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PCCN AACN Progressive Critical Care Nursing PDF obtain |

PCCN PDF obtain - AACN Progressive Critical Care Nursing Updated: 2023

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Exam Code: PCCN AACN Progressive Critical Care Nursing PDF obtain November 2023 by team

PCCN AACN Progressive Critical Care Nursing

The PCCN and PCCN-K certification exams focus 80 percent on clinical judgment and 20 percent on professional caring and ethical practice. Our comprehensive course prepares you in the following categories:

Clinical Judgment

- Cardiovascular

- Pulmonary

- Endocrine

- Hematology

- Gastrointestinal

- Renal

- Neurology

- Behavioral/Psychosocial

- Musculoskeletal

- Professional Caring and Ethical Practice

- Advocacy/Moral Agency

- Caring Practices

- Response to Diversity

- Facilitation of Learning

- Collaboration

- Systems Thinking

- Clinical Inquiry

- Learning Outcomes

At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be able to:

Validate their knowledge of progressive care nursing Briefly review the pathophysiology of single and multisystem dysfunction in adult patients and the medical and pharmacologic management of each Identify the progressive care nursing management needs for adult patients with single or multisystem organ abnormalities Successful Completion

Learners must complete 100 percent of the activity and the associated evaluation to be awarded the contact hours or CERP. No partial credit will be awarded.

12.8 contact hours awarded, CERP Category A

Exam Eligibility

Are you eligible to take the PCCN or PCCN-K exam? Eligibility requirements and links to handbooks with test plans are available on our “Get Certified” pages — click here to get started: PCCN (Adult) or PCCN-K (Adult) .

PCCN and PCCN-K certifications emphasize the knowledge that the progressive nursing specialty requires and the essential acute care nursing practices that you can apply in your role every day in a step-down unit, emergency or telemetry department or another progressive care environment.

PCCN and PCCN-K specialty certifications also demonstrate your knowledge and dedication to hospital administrators, peers and patients, while giving you the satisfaction of your achievement. PCCN and PCCN-K credentials are granted by AACN Certification Corporation.

Validate and enhance your knowledge and Excellerate patient outcomes. Take advantage of this detailed review course and earn your PCCN or PCCN-K certification.

The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Centers (ANCC's) Commission on Accreditation, ANCC Provider Number 0012. AACN has been approved as a provider of continuing education in nursing by the California Board of Registered Nursing (CBRN), Provider number CEP 1036. This activity is approved for 12.8 contact hours.

AACN programming meets the standards of most states that require mandatory CE contact hours for license and/or certification renewal. AACN recommends consulting with your state board of nursing or credentialing organization before submitting CE to fulfill continuing education requirements.

AACN and AACN Certification Corporation consider the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics for Nurses foundational for nursing practice, providing a framework for making ethical decisions and fulfilling responsibilities to the public, colleagues and the profession. AACN Certification Corporations mission of public protection supports a standard of excellence where certified nurses have a responsibility to read about, understand and act in a manner congruent with the ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses.


A. Cardiovascular (27%)

1. Acute coronary syndromes

a. non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction

b. ST segment elevation myocardial infarction

c. unstable angina

2. Acute inflammatory disease (e.g., myocarditis, endocarditis, pericarditis)

3. Aneurysm

a. dissecting

b. repair

4. Cardiac surgery (e.g., post ICU care)

5. Cardiac tamponade

6. Cardiac/vascular catheterization

a. diagnostic

b. interventional

7. Cardiogenic shock

8. Cardiomyopathies

a. dilated (e.g., ischemic/non-ischemic)

b. hypertrophic

c. restrictive

9. Dysrhythmias

10. Heart failure

a. acute exacerbations (e.g., pulmonary edema)

b. chronic

11. Hypertension (uncontrolled)

12. Hypertensive crisis

13. Minimally-invasive cardiac surgery (i.e. nonsternal approach)

14. Valvular heart disease

15. Vascular disease

B. Pulmonary (17%)

1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

2. Asthma (severe)

3. COPD exacerbation

4. Minimally-invasive thoracic surgery (e.g., VATS)

5. Obstructive sleep apnea

6. Pleural space complications (e.g., pneumothorax, hemothorax, pleural effusion, empyema, chylothorax)

7. Pulmonary embolism

8. Pulmonary hypertension

9. Respiratory depression (e.g., medicationinduced, decreased-LOC-induced)

10. Respiratory failure

a. acute

b. chronic

c. failure to wean

11. Respiratory infections (e.g., pneumonia)

12. Thoracic surgery (e.g., lobectomy, pneumonectomy)

C. Endocrine/Hematology/Neurology/Gastrointestinal/Renal (20%)

1. Endocrine

a. diabetes mellitus

b. diabetic ketoacidosis

c. hyperglycemia

d. hypoglycemia

2. Hematology/Immunology/Oncology

a. anemia

b. coagulopathies: medication-induced (e.g., Coumadin, platelet inhibitors, heparin [HIT])

3. Neurology

a. encephalopathy (e.g., hypoxic-ischemic, metabolic, infectious, hepatic)

b. seizure disorders

c. stroke

4. Gastrointestinal

a. functional GI disorders (e.g., obstruction, ileus, diabetic gastroparesis, gastroesophageal reflux, irritable bowel syndrome)

b. GI bleed

i. lower

ii. upper

c. GI infections (e.g., C. difficile)

d. GI surgeries (e.g., resections, esophagogastrectomy, bariatric)

e. hepatic disorders (e.g., cirrhosis, hepatitis, portal hypertension)

f. ischemic bowel

g. malnutrition (e.g., failure to thrive, malabsorption disorders)

h. pancreatitis

5. Renal

a. acute kidney injury (AKI)

b. chronic kidney disease (CKD)

c. electrolyte imbalances

d. end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

D. Musculoskeletal/Multisystem/Psychosocial (16%)

1. Musculoskeletal

a. functional issues (e.g., immobility, falls, gait disorders)

