PANRE study help - Physician Assistant National Recertifying test Updated: 2024
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Exam Code: PANRE Physician Assistant National Recertifying test study help January 2024 by Killexams.com team
PANRE Physician Assistant National Recertifying Exam
The Physician Assistant National Recertifying test (PANRE) is a standardized test administered by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA). It is designed to assess the knowledge and skills of certified physician assistants seeking recertification. Below is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, test objectives, and test syllabus.
Number of Questions and Time:
The PANRE test consists of multiple-choice questions and is divided into two sections: Core Clinical Medicine (300 questions) and Organ System-Based Medicine (150 questions). The total number of questions is 450. Candidates are given a specific time limit of 4 hours and 5 minutes to complete the exam.
The PANRE test covers a comprehensive range of medical knowledge and skills required for the practice of physician assistants. The test content is organized into the following key areas:
1. Core Clinical Medicine:
- Internal Medicine
- Obstetrics and Gynecology
- Emergency Medicine
- Psychiatry and Behavioral Health
- Professional Practice
2. Organ System-Based Medicine:
- Cardiovascular System
- Respiratory System
- Musculoskeletal System
- Gastrointestinal System
- Genitourinary System
- Endocrine System
- Hematologic System
- Neurologic System
- Dermatologic System
- Infectious Diseases
The PANRE test aims to assess the knowledge and skills of certified physician assistants in various medical disciplines and their ability to apply this knowledge in clinical practice. The key objectives of the test include:
1. Evaluating clinical reasoning skills: Assessing the candidate's ability to analyze patient cases, interpret clinical data, and make appropriate diagnoses and treatment decisions.
2. Assessing medical knowledge: Testing the candidate's understanding of fundamental medical concepts, disease processes, diagnostic techniques, and treatment modalities across different medical specialties.
3. Ensuring currency in medical practice: Validating that the candidate's medical knowledge is up to date and aligned with current best practices, guidelines, and evidence-based medicine.
The PANRE test syllabus covers a wide range of medical Topics and skills essential for the practice of physician assistants. The syllabus includes, but is not limited to, the following areas:
- Anatomy and Physiology
- Diagnostic Techniques
- Clinical Decision-Making
- Patient Assessment
- Medical Procedures and Interventions
- Disease Management
- Professional and Legal Issues in Healthcare
Candidates should refer to official NCCPA resources or consult with professional organizations for accurate and up-to-date information on the exam, including registration, preparation, and study materials.
|Physician Assistant National Recertifying Exam
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Physician Assistant National Recertifying Exam
A patient comes to the office presenting with paroxysmal or sustained
hypertension, severe headaches, palpitations, flushing, heat intolerance, and
hyperglycemia. Further laboratory results reveal that the patient’s levels of
epinephrine and norepinephrine are excessive. Based on these findings, the patient
is most likely diagnosed with:
D. Addison’s disease
Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing hormone, which is manifested
by the increased levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine in the system. Without
appropriate treatment, pheochromocytoma can cause hypertensive retinopathy,
nephropathy, and cardiac enlargement, resulting in congestive heart failure.
Which of the following laboratory findings support the diagnosis of
A. Serum calcium = 10.0 mg/dL; Serum potassium = 5.5 mg/dL
B. Serum calcium = 8.7 mg/dL; Serum potassium = 3.0 mg/dL
C. Serum calcium = 11.0 mg/dL; Serum phosphorus =2.0 mg/dL
D. Serum calcium = 7.5 mg/dL; Serum phosphorus = 5.5 mg/dL
A patient with hypoparathyroidism has hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia.
The other options are not correct.
Which of the following is not a typical sign and symptom of renal cell carcinoma?
A. Abdominal mass
C. Flank pain
Renal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the kidney. Renal
tumors in the early stages are asymptomatic. A presentation of abdominal mass
may indicate renal cell carcinoma. The symptoms of renal cell carcinoma include
hematuria, flank pain, and palpable flank mass.
A patient is scheduled to undergo needle biopsy of the kidney. Which of the
following is an important consideration before letting the patient undergo this
A. Adequate fasting for at least 8 hours prior to procedure
B. Establish an IV line for hydration
C. Monitoring vital signs
D. Ensure that coagulation studies have been carried out
Preparations must be done before the patient undergoes biopsy. The most
important is the suspension of anticoagulant medications at least one week before
the procedure. Anticoagulant studies should be carried out at least two weeks
before the procedure. IV line, vital signs, and fasting are also important
preparations, but ensuring that coagulation studies are normal is more significant.
The Bartholin gland is responsible for secreting mucus to lubricate the vagina.
Where is it specifically located?
A. Anterior wall of the vagina
B. Above the urethral and vaginal opening
C. Below and to the left and right of the vaginal opening
D. Extends from the vulva to the cervix
The Bartholin gland is located below and to the left and right of the vaginal
opening. Option A refers to the Skene’s gland, option B refers to the clitoris,
while option D refers to the vagina.
