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PCAT test - Pharmacy College Admission Test Updated: 2023
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Exam Code: PCAT Pharmacy College Admission Test test November 2023 by Killexams.com team|
PCAT Pharmacy College Admission Test
The Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT®) is a specialized test that helps identify qualified applicants to pharmacy colleges. It measures general academic ability and scientific knowledge necessary for the commencement of pharmaceutical education. The PCAT is constructed specifically for colleges of pharmacy.
B1. General Biology B2. Microbiology
A. Cellular and Molecular Biology
1. Structure and functions of cells
2. Gene expression
3. Cell division and growth
4. Energy transformations
B. Infectious Diseases & Prevention
C. Microbial Ecology
D. Medical Microbiology
B3. Human Anatomy and Physiology
B. Diversity of Life Forms
Biological Processes items may be presented either standing alone (Biological Processes Examples 1–4) or associated with a short passage (Biological Processes Examples 5–8).
Stand-alone items can be answered independent of any passage or other item, while items
associated with a passage will require understanding part or all of the passage in order to
answer them correctly.
• Each Biological Processes item stem will be either in the form of a question (followed
by a question mark) or in the form of an incomplete sentence that requires completion
(with no end punctuation).
• Answer options may contain more than one concept or piece of information but each
one will plausibly relate to the stem.
[A leukocyte is a white blood cell and not the target of an infection from a foreign molecule.]
[Eosinophil is a type of white blood cell that is involved in the immune response to parasitic
infections or allergic reactions and not the target of infection from a foreign molecule.]
[Immunoglobulins are antibodies formed by B cells and not the targets of an infection from a
D. antigen. *
[CA: Antigen is the correct term for anything that is the target of the immune response,
causing production of antibodies by the living organism. Antigens can include foreign pollen,
bacteria, viruses, proteins, and some other materials.]
A. Respiratory alkalosis
[Respiratory alkalosis is due to alveolar hyperventilation leading to decreased plasma carbon
dioxide concentration. It develops when the lungs remove more carbon dioxide than is
produced in the tissues. It is a common finding in patients receiving medical ventilation, but it
is not associated with emphysema, which results in a decreased expulsion of carbon dioxide.]
B. Metabolic alkalosis
[This condition results from an altered metabolism. A decreased hydrogen ion concentration
results in increased bicarbonate and carbon dioxide concentrations. It occurs most commonly
when a person has been vomiting profusely. It is not associated with emphysema, which results
in a decreased expulsion of carbon dioxide.]
C. Respiratory acidosis *
[CA: Respiratory acidosis is a clinical disturbance that is due to alveolar hypoventilation.
It results in low blood pH due to decreased clearance of carbon dioxide by the lungs.
This condition occurs in emphysema as exhalation becomes insufficient.]
D. Metabolic acidosis
[Metabolic acidosis is a condition in which the blood pH is low due to increased production of
hydrogen ions by the body or the inability of the body to form bicarbonate in the kidney. It is
not associated with emphysema, which results in a decreased expulsion of carbon dioxide.]
A. Maternal meiotic division I *
[CA: Nondisjunction is an error that can occur during meiosis or mitosis, causing the daughter
cells to have too many or too few chromosomes. Because the child has two maternal alleles
that are not identical and one paternal allele, nondisjunction occurred at this stage of division.]
B. Paternal meiotic division I
[If nondisjunction occurred here, the child would have two paternal alleles and one maternal
C. Maternal meiotic division II
[If nondisjunction had occurred here, the maternal contribution would have been either no
allele or two of the same kind.]
D. Paternal meiotic division II
[If nondisjunction had occurred here, the paternal contribution would have been either no
allele or two of the same kind. Because there is only one of paternal origin, disjunction did
not occur at this stage of division.]
|Pharmacy College Admission Test|
PsychCorp Admission exam
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Pharmacy College Admission Test
Which of the following is not considered a part of the male urethra?
When glucose if found in urine it is called _____.
D. Glucose intolerance
Which of the following is not considered a component of kidney stones?
A. Calcium phosphate
B. Uric Acid
C. Calcium oxalate
D. HCO 3
The one of the functions occurring at the distal convoluted tubule in the kidney is?
