The correct answer is D, A/D converter. A digital controller requires a digital signal as its input. A 4-20 mA transmitter outputs an analog signal. Therefore, a device to convert an analog (A) signal to a digital (D) is required. This class of device is referred to as an A/D converter.
An I/P transducer is used to convert an analog current (I) signal to a pneumatic (P) signal, as for actuation of final control elements. A P/I transducer is used to convert a pneumatic signal (P) to an analog current (I) signal, as for a pneumatic transmitter in a programmable logic controller loop. A DP transmitter is a differential pressure transmitter, which can output a pneumatic, an analog, or a digital signal, depending on the model of transmitter used.
Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.
The correct answer is C, "sample conditioning system." Answers A and C are items not generally associated with extractive field analyzers. Capillary tubes are used for collecting small samples (water, for instance) from a larger container. There are special capillary tubes that can be used in the analyzer chamber of a gas chromatograph, but they are not constructed from glass. Smooth-walled pipe is important for reducing friction losses in piping systems.
A trial probe calibration system is important to the overall function and maintenance of an extractive field analyzer. However, these systems are not used to prepare the trial for analysis, but rather to provide a mechanism to verify and maintain analyzer performance.
A trial conditioning system can contain devices, such as filters, demisters, flow regulators, and heaters. trial conditioning systems are used to bring the trial to the ideal process conditions for accurate measurement in the analyzer itself. The trial conditioning system can be a key maintenance item in an analyzer system, since each device needs to be calibrated, cleaned, etc.
Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.
The correct answer is B, "equal to." In order for air to be discharged from the end of a bubbler purge tube, the air pressure in the tube must be equal to (or higher than) the pressure exerted by the liquid head in the tank.
As the tank level is decreased, the liquid head pressure at the tip of the purge tube decreases, and more bubbles per unit of time can escape. The corresponding reduction in pressure in the purge tube is proportional to the level in the tank. Therefore, the point at which the liquid head pressure and the purge tube pressure are equal is the highest level (URV = 100%) that the device will measure.
Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.
The correct answer is A, "51 K ohms ± 5%."
The four-color band coding is:
Color Value Multiplier
Black 0 1
Brown 1 10
Red 2 100
Orange 3 1000
Yellow 4 10 K
Green 5 100K
Blue 6 1 M
Violet 7 10 M
Gold ± 5% 0.1
Silver ± 10% 0.01
So a resistor with four bands, green-brown-orange-gold, has a value of: 5 1 x 1000 ± 5% or 51 KΩ.
The correct answer is D, series and energized. To measure current, you must connect the two leads of the ammeter in the circuit so that the current flows through the ammeter. In other words, the ammeter must become a part of the circuit itself. The only way to measure the current flowing through a simple circuit is to insert your ammeter into the circuit (in series) with the circuit energized.
The correct answer is A; it prevents the formation of a second temperature measurement junction.
A thermocouple measurement junction is formed wherever two dissimilar metals are joined. KX-type thermocouple extension wire is made of the same metals as the K-type thermocouple (chromel and alumel). When extending the thermocouple leads with an extension wire back to the control system input card, KX thermocouple extension wire must be used, and the chromel wire and the alumel wire must be joined to the wire of the same metal in the extension cable. If JX or another type of extension wire is used, another measurement junction is formed. For instance, if JX extension cable is used in the example in this problem, the point where the iron and chromel wires are joined would form another thermocouple. This will negatively affect the intended measurement signal. Proper installation of thermocouple extension wires also requires special terminal blocks to prevent additional junctions from being formed.
The correct answer is B, "hydraulic actuation." Although many pneumatic actuators can provide a large force, they require either a large diaphragm area (in the case of a diaphragm actuator) or a large cylinder (in the case of a rack and pinion actuator).
Hydraulic actuators are driven by a high-pressure fluid (up to 4,000 psig) that can be delivered to the actuator by a pump that is remote from the actuator itself. Hydraulic cylinders can deliver up to 25 times more force than a pneumatic cylinder of the same size.
Manual actuation is accomplished by turning a valve handle, and is limited to the amount of force that an operator can exert on the lever or hand wheel.