2. Multisystem

a. end of life

b. healthcare-acquired infections

i. catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI)

ii. central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI)

iii. surgical site infection (SSI)

c. infectious diseases

i. influenza

ii. multidrug-resistant organisms (e.g., MRSA, VRE, CRE, ESBL)

d. pain

i. acute

ii. chronic

e. palliative care

f. pressure injuries (ulcers)

g. rhabdomyolysis

h. sepsis

i. shock states

i. anaphylactic

ii. hypovolemic

j. toxic ingestion/inhalation/drug overdose

k. wounds (e.g., infectious, surgical, trauma)

3. Behavioral/Psychosocial

a. altered mental status

b. delirium

c. dementia

d. disruptive behaviors, aggression, violence

e. psychological disorders

i. anxiety

ii. depression

f. substance abuse

i. alcohol withdrawal

ii. chronic alcohol abuse

iii. chronic drug abuse

iv. drug-seeking behavior

v. drug withdrawal


A. Advocacy/Moral Agency

B. Caring Practices

C. Response to Diversity

D. Facilitation of Learning

E. Collaboration

F. Systems Thinking

G. Clinical Inquiry Cardiovascular

• Identify, interpret and monitor

o dysrhythmias

o QTc intervals

o ST segments

• Manage patients requiring

o ablation

o arterial closure devices

o arterial/venous sheaths

o cardiac catheterization

o cardioversion

o defibrillation

o pacemakers

o percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

o transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)

• Monitor hemodynamic status and recognize signs and symptoms of hemodynamic instability

• Select leads for cardiac monitoring for the indicated disease process

• Titrate vasoactive medications

o Dobutamine

o Dopamine

o Nitroglycerin Pulmonary

• Interpret ABGs

• Maintain airway

• Monitor patients pre and post

o bronchoscopy

o chest tube insertion

o thoracentesis

• Manage patients requiring mechanical ventilation

• Manage patients requiring non-invasive O2 or ventilation delivery systems



o face masks

o high-flow therapy

o nasal cannula

o non-breather mask

o venti-masks

• Manage patients requiring respiratory monitoring devices:

o continuous SpO2

o end-tidal CO2 (capnography)

Manage patients requiring tracheostomy tubes

• Manage patients with chest tubes (including pleural drains)

• Recognize respiratory complications and initiate interventions


• Endocrine

o manage and titrate insulin infusions

• Hematology/Immunology/Oncology

o administer blood products and monitor patient response

• Neurology

o perform bedside screening for dysphagia

o use NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS)

• Gastrointestinal

o manage patients pre- and post-procedure (e.g., EGD, colonoscopy)

o manage patients who have fecal containment devices

o manage patients who have tubes and drains

o recognize indications for and complications of enteral and parenteral nutrition

• Renal

o identify medications that can be removed during dialysis

o identify medications that may cause nephrotoxicity

o initiate renal protective measures for nephrotoxic procedures

o manage patients pre- and post-hemodialysis Musculoskeletal/Multisystem/Psychosocial

• Musculoskeletal

o initiate and monitor progressive mobility measures

• Multisystem

o administer medications for procedural sedation and monitor patient response

o differentiate types of wounds, pressure injuries

o manage patients with complex wounds (e.g., fistulas, drains and vacuum-assisted closure devices)

o manage patients with infections

• Psychosocial

o implement suicide prevention measures

o screen patients using a delirium assessment tool (e.g., CAM)

o use alcohol withdrawal assessment tools (e.g., CIWA)


• Administer medications and monitor patient response

• Anticipate therapeutic regimens

• Monitor diagnostic test results

• Perform an assessment pertinent to the system

• Provide health promotion interventions for patients, populations and diseases

• Provide patient and family education unique to the clinical situation

• Recognize procedural and surgical complications

• Recognize urgent situations and initiate interventions

• Use complementary alternative medicine techniques and non-pharmacologic interventions
AACN Progressive Critical Care Nursing
Medical Progressive PDF Download

