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PGCES-02 PostgreSQL CE 8 Silver

PostgreSQL CE is a certification test for PostgreSQL engineers who are involved in system development, administration, maintenance, etc.

The first English version of PostgreSQL was released on March, 2005, and was based on PostgreSQL 7.4. The existing test to be released this time will be based on PostgreSQL 8.0, which includes PITR, Tablespace and so on.

The test can be taken at the Peason VUE testing center nearest to you. Please visit Pearson VUE web site for details.

PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object-relational database system that uses and extends the SQL language combined with many features that safely store and scale the most complicated data workloads. The origins of PostgreSQL date back to 1986 as part of the POSTGRES project at the University of California at Berkeley and has more than 30 years of active development on the core platform.

PostgreSQL has earned a strong reputation for its proven architecture, reliability, data integrity, robust feature set, extensibility, and the dedication of the open source community behind the software to consistently deliver performant and innovative solutions. PostgreSQL runs on all major operating systems, has been ACID-compliant since 2001, and has powerful add-ons such as the popular PostGIS geospatial database extender. It is no surprise that PostgreSQL has become the open source relational database of choice for many people and organisations.

PostgreSQL comes with many features aimed to help developers build applications, administrators to protect data integrity and build fault-tolerant environments, and help you manage your data no matter how big or small the dataset. In addition to being free and open source, PostgreSQL is highly extensible. For example, you can define your own data types, build out custom functions, even write code from different programming languages without recompiling your database!

PostgreSQL tries to conform with the SQL standard where such conformance does not contradict traditional features or could lead to poor architectural decisions. Many of the features required by the SQL standard are supported, though sometimes with slightly differing syntax or function. Further moves towards conformance can be expected over time. As of the version 12 release in October 2019, PostgreSQL conforms to at least 160 of the 179 mandatory features for SQL:2016 Core conformance. As of this writing, no relational database meets full conformance with this standard.

Below is an inexhaustive list of various features found in PostgreSQL, with more being added in every major release:

Data Types
Primitives: Integer, Numeric, String, Boolean
Structured: Date/Time, Array, Range, UUID
Document: JSON/JSONB, XML, Key-value (Hstore)
Geometry: Point, Line, Circle, Polygon
Customizations: Composite, Custom Types
Data Integrity
Primary Keys
Foreign Keys
Exclusion Constraints
Explicit Locks, Advisory Locks
Concurrency, Performance
Indexing: B-tree, Multicolumn, Expressions, Partial
Advanced Indexing: GiST, SP-Gist, KNN Gist, GIN, BRIN, Covering indexes, Bloom filters
Sophisticated query planner / optimizer, index-only scans, multicolumn statistics
Transactions, Nested Transactions (via savepoints)
Multi-Version concurrency Control (MVCC)
Parallelization of read queries and building B-tree indexes
Table partitioning
All transaction isolation levels defined in the SQL standard, including Serializable
Just-in-time (JIT) compilation of expressions
Reliability, Disaster Recovery
Write-ahead Logging (WAL)
Replication: Asynchronous, Synchronous, Logical
Point-in-time-recovery (PITR), active standbys
Authentication: GSSAPI, SSPI, LDAP, SCRAM-SHA-256, Certificate, and more
Robust access-control system
Column and row-level security
Multi-factor authentication with certificates and an additional method
Stored functions and procedures
Procedural Languages: PL/PGSQL, Perl, Python (and many more)
SQL/JSON path expressions
Foreign data wrappers: connect to other databases or streams with a standard SQL interface
Customizable storage interface for tables
Many extensions that provide additional functionality, including PostGIS
Internationalisation, Text Search
Support for international character sets, e.g. through ICU collations
Case-insensitive and accent-insensitive collations
Full-text search

Data Types, Functions, & Operators
Indexing & Constraints
Data Definition Language (DDL)
Partitioning & Inheritance
Views & Materialized Views
Backup, Restore, Data Integrity, & Replication
Data Import & Export
Configuration Management
Foreign Data Wrappers
Custom Functions, Stored Procedures, & Triggers
Procedural Languages
Additional Modules (contrib)

PostgreSQL CE 8 Silver
PostgreSQL-CE PostgreSQL techniques
Killexams : PostgreSQL-CE PostgreSQL techniques - BingNews Search results Killexams : PostgreSQL-CE PostgreSQL techniques - BingNews Killexams : 3 key features in EDB PostgreSQL 15

EnterpriseDB (EDB) provides enterprise-class software and services that enable organizations to harness the full power of Postgres, the popular open source database. EDB’s contributions to the accurate Postgres 15 release, most notably the introduction of the MERGE SQL command, demonstrate the company’s continuous commitment to the Postgres community and to innovation in Postgres.

EDB’s new release, EDB Tools and Extensions Release for PostgreSQL 15.1 (EDB PG 15), makes it easier than ever for enterprises to deploy Postgres as their enterprise database standard. With the largest number of new extensions and tools, this release helps enterprises build new, modern applications using the latest version of PostgreSQL.

With EDB PG 15, EDB supports PostgreSQL 15.1 wherever enterprises want to deploy, whether on-premises or in the cloud, self-managed or fully managed with EDB BigAnimal. The EDB PG 15 release also supports EDB Postgres for Kubernetes, which leverages CloudNativePG for speed, efficiency, and protection for infrastructure modernization.