Electric actuation delivers high torques for rotary-style valves, but electric actuators tend to be large and heavy compared to hydraulic actuators.
The correct answer is D; they measure pressure by sensing the deflection of the diaphragm. For most pressure applications, changes in pressure are detected by the change in deflection of a measuring diaphragm.
The deflection is converted into an electrical signal (voltage) by a piezoelectric or capacitance device. The small electrical current is converted to a standard signal (e.g., 4-20 mA or a digital signal) by a transmitter. Therefore, answer B is not correct.
Answer A is not correct, because pressure sensors can measure very small pressure changes (inches of water) and in some cases, millimeters of water.
Pressure measurement devices are not affected by volume, since they are measuring force over an area only. Many pressure sensors are sensitive to temperature (capillary tubes are filled with fluids that can expand with temperature). Therefore, answer C is not correct.
The correct answer is C, "Gather information about the problem." Once a problem is identified, data must be gathered and analyzed to determine a viable set of potential actions and solutions.
The logical analysis troubleshooting method consists of (in order):
1. Identify and define the problem.
2. Gather information about the problem.
3. Evaluate the information/data.
4. Propose a solution or develop a test.
5. Implement the solution or conduct the test.
6. Evaluate the results of the solution or test.
7. If the problem is not resolved, reiterate until the problem is found and resolved.
8. If the problem is resolved: document, store/file, and send to the appropriate department for follow up if required.
The correct answer is B, “location, elevation, and tag number.” Instrument location plans are most often used to support new plant installations and provide the installer information about the real physical location of the installation of an instrument, the elevation of installation (at grade, on a platform, at what height on a process line, etc.), and the tag number of the instrument to be installed.
Specification numbers (part of answers C and D) are usually indicated on instrument lists and instrument installation details. Wiring plans (part of answer A) are typically shown on conduit and wiring schedules or cabling diagrams. Although these details are useful in the installation of a plant, they are not part of the instrument installation plans.
Founded in 2000, the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) bills itself as “the largest and most comprehensive global information privacy community and resource.” It is more than just a certification body. It is a full-fledged not-for-profit membership association with a focus on information privacy concerns and topics. Its membership includes both individuals and organizations, in the tens of thousands for the former and the hundreds for the latter (including many Fortune 500 outfits).
Its mandate is to help privacy practitioners develop and advance in their careers, and help organizations manage and protect their data. To that end, the IAPP seeks to create a forum where privacy pros can track news and trends, share best practices and processes, and better articulate privacy management issues and concerns.
By 2012, the organization included 10,000 members. By the end of 2015, membership had more than doubled to 23,000 members. According to a Forbes story published that same year, approximately half of the IAPP’s membership is women (which makes it pretty special, based on our understanding of the gender composition for most IT associations and certification programs). Current membership must be between 30,000 and 40,000 as growth rates from 2012 to 2015 have continued, if not accelerated in the face of the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which went into full effect on May 25, 2018. The IAPP also claims to have certified “thousands of professionals around the world.”
The IAPP has developed a globally recognized certification program around information privacy. Its current certification offerings include the following credentials:
All these certifications comply with the ANSI/ISO/IEC 17024 standard, which means they have been developed to meet stringent requirements for analyzing the subject matter and the fields of work to which they apply, along with formal psychometric analysis of test items to make sure that exams truly differentiate those who possess the required skills and knowledge to do the related jobs from those who do not.
All the IAPP exams follow the same cost structure, though charges vary by location. In the U.S., each first-time test costs $550, with a $375 charge for any subsequent retake of the same exam. Those who already hold any IAPP certification pay just $375 for each additional certification test they take. IAPP certification holders can either pay an annual maintenance fee of $125 to keep their certifications current (and meet continuing education requirements of 20 CPE credits every two years) or they must join the IAPP.
If a person joins, they’ll pay an annual membership fee. Currently, that’s $250 for professional members, $50 for student members, and $100 for all other membership categories (government, higher education, retired and not-for-profit). Those who elect to pay the certification maintenance fee need pay only once a year, no matter how many IAPP certifications they earn.