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AACN Progressive Critical Care Nursing
Question: 83
What would be identified on the arterial blood gas results as a reflection of acute
respiratory distress syndrome?
A. Low PaO2 levels
B. High PaO2 levels
C. Decreased PaCO2
D. Increased HcO3
Answer: A
The result of the arterial blood gas that would reflect the presence of acute
respiratory distress syndrome would be a low PaO2 level. The paCO2 will
initially decrease but increase as the patient becomes more fatigued.
Question: 84
What characteristics would the nurse most likely assess in a patient with reduced
Renal Reserve (early stages of renal disease)?
A. Elevated BUN (blood, urea, nitrogen) lab value.
B. Mild anemia and hypertension
C. Terminal uremia
D. Nocturia
Answer: A
In the beginning stages of renal disease, known as reduced renal reserve, the
characteristics that the nurse would assess is a Glomerular Filtration Rate that is
reduced to 50% of what it normally is. The BUN (blood, urea, nitrogen lab value)
will be slightly elevated- but there will be minimal, if any, clinical symptoms.
Question: 85
In end stage renal disease, what lab value should be monitored in relation to
A. Hemoglobin
B. Hematocrit
C. Platelet
D. Prothrombin time
Answer: C
The lab value that should be monitored in relation to bleeding is the level of
platelets in the patient's blood. The patient with end stage renal disease is at risk
for platelet dysfunction, putting them at risk for bleeding.
Question: 86
One of the qualities of an expert nurse is her ability to collaborate with the
interdisciplinary team as well as patients and their families. All of the following
are qualities of an "expert" in collaboration except for:
A. Serves as a role model and teacher
B. Facilitates team meetings
C. Involved in patient outcomes
D. Is open to assistance
Answer: D
The qualities of a nurse with "expert" collaborative qualities would have the
qualities of serving as a role model and teacher, facilitating meetings and
involvement in patient outcomes. While they are always ready to learn, the expert
collaborator is the teacher, not the one who needs assistance.
Question: 87
A female client with diabetes mellitus II comes to the facility complaining of
weakness and dizziness. Initial assessment reveals a heart rate of 105 beats per
minute, cold extremities, and pallor. The client reported that she had her insulin
shot about 2 hours ago. Which of the following actions of the nurse is the least
A. Check the client's blood glucose
B. Offer can of orange juice
C. Prepare insulin
D. Offer about 4 Lifesavers
Answer: C
Based on the findings, the client is experiencing hypoglycemia. Insulin must not
be administered because it can further decrease the client's blood sugar levels. The
nurse should offer foods that contain about 10 to 15 grams of glucose, such as
can of juice, 4 Lifesavers, and 4 teaspoons of sugar.
Question: 88
A man presented in surgical OPD with steady pain in left lower quadrant, change
in bowel habits, Tenesmus and Dysuria. He also complains of recurrent urinary
infections from fistulae. What necessary investigations would you like to do?
A. CT scan abdomen
B. Barium meal
C. Barium follow through
D. All of the above
Answer: D
All of the above investigations are necessary for diagnosing the condition called
Diverticulosis in a patient presenting with steady pain in left lower quadrant,
change in bowel habits, Tenesmus and Dysuria and recurrent urinary infections
from fistulae. Barium will show diverticula if present and CT scan will help
identify Diverticulitis.
Question: 89
89. A woman presented to surgical emergency with fever, nausea, vomiting and
diffuse abdominal pain. On examination, there was rebound tenderness and
rigidity. Patient gives history of accurate abdominal surgery. What is the likely
A. Appendicitis
B. Cholecystitis
C. Peritonitis
D. Pancreatitis
Answer: C
The most likely diagnosis is peritonitis, due to the diffuse abdominal pain, fever,
nausea and vomiting.
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Medical Progressive PDF obtain - BingNews Search results Medical Progressive PDF obtain - BingNews UPSC Medical Science Optional Question Paper: PDF Download

UPSC Medical Science Optional Question Paper: Get the direct UPSC Medical Science previous year question papers PDF obtain link on this page. Check the test pattern, test analysis, difficulty level, and other details here.

UPSC Medical Science Optional Question Paper helps candidates cover all aspects of the syllabus. Practicing questions from the UPSC Medical Science Previous Year Question Paper is one of the effective ways to get an idea of the pattern on which questions are repeatedly asked in the test with the marks weightage and difficulty level.

The UPSC Medical Science's previous year's question papers will boost the question-solving speed and help them understand how to manage time effectively. They should practice official UPSC Medical Science question papers to maximise their scores in the exam. Hence, the test prep team of Jagran Josh has shared the UPSC Medical Science previous year question papers for 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, and 2018 for the upcoming IAS mains exam.

In this article, we have shared the UPSC Medical Science previous year question papers PDF obtain link and updated test pattern.

Shiv Khera

UPSC Medical Science Previous Year Question Papers PDF

The UPSC Medical Science optional syllabus is divided into two papers, i.e., Paper 1 and Paper 2 in the IAS Mains exam. The marks weightage of each optional paper is 250 marks, with a maximum of 500 marks. The Medical Science optional previous year question paper lets candidates know where their preparation stands.

Moreover, practicing the UPSC Medical Science optional question paper will also Excellerate their speed of solving questions in the stipulated time. They should practice unlimited questions from UPSC Medical Science PYQs and other reliable sources, as scoring Good Score would increase their overall marks in the UPSC IAS exam.

How to obtain UPSC Medical Science Previous Year Question Papers PDF?

Aspirants can access the UPSC Medical Science Previous Year Question Papers PDF from the official website of UPSC or click on the obtain link below. They can refer to the below to obtain UPSC Medical Science PYQs without any hassles.

Step 1: Visit the official UPSC portal.

Step 2: Click the “Previous Question Papers” link under the “Examination” tab.

Step 3: Search for the civil service test on the page.

Step 4: Choose Medical Science Paper 1 or 2 PDF links of the respective year.

Step 5: The UPSC Medical Science Question Paper PDF can be viewed on the desktop.

Step 6: Save and take the print out of the UPSC Medical Science PYQ to solve the paper effectively.

UPSC Medical Science Optional Previous Year Question Paper PDF

UPSC Medical Science previous year's question paper PDF is one of the best resources to prepare adequately for the exam. After completing the UPSC Medical Science optional syllabus, aspirants must start attempting questions to track their preparation level. Get the direct UPSC Medical Science's previous year's question papers PDF obtain link for 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, and 2018 below.

Benefits of Solving UPSC Medical Science Optional Question Papers for IAS Mains

Practicing UPSC previous year question paper for Medical Science offers valuable information about the courses frequently asked in the exam. There are various benefits of solving UPSC Medical Science previous year question papers for IAS Mains as elaborated below:

  • Practice UPSC Medical Science previous year's question paper to get insights into the question style, trends, and marks weightage.
  • The UPSC Medical Science optional previous year question will help them understand courses from which most of the questions asked in the test and trends over the past years.
  • Solving UPSC Medical Science question papers is beneficial in revising the concepts and core courses prescribed in the massive syllabus.
  • Practicing questions from UPSC Medical Science previous year question papers with solutions PDF will enhance their solving speed and help them maximise their scores in the exam.

How to Attempt UPSC Medical Science Previous Year Question Paper?

Candidates must solve UPSC Medical Science's previous year's question paper to identify their weak points and implement an effective improvement strategy. So, they can check the steps shared below to solve UPSC Medical Science PYQs.

Set a countdown clock of 3 hours for each UPSC Medical Science optional paper.

Read all the questions of the UPSC Medical Science previous year's paper.

Attempt familiar questions, then solve moderate questions, and move ahead with difficult ones.

Once the entire paper is solved, tally your responses to check the overall performance level.

Improve mistakes and reattempt the Medical Science UPSC question paper again to enhance the preparation.

