding to bulk feedback or a change in client needs by the time of final delivery, Agile helps your team to adapt and deliver throughout the development process.
  • Improved teamwork and communication

    The Agile methodology places a value on person-to-person interaction and is dependent on open, regular communication. In an Agile Scrum project, teams come together on a daily basis to work through changes and share updates on each team member’s progress. 

  • Risk and waste aversion

    The frequent touch points throughout the Agile Scrum process ensures that client needs, even as they evolve, are met while still ensuring that project team time and resources are optimized. 


  • 71 percent of companies are using Agile Scrum to Excellerate efficiency and increased product-to-market timeframes
  • Agile is a methodology and Scrum is a process within Agile
  • Agile frameworks help companies accelerate time to market, increase productivity and respond to changes in priorities 
  • Agile Scrum is growing beyond IT and taking hold in diverse industries, such as:
    • Manufacturing
    • Media and communications
    • Healthcare
    • Construction and infrastructure

Ready to explore Agile Scrum training?

Drexel’s Goodwin College of Professional Studies offers professional pathways and courses to get up to speed about Agile Scrum. You can take two-day courses, ranging from beginner to advanced levels here on campus. Or, you can explore a professional skill track in Agile project management that includes on-campus courses and online essential skill training through The Skills Hub.

If your company is using waterfall and exploring adopting Agile, consider about Agile project management with Scrum training for your employees. Talk to us about getting a complimentary training skills gap analysis and our multiple employee discount.

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Because of the continuation of the COVID-19 pandemic, for the Summer 2020 semester (Summer 14-Week Session, Summer May Session, Summer 10-Week Session, Summer A Session (7-Week), and Summer B Session (7-Week)), students will again have the option of selecting a Pass/Fail grading method instead of the standard letter grade method, with certain exceptions. The letter grade method remains the default grading method if a student does not select the Pass/Fail grading option.

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Health professional answers kids’ questions No result found, try new keyword!Learn about the science behind knuckle cracking, brain freeze, flatulence and more with Doctor Raj Trump Co-Defendant Hands Jack Smith New Evidence: Ex-Prosecutor Russell Wilson says Broncos gave ... Wed, 20 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ A Question and Answer Guide to Astronomy

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Fri, 10 Nov 2017 01:19:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/question-and-answer-guide-to-astronomy/DE2A6E3A0FA39B42B7DCAE7321BFA226
ChatGPT struggles to answer medical questions, new research finds

CNN  — 

ChatGPT might not be a cure-all for answers to medical questions, a new study suggests.

Researchers at Long Island University posed 39 medication-related queries to the free version of the artificial intelligence chatbot, all of which were practice questions from the university’s College of Pharmacy drug information service. The software’s answers were then compared with responses written and reviewed by trained pharmacists.

The study found that ChatGPT provided accurate responses to only about 10 of the questions, or about a quarter of the total. For the other 29 prompts, the answers were incomplete or inaccurate, or they did not address the questions.

The findings were presented Tuesday at the annual meeting of the American Society for Health-Systems Pharmacists in Anaheim, California.

ChatGPT, OpenAI’s experimental AI chatbot, was released in November 2022 and became the fastest-growing consumer application in history, with nearly 100 million people registering within two months.

Given that popularity, the researchers’ interest was sparked by concern that their students, other pharmacists and ordinary consumers would turn to resources like ChatGPT to explore questions about their health and medication plans, said Sara Grossman, an associate professor of pharmacy practice at Long Island University and one of the study’s authors.

Those queries, they found, often yielded inaccurate – or even dangerous – responses.

In one question, for example, researchers asked ChatGPT whether the Covid-19 antiviral medication Paxlovid and the blood-pressure lowering medication verapamil would react with each other in the body. ChatGPT responded that taking the two medications together would yield no adverse effects.

In reality, people who take both medications might have a large drop in blood pressure, which can cause dizziness and fainting. For patients taking both, clinicians often create patient-specific plans, including lowering the dose of verapamil or cautioning the person to get up slowly from a sitting position, Grossman said.

ChatGPT’s guidance, she added, would have put people in harm’s way.

“Using ChatGPT to address this question would put a patient at risk for an unwanted and preventable drug interaction,” Grossman wrote in an email to CNN.

When the researchers asked the chatbot for scientific references to support each of its responses, they found that the software could provide them for only eight of the questions they asked. And in each case, they were surprised to find that ChatGPT was fabricating references.

At first glance, the citations looked legitimate: They were often formatted appropriately, provided URLs and were listed under legitimate scientific journals. But when the team attempted to find the referenced articles, they realized that ChatGPT had given them fictional citations.

In one case, the researchers asked ChatGPT how to convert spinal injection doses of the muscle spasm medication baclofen to corresponding oral doses. Grossman’s team could not find a scientifically established dose conversion ratio, but ChatGPT put forth a single conversion rate and cited two medical organizations’ guidance, she said.

However, neither organization provides any official guidance on the dose conversion rate. In fact, the conversion factor that ChatGPT suggested had never been scientifically established. The software also provided an example calculation for the dose conversion but with a critical mistake: It mixed up units when calculating the oral dose, throwing off the dose recommendation by a factor of 1,000.

If that guidance was followed by a health care professional, Grossman said, they might give a patient an oral baclofen dose 1,000 times lower than required, which could cause withdrawal symptoms like hallucinations and seizures.

“There were numerous errors and “problems’ with this response and ultimately, it could have a profound impact on patient care,” she wrote.