IAPP exams are available at Kryterion testing centers, which may be identified with its test center locator. Exams consist of 90 question items. Candidates may take up to 150 minutes (2.5 hours) to complete any IAPP exam. Payment is handled through the IAPP website, but Kryterion handles date and time windows for exams at its test centers.
This credential is the most likely place for a person working in IT to start their IAPP efforts. The CIPT validates skills and knowledge about the components and technical controls involved in establishing, ensuring and maintaining data privacy. To be more specific, the body of knowledge (BoK) for the CIPT stresses important privacy concepts and practices that impact IT, and makes sure that practitioners understand consumer privacy expectations and responsibilities.
It also addresses how to bake privacy into early stages of IT products or services to control costs and ensure data accuracy and integrity without impacting time to market. CIPTs understand how to establish privacy policies for data collection and transfer, and how to manage privacy on the internet of things. They also know how to factor privacy into data classification, and how it impacts emerging technologies such as biometrics, surveillance and cloud computing. Finally, CIPTs understand how to communicate on privacy issues with other parts of their organizations, including management, development staff, marketing and legal.
IAPP describes this certification as just right for “the go-to person for privacy laws, regulations and frameworks” in an organization. This audience may include more senior privacy or security professionals with IT backgrounds, but it may also involve people from management, legal or governance organizations whose responsibilities include data privacy and protection concerns. This goes double for those involved with legal and compliance requirements, information management, data governance, and even human resources (as privacy is a personal matter at its core, involving personal information).
Because managing privacy and protecting private information is often highly regulated and subject to legal systems and frameworks, the IAPP offers versions of the CIPP certification where such content and coverage has been “localized” for prevailing rules, regulations, laws and best practices.
There are five such versions available: Asia (CIPP/A), Canada (CIPP/C), Europe (CIPP/E), U.S. Government (CIPP/G) and U.S. Private Sector (CIPP/US). As of this writing, the CIPP/E perforce offers the most direct and focused coverage of GDPR topics. That said, given that GDPR applies to companies and online presences globally, such material will no doubt soon make its way into other CIPP versions in the next 6-12 months. The U.S.-focused exams are already scheduled for a refresh in August 2018, as per the IAPP website’s certification pages.
For example, the CIPP/US page includes the following materials:
Each of the other regional versions of the CIPP has a similarly large, detailed and helpful collection of resources available to interested readers and would-be certified professionals.
The CIPM is a more senior credential in the IAPP collection. It seeks to identify persons who can manage an information privacy program. Thus, the focus is on privacy law and regulations and how those things must guide the formulation of workable and defensible privacy policies, practices and procedures for organizational use. The CIPM BoK covers the following topics:
In general, CIPMs play a lead role in defining and maintaining data privacy policies for their organizations. They will usually be responsible for operating the privacy apparatus necessary to demonstrate compliance with all applicable privacy rules, regulations and laws for the organization as well.
The IAPP also offers two other elements in its certification programs. One is the Privacy Law Specialist, which aims at attorneys or other licensed legal professionals who wish to focus on privacy syllabus in a legal context. The other, called the Fellow of Information Privacy (FIP), aims at those at the top of the privacy profession and is available only to those who’ve completed two or more IAPP credentials, including either a CIPM or a CIPT, and one or more of the CIPP credentials. It requires three professional peer referrals and completion of a detailed application form. We won’t discuss these credentials much more in this article, except to note here that the Privacy Law Specialist garnered a surprising 200 hits in our job board search (see below for other details gleaned thereby).
Finally, the IAPP website recommends the combination of CIPP/E and CIPM as the possible credentialing for those wishing to focus on GDPR, shown in this screenshot from its Certify pop-up menu:
We visit four job posting sites to check on demand for specific credentials: Simply Hired, Indeed, LinkedIn and LinkUp. Here’s what we learned.
|Certification||Search string||Simply Hired||Indeed||LinkUp||Total|
The breakdown for CIPP fell out like this: CIPP/A 27, CIPP/C 287, CIPP/E 351, CIPP/G 154 and CIPP/US 401. As you’d expect, the U.S. categories combine for a majority, with Europe a surprising second ahead of third-place Canada.