A. Passive secretion of hydrogen ions
B. Passive secretion of potassium ions
C. Limited re-absorption of water
D. No re-absorption of sodium
ADH has which of the following effects on the distal convoluted tubule?
A. Decrease water re-absorption
B. Increase water re-absorption
C. Decrease the concentration of urine
D. Increase the urine volume
Which of the following is not associated with the role of the kidneys?
A. Release of erythropoietin (hormone)
B. Release of renin (enzyme)
C. Release of Vitamin E
D. Activate Vitamin D
Each kidney contains approximately ______ nephrons.
A. 10 million
B. 1 million
The release of Angiotension II causes which of the following to occur?
A. Increased filtration rate
B. Decreased glomerular hydrostatic pressure
C. Increase synthesis of Vitamin E
D. Increased release of erythropoietin
Which of the following is an effect of a diuretic?
A. Decreased Cardiac Output
B. Increased fluid volume
C. Increased sodium re-absorption
D. Increased chloride ion re-absorption
Which of the following is not considered a loop diuretic?
A. Bumetadine (BUMEX)
B. Furosemide (LASIX)
C. Chlorthiazide (DIURIL)
D. Ethacrynic Acid (EDECRIN)
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Oct 18 (Reuters) - The Law School Admission Test will ditch the so-called “logic games” section of the test in 2024, according to the organization that creates the test, marking a major change to the exam's content.
The change means that perplexing questions such as who gets which meal at a dinner party if Mary has a fish allergy, Devin doesn't eat gluten and Jamal prefers organic will no longer be part of the test.
The Law School Admission Council (LSAC), which develops and administers the test, sent an email on Wednesday to U.S. law schools, which was reviewed by Reuters, notifying them of the change.
The analytical reasoning section—the formal name for logic games—will be replaced with an additional logical reasoning section in August 2024, the LSAC said.
Both the analytical reasoning and logical reasoning sections test critical thinking and deductive reasoning, but in different ways. The logical reasoning section requires LSAT takers to read a short passage then answer a question based on its content.
Logic games are viewed by many as the most difficult section of the LSAT to master. A 2016 article in The Atlantic concluded that logic games in particular fuel the LSAT test prep industry because most aspiring lawyers are unfamiliar with them. The section of online message board Reddit devoted to the LSAT is riddled with posts complaining about logic games.
"It’s tanking my potential," one Reddit user posted last month.
The elimination of logic games comes after the LSAC entered into a 2019 settlement with two blind LSAT takers who claimed the logic games violated the Americans With Disabilities Act because they could not draw the diagrams often used to complete that portion of the test. The council had four years to replace the logic games with a new analytical reasoning section under the settlement.
Because the analytical and logical reasoning sections test the same skills, it made sense to drop analytical reasoning altogether, council president Kellye Testy said in an interview Wednesday.
"This decision might help some, and it hurts none," Testy said. "The skills that we assess are the same and the scoring is the same."
In the Wednesday email to law school admissions officials, the council said removing analytical reasoning and replacing it with a second section of logical reasoning had “virtually no impact on overall scoring” based on a review of more than 218,000 exams. The revised format was also as effective as the current one in predicting first-year law school grades, the council said.
Kirstin Theis-Alvarez, dean of admissions at the University of California, Berkeley School of Law, said on Wednesday that some people may be tempted to wait until next year to take the LSAT because they think the new version will be easier.
"I've seen the data—it won't," she said.
Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
Learn more about our test-optional policy:
Can I switch my testing plan after submitting my Common Application?
Students who submit standardized test results to Boston College and indicate on their applications that they wish to have scores considered will be unable to switch their application to test-optional at a later point in time. Once scores become part of a student's file, they cannot be removed.
Students who apply as test-optional candidates and later wish to have the Admission Committee consider their standardized test results may request to do so in writing at firstname.lastname@example.org. For full consideration, students should contact us directly as close to our deadlines as possible.
Does this policy apply to international students?
Yes. International students are still required to demonstrate English language proficiency via TOEFL, IELTS, or Duoligo English Test results. This English language proficiency requirement may be waived for students who speak English as their native language, have attended a US high school for at least three years in a non-ESOL curriculum, or submit standardized test results including scores of 650 or greater on the SAT EBRW or 29 or greater on the ACT English section. Learn more here.