The Long Island University study is not the first to raise concerns about ChatGPT’s fictional citations. Previous research has also documented that, when asked medical questions, ChatGPT can create deceptive forgeries of scientific references, even listing the names of real authors with previous publications in scientific journals.

Grossman, who had worked little with the software before the study, was surprised by how confidently ChatGPT was able to synthesize information nearly instantaneously, answers that would take trained professionals hours to compile.

“The responses were phrased in a very professional and sophisticated manner, and it just seemed it can contribute to a sense of confidence in the accuracy of the tool,” she said. “A user, a consumer, or others that may not be able to discern can be swayed by the appearance of authority.”

A spokesperson for OpenAI, the organization that develops ChatGPT, said it advises users not to rely on responses as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment.

The spokesperson pointed to ChatGPT’s usage policies, which indicate that “OpenAI’s models are not fine-tuned to provide medical information.” The policy also states that the models should never be used to provide “diagnostic or treatment services for serious medical conditions.”

Although Grossman was unsure of how many people use ChatGPT to address medication questions, she raised concerns that they could use the chatbot like they would search for medical advice on search engines like Google.

“People are always looking for instantaneous responses when they have this at their fingertips,” Grossman said. “I think that this is just another approach of using ‘Dr. Google’ and other seemingly easy methods of obtaining information.”

For online medical information, she recommended that consumers use governmental websites that provide reputable information, like the National Institutes of Health’s MedlinePlus page.

Still, Grossman doesn’t believe that online answers can replace the advice of a health care professional.

“[Websites are] maybe one starting point, but they can take their providers out of the picture when looking for information about medications that are directly applicable to them,” she said. “But it may not be applicable to the patients themselves because of their personal case, and every patient is different. So the authority here should not be removed from the picture: the healthcare professional, the prescriber, the patient’s physicians.”

Sat, 09 Dec 2023 23:49:00 -0600 en text/html https://edition.cnn.com/2023/12/10/health/chatgpt-medical-questions
Study finds ChatGPT provided inaccurate answers to medication questions

Answers provided by OpenAI’s ChatGPT to a series of drug-related questions posed as part of a study by pharmacists found that nearly three-fourths of responses were incomplete or inaccurate.

ChatGPT, which uses generative artificial intelligence (AI) to form responses to users’ prompts using data on the Internet, was challenged by researchers at the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists with practice questions posed to Long Island University’s College of Pharmacy drug information service in a 16-month timeframe in 2022 and 2023. The study was presented at the ASHP’s Midyear Clinical Meeting on Tuesday.

Pharmacists first researched and answered 45 questions, and those responses were reviewed by a second investigator to serve as the standard by which ChatGPT’s answers would be judged. Six of those questions were left out due to a lack of literature to provide a data-driven response, leaving 39 questions for ChatGPT to answer.

The study found that ChatGPT provided satisfactory answers to just 10 of the 39 questions posed. Of the other 29 questions, there were 11 cases in which ChatGPT’s responses didn’t directly address the question, 10 instances where it provided an inaccurate response, plus 12 incomplete answers. Researchers also asked ChatGPT to provide references in its responses, which it did in just eight of its answers — each of which included non-existent references per the study.


A study by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists found that nearly three-fourths of ChatGPT's responses to medication questions were inaccurate or incomplete. (Andreas Arnold/picture alliance via Getty Images / Getty Images)

"Healthcare professionals and patients should be cautious about using ChatGPT as an authoritative source for medication-related information," said Sara Grossman, PharmD, who was a lead author of the study and is an associate professor of pharmacy practice at Long Island University. 

"Anyone who uses ChatGPT for medication-related information should verify the information using trusted sources," Grossman added.


According to the pharmacists' study, ChatGPT provided non-existent references as citations for its responses. Generative AI chatbot can sometimes "hallucinate" and present incorrect information as fact. (LIONEL BONAVENTURE/AFP via Getty Images / Getty Images)

In one case, the researchers asked ChatGPT if there’s a risk of drug interaction between the COVID-19 antiviral Paxlovid and verapamil, which is a medication that lowers blood pressure, and the chatbot said no interactions had been reported for that combination of drugs.

"In reality, these medications have the potential to interact with one another, and combined use may result in excessive lowering of blood pressure," Grossman said. "Without knowledge of this interaction, a patient may suffer from an unwanted and preventable side effect."


ChatGPT provided accurate responses to just 10 of the 39 medication-related questions posed in the pharmacists' study. (Jaap Arriens/NurPhoto via Getty Images / Getty Images)

The ASHP study’s findings show that while AI tools like ChatGPT have shown potential in pharmacy and other medical settings, pharmacists should evaluate the use of various AI tools in medication-related use cases and talk to patients about trustworthy sources of information about their medication, according to Gina Luchen, PharmD, ASHP director of digital health and data.

"AI-based tools have the potential to impact both clinical and operational aspects of care," Luchen said. "Pharmacists should remain vigilant stewards of patient safety, by evaluating the appropriateness and validity of specific AI tools for medication-related uses, and continuing to educate patients on trusted sources for medication information."


A spokesperson for ChatGPT-maker OpenAI told FOX Business, "We guide the model to inform users that they should not rely on its responses as a substitute for professional medical advice or traditional care."

Additionally, OpenAI's usage policies note that "OpenAI's models are not fine-tuned to provide medical information. You should never use our models to provide diagnostic or treatment services for serious medical conditions."

Tue, 05 Dec 2023 08:05:00 -0600 Eric Revell en-US text/html https://www.foxbusiness.com/technology/study-finds-chatgpt-provided-inaccurate-answers-medication-questions

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