UPSC Medical Science Question Paper Pattern

Aspirants must be well-acquainted with UPSC Medical Science question paper pattern to know the paper format, question type, marking scheme, etc. Questions asked in the UPSC Medical Science optional papers are descriptive-type. The duration will be three hours for each paper. Check the UPSC Medical Science question paper pattern for the civil service main test below:

UPSC Medical Science Question Paper Pattern



Maximum Marks



Optional Subject - Paper 1

250 Marks

3 hours


Optional Subject - Paper 2

250 Marks

3 hours

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UPSC Medical Science Syllabus: Medical Science is a popularly chosen optional subject in the UPSC Mains exam. It mainly assesses the candidate’s knowledge of basic concepts and usage of knowledge to address the issues faced by the patient. Scoring Good Score in this subject is crucial as it can boost the overall marks in the UPSC IAS exam. Candidates with science backgrounds can opt for Medical Science as their UPSC optional to excel in this subject. 

Going by the past five years' statistics, approximately 150-250 aspirants pick Medical Science optional subject, and the success rate hovers around 10%. It is recommended to adhere to the Medical Science Syllabus for UPSC to prepare comprehensively for the civil service exam. As per the past UPSC test analysis, it is found that the difficulty level of the UPSC Medical Science optional subjects was medium in nature.

Shiv Khera

In this article, we shared the UPSC Medical Science Syllabus PDF for Mains, question weightage, preparation tips, and best books.

Related Article,

UPSC Medical Science Syllabus PDF

The UPSC Medical Science optional syllabus comprises two papers, i.e., Papers 1 and 2. The UPSC Medical Science subject is conducted for a total of 500 marks, with each paper carrying 250 marks. Candidates must carefully review the UPSC Medical Science Syllabus PDF for Papers 1 and 2 to get an idea of the important courses and build a robust approach. obtain the topic-wise UPSC Medical Science Syllabus PDF for papers 1 and 2 tabulated below.

UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus For IAS Mains

There are two papers in the UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus i.e., Paper 1 and Paper 2. Before commencing the preparation, it is vital to check the topic-wise UPSC Medical Science syllabus for main optional papers 1 and 2 as it will allow them to differentiate between important and unimportant topics.

UPSC Medical Science Syllabus for Paper 1

The UPSC Medical Science Paper I syllabus covers courses like Human Anatomy, Human Physiology, Biochemistry, Pathology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. Check the topic-wise UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus for Paper I below.

  1. Human Anatomy:

Applied anatomy including blood and nerve supply of upper and lower limbs and joints of shoulder, hip and knee.

Gross anatomy, blood supply and lymphatic drainage of tongue, thyroid, mammary gland, stomach, liver, prostate, gonads and uterus.

Applied anatomy of the diaphragm, perineum and inguinal region.

Clinical anatomy of kidney, urinary bladder, uterine tubes, vas deferens.

Embryology: Placenta and placental barrier. Development of heart, gut, and kidney, uterus, ovary, testis and their common congenital abnormalities.

Central and Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System: Gross and clinical anatomy of ventricles of the brain, circulation of cerebrospinal fluid; Neural pathways and lesions of cutaneous sensations, hearing and vision; Cranial nerves distribution and clinical significance; Components of the autonomic nervous system.

  1. Human Physiology:

Conduction and transmission of impulse, mechanism of contraction, neuromuscular transmission, reflexes, control of equilibrium, posture and muscle tone, descending pathways, functions of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, Physiology of sleep and consciousness.

Endocrine System: Mechanism of action of hormones; formation, secretion, transport, metabolism, function and regulation of secretion of pancreas and pituitary gland.

Physiology of Reproductive System: Pregnancy menstrual cycle, lactation, pregnancy.

Blood: Development, regulation and fate of blood cells.

Cardio-vascular, cardiac output, blood pressure, regulation of cardiovascular functions.

  1. Biochemistry:

Organ function tests—liver, kidney, thyroid Protein synthesis.

Vitamins and minerals.

Restriction fragment length.

polymorphism (RFLP).

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Radio-immunoassays (RIA).

  1. Pathology:

Inflammation and repair, disturbances of growth and cancer, Pathogenesis and histopathology of rheumatic and ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Differentiation between benign, malignant, primary and metastatic malignancies, Pathogenesis and histopathology of bronchogenic carcinoma, carcinoma breast, oral cancer, cancer cervix, leukaemia, Etiology, pathogenesis and histopathology of— cirrhosis liver, glomerulonephritis, tuberculosis, acute osteomyelitis.

  1. Microbiology:

Humoral and cell mediated immunity.

Diseases caused by and laboratory diagnosis of —

Meningococcus, Saimonella

Shigella, Herpes, Dengue, Polio

HIV/AIDS, Malaria, E. Histolytica, Giardia

Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus.

  1. Pharmacology:

Mechanism of action and side effects of the following drugs :

Antipyretics and analgesics, Antibiotics,

Antimalaria, Antikala-azar, Antidiabetics,

Antihypertensive, Antidiuretics, General and cardiac vasodilators, Antiviral, Antiparasitic, Antifungal, Immunosuppressants,


  1. Forensic Medicine and Toxicology

Forensic examination of injuries and wounds; Examination of blood and seminal stains; Poisoning, sedative overdose, hanging, drowning, burns, DNA and fingerprint study.

UPSC Medical Science Syllabus for Paper 2

The UPSC Medical Science Paper II Syllabus focuses on courses like General Medicine, Paediatrics, Dermatology, General Surgery,  Obstetrics and Gynaecology including Family Planning, and Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine). Check the topic-wise UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus PDF for Paper II below.