Three notable features in EDB PG 15 further extend the open-source Postgres database. These are EDB Advanced Storage Pack, EDB Postgres Tuner, and EDB LDAP Sync. Let’s take a look.  

EDB Advanced Storage Pack

Comprised of Reference Data Storage Optimization and Auto Clustering Storage Optimization, EDB Advanced Storage Pack delivers faster access to clustered data as well as increased performance and scalability for foreign key relationships.

EDB is releasing its first two platform-agnostic storage engines, or Table Access Methods (TAMs) in PostgreSQL speak. The storage engines are designed to optimize how data is stored and accessed on disk depending on various use cases. No specialized hardware is needed, and the optimizations work whether you run your own servers or in the public cloud. The TAMs are delivered as extensions to the database, and EDB customers can take advantage of them on both community PostgreSQL and EDB Postgres Advanced Server.

Copyright © 2022 IDG Communications, Inc.

Mon, 05 Dec 2022 18:24:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : EnterpriseDB announces new Postgres tools

EnterpriseDB (EDB), the enterprise Postgres acceleration company, today unveiled EDB Tools and Extensions Release for PostgreSQL 15.

This release is intended to simplify the process enterprises undergo to deploy Postgres as their enterprise database standard. With this, enterprises are enabled to build new modern applications using the latest version of PostgreSQL 15.1. 

Highlights of this release include: 

  • EDB Advanced Storage Pack to help enterprises achieve faster access to clustered data as well as heightened performance and scalability 
  • EDB Postgres Tuner to Boost performance for users by automating over 15 years of EDB Postgres tuning
  • EDB LDAP Sync to make it easier to get LDAP support for enterprises by eliminating the need to manage users in two places

“EDB has always nurtured an ecosystem of innovation in and around Postgres and the myriad types of workloads it supports,” said Jozef de Vries, SVP of product development at EDB. “EDB PG 15 is the next iteration of our portfolio, with new products and capabilities that extend the database and tools to support customers everywhere they want to use Postgres. By developing and maintaining the industry’s most robust suite of tools for Postgres, we continue to empower global organizations to adopt it as their enterprise database standard.”

This announcement comes ahead of the company’s next major release coming early in 2023, which EDB stated will include Transparent Data Encryption to Boost security by encrypting data at the database level.

Mon, 28 Nov 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : The 8 Best Breathing Techniques for Sleep

If you find it difficult to fall asleep, you’re not alone.

Our busy and fast-paced society can make it difficult to unwind, calm down, and get restful sleep. Our lives are filled with:

When it’s hard to sleep, focusing on your breath may help.

Let’s take a look at some breathing exercises to calm your mind and body to help you fall asleep.

Although there are a number of breathing exercises you can try to relax and fall asleep, a few basic principles apply to all of them.

It’s always a good idea to close your eyes, which may help you shut out distractions. Focus on your breathing and think about the healing power of your breath.

Each of these eight different exercises has slightly different benefits. Try them and see which one is the best match for you.

Soon you’ll be sleeping like a baby.

Here’s how to practice the 4-7-8 breathing technique:

  1. Allow your lips to part gently.
  2. Exhale completely, making a breathy whoosh sound as you do.
  3. Press your lips together as you silently inhale through the nose for a count of 4 seconds.
  4. Hold your breath for a count of 7 seconds.
  5. Exhale again for a full 8 seconds, making a whooshing sound throughout.
  6. Repeat 4 times when you first start. Eventually, work up to 8 repetitions.

Dr. Andrew Weil developed this technique as a variation of pranayama, an ancient yoga technique that helps people relax as it replenishes oxygen in the body.

These steps can help you perform the original Bhramari pranayama breathing exercise:

  1. Close your eyes and breathe deeply in and out.
  2. Cover your ears with your hands.
  3. Place each index finger above your eyebrows and the rest of your fingers over your eyes.
  4. Next, put gentle pressure on the sides of your nose and focus on your brow area.
  5. Keep your mouth closed and breathe out slowly through your nose, making the humming “Om” sound.
  6. Repeat the process 5 times.

A 2017 research review showed that Bhramari pranayama may quickly reduce breathing and heart rate. This tends to be calming and can prepare your body for sleep.

To practice the three-part breathing exercise, follow these three steps:

  1. Take a long, deep inhale.
  2. Exhale fully while focusing intently on your body and how it feels.
  3. After doing this a few times, slow down your exhale so that it’s twice as long as you inhale.

Some people prefer this technique over others because of its sheer simplicity.

To perform diaphragmatic breathing exercises:

  1. Lie on your back and either bend your knees over a pillow or sit in a chair.
  2. Place one hand flat against your chest and the other on your stomach.
  3. Take slow, deep breaths through your nose, keeping the hand on your chest still as the hand on your stomach rises and falls with your breaths.
  4. Next, breathe slowly through pursed lips.
  5. Eventually, you want to be able to breathe in and out without your chest moving.

This technique slows your breathing and decreases your oxygen needs as it strengthens your diaphragm.