Does this policy apply to home-schooled students?
Yes. However, because the Admission Committee has little context in which to evaluate home-schooled students’ academic results, standardized test results are extremely helpful to the Admission Committee. Home-schooled applicants are strongly encouraged to submit standardized test scores that allow us to put their applications in context with others in our pool. Other quantitative measures that students may also benefit from submitting include AP test scores and/or college coursework. Official college transcripts should be submitted for all college courses completed.
Does this policy apply to athletic recruits?
Yes. The NCAA has removed the test score requirement for athletic eligibility in Division I sports. Recruited athletes are responsible for ensuring their NCAA eligibility.
Of the 408 higher-income students who received bonus points based on where they attended school, nearly 85 percent were admitted. Of the 29 low-income students who didn’t receive bonus points, 16 were admitted — or 55 percent.
In the overhauled process, approved two years ago, students receive a composite score out of 100 based on a combination of their grades and their test scores. They then can receive an additional 10 bonus points for going to a high-poverty school or 15 if they live in certain public housing, are homeless, or are in the care of the state Department of Children and Families.
Students compete for admission within socioeconomic “tiers” which cluster the city’s census tracts based on socioeconomic factors, such as poverty rate and educational attainment. Each tier has roughly the same number of test school seats and students in grades 5 to 8, but the more affluent areas have many more applicants.
The new data does not specify how often the bonus points were the deciding factor in a student’s admission, but for students applying from higher-income tiers, the minimum composite score to get in was in the high 90s for all three schools last year, making it more difficult to be admitted and the bonus points more valuable.
The data was released last week as part of a memo to the School Committee following months of pressure to adjust the system. The memo was first reported on by the Boston Herald. Critics, including committee member Brandon Cardet-Hernandez, have said the bonus point system, which was intended in part to Strengthen lower-income students’ chances of admission to Boston Latin School, Boston Latin Academy, and the O’Bryant School of Math and Science, may harm some needy students — low-income students without bonus points who miss out on admission to higher-income peers with bonus points.
The overhauled policy has also faced regular criticism from parents and students who say the bonus points plus competition within tiers of the city makes admission nearly unattainable for students in affluent areas if they don’t attend bonus point schools. (For example, for residents of Tier 7, the second-most-affluent category, it was impossible to get into Boston Latin without bonus points: the cut-off for students to be admitted was over 100.) Only a handful of BPS schools have so few low-income students that they do not meet the threshold to get bonus points.
Last year, nearly three-quarters of Grade 7 applicants received bonus points of one kind or the other.
The district put the full new admissions policy in place in the 2022-23 school year. (The district had rolled out the policy the year prior, but did not include testing as part of the admissions until the second year.)
The system has successfully diversified the schools. According to prior district data, 49 percent of Grade 7 admittees for the 2023-2024 school year were economically disadvantaged, versus 35 percent of students admitted for the 2020-2021 school year, 43 percent for 2021-2022, and 45 percent for 2022-2023. More Black and Latino students, English learners, and students with disabilities won acceptance to the schools as well.
Rachel Skerritt, a former head of Boston Latin and a member of the task force who helped design the new policy, said district officials should consider adjusting it.
“I think that overall it was a successful policy shift and a necessary one,” Skerritt said. ”However, when you have students getting upwards of 95 out of 100 and not getting access to any of the test schools, it necessitates revisiting of some of the details of the policy.”
The students in question are residents of the two most affluent tiers who did not receive bonus points: those students needed scores over 97 to win admission into any of the three schools. Some of those students may have been the low-income students the policy sought to help: According to the memo, 10 low-income students living in the two most affluent tiers missed out on bonus points and were rejected from all three test schools.
Skerritt said when she initially envisioned the bonus points, she was thinking of a smaller number of BPS schools where the vast majority of students are lowincome and very few were getting into the schools.
“For me, the intent of the points, which was to position the students who attend the most challenged schools in Boston to have more of a leg up, is completely diluted by giving almost all the schools the points,” Skerritt said.
In addition, Skerritt said, the number of bonus points awarded, 10, could be adjusted without changing the policy’s intent. According to the memo, students who went to high-needs schools scored about 8 points lower, on average, than other students, excluding bonus points.