  1. General Medicine
  • Aetiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management (including prevention) of—Typhoid, Rabies, AIDS, Dengue, Kala-azar, and Japanese Encephalitis.
  • Aetiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management of :
  • Ischaemic heart disease, pulmonary embolism.
  • Bronchial asthma.
  • Pleural effusion, tuberculosis, Malabsorption syndromes; acid peptic diseases, Viral hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, renovascular hypertension, complications of diabetes mellitus, coagulation disorders, leukaemia, Hypo and hyper thyroid, meningitis and encephalitis.
  • Imaging in medical problems, ultrasound, echocardiogram, CT scan, MRI.
  • Anxiety and Depressive Psychosis and schizophrenia and ECT. 
  1. Paediatrics

Immunization, Baby friendly hospital, congenital cyanotic heart disease, respiratory distress syndrome, broncho— pneumonia, kernicterus. IMNCI classification and management, PEM grading and management. ARI and Diarrhea of under five and their management.

  1. Dermatology

Psoriasis, Allergic dermatitis, scabies, eczema, vitiligo, Stevan Johnson’s syndrome, Lichen Planus.

  1. General Surgery
  • Clinical features, causes, diagnosis and principles of management of cleft palate, harelip.
  • Laryngeal tumour, oral and esophageal tumours.
  • Peripheral arterial diseases, varicose veins, coarctation of aorta.
  • Tumours of Thyroid, Adrenal, Glands.
  • Abscess cancer, fibroadenoma and adenosis of the breast.
  • Bleeding peptic ulcer, tuberculosis of the bowel, ulcerative colitis, cancer stomach.
  • Renal mass, cancer prostate.
  • Haemothorax, stones of the Gall bladder, Kidney, Ureter and Urinary Bladder.
  • Management of surgical conditions of Rectum, Anus and Anal canal, Gall bladder and Bile ducts.
  • Splenomegaly, cholecystitis, portal hypertension, liver abscess, peritonitis, carcinoma head of pancreas.
  • Fractures of the spine, Colles’ fracture and bone tumours.
  • Endoscopy.
  • Laparoscopic Surgery.
  1. Obstetrics and Gynaecology including Family Planning
  • Diagnosis of pregnancy.
  • Labour management, complications of 3rd stage, Antepartum and postpartum haemorrhage, resuscitation of the newborn, Management of abnormal life and difficult labour. Management of small for date or premature newborns.
  • Diagnosis and management of anaemia. Preeclampsia and Toxaemias of pregnancy, Management of Postmenopausal Syndrome.
  • Intra-uterine devices, pills, tubectomy and vasectomy. Medical termination of pregnancy including legal aspects.
  • Cancer cervix.
  • Leucorrhoea, pelvic pain; infertility, dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), amenorrhoea, Fibroid and prolapse of uterus.
  1. Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine)
  • Principles, methods approach and measurements of Epidemiology.
  • Nutrition, nutritional diseases/disorders and Nutrition Programmes.
  • Health information Collection, Analysis and Presentation.
  • Objectives, components and critical analysis of National programmes for control/eradication of :
  • Malaria, Kala-azar, Filaria and Tuberculosis,
  • HIV/AIDS, STDs and Dengue.
  • Critical appraisal of Health care delivery system.
  • Health management and administration; Techniques, Tools, Programme Implementation and Evaluation.
  • Objectives, Components, Goals and Status of Reproductive and Child Health, National Rural Health Mission and Millennium Development Goals.
  • Management of hospital and industrial waste.

How to Prepare the UPSC Medical Science Syllabus 2023?

Candidates must follow the UPSC Medical Science syllabus and reshape the preparation strategy. This will help them to get a strong grip on the concepts and advanced chapters important from the test perspective. As the UPSC Medical Science optional syllabus is lengthy, aspirants should consider specific points during the IAS test preparation.

  • Review the UPSC Medical Science optional syllabus thoroughly and segregate the courses based on marks weightage. This will enable them to finish the syllabus in a stipulated time period.
  • Pick the highly recommended books and study resources to understand the concepts easily and comprehensively.
  • Solve UPSC Medical Science's previous year's question paper to get an idea of the questions repeatedly asked over the years and question weightage.
  • Revise all the important courses and chapters covered so far to retain concepts for a definite period.

Booklist for UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus

Numerous UPSC Medical Science optional books are available to strengthen the basics. Once they learn fundamentals, they should start covering core courses for the advanced preparation. The right books will help them to cover all the important courses specified in the UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus. Some of the best UPSC Medical Science Optional books are as follows.


Book Name with Author


  • Human Anatomy by B D Chaurasia
  • Pathology by Robbins, and Cotran
  • Textbook of Pathology by Harsh Mohan
  • Embryology from I B Singh
  • Biochemistry by U. Satyanarayana book.
  • Illustrated Reviews Pharmacology by Lippincott
  • Essentials of Medical Pharmacology by K D Tripathi
  • Microbiology by D R Arora


  • General Medicine textbook of medicine by S N Chugh
  • Manipal Manual of Surgery by K. Rajgopal Shenoy
  • Pediatrics– Essential pediatrics by O P Ghai, Paul and Bagga.
  • Clinical surgery by S Das.
  • Emergency medicine by S N Chugh.
  • Practical Aspects Of Pediatrics by Dr. Mayoor K Chheda

Also Read,

Mon, 23 Oct 2023 00:02:00 -0500 text/html
Download Data: PDF Charts

Select a date to view Charts for the tracks shown below. Tracks and dates not shown are not available. [Help]

Click here to learn more about other Chart products

Daily Racing Form pdf past performances, charts and other handicapping reports require Adobe Reader Version 5.0 or higher.