Here are the steps for the alternate nasal or alternate nostril breathing exercise, also called Nadi shodhana pranayama:

  1. Sit with your legs crossed.
  2. Place your left hand on your knee and your right thumb against your nose.
  3. Exhale fully and then close the right nostril.
  4. Inhale through your left nostril.
  5. Open your right nostril and exhale through it while closing the left.
  6. Continue this rotation for 5 minutes, finishing by exhaling through your left nostril.

A 2013 study reported that people who tried nasal breathing exercises felt less stressed afterward.

Buteyko breathing, named after the doctor who created the technique, can help you manage your breathing.

To practice Buteyko breathing for sleep:

  1. Sit in bed with your mouth gently closed (not pursed) and breathe through your nose at a natural pace for about 30 seconds.
  2. Breathe a bit more intentionally in and out through your nose once.
  3. Gently pinch your nose closed with your thumb and forefinger, keeping your mouth closed as well, until you feel that you need to take a breath again.
  4. With your mouth still closed, take a deep breath in and out through your nose again.

Many people don’t realize that they’re hyperventilating. This exercise helps you to reset to a typical breathing rhythm.

The Papworth method combines multiple breathing techniques. You focus on your diaphragm to breathe more naturally:

  1. Sit up straight, perhaps in bed, if using this to fall asleep.
  2. Take deep, methodical breaths in and out, counting to 4 with each inhale — through your mouth or nose — and each exhale, which should be through your nose.
  3. Focus on your abdomen rising and falling, and listen for your breath sounds to come from your stomach.

This relaxing method is helpful for reducing the habits of yawning and sighing.

During box breathing, you want to focus intently on the oxygen you bring in and push out:

  1. Sit with your back straight, breathe in, and then try to push all the air out of your lungs as you exhale.
  2. Inhale slowly through your nose and count to 4 in your head, filling your lungs with more air with each number.
  3. Hold your breath and count to 4 in your head.
  4. Slowly exhale through your mouth, focusing on getting all the oxygen out of your lungs.

Box breathing is a common technique during meditation. Meditation has a variety of known benefits for your overall health, such as helping you find mental focus and relax.

No matter which type of breathing exercise you prefer, the evidence is clear that breathing exercises can help you:

  • relax
  • sleep
  • breathe more naturally and effectively

With so many varieties to choose from, you may find yourself fast asleep before you know it.

Mon, 28 Nov 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : How To Build an Iconic Brand: Techniques Learned From Successful Brands

While I was on vacation with my family recently, I enjoyed a Starbucks latte by the marina. Of course, as an entrepreneur, I couldn't just sit and mindlessly enjoy my morning coffee. I looked at the ubiquitous logo on the cup and thought about the massive brand that Starbucks has built over the years. It all began over 50 years ago in Seattle, Washington. Fifty years is a long time to build a brand. Naturally, they have faced issues along the way, from supply chain struggles to market saturation, but they continued to move forward and are now the third largest fast food chain in the world after McDonald's and Subway.

The Legendary Pink's Hot Dogs

It also made me think about another iconic brand, someone I recently had the pleasure of chatting with. If you are from the LA area, you are likely familiar with Richard Pink of the legendary Pink's Hot Dogs. Pink's was started by Richard's parents over 80 years ago. They borrowed $50 from their parents to purchase a hot dog cart. Richard's mother wheeled the cart about two miles, to what is now West Hollywood. The cart needed electricity, which they didn't have access to, so they made a deal with a nearby hardware store to buy an extension cord, and in exchange, they could plug it into the hardware store's outlet. Richard says his parents taught him the value of hard work.

Pink's could have remained a simple hot dog cart since Richard's parents didn't want to expand, but as Richard became more involved, he began to appreciate the value of the brand his parents had built. He wanted to scale and grow the business, and he searched for ways to continue to build the brand with minimal investment. Pink's Hot Dogs already had a reputation among the film crowd as it was well-located near the studios. In fact, Orson Welles holds the all-time record for the number of Pink's hot dogs eaten in one setting—18.

Pink's has always been involved in charity work, from their current "Let's Help Ukraine" hot dog to their "Chili Dogs for Charity" promotion. They gained traction from the publicity, as well as the growth in interest in food and travel television shows. Cross-promotion is a great way to gain exposure without breaking the bank. Fortuitous timing along with some clever brand-building ideas helped this brand become the icon that it is today.

My company has been around since 2015, a short time compared with the two icons I discuss above. How old is your business? You may be a startup struggling with building your brand, but don't ever give up. Starbucks would not be where it is today if its leaders had given up.

Five Brand-Building Techniques

1. Be consistent. Your message is key, whether you're trying to build a global brand or just staying laser-focused on developing a local market. Make sure your mission statement and company values align with your brand to ensure the continuity of your message.

2. Show up every single day. It is often not the most intelligent or talented person who is the most successful, but rather the person who shows up every single day and doesn't give up.

3. Write blog posts. Share your unique knowledge and experience on your company website and forums like Linkedin regularly. Figure out what makes you different from your competition and let people know about it.

4. Use social media. I try to post brief videos with ideas and inspiration, like today's thoughts on branding, inspired by my latte. You never know when inspiration will strike, so be ready to grab your phone and create some content.