Salary information appears in the next table. We collected low, median and high values for each credential, finding surprisingly little difference between the CIPM and the CIPP. Given that a CIPM is likely to hold a management position, this shows that the CIPP holds considerable value in employers’ estimations. It’s also interesting that the median values show the CIPT and the CIPP are close to one another too. This bodes well for IT professionals interested in pursuing the CIPT.
|Privacy Law Attorney||$46,146||$89,026||$171,752|
Typical positions for privacy professionals are very much one-offs. We found a risk management and compliance manager position at a South Carolina government agency charged with defining and implementing security and privacy policies for the department of corrections. That position paid $120,000 per year and involved security and audit compliance, business continuity and disaster recovery planning, and risk and incident management. By itself, the requested CIPM would not be enough to qualify for that job.
The next position was for a healthcare services director position in Albuquerque, New Mexico, which involved auditing, risk management, and contract and vendor negotiation. Its pay range was $140,000 to $190,000 per year, and it required serious management chops, along with IT governance and risk and compliance experience, with calls for knowledge of tools like Archer and Clearwell. The third position was for a senior data privacy associate at a Washington law firm, which sought a person with a CIPP/E, CIPP/US and CIPT, with pay in the $120K-$150K range.
Thus, it appears there are plenty of opportunities – some with high rates of pay – for those willing to climb the IAPP certification ladder. Both the job boards and the individual postings speak directly to strong and urgent need in the field for qualified privacy professionals at all levels.
IAPP courses are available through many channels, including classroom training through the IAPP and its partner network. Online training classes are also available, for lesser charges. The IAPP provides ample references and resources, with authoritative and supplemental texts, websites, legal references and statutes, and more for each of its credentials. There’s also plenty of self-study material for those who prefer that route.
The IAPP also offers practice exams (which it calls trial questions) to help candidates prepare for exams. Surprisingly, there is even something of an aftermarket for IAPP books and materials, as a quick trip to Amazon will attest.
Certified payroll is a special weekly payroll report used by contractors who are working on federally funded projects. To meet your certified payroll requirements, you’ll need to submit Form WH-347 to the Department of Labor every week. This form includes details about your employees, their wages and benefits, the type of work they performed and the total number of hours they work.
There is also a statement of compliance that states your attached payroll report is accurate and complete. The goal of WH-347 is to ensure you’re paying your employees the prevailing wage or the average wage for employees in a specific occupation. It shows that your business is complying with all prevailing wage requirements.
Certified payroll comes from the Davis-Bacon Act, which was passed by Congress in 1931 to protect workers from low hourly wages. Per the Davis-Bacon Act, if the government gives your business a contract for over $2,000 to complete construction, alteration or repair of public buildings or public works projects, you must comply with certified payroll.
Since the Davis-Bacon Act has been enacted, other acts have been passed to enforce prevailing wage laws. Several examples of these acts include the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, Federal-Aid Highway Acts and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.
Prevailing wage laws were created to ensure fair pay to hourly workers. To meet these laws, your employees’ gross wages must adhere to the prevailing wage requirements for work on related projects in surrounding areas. Fringe benefits, such as health insurance and retirement plans, must also meet these requirements.
To determine prevailing wages, the Department of Labor conducts surveys to determine the average wage paid to workers in a specific occupation in a particular area. States with higher average construction wages will have a higher prevailing wage. To find out your wage determination, reach out to the Department of Labor.
With the right credentials, you can advance your career in the marketing industry. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of certifications for marketing professionals. We compiled this guide of reputable marketing certifications to make it easier for you to boost your skills and advance your career. We chose these courses to present you with the highest-regarded universities offering marketing certificates, the free paths for learning how to use today’s most important digital marketing skills, and the professional marketing organizations most trusted in today’s economy.
A marketing certificate can be useful if you feel you need more formal training in marketing skills, such as media marketing, search engine optimization, email marketing, customer development, market research and strategic brand management. The courses you take to obtain a marketing certificate can also familiarize you with marketing tools, including social media platforms, Google Ads, Hootsuite, HubSpot and other web analytics tools. Certificate courses cater to longtime professional marketers and total newcomers alike and can be taken at a university, through specialized online institutions such as Hootsuite Academy, or from leading marketing associations.