Track Dates
Aqueduct 16, 12, 11, 10, 09
Charles Town 16, 15, 11, 10, 09
Charleston 12
Churchill Downs 16, 15, 12, 11, 10, 09
Del Mar 12, 11, 10
Delta Downs 16, 15, 11, 10, 09
Evangeline Downs 16, 15, 11, 10, 09
FD Racing 14, 11
Finger Lakes 15, 14, 13
Golden Gate Fields 12, 11, 10
Gulfstream Park 12, 11, 10
Horseshoe Indianapolis 16, 15, 14, 13, 10, 09
Laurel Park 16, 12, 11, 10, 09
Lone Star Park 16, 11, 10, 09
Los Alamitos 12, 11
Mahoning Valley 16, 15, 14, 13, 09
Mountaineer Park 15, 14, 13, 12
Parx Racing 15, 14, 13
Penn National 16, 15, 10, 09
Remington Park 14, 13, 11, 10, 09
Will Rogers Downs 14, 13, 12
Woodbine 16, 12, 11, 10, 09
Zia Park 14, 13, 12, 11

The index page lists next to each track name the days for which detail pages are available at the time you view the index. The index displays the links to those the days in descending chronological order, where the most accurate day is listed first.

For example, the partial table row below includes links to past performances at Santa Anita for the 28th, 25th, 24th, and 23rd of March, 2001. To see the complete date of the detail page, place the cursor over one of the days:

Santa Anita 28, 25, 24, 23

The following lists the number of days each index includes:

EasyForm PPs All days from 3 days ago and later days
PDF PPs All days from 6 days ago and later days
Formulator PPs All days from 6 days ago and later days
Workouts All days between 26 days ago and today
Charts All days between 2 days ago and today
Sun, 05 Sep 2021 22:14:00 -0500 text/html
Download PDF instead of Previewing in Chrome and Firefox on Windows PC

Both Chrome and Firefox have this default setting where they preview PDFs instead of downloading them. This can be a bit annoying, especially if you want to save them but are in a hurry. Therefore, in this article, we are going to see how to obtain PDFs instead of previewing them in Chrome and Firefox.

Download PDF instead of Previewing in Chrome

Google Chrome has its own PDF Viewer, so, when you click on a PDF, it will be opened with Chrome’s PDF on the browser itself. Therefore, we need to disable Chrome’s PDF viewer to obtain PFDs instead of previewing them.

  1. To do that, launch Chrome
  2. Click on the three vertical dots from the top-right corner of the window
  3. Cick Settings.
  4. Now, you need to click Privacy & Security from the left panel
  5. SelectSite Settings from the right panel
  6. Scroll down a bit, and click Additional content settings.
  7. Click PDF documents and enable the toggle of Download PDF files instead of automatically opening them in Chrome.

This way you will be able to obtain PDFs instead of previewing them in Chrome.

Download PDFs Instead of Previewing Them In Firefox

Download PDFs Instead of Previewing Them in Chrome and Firefox

If you don’t use Chrome but Mozilla Firefox, you can still obtain PDF instead of opening them. Firefox also has a built-in PDF Viewer, just like Chrome, so, when you click on a PDF, the document will open with Firefox PDF viewer. To obtain PDF instead of previewing them in Firefox, you can follow the given steps:

  1. Launch Firefox, click on the three horizontal lines, and select Options.
  2. Make sure you are on the General tab and scroll down a bit to reach Applications.
  3. From the “Portable Document Format (PDF)” section, change Open in Firefox to Save File.

This way you will be able to obtain PDFs instead of previewing them in Firefox.

If you use Microsoft Edge, and you want to obtain PDFs instead of previewing them, check out our guide.

Download PDFs Instead of Previewing Them in Chrome and Firefox
Sun, 02 May 2021 01:49:00 -0500 en-us text/html
A fibular defect resembling a moth-eaten cavity
  1. Yu-Chen Shen, resident,
  2. Xin-Yu Li, resident,
  3. Li-Xin Su, professor,
  4. Xi-Tao Yang, consultant and professor
  1. Vascular Anomaly Center, Department of Interventional Therapy, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
  2. Correspondence to X-T Yang

A teenage girl presented to the outpatient clinic with a one year history of persistent, progressive pain and swelling in her right lower leg. The swelling was exacerbated by walking, did not Excellerate with rest, and was affecting her daily life. She had no history of accurate trauma or fever. On clinical examination, compared with the left leg, the right lower leg was warm, accompanied by strong pulsation on palpation on the lesion area. The patient’s C reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase, and white cell count were normal. A plain radiograph of the right leg was requested (fig 1).

Wed, 15 Nov 2023 21:37:00 -0600 en text/html
Researchers identify new criteria to detect rapidly progressive dementia

Mayo Clinic researchers have identified new scoring criteria allowing for the detection of treatable forms of rapidly progressive dementia (RPD) with reasonably high confidence during a patient's first clinical visit. This scoring criteria may allow physicians to substantially reduce the time it takes to begin treatment. The findings are published in the Annals of Neurology.

Rapidly progressive dementia is caused by several disorders that quickly impair intellectual functioning and interfere with normal activities and relationships. If patients' symptoms appear suddenly and they decline quickly, a physician may make the diagnosis of RPD. These patients can progress from initial symptoms of dementia to complete incapacitation, requiring full-time care, in less than two years.

The study analyzed data from 155 patients with RPD who were diagnosed at Mayo Clinic in Florida and Washington University in St. Louis. The median age of patients at the time of symptom onset was 69 years old. Patients underwent a standard evaluation, including brain MRI, electroencephalogram, blood tests and a . They then were followed for up to two years.

The study team reviewed the data, assigned clinical diagnoses and determined which diseases would be considered potentially treatment-responsive. The team then compared symptoms and test results between patients with treatment-responsive and non-treatment-responsive causes. This identified key factors that were present at the time of the patient's first visit and were associated with treatment-responsive causes of RPD.

Seizures, tumors, MRI features of autoimmune encephalitis, movement abnormalities and other conditions were each associated with treatment-responsive causes of RPD in the study. Of patients with these conditions, 95% were captured through a screening score developed by the Mayo researchers. The score was calculated by assigning points for clinical findings present during a patient's first visit for evaluation of cognitive decline.