5. Engage in active networking. I am in several networking and leadership organizations, where we meet regularly to connect and share industry knowledge. I look at every encounter as an opportunity. From the person sitting next to me on the plane to someone I meet at a convention, I truly believe there are no coincidences in life. Your paths have crossed for a reason, and it's up to you to find out why.

Over time, if you apply these techniques with consistent effort, you will create a successful brand not only for today but, perhaps like Pink's Hot Dogs, for the next generation.

Fri, 11 Nov 2022 09:11:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : 5 effective meditation techniques to practice at work

Increasing work demands and workplace stress levels can take a toll on your mental health. Employees may be unable to perform to their full potential and realise their life goals if they are experiencing such negative effects on their bodies and brains. Practising meditation at the workplace has many proven benefits like reduced stress and improved focus. Increased creativity, productivity and improved relationships with colleagues are some of the great results of meditation one can attain at work. According to the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, mindfulness and meditation are the most effective ways in reducing work stress and poor mental health symptoms while creating a positive impact on employees’ mental well-being. (Also read: Tips to handle stress at workplace)

In an interview with HT Lifestyle, Raman Mittal, Co-founder and meditation expert, Idanim, shared five effective meditation techniques that you can practice at work.

1. Mantra Meditation: Creating a positive aura around you in a difficult situation may work wonders. Think of a mantra or a motivating phrase and keep repeating it in your mind. It will act as a tool to help release tension in your mind and boost awareness. It can make a lot of difference, especially if you are having trouble concentrating or getting in the right frame of mind. Mantra chanting (or any conscious affirmations) also unblocks our energy flow and rejuvenates our mind and body.

2. Breathing Meditation: Do you feel anxious before a presentation or before meetings? Try deep breathing for five minutes. Deep breathing is one of the most effective methods to keep calm. Taking a deep breath enables more airflow in your body, which calms down your nerves, reducing stress and anxiety. So, next time you are in a stressful situation, start taking deep and conscious breaths and you will notice an immediate sense of relaxation.

3. Walking Meditation: There are times when you are in a stressful situation at work and you feel like running away from it. It is obvious that you cannot run away from work or leave it. However, taking a refreshing walk with awareness enables the human mind to observe things better. This help the mind and body to relax. I’m sure, this technique will definitely help you take a break from stressful working hours.

4. Body Scan: Have you been feeling unproductive lately or your mind keeps on wandering? Body scan meditation will help manage your physical and emotional feelings when you are overwhelmed, sad, or anxious. Pay attention to your whole body and how it feels, scanning from your feet to the top of your head in a slow and deliberate progression. This will help you relieve tension and return back to work mindfully. This the technique is a great health meditation way to relax your body and mind both at the same time.

5. Visualization Meditation: If you feel you need a little escape, a visualization exercise might be ideal. Think about where you’d go if you could be anywhere right now. It could be a bench in a peaceful garden or a sandy shore on a summer day. You might prefer a rock overlooking a waterfall in a forest. Now, set a timer for 5-10 minutes and enjoy the tranquillity of your place. Picture every detail - the sights, sounds, and smells. Enjoy the scenery. Let your mind wander to your happy place whenever you need to relax your mind during work.

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Mon, 14 Nov 2022 23:14:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Mindfulness techniques could help Boost health of environment

Techniques to Boost mental health and well-being, such as mindfulness and meditation, may also encourage people to look after the environment, researchers have found.

The study, published in The Lancet Planetary Health and from researchers at the Universities of York, studying and Surrey, examined the link between ego and how people look after their surroundings.

After collating studies across a large range of research fields, the researchers were able to test the expectation that self-identity and the health of the environment are linked in a dynamic cycle.

They found that people who are highly individualistic—meaning they have a strong sense of ego—see themselves as more isolated from the . This means they might carry out fewer behaviors to Boost the environment, such as recycling or reducing their carbon footprint.


This behavior at larger scales leads to plants and wildlife disappearing from towns and cities, further reducing people's connection to nature.

The study showed, however, that activities traditionally associated with improving and well-being, such as walking and bird watching, improved connectedness to the environment, encouraging people to look after it.

The increased connection to an individual's surroundings made people less individualistic and ego-driven, and more likely to choose behaviors such as planting trees, picking up litter and traveling sustainably.

International cooperation

Professor Bob Doherty, from the University of York's School for Business and Society, said, "At a time when world leaders are meeting for COP27, our research shows the crucial need for international cooperation between governments, business and to develop new pro-environmental interventions to promote new behavior and action.

"This kind of cross-collaboration should see more investment in urban green initiatives, for example, and new approaches to food and the environment within the school system, to harness the powers of young people to create long-term sustainable change."

Government level

As people enjoy their surroundings more due to the enhanced environment, the cycle is repeated, creating what is known as a "virtuous circle" that links self-identity and the , the researchers say.

On the other hand, people who are more individualistic develop a "dog-eat-dog" attitude and can get stuck in a "vicious circle" of decline, they say.

The phenomenon can be observed at government-wide level, the researchers found, citing U.S. policies to cut environmental protection laws leading to greater isolation and increased .

'America first'

Pointing to ex-President Donald Trump's "America First" policy, the researchers found that changes to self-identity in national leaders might explain the damaging removal of environmental protection and reduced international cooperation, which is essential to solve problems such as climate change.