The most in-demand certifications are in digital marketing. Among the most demanded certifications are those in HubSpot email and inbound marketing, Google Ads and Analytics, and social media marketing. You can find out more about these digital marketing certificates below.
Although this question has no single objective answer and may vary by person, there are certain factors you should consider when deciding whether to obtain a certification in digital marketing. If you plan to expand your business’s online presence, a digital marketing certification will likely be relevant to your work. Additionally, if you need to learn specific digital marketing tools such as Hootsuite, Google Ads and HubSpot email marketing, pursuing a digital marketing certification can help to familiarize you with these platforms on your own schedule, often for far less money than undergraduate college courses cost. However, if your business requires minimal or just basic use of internet platforms for marketing purposes, a certification in digital marketing might not be for you.
You don’t need a certification to work in marketing, but if you want one, there are many ways to become a certified marketing professional. You can take a series of courses at a university, online programs through marketing platforms and companies, or special in-person classes hosted by industry organizations and associations of longtime professional marketers. Learn more about each of these certification types below.
Marketing certifications are in high demand, and many accredited universities and colleges are responding to that demand. Some university certifications are intended for seasoned marketing professionals, while others are meant as a steppingstone for people changing careers or exact college graduates entering the workforce. Whether you’re a longtime marketer or transitioning into the field, having a well-regarded university’s name on your resume can boost your professional standing.
Ivy League schools like Cornell (eCornell) and Harvard (Extension School) offer comprehensive continuing education programs that allow students to earn certificates in areas like marketing strategy and marketing management. Cornell’s six-class program takes three months to complete and costs $3,600. The program is sold as “MBA-level strategic marketing training” and geared toward professionals looking to level up. Harvard’s program includes four graduate credit classes (which can be applied to a degree), takes 1.5 years to complete on average and costs about $10,800.
Other colleges with reputable marketing certifications include Duke University, MIT, Baruch College, the University of Illinois, UC Berkeley, the University of Notre Dame, Georgetown University, the University of Georgia and Oregon State University, to name a few. Programs at schools like these vary drastically in price, duration, medium (online or in person) and focus. Most certification programs cost $2,000 to $5,000, but some go up to $15,000.
Before you enroll in a certification program at an accredited university, make sure you understand what you’re purchasing. Some programs are a week or less in length and do not offer college credits, while other programs in the same price range span months and count for college credit.
Certifications for specific programs or services can bolster your resume and help keep you current in the constantly evolving world of digital marketing. The certificates for many specific skills are free or low-cost.
The type of certification that will be valuable for your career depends largely on the area of marketing you work in and your agency or company. Here are a few of the most popular and reputable skill-based certifications for marketing professionals:
It pays to be discerning about certifications from independent marketing associations. Many organizations that offer certificates are for-profit education companies that don’t operate as industry touchstones, while others are legitimate professional organizations that offer valuable certifications. Other marketers who keep up with industry affairs will take note if you’ve obtained a certification from the below organizations in particular.
The American Marketing Association is one of the most established professional marketing organizations in the country. In addition to hosting educational networking events and disseminating industry information through its publications and partnerships, it offers the American Marketing Association Professional Certified Marketer program.
The AMA’s certification program has four tracks: Digital Marketing, Marketing Management, Sales Management, and Content Marketing. All programs begin with an overview of the skills required for the certification and a free practice exam.
To maintain your certification in either area of study, the AMA requires you to earn 30 continuing education units (CEUs) every three years, with a minimum of 10 units per year, and to recertify every three years. CEUs are determined by the AMA and may include attending events, webcasts, virtual conferences and training sessions.
The Interactive Advertising Bureau counts more than 650 media and technology companies among its members and offers four certification programs: Digital Media Sales, Digital Ad Operations, Digital Data Solutions, and Digital Media Buying and Planning. Members and nonmembers may pursue certification through IAB, but fees are higher for nonmembers.
IAB requires certified marketing professionals to recertify within 9-24 months of their initial certification. Staying certified may entail logging CEUs or retaking the certification exam. Most of IAB’s test and training packages cost $699 for members and $899 for nonmembers, but some of the certifications have specific eligibility requirements, so read the guidelines carefully before choosing a program.