"Many that cause rapidly progressive dementia can be treated and even reversed. We found that more than half of the patients in our study with rapidly progressive dementia had a treatable underlying condition. We may be able to identify many of these patients early in the symptomatic course by intentionally searching for key clinical symptoms and test findings and integrating these with results of a brain MRI and spinal tap," says the study's senior author, Gregory Day, M.D., a clinical researcher, neurologist and vice chair of research of the Department of Neurology at Mayo Clinic in Florida.

Dr. Day's previous research found that other diseases may mimic a rare brain disorder called Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease, which also is linked to dementia.

"It's crucial to treat patients sooner by identifying a condition that is causing their rapidly progressive ," says Nihal Satyadev, M.D., a neurology resident at Mayo Clinic in Florida and the study's first author. "It's equally important to recognize patients who are less likely to benefit from treatment, as this can allow the focus of care to shift to supporting quality of life and appropriate counseling."

The study authors plan to continue research to Excellerate diagnosis and treatment of patients with RPD, and to make it easier for clinicians to apply their tool to recognize patients with RPD. The team has already completed a project considering spinal fluid biomarkers that may Excellerate diagnosis and early recognition of treatable . These findings are also published in the Annals of Neurology.

More information: Nihal Satyadev et al, Improving Early Recognition of Treatment‐Responsive Causes of Rapidly Progressive Dementia: The STAM3P Score, Annals of Neurology (2023). DOI: 10.1002/ana.26812

Lindsey A Kuchenbecker et al, Diagnostic utility of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in patients with rapidly progressive dementia, Annals of Neurology (2023). DOI: 10.1002/ana.26822

Citation: Researchers identify new criteria to detect rapidly progressive dementia (2023, November 8) retrieved 17 November 2023 from

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Wed, 08 Nov 2023 02:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Innovative applications of brain organoids in neurological studies

Neurodegenerative conditions are debilitating ailments marked by the progressive decline in brain function and impact millions of individuals on a global scale.

As of January 2023, the FDA approved lecanemab, marketed as Leqembi by Eisai, as a therapeutic option for Alzheimer’s disease.

This significant milestone represents the second drug approval in this category, with aducanumab, known as Aduhelm, having received approval in 2021, signifying a notable advancement in immunotherapy for neurodegenerative disorders.

Currently, the primary models utilized for researching brain diseases typically rely on postmortem human brain tissue, non-human primate tissue, or 2D in vitro experiments. However, these approaches are constrained by resource limitations and disparities in brain structure among different species.

In accurate times, a hopeful alternative has surfaced in the form of 3D brain organoids, which are cultivated from either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These organoids are proving to be a promising model for investigating neurodegenerative diseases.

Organoids derived from various brain regions, such as the forebrain, midbrain, and hippocampus, are cultured and employed as in vitro models for investigating neurobiological and neurodevelopmental disorders. The presence of cytokines in brain organoid cultures is of critical importance.

To illustrate, growth factors like FGF2, EGF, Noggin/NOG, and BMP4 have guided cellular differentiation along specific organ lineages. Furthermore, FGF2, SDF1, and FGF19 are utilized in the cultivation of cerebellar organoids, which are instrumental in the study of conditions like spinocerebellar ataxia.

Sino Biological offers a comprehensive array of products suitable for brain organoid culture, including human EGF, FGF2, NOG, BMP4, FGF8, FGF19, and more. These resources greatly support research efforts focused on neurodegenerative diseases.

Brain organoid: an Emerging models for investigating neurological development in vitro.

Figure 1. Brain organoid: an emerging model for investigating neurological development in vitro. Image Credit: Sino Biological US Inc

Featured cytokines for brain organoid culture

Sino Biological has created an extensive collection of bioactive recombinant cytokines sourced from a diverse range of species, including humans, mice, cynomolgus monkeys, rhesus monkeys, rats, and dogs.

  • Various Species
  • High Purity
  • HPLC Verified
  • Low Endotoxin
  • High Activity

Human EGF protein, HPLC-verified

(Cat#: 10605-HNAE)


High-purity: ≥ 95 % as determined by SDS-PAGE & SEC-HPLC. Image Credit: Sino Biological US Inc

Activity-validated: Cell proliferation assay using Balb/C 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

Activity-validated: Cell proliferation assay using Balb/C 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Image Credit: Sino Biological US Inc

Human FGF2 protein

(Cat#: GMP-10014-HNAE)

Activity-validated: Cell proliferation assay using Balb/c 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

Activity-validated: Cell proliferation assay using Balb/c 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Image Credit: Sino Biological US Inc

Human Noggin/NOG protein, HPLC-verified

(Cat#: 10267-HNAH)


High-purity: ≥ 95 % as determined by SDS-PAGE & SEC-HPLC. Image Credit: Sino Biological US Inc

Activity-validated: Inhibit BMP4-induced alkaline phosphatase production by MC3T3E1 mouse preosteoblast cells.

Activity-validated: Inhibit BMP4-induced alkaline phosphatase production by MC3T3E1 mouse preosteoblast cells. Image Credit: Sino Biological US Inc

Human BMP4 protein

(Cat#: 10609-HNAE2)

Activity-validated: Cell proliferation assay using NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells

Activity-validated: Cell proliferation assay using NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Image Credit: Sino Biological US Inc

More cytokines for brain organoid culture (partial list)

Source: Sino Biological US Inc

Cytokines Product Cat# Expression Host Purity Activity
EGF Human EGF Protein GMP-10605-HNAE

(1 Citation)

E. coli ≥ 95 % (SEC-HPLC) Active
EGF Human EGF Protein (hFc Tag) 10605-H01H

(1 Citation)

HEK293 Cells > 90 %  Active
EGF Mouse EGF Protein (hFc Tag) 50482-M01H

(4 Citations)

HEK293 Cells > 95 %  Active
EGF Mouse EGF Protein 50482-MNAY

(1 Citation)