Some School Committee members have called for the district to award bonus points directly based on family income, rather than, or in addition to, awarding them based on school.
The district has reached out to the state about getting income data for Boston students not currently attending a BPS school who apply to the test schools, the memo said. However, district administrators oppose attempting to use individual income information, arguing it would be challenging to collect and would push families away from applying.
“I don’t think as a team we have changed our thinking that with one year of data, whether that is truly enough to base the recommendations on,” Superintendent Mary Skipper told the School Committee last week. “But that said, we heard the committee loud and clear that they wanted us to be looking at the data patterns and so we are doing that.”
After the memo was released at the Nov. 1 meeting, Charlestown parent Kathleen Chardavoyne called on the district to release data showing the average scores for students with and without bonus points by tier, rather than just districtwide: because there are no citywide seats, she argued, all the data should be analyzed by tier.
Last month, a group of students from the Eliot K-8 Innovation School, one of the handful of BPS schools without bonus points, described themselves to the committee as “unintended consequences” of the policy.
Seventh grade Charlestown resident Grace Nothnagle, for example, said she had a perfect GPA and high scores on the admissions test, but did not get into the test schools last year.
“As a tier 7 student from a nonbonus point school, I had no chance of admission to Boston Latin as the cutoff was 100.2,” Nothnagle said. “This was an impossible score.”
Admission and merit scholarship consideration for students who apply as test-optional is based on several factors, including high school GPA, grades in coursework required for university admission, and rigor/performance in advanced courses (AP, IB, Honors, etc.).
Consideration for students applying with a test score includes all the above plus their highest composite ACT or SAT score.
Connecticut College is test-optional.
We don’t require applicants to submit standardized test scores because we think there are better ways to determine if you’ll be successful at Conn. And we want you to highlight your strengths in the application process, not write about a random syllabu we've assigned. We believe your high school transcript, essay, recommendations or other application materials may show your strengths better than test scores.
How to decide whether to submit your test scores
Our advice is to submit your scores if you feel they are representative of your achievement and will enhance your application. (Review the middle 50% range of scores submitted for the Class of 2024.) However, if you feel your standardized test scores do not reflect your full potential and elect not to submit them, you will not be at a disadvantage in the admission process.
In the Common App, simply choose which one testing score option you'd like us to consider:
If you want to submit your test scores
If you would like us to consider your tests scores as part of your application, note that we accept both official and self-reported test scores.
Official test scores can be submitted in any of the following ways:
Self-reported test scores can be submitted in either of the following ways:
If you submit self-reported scores, please note that your official test scores will be required upon enrollment. Any discrepancies from self-reported test scores may result in rescinding our offer of admission.
We “superscore” the SAT Reasoning Test and use the combined highest composite score from the ACT. You should send scores from every SAT/ACT date for which you received your best scores in specific sections.
Scores from standardized tests taken through November typically arrive in time for Early Decision I consideration. Tests taken in December will arrive in time for Early Decision II and Regular Decision applicants.
Standardized test scores are not considered in the transfer application process.
English Proficiency Requirement
Conn's standardized testing policy does not apply to testing for purposes of demonstrating English proficiency. Students whose first language is not English must submit the TOEFL, IELTS, Duolingo or PTE.
The student community that aspires to a place in the 2022-2023 section process of the higher level must meet the requirements established by each call in order to take the admission exam, either from the UNAM, UAM or the IPN.
In the case of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the test will be applied from May 14 to June 5, although they pointed out that the dates “are subject to the development of the COVID-19 situation”. For 2022 there will be only one call, which is available on the website of the General Directorate of School Administration (DGAE): https://www.dgae.unam.mx/.
The UNAM admission test consists of 120 questions that must be answered within a maximum time of 3 hours, the test will contain the same subjects, but emphasis will be placed on the area of knowledge to which the student aspires: Physical-Mathematics and Engineering; Biological and Health Sciences; Social Sciences or Humanities and Arts.
The sections of the UNAM test are: Spanish that will cover syllabus such as language functions, discursive forms, grammar, studying comprehension, spelling; mathematics contains notable products, factorization, algebraic expressions, equations, trigonometry, geometry; physics contemplates kinematics, Force, Newton's laws and Universal Law of Gravitation, waves, optics. It has the sections of Universal History, Mexico, biology, geography, chemistry.