Founded in 1917, 4A’s is one of the oldest and largest professional marketing organizations in the U.S. It serves 740 member agencies across 1,400 offices, and its Benefits division insures more than 164,000 marketing agency professionals. 4A’s offers a variety of learning and development programs, including webinars, workshops, lectures and multiday networking events. The main certification it offers is the IPA Foundation Certificate, in partnership with its sister organization in the U.K., the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising.
The IPA Foundation certification program consists of 35 hours of online coursework and is recommended for exact college graduates and professionals who are new to the marketing industry. 4A’s certification costs $600 for members and $850 for nonmembers.
Mona Bushnell contributed to the reporting and writing in this article.
Our programs vary in length from a week to a full academic year. We offer short-term programs that take place during the summer, spring break, or winter break, as well as long-term programs that cover one or two semesters.
If you are looking for a semester program, consider whether you would prefer to go abroad in the spring or fall. Due to differences in academic calendars around the world, some programs work best for Purdue students in one semester or the other, so the search allows you to specify. If you are open to spring and fall programs, selecting the “Semester” option will bring up results for both.
For adventurous students, we also offer programs that cover two semesters! Many returning students say they wish they had studied abroad longer, and the cultural immersion and cost effectiveness of a year-long program can be hard to beat.
Students interested in summer opportunities often ask if they can search for Maymester programs. We don’t categorize these separately from other summer programs, but it’s possible to search for programs beginning in May. See “Program Start Month” below.
Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.
If you’ve been looking at Scrum Master certification programs, you may have noticed a wealth of information online—but not that many details about cost. Earning Scrum Master certification often entails course fees, test fees and renewal fees, though not every certification involves all of these.
In this article, we provide you a breakdown of Scrum Master certification costs.
A Scrum Master certification shows that you understand the principles of the Scrum framework and are qualified to lead Scrum teams within that framework. Below are several options for earning Scrum Master certification. Some of these credentials are entry-level, and others are geared toward experienced Scrum professionals.
The CSM designation is an entry-level certification administered by Scrum Alliance. This credential covers the foundational elements of the Scrum framework and signifies that you have a solid understanding of Scrum and Agile methodologies and can lead Scrum teams to achieve their goals effectively.
Also administered by the Scrum Alliance, the A-CSM certification serves those who have already completed their CSM and want to continue advancing their careers. This course provides in-depth training on increasing team accountability and scaling Scrum and Agile to multiple teams.
This course is administered by Scrum Alliance as well. It’s designed for experienced practitioners who want to build on their previous training and learn more about motivating their teams to Boost on Scrum and Agile methodologies. You must have A-CSM certification to be eligible for CSP-SM.
The DASM certification is administered by the Project Management Institute (PMI). This designation focuses on reaching organizational goals by combining fundamental principles of the Agile methodology with the strategies of frameworks like Scrum and Kanban.
PMI also administers the DASSM certification. This certification serves those who are experienced in Agile methodology by developing their skills so they can manage multiple Agile teams and initiatives.
There are multiple levels of this certification, all administered by Scrum.org.
Scrum Inc. administers this entry-level certification, which covers the basics of Scrum. Candidates learn to create a product backlog, prioritize tasks and manage a burndown chart.
For each certification, you can expect to spend around two days on coursework and one day on the exam. This timeline doesn’t include preparation time, so your time commitment may vary depending on how much you need to study. All up, you could spend anywhere from a few days to a few weeks working toward your certification.
Costs vary depending on which training partner you choose for your certification. Some certification providers require candidates to complete their courses through specific training partners, so make sure to check before signing up for Scrum Master certification training.
Below, we provide a general idea of what training costs for each Scrum Master certification.
When all is said and done, expect to pay between $150 and $1,995 for your certification course and test combined. You might then pay $25 to $500 for each retake, depending on the certification.
While a few certifications (namely the PSM credentials) are valid for a lifetime, most require a renewal fee annually or every two years. Renewal fees can range from $20 to $250.
The UW Outdoor Guide Certification course is an online, standardized, competency-based training program, designed to provide aspiring or established guides the knowledge and skills they need to thrive in the industry, regardless of their area of outdoor expertise. If you are considering becoming or growing as a rock climbing, rafting, hunting, wildlife viewing, fishing, cycling, hiking, snowmobiling, ATVing, horseback riding, skiing, paddle sports (or any other form of outdoor guide) this training is specifically designed for you!