Yeast > 95 %  Active
EGF Feline EGF Protein (hFc Tag) 62010-U01H HEK293 Cells > 90 %   
EGF Canine EGF Protein (His Tag) 70013-D07E E. coli > 98 %  Active
EGF Rat EGF Protein 80446-RNAE E. coli > 95 %  Active
FGF2 Human FGF2 Protein 10014-HNAE

(30 Citations)

E. coli > 95 %  Active
FGF2 Mouse FGF2 Protein (His Tag) 50037-M07E

(1 Citation)

E. coli > 95 %  Active
Noggin/NOG Human Noggin Protein (hFc Tag) 10267-H02H

(1 Citation)

HEK293 Cells > 95 %  Active
Noggin/NOG Human Noggin Protein (His Tag) 10267-H08H HEK293 Cells > 95 %  Active
Noggin/NOG Mouse Noggin Protein (hFc Tag) 50688-M02H

(6 Citations)

HEK293 Cells > 85 %  Active
BMP4 Mouse BMP4 Protein (rFc Tag) 50439-M15H HEK293 Cells > 92 %  Active
FGF8 Human FGF8 Protein 16124-HNAE E. coli > 95 %  Active
FGF8 Human FGF8 Protein 16277-HNAE

(2 Citations)

E. coli > 95 %  Active
FGF19 Human FGF19 Protein 12226-HNAE E. coli ≥ 95 % (SEC-HPLC)  
SDF-1 Human SDF-1 Protein (hFc Tag) 10118-H01H HEK293 Cells > 95 %  Active
SDF-1 Human SDF-1 Protein (His Tag) 13511-H07E E. coli > 90 %   
SDF-1 Human SDF-1 Protein 10118-HNAE

(2 Citations)

E. coli > 95 %   
SDF-1 Mouse SDF-1 Protein 50025-MNAE E. coli > 95 %   
SDF-1 Rhesus SDF-1 Protein 90009-C02H HEK293 Cells > 95 %  Active


Featured antibodies related to brain organoid culture

Anti-SOX2 antibody

Rabbit mAb; (Cat#: 100106-R017)

Immunochemical staining of human SOX2 in human testis. Applications: IHC-P,

Immunochemical staining of human SOX2 in human testis. Applications: IHC-P. Image Credit: Sino Biological US Inc.

Anti-beta-III tubulin/TUBB3 antibody

Rabbit pAb; (Cat#: 101288-T34)

Immunofluorescence staining of TUBB3 in hESC-H9 cells. Applications: WB, ICC/IF.

Immunofluorescence staining of TUBB3 in hESC-H9 cells. Applications: WB, ICC/IF. Image Credit: Sino Biological US Inc

Anti-Nestin antibody

Mouse mAb; (Cat#: 103270-MM11)

Flow cytometric analysis of Human NES expression on SHSY5Y cells. Applications: WB, IHC-P, FCM, IP. Image Credit: Sino Biological US Inc

Learn More about Brain Organoids

Sun, 12 Nov 2023 21:55:00 -0600 en text/html
Study sheds light on specific variants responsible for rare and serious disorder

Many disorders are caused by genetic variants; to make matters worse, the genetic origin of most disorders remains unknown. Now, in a study recently published in the Journal of Clinical Immunology, researchers have shed light on the specific variants responsible for one rare and serious disorder: 'RAD50 deficiency/Nijmegen breakage syndrome-like disorder'.

Together with MRE11 and NBN, RAD50 is one of three proteins that make up the 'MRN complex', which detects breaks in DNA and helps to initiate DNA repair. Because each of the three proteins is encoded by a separate gene, variants in any of the three genes can lead to altered functioning of the MRN complex. However, although MRE11 and NBN gene variants are known to cause other disorders, ataxia telangiectasia-like disorder and Nijmegen breakage syndrome, respectively, the pathological effects of RAD50 gene variants have remained somewhat unclear – until now.

When we looked at the literature, we realized that only three cases of RAD50 deficiency, which leads to symptoms similar to those of Nijmegen breakage syndrome, had been reported. Of these three, just one was reported to have RAD50 variants, with associated bone marrow failure and immunodeficiency."

Masatoshi Takagi, lead author of the study

When the research team came across a patient with progressive bone marrow failure and immunodeficiency combined with Nijmegen breakage syndrome-like manifestations, they decided to perform whole-exome sequencing to see if they could identify any gene variants that might lead to the observed symptoms.

"We found two different RAD50 variants in our patient, each of which was inherited from one of her parents," states Takagi. "We then tested the functional effects of these combined variants using fibroblast cells from the patient, which we grew in the lab."

The functional experiments suggested that the patient's RAD50 variants led to a loss of function of the RAD50 protein, and thus of the MRN complex. They also resulted in slower cell replication (i.e., mitosis), as expected. Interestingly, however, these variants did not cause hypersensitivity to radiation, unlike other known RAD50 variants.

"Together, the findings from our case and the three previously reported cases suggest that RAD50 deficiency/Nijmegen breakage syndrome-like disorder is characterized by growth retardation and microcephaly, which may coexist with bone marrow failure and immunodeficiency in some patients," says senior author of the study Hirokazu Kanegane. "This disorder may therefore increase susceptibility to infectious diseases and immune-related conditions."

Given the rarity of this disorder and our lack of knowledge about its genetic causes, the findings from this case are important. A better understanding of RAD50 and its effects on immunity can lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of patients with RAD50 deficiency.


Journal reference:

Takagi, M., et al. (2023). Bone Marrow Failure and Immunodeficiency Associated with Human RAD50 Variants. Journal of Clinical Immunology.

Thu, 16 Nov 2023 03:38:00 -0600 en text/html
Polyimide Films & Tapes Market worth $1.8 billion USD by 2028 - Exclusive Report by MarketsandMarkets™ No result found, try new keyword!Flexible solar panels, flexible solar displays, and flexible sensors are just a few examples of the new technologies in which polyimide films are finding new applications. The demand for polyimide ... Wed, 15 Nov 2023 18:43:00 -0600 en-US text/html

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