* The test will be done in person at the place, date and day that I indicated the credential proof, the results will be announced on July 22, 2022 on the website of the DGAE.
* The exams for the spring and fall 2022 terms will be online, applicants must first take a test between March 28 and April 5 and the selection will be from April 11 to 21 depending on the information on the proof of registration; the results will be published on May 14, 2022.
The test must be answered within two hours, if requested by the UAM, which can be checked on the day of the test, which can be accessed with the username and password indicated in the email you provided in the Mexican registry.
Recommendations for the online exam:
* Present it in place without noise or companions.
* It must be done on a computer with speakers; the microphone and camera must be turned on the entire time of the exam.
* The computer must have Windows 7 or higher or MacOSX 10.11 system; with at least 4 GB of RAM and 200 Mb free.
* Applicants must install the programs requested by UAM, which can be checked on the day of the test, which they will be able to access with the username and password indicated in the email you provided in the registration.
It will be 130 questions, to answer it the time is 3 hours, it will be held online on 16, 17 or 18 June in the case of the school system, for mixed or non-schooled it will be on May 22.
During the test they will record the entire process and the students will be monitored, the cost of the test is 480 pesos for people of Mexican nationality; the results will be announced on June 12.
After months of parents and School Committee members calling for information on the test school admissions policy change, BPS has released a memo answering a number of questions — but leaving some still open.
“Today you received a detailed memo explaining how the policy was developed, including the distribution of additional points,” Superintendent Mary Skipper announced at this week’s School Committee meeting. “We want to ensure that all members in the public have the historical context and rationale for the policy decisions and recommendations that were made by the test school admissions Task Force and subsequently approved by this body.”
The memo breaks down the timeline of how the test School Admissions Task Force developed the policy changes in 2021 and answers some specific questions and concerns raised by committee members and the public, including data on how the policy may have blocked poorer students at schools with more well off populations or benefitted richer students at less well off schools.
The policy change aimed to promote diversity and representation in the schools in a complicated system incorporating socioeconomic tiers and bonus points for certain students in addition to GPA and testing measures — perhaps most controversially awarding 10 points to students at schools with 40% or higher percentage of economically disadvantaged students.
Opponents, most vocally parents with children who were denied entrance to test schools, have argued the policy leaves out certain diverse or economically disadvantaged kids it is meant to serve and unfairly benefits others.
According to data in the memo, of seven 2023-24 applicants in the tier 8 — the top socioeconomic tier — who were identified as economically disadvantaged and did not receive bonus points, five were rejected. Of six applicants in this category in tier 7, five were rejected.
There were 262 and 272 total 2023-24 applicants respectively in tiers 7 and 8.
In terms of students who were not economically disadvantaged and received bonus points, zero of these applicants were rejected in tiers 1, 2, 3 and 5. One such applicant was rejected in tier 4. There were between 22 and 45 such applicants in these tiers, out of between 125 and 141 total applicants.
In tiers 6, 7 and 8 there were more non-economically disadvantaged applicants with bonus point advantages — between 65 and 104 — and more were rejected — between 12 and 28.
In public comment, parents continued to push for changes and probe for more information.
“My first point is the memo is incomplete,” BPS parent Kathleen Chardavoyne started, calling the lack of presented data on minimum scores by tier and lack of action “very disappointing.”
Though BPS officials previously expressed hesitance to consider revising the policy after only a single year and noted the policy is scheduled to be reviewed after five years, the memo opens the door possible recommendations to be considered
These considerations include adding a provision to ensure students with a perfect score get access to their first choice of school, looking at changes to the number of bonus points given based on schools, considering ensuring all economically disadvantaged students receive bonus points, and looking at ways to increase representation of students with disabilities and multilingual learners.
The memo also addresses why admissions didn’t use the individual students’ socioeconomic backgrounds, noting the path was debated but not pursued out of concern regarding the administration and barriers for families. The district is now reaching out to DESE regarding the possibility, the memo said.
“Since this is the first full year of implementation our recommendation continues to be that we should wait for at least one more year of invitation data to understand if there are trends of concern,” the memo states, noting the need for a “deeper understanding” of the impact of changing one part of the policy.
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