The course contains videos from industry experts, readings, discussions, knowledge checks, and short assignments. It is self-paced and flexible and should take approximately 32 hours to complete. Outdoor guide employers can use this course to supplement or enhance any internal training program already offered. Competency areas include 1) becoming a more effective outdoor educator, 2) improving naturalist skills, and 3) developing professional skills.
The School of Economics has a distinctive focus and reputation: we combine innovative, policy-focused research and a firm commitment to public and policy engagement with high-level advances in economic theory, structural modelling and econometrics.
A key feature of Bristol economics research is a commitment to being outward-focused through multi-disciplinary as well as policy-relevant research. We were among the top economic departments in the UK in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework (REF) and were ranked first for the impact of our research on the basis of strong case studies that clearly demonstrated how research had shaped health and education policy and regulation.
The School has more than 60 faculty members, the majority of whom have been recruited in the last six years. Economics has grown rapidly on the back of strong student demand for our undergraduate and postgraduate taught programmes. We have recruited talented junior researchers from top programmes in US and Europe and the current faculty is truly international. It is a dynamic and vibrant research environment.
Our educational environment is exciting and challenging. We pride ourselves on the synergies between research and teaching and our courses are delivered by international researchers and world-class teaching staff. We are innovative – among the first economics departments to adopt the CORE syllabus for our undergraduates and introducing new courses in data science and economics for our postgraduates to ensure that they have cutting edge technical skills. We are home to the Economics Network providing support to HE economics teachers across the UK. We nurture adaptable, resilient graduates who leave our school with a broad range of skills and expertise, and are prepared for their career in a rapidly changing world.
The school offers many classes that are based in a single semester, and can therefore accept unit requests from Study Abroad students who want to join Bristol for just the autumn or spring semester.
The school offers units across all undergraduate levels of study: year 1 (level C/4), year 2 (level I/5), and year 3 (level H/6) units. Postgraduate units are not available.
Unit codes in the School of Economics begin with 'ECON' or 'EFIM'. This is followed by a number indicating the year (1, 2, 3). For example:
For more information about each unit, check the University's unit catalogue for 2022/23. Applicants on all study abroad programmes must review the unit details on the catalogue before listing unit choices on their application form. This includes checking the format of assessment for each unit. The unit catalogue for 2022/23 is updated by April.
Your unit choices cannot be guaranteed. Some units may not have capacity to accommodate all of the unit requests we receive. Registration on a unit also depends on whether you meet the pre-requisite conditions through prior study at your home university.
If you have been nominated to Bristol on the Study Abroad (Subject pathway), you must take the majority of your credits in this department.
The following units from the School of Economics are open to incoming Study Abroad students.
If you are interested in taking a unit outside the School, but with a focus still on Economics, you may be interested in the following unit:
This class is run by the Centre for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Please see the Innovation and Entrepreneurship study guide for more information about their units.
Contact the Global Opportunities Team if you have any queries about the application process for the study abroad programmes:
Phone: +44 117 39 40207
NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--A new study in the Journal of Building and Environment found that WELL Certification drives significant benefits across occupant satisfaction, perceived health, well-being and productivity.
The peer-reviewed study, titled “Impact of WELL Certification on Occupant Satisfaction and Perceived Health, Well-being, and Productivity: A Multi-Office Pre- Versus Post-Occupancy Evaluation,” is the largest and most comprehensive longitudinal research of its kind. It analyzed the impacts of WELL Certification on occupants across four perspectives: satisfaction with the workplace, as well as physical and mental health, well-being, and productivity. Using extensive pre- and post-occupancy survey data, the analysis was able to assess the impact of WELL Certification on the people inside a space when compared to their experiences before certification.
According to the study’s survey findings, WELL Certification showed a series of statistically significant occupant benefits, including:
The research team analyzed the impact of WELL Certification using more than 1,300 pre- and post-occupancy survey responses from six companies in North America with analyses conducted at both the aggregate and company level.