Professor Tom Oliver, Research Dean for Environment at the University of Reading, said, "Expanding our sense of self-identity to include others and the natural world creates an attitude of care and responsibility.

"The actions that follow lead to nature improvement, for example restoring plants and wildlife in our towns and cities, which then gives us further opportunity to engage and connect with nature."

More information: Tom H Oliver et al, A safe and just operating space for human identity: a systems perspective, The Lancet Planetary Health (2022). DOI: 10.1016/S2542-5196(22)00217-0

Citation: Mindfulness techniques could help Boost health of environment (2022, November 11) retrieved 9 December 2022 from

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Fri, 11 Nov 2022 02:10:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : What Is Diaphragmatic Breathing?

Diaphragmatic breathing is a breathing exercise that engages your diaphragm, an important muscle that enables you to breathe.

Diaphragmatic breathing is a technique that helps you focus on your diaphragm, a muscle in your belly. It’s sometimes called belly breathing or abdominal breathing. By “training” your diaphragm to open up your lungs, you can help your body breathe more efficiently.

Diaphragmatic breathing has many benefits that can affect your entire body. It’s the basis for many meditation and relaxation techniques, which can lower your stress levels, lower your blood pressure, and regulate other critical bodily processes.

Let’s learn more about how diaphragmatic breathing benefits you, how to get started, and what the research says about it.

If you have a lung condition, talk with a doctor before trying breathing exercises.

The most basic type of diaphragmatic breathing is done by inhaling through your nose and breathing out through your mouth.

Diaphragm breathing basics

Here’s the basic procedure for diaphragmatic breathing. It may be easiest to practice while lying flat on your bed or the floor when you first start.

  1. Sit or lie down on a comfortable, flat surface.
  2. Relax your shoulders, shifting them downward away from the ears.
  3. Put a hand on your chest and a hand on your stomach.
  4. Without straining or pushing, breathe in through your nose until you can’t take in any more air.
  5. Feel the air moving through your nostrils into your abdomen, expanding your stomach and sides of the waist. Your chest remains relatively still.
  6. Purse your lips as if sipping through a straw. Exhale slowly through your lips for 4 seconds and feel your stomach gently contracting.
  7. Repeat these steps several times for best results.

Rib-stretch breathing

The rib stretch is another helpful deep breathing exercise to help you expand your breath into your rib cage. Here’s how to do it:

  1. Stand or sit upright.
  2. Cross your arms over your chest and place your palms on either side of your rib cage.
  3. Without straining or pushing, breathe in through your nose until you can’t take in anymore air.
  4. Feel your ribs expand into your hands as you do so.
  5. Hold your breath for 5 to 10 seconds.
  6. Breathe out slowly through your mouth. You can do this normally or with pursed lips.

Numbered breathing

Numbered breathing is a good exercise for gaining control over your breathing patterns. Here’s how you can do it:

  1. Sit or stand upright and close or relax your eyes.
  2. Without straining or pushing, breathe in through your nose until you can’t take in anymore air.
  3. Exhale until all the air has been emptied from your lungs.
  4. Keeping your eyes closed, fully inhale again.
  5. Keep the air in your lungs for a few seconds, then let it all out.
  6. Count that as breath one.
  7. Inhale fully again.
  8. Hold for a few seconds, then let it all out.
  9. Count that as breath two.
  10. Repeat a full inhale, hold, and then exhale.
  11. Count that as breath three.
  12. Repeat these steps until you’ve reached 10 breaths.

Feel free to count higher if you feel comfortable. For an additional mindfulness component, you can start over again from 1, noticing if you accidentally count beyond 10.

Lower-back breathing

Lower-back breathing or kidney breathing can help you train yourself to breathe spherically rather than simply out and in.

  1. Place your palms on your lower back with your thumbs touching the top of your hip bones. Your hands will be roughly parallel with your kidneys.
  2. Inhale slowly through the nose, focusing on “sending” the breath into your hands at your lower back.
  3. You can very slightly contract your belly to emphasize the movement in your lower back.
  4. You may feel an almost indetectable movement in your lower back, or you may feel no movement at all.
  5. Exhale slowly through your nose or mouth, allowing your belly and sides of your waist to naturally contract.
  6. Inhale again and focus on expanding your lower back into your hands.
  7. Exhale and release the breath completely.
  8. Repeat the process for 10 cycles.

Note: You can’t actually breathe into your back or belly. You can only breathe into your lungs. This exercise involves using the expansion of your lungs within the body to help stimulate sensation and movement in the lower back.

Box breathing

Box breathing is also known as square breathing. This is because each of the four steps involves breathing or holding the breath for 4 seconds, creating a 4×4 effect.

  1. Sit or stand upright.
  2. Slowly exhale through your mouth, getting all the oxygen out of your lungs.
  3. Inhale as you count slowly to four in your head, filling your lungs completely without strain.
  4. Hold the breath while counting slowly to four.
  5. Exhale and release the breath slowly to the count of four.
  6. Hold the breath out for the count of four.
  7. Repeat the cycle 5 to 10 times.

4-7-8 breathing

The 4-7-8 breathing practice is based on an ancient yogic technique called pranayama. It was developed by Dr. Andrew Weil.