“It’s exciting to see that, for the first time, researchers have published rigorous longitudinal research that provides a holistic view of the tremendous benefits of WELL Certification,” said Rachel Hodgdon, President and CEO, International WELL Building Institute (IWBI), the creators of the WELL Building Standard. “This study shows unequivocally how WELL, with its people-first approach, supports wide-ranging benefits for occupants and organizations alike, creating significant improvements in all-important areas of occupant satisfaction and health, well-being and productivity.”
WELL is the leading global framework for scaling health across buildings, organizations and communities. Developed over a decade and backed by more than 7,000 studies demonstrating the latest scientific research, WELL outlines key building-level interventions and organizational strategies across 10 categories: Air, Water, Nourishment, Light, Movement, Thermal Comfort, Sound, Materials, Mind and Community. Today, WELL is being used in 125 countries, by more than 100 of the Fortune 500 companies and across more than 4.2 billion square feet of real estate.
In addition to finding that WELL Certification increased overall occupant well-being by 26%, the study also found it helped occupants feel more energized, more motivated to work and more confident that the workplace is conducive to health as well as an increased sense of pride in being a part of the organization.
In the study’s analysis at the organizational level, the findings on the impact of WELL Certification were similar. Every company in the study saw sizeable advances in overall occupant satisfaction. All saw marked improvement in overall perceived mental health, with one company jumping as high as 14% in its average perceived mental health score. The average productivity score also improved for all companies, ranging from 1.39% to as much as 6.72%. Lastly, the average scores for well-being increased considerably for all companies.
“For a long time, the community has been waiting for a systematic evaluation about the effectiveness of WELL in achieving its goals,” said Dr. Wangda Zuo, advisor and author of the study and professor at Pennsylvania State University. “This study takes a major step forward in helping fill this research gap by providing significant evidence showing the positive impact of WELL Certification.”
WELL Certification represents the highest pinnacle of health and well-being under the WELL Building Standard, spanning 108 features across all 10 categories in WELL. It provides a roadmap for improving the quality of our air, water and light with inspired design decisions that not only keep us connected but facilitate a good night's sleep, support our mental health and help us do our best work every day.
“WELL is not only the most comprehensive building certification program for health and well-being globally, but it’s also the most rigorous because of its requirements to test and verify through a third party. Rooted in the science and resolute on accountability, WELL provides real impact in the market,” said Dr. Whitney Austin Gray, senior vice president of research at IWBI and a co-author of the study. “This longitudinal study, consistent with all the case study literature, confirms WELL’s ability to Boost occupant perceptions of health, well-being and productivity. It also shows definitively how a robust measurable system like WELL can help other organizations reap similar benefits.”
“Based on what we know from other research, our hypothesis held that the human-centered design strategies found in WELL would have a positive impact on health and well-being,” said Nasim Ildiri, lead author, who is with the University of Colorado, Boulder. “The study overwhelmingly confirmed that hypothesis, showing notable improvements across each of the four major areas examined: satisfaction, health, well-being and productivity. For organizations and companies, the study verifies the material benefits of WELL, which could very well serve as another powerful accelerant for healthy building adoption.”
To learn more about key insights, please see an article summarizing findings from the research study here.
About the International WELL Building Institute
The International WELL Building Institute (IWBI) is a public benefit corporation and the world’s leading organization focused on deploying people-first places to advance a global culture of health. IWBI mobilizes its community through the administration of the WELL Building Standard (WELL) and WELL ratings, management of the WELL AP credential, the pursuit of applicable research, the development of educational resources, and advocacy for policies that promote health and well-being everywhere. More information on WELL can be found here.
International WELL Building Institute pbc is a wholly owned subsidiary of Delos Living LLC. International WELL Building Institute, IWBI, the WELL Building Standard, WELL v2, WELL Certified, WELL AP, WELL Portfolio, WELL Score, The WELL Conference, We Are WELL, the WELL Community Standard, WELL Health-Safety Rating, WELL Health-Safety Rated, WELLEquity, WELL Performance Rated, WELL Performance Rating, Works with WELL, WELL and others, and their related logos are trademarks or certification marks of International WELL Building Institute pbc in the United States and other countries.