  1. Let your lips part slightly. Make a whooshing sound, exhaling completely through your mouth.
  2. Close your lips and inhale silently through your nose as you count to four in your head, filling the lungs completely without strain.
  3. Hold your breath for 7 seconds.
  4. Make another whooshing exhale from your mouth for 8 seconds.
  5. Repeat for 5 to 10 rounds.

Research suggests that diaphragmatic breathing can have a wide range of benefits. It may help you:

Stress and anxiety

One of the biggest benefits of diaphragmatic breathing is reducing stress.

Being stressed keeps your immune system from working at full capacity. This can make you more susceptible to numerous conditions.

Over time, long-term or chronic stress — even from seemingly minor inconveniences like traffic — can sometimes lead to anxiety or depression. Deep breathing exercises may help you reduce the effects of stress.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Diaphragmatic breathing is often recommended for people with COPD.

With healthy lungs, your diaphragm does most of the work when you inhale to bring fresh air in and exhale to get carbon dioxide and other gases out of your lungs.

COPD causes your lungs to lose some of their elasticity or stretchiness, so air doesn’t move in and out as easily. It also makes your diaphragm less effective. Doing breathing exercises that benefit your diaphragm specifically can help train this muscle and Boost your breathing.


Like COPD, with asthma, your lungs can lose elasticity over time, so they don’t go back to their original state when you exhale.

Breathing exercises that help your diaphragm do its job can improve your body’s ability to exchange air through the lungs.

To Boost your lung function, it’s important to continue doing breathing exercises regularly.

The diaphragm is a dome-shaped respiratory muscle found near the bottom of your rib cage, right below your chest.

When you inhale and exhale air, the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles around your lungs contract (or squeeze). The diaphragm does most of the work during the inhalation part. During inhalation, your diaphragm contracts so that your lungs can expand into the extra space and let in as much air as is necessary.

Muscles in between your ribs, known as intercostal muscles, raise your rib cage to help your diaphragm let enough air into your lungs.

Muscles near your collarbone and neck also help these muscles when something makes it harder for you to breathe correctly. They all contribute to how quickly and how much your ribs can move and make space for your lungs.

Some of these muscles include:

Autonomic nervous system and your breath

Also, breathing is part of your autonomic nervous system (ANS). This system is in charge of essential bodily processes that you don’t need to put any thought into, such as:

The ANS has two main components: the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Each division is responsible for different bodily functions.

The sympathetic usually gets these processes going, while the parasympathetic stops them from happening. While the sympathetic controls your fight-or-flight response, the parasympathetic is in charge of everyday functions.

Even though most ANS functions are involuntary, you can control some of your ANS processes by doing deep breathing exercises.

Taking deep breaths can help you voluntarily regulate your ANS, which can have many benefits, including:

  • lowering your heart rate
  • regulating blood pressure
  • helping you relax
  • lowering the release of the stress hormone cortisol

Diaphragmatic breathing isn’t always helpful on its own. It can’t replace other treatments or therapies recommended by a doctor.

In fact, some older research on ANS-related conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has found that deep breathing may be most effective when combined with other strategies such as cognitive behavioral therapy or hypnotherapy.

For some people with generalized anxiety disorder or similar mental health conditions, focused breathing exercises may temporarily increase feelings of anxiety. If this happens to you, consider trying different techniques to calm anxiety instead.

If you have a lung condition such as asthma or COPD, talk with a doctor or respiratory therapist before starting breathing exercises. They can help determine which exercises are safe for you to try.

There are a lot of different breathing exercises out there, but they may not all be the right choice for you.

Talk with one or more of the following professionals for advice on breathing exercises:

  • Primary care physician: They likely know more about your overall health than anyone, so they can give good advice tailored to your needs.
  • A respiratory specialist: If you have a respiratory condition such as COPD, a specialist can give you specific treatments and advice on your breathing.
  • A cardiac specialist: If you have a condition that affects your heart or bloodstream, a cardiac expert can guide you through the benefits of breathing for your heart.
  • A mental health professional: If you’re thinking about breathing to help lower stress, talk with a licensed therapist or counselor who can help you gauge if breathing exercises will help.
  • A physical therapist: Your muscles and posture can affect your breathing. A physical therapist can help you learn how to best use your muscles and movement to assist you in breathing better.
  • A licensed fitness professional: If you just want to use breathing for daily stressors, talk with a certified personal trainer or yoga teacher. If you have a gym membership, you can usually find a personal trainer there.

Creating a routine can be an excellent way to get in the habit of diaphragmatic breathing exercises. Try the following to get into a good groove:

  • Do your exercises in the same place every day. If possible, choose somewhere that’s peaceful and quiet.
  • Don’t worry if you’re not doing it right or enough. This may just cause additional stress.
  • As much as you can, clear your mind of the things that are stressing you out. Focus instead on the sounds and rhythm of your breathing or the environment around you.
  • Do breathing exercises at least once or twice daily. Try to do them at the same time each day to reinforce the habit.
  • Try to arrange your schedule so you can do these exercises for about 10 to 20 minutes at a time.

Talk with a doctor or respiratory therapist if you’re interested in using this exercise to Boost your breathing if you have COPD, asthma, or another lung condition.

Diaphragmatic breathing may help relieve some symptoms of anxiety, lung conditions, and conditions affected by stress, such as IBS. Still, it’s always best to get a medical professional’s opinion to see if it’s worth your time or if it will have any drawbacks.

Wed, 30 Nov 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : EDB Unveils New Postgres Tools for Enterprises

BEDFORD, Mass., Nov. 29, 2022 – EnterpriseDB (“EDB”), a leader in accelerating Postgres in the enterprise, today announced the immediate global availability of EDB Tools and Extensions Release for PostgreSQL 15 (EDB PG 15), which makes it easier than ever before for enterprises to deploy Postgres as their enterprise database standard. With the largest number of new extensions and tools ever, this release helps enterprises build new modern applications using the latest version of PostgreSQL 15.1, and is backed by EDB’s trusted, world-class support. The announcement comes ahead of EDB’s next major release in Q1 2023, which will include Transparent Data Encryption (TDE), a highly requested feature that will significantly enhance security.

EDB’s latest innovations instill further confidence in enterprises looking to replace their legacy systems and make the move to Postgres. With EDB PG 15, EDB supports PostgreSQL 15.1 wherever enterprises want to deploy, whether on-premises, in the cloud, self-managed or fully managed with EDB BigAnimal, EDB’s fully managed database-as-a-service. The release also supports EDB Postgres for Kubernetes, which leverages CloudNativePG for speed, efficiency and protection for infrastructure modernization.

Highlights of the EDB PG 15 release include:

  • EDB Advanced Storage Pack enables enterprises with faster access to clustered data as well as increased performance and scalability for foreign key relationships.
  • EDB Postgres Tuner increases performance for users by automating 15+ years of EDB Postgres tuning expertise.
  • EDB LDAP Sync simplifies LDAP support for enterprises by eliminating the need to manage users in two places: Database and LDAP.

Following this release, customers can expect EDB Postgres Advanced Server (EPAS) and EDB Postgres Distributed to launch in early 2023.

“EDB has always nurtured an ecosystem of innovation in and around Postgres and the myriad types of workloads it supports,” said Jozef de Vries, SVP, Product Development, EDB. “EDB PG 15 is the next iteration of our portfolio, with new products and capabilities that extend the database and tools to support customers everywhere they want to use Postgres. By developing and maintaining the industry’s most robust suite of tools for Postgres, we continue to empower global organizations to adopt it as their enterprise database standard.”

In its continued commitment to building the most secure platform, EDB will also introduce TDE early next year. This feature greatly enhances data security by encrypting data at the database level, giving full control to the DBAs. It can aid in safeguarding confidential data and other cloud data assets from accidental exposure and unauthorized access by threat actors lacking the necessary decryption keys.

“EDB continues to invest in data security and protection measures that will enhance our enterprise customers’ Postgres experience,” said Celest Turner Hall, SVP, Product Marketing. “Data security continues to be a major concern for CIOs and CISOs. This is especially true for large businesses that have accelerated their cloud journey. The introduction of TDE is an example of our continued efforts to innovate and enhance our solutions to secure our customers’ most valuable asset – their data.”

To learn more about EDB PG 15, contact EDB Sales.

Source: EDB

Tue, 29 Nov 2022 01:26:00 -0600 text/html
Killexams : Ants' farming practices and efficient navigation techniques could inspire solutions for human problems

King Solomon may have gained some of his famed wisdom from an unlikely source—ants.

According to a Jewish legend, Solomon conversed with a clever ant queen that confronted his pride, making quite an impression on the Israelite king. In the biblical book of Proverbs (6:6-8), Solomon shares this advice with his son: "Look to the ant, thou sluggard, consider her ways and be wise. Which having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in the summer, and gathereth her food in the harvest."

While I can't claim any familial connection to King Solomon, despite sharing his name, I've long admired the wisdom of and have spent over 20 years studying their ecology, evolution and behaviors. While the notion that ants may offer lessons for humans has certainly been around for a while, there may be new wisdom to gain from what scientists have learned about their biology.

Lessons from ant agriculture

As a researcher, I'm especially intrigued by fungus-growing ants, a group of 248 species that cultivate fungi as their main source of food. They include 79 species of leafcutter ants, which grow their fungal gardens with freshly cut leaves they carry into their enormous underground nests. I've excavated hundreds of leafcutter ant nests from Texas to Argentina as part of the scientific effort to understand how these ants coevolved with their fungal crops.

Much like human farmers, each species of fungus-growing ant is very particular about the type of crops they cultivate. Most varieties descend from a type of fungus that the ancestors of fungus-growing ants began growing some 55 million to 65 million years ago. Some of these fungi became domesticated and are now unable to survive on their own without their insect farmers, much like some human crops such as maize.

Ant farmers face many of the same challenges human farmers do, including the threat of pests. A parasite called Escovopsis can devastate ant gardens, causing the ants to starve. Likewise in human agriculture, pest outbreaks have contributed to disasters like the Irish Potato Famine, the 1970 corn blight and the current threat to bananas.

Since the 1950s, human agriculture has become industrialized and relies on monoculture, or growing large amounts of the same variety of crop in a single place. Yet monoculture makes crops more vulnerable to pests because it is easier to destroy an entire field of genetically identical plants than a more diverse one.

Ants have evolved highly complex social organizations.

Industrial agriculture has looked to as a partial solution, turning agricultural pest management into a billion-dollar industry. The trouble with this approach is that pests can evolve new ways to get around pesticides faster than researchers can develop more effective chemicals. It's an arms race—and the pests have the upper hand.

Ants also grow their crops in monoculture and at a similar scale—after all, a leafcutter ant nest can be home to 5 million ants, all of which feed on the fungi in their underground gardens. They, too, use a pesticide to control Escovopsis and other pests.

Yet, their approach to differs from humans' in one important way. Ant pesticides are produced by bacteria they allow to grow in their nests, and in some cases even on their bodies. Keeping bacteria as a living culture allows the microbes to adapt in real time to evolutionary changes in the pests. In the between pests and farmers, farming ants have discovered that live bacteria can serve as pharmaceutical factories that can keep up with ever-changing pests.

Whereas accurate developments in agricultural management have focused on genetically engineering crop plants to produce their own pesticides, the lesson from 55 million years of ant agriculture is to leverage living microorganisms to make useful products. Researchers are currently experimenting with applying live bacteria to crop plants to determine if they are effective at producing pesticides that can evolve in real time along with pests.

Improving transportation

Ants can also offer practical lessons in the realm of transportation.

Ants are notoriously good at quickly locating food, whether it's a dead insect on a forest floor or some crumbs in your kitchen. They do this by leaving a trail of pheromones—chemicals with a distinctive smell ants use to guide their nest mates to food. The shortest route to a destination will accumulate the most pheromone because more ants will have traveled back and forth along it in a given amount of time.

In the 1990s, computer scientists developed a class of algorithms modeled after ant behavior that are very effective at finding the shortest path between two or more locations. Like with real ants, the shortest route to a destination will accumulate the most virtual pheromone because more virtual ants will have traveled along it in a given amount of time. Engineers have used this simple but effective approach to design telecommunication networks and map delivery routes.

Ants started farming tens of millions of years before humans.

Not only are ants good at finding the shortest route from their nests to a source of food, thousands of ants are capable of traveling along these routes without causing traffic jams. I recently began collaborating with physicist Oscar Andrey Herrera-Sancho to study how leafcutter ants maintain such a steady flow along their foraging paths without the slowdowns typical of crowded human sidewalks and highways.

We are using cameras to track how each individual ant responds to artificial obstacles placed on their foraging trails. Our hope is that by getting a better understanding of the rules ants use to respond to both obstacles and the movement of other ants, we can develop algorithms that can eventually help program self-driving cars that never get stuck in traffic.

Look to the ant

To be fair, there are plenty of ways ants are far from perfect role models. After all, some ant species are known for indiscriminate killing, and others for enslaving babies.

But the fact is that ants remind us of ourselves—or the way we might like to imagine ourselves—in many ways. They live in complex societies with division of labor. They cooperate to raise their young. And they accomplish remarkable engineering feats—like building structures with air funnels that can house millions—all without blueprints or a leader. Did I mention their societies are run entirely by females?

There is still a lot to learn about ants. For example, researchers still don't fully understand how an ant larva develops into either a queen—a female with wings that can live for 20 years and lay millions of eggs—or a worker—a wingless, often sterile female that lives for less than a year and performs all the other jobs in the colony. What's more, scientists are constantly discovering new species—167 new ant species were described in 2021 alone, bringing the total to more than 15,980.

By considering ants and their many fascinating ways, there's plenty of wisdom to be gained.

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.The Conversation

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Tue, 15 Nov 2022 04:57:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Leaked OnePlus Nord CE 3 renders show a sleek phone


  • OnePlus Nord CE 3 renders have leaked online.
  • The images show a phone with flat edges and two circular camera housings.

We already got an unofficial look at OnePlus Nord CE 3 specs thanks to serial leaker Steve ‘OnLeaks’ Hemmerstoffer earlier this month. The tipster is at it again today though, giving us a look at the upcoming device.

Hemmerstoffer and 91mobiles posted renders of the OnePlus Nord CE 3 today, showing a rather neat-looking budget phone. Check out the image at the top of the article and the gallery below.

The phone’s flat edges bring to mind the OnePlus Nord N20 and Apple’s iPhones, helping to make the device stand out from other budget-tier offerings. Otherwise, we’ve also got a center-mounted display cutout and a somewhat significant chin bezel here.

The OnePlus Nord CE 3 is also equipped with two circular rear camera housings. The top housing hosts one camera while the bottom hosts two shooters. Thankfully, the rear camera housings aren’t as ugly as those seen on the Nord 2T. We’ve also got a set of volume keys on the left hand side and a power key that doubles as a fingerprint scanner on the right. Unfortunately, there’s no alert slider here.

OnePlus Nord CE 3 renders: Hot or not?

277 votes

In any event, the Nord CE 3 is tipped to arrive with a Snapdragon 695 SoC, 5,000mAh battery with 67W wired charging, and a 6.7-inch LCD panel. The phone is also slated to offer a 108MP+2MP+2MP triple camera system and a 16MP selfie camera.

Mon, 28 Nov 2022 23:02:00 -0600 en text/html
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