The clinical feature of interstitial cystitis includes all of the following, except:
A. Continuous bladder pain
C. Frequent urinary urgency
D. Bacterial infection
Interstitial cystitis is the inflammation of the bladder in the absence of bacterial
infection. It is believed to be caused by an autoimmune process that alters the
cells of the bladder lining. The disease is characterized by frequent urination,
dysuria, nocturia, and continuous perineal, vaginal, or suprapubic pain.
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The latest weight loss craze could also help people control their drinking.
Semaglutide treatments such as Ozempic and Wegovy have been shown to reduce the symptoms of alcohol use disorder (AUD), according to a study published in The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry on Nov. 27.
The collaborative study from The University of Oklahoma (OU) and Oklahoma State University (OSU) found a â€śsignificant and noteworthy decreaseâ€ť in the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores of six patients who were receiving semaglutide treatment for weight loss.
Lead study author Dr. Jesse Richards, director of obesity medicine and assistant professor of medicine at the OU-TU School of Community Medicine, said the study was inspired by his conversation with Dr. Kyle Simmons, professor of pharmacology and physiology at the OSU Center for Health Sciences.
â€śI had been hearing from a significant number of patients that their alcohol intake was spontaneously decreasing while [they were] on the medication,â€ť Richards told Fox News Digital.
As a bariatric surgery clinic employee, Richards noted that itâ€™s standard to screen patients for alcohol use.
At the clinic, a number of patients tested positive for alcohol consumption, sometimes in concerning amounts.
Later, while on semaglutide medication, they reported reduced alcohol intake.
One of Richardsâ€™ patients â€” who previously drank large amounts of alcohol â€” shared a new inability to drink more than two cans of beer now because it â€śjust doesnâ€™t sound good.â€ť
This response piqued Richardsâ€™ interest in learning more about patientsâ€™ aversion to alcohol, which directly correlated to his research.
Research has shown that this effect is â€śmediated through adjustments in the reward pathway in the brain,â€ť he said.
â€śThe GLP-1s are actually modifying dopamine, decreasing the craving and decreasing the motivation to acquire things in that compulsive intake category.â€ť
The most surprising takeaway from the study, Richards said, was that the same significant treatment response was seen even at very low doses.
â€śWe found that even patients on the lowest dose of semaglutide â€” a quarter milligram â€” had a quite significant and relatively â€¦ quick onset reduction in alcohol intake,â€ť he said.
Of the six patients studied, all but one were on low doses â€” from a quarter to a half milligram.
â€śAnd thatâ€™s very encouraging because we know that the lower doses of these medications are tolerated much better,â€ť said Richards.
While the results seem promising, the doctor said he does not recommend that patients use semaglutide treatments for alcohol use disorder at this time, due to supply and safety issues.
â€śIf patients have [obesity and diabetes] indications for the medication and they also struggle with alcohol intake â€¦ having them on this treatment may potentially be beneficial,â€ť Richards said.
â€śBut because there has been a global medication shortage, and because we donâ€™t have prospective trials and donâ€™t know what the specific safety is versus the well-established safety data in obesity and diabetes, [I] would not recommend it just for patients who have AUD.â€ť
There are three FDA-approved drugs available for alcoholic use disorder that are currently underused, the doctor noted.
Given that five million people in the U.S. are currently taking semaglutide medications, if it is proven that those drugs have a significant effect on alcohol use disorder, â€śby default, they are going to become the most widely used drug to Improve these symptoms â€” just by virtue of the fact that so many people are on them for diabetes or obesity,â€ť Richards noted.
He confirmed that additional research is underway with two ongoing trials.
â€śSince we were able to show clinically meaningful reductions in alcohol intake and AUD symptomatology in a real-world setting, that bodes very well for these types of medications,â€ť he said.
Looking ahead, Richard said there is a need for higher-quality evidence of the medicationâ€™s impact on AUD compared to placebo drugs or environmental factors.
Even though itâ€™s unclear whether GLP-1 producers will market the medication to AUD patients in the future, Richards said this could become an â€śestablished medical practice once the safety and efficacy has been determined.â€ť
For patients who struggle with AUD, Richards recommended they talk to their health care providers about available treatment.
He also alerted patients that if they experience a reduced appetite and usually consume â€śa bunch of caloriesâ€ť in alcohol, it may be necessary to look into a more balanced diet.
Avantika Waring, 9amHealthâ€™s chief medical officer and a trained physician and endocrinologist in San Francisco, applauded the OU and OSU study findings for further supporting what clinicians â€śare already seeing in practice,â€ť she told Fox News Digital.
â€śGLP-1 medications have a lot of effects that we are still learning about, and the ability to decrease cravings and the reward signals related to alcohol use are just some of the benefits,â€ť she said.
â€śItâ€™s an important starting point for further clinical trials,â€ť she added.
Waring also warned that GLP-1 medications should not be used to treat AUD specifically, as they can cause side effects such as nausea and changes in appetite.
â€śPeople struggling with alcohol use disorder should consult with their physicians before starting GLP-1 medications to make sure that they can stay hydrated and safe on therapy,â€ť she said.
Waring noted that if ongoing clinical trials find semaglutide treatments to be effective for AUD, the medical community will â€śhave another tool to help people living with alcohol addiction and weâ€™ll see expanded use of these already popular drugs.â€ť
Fox News Digital reached out to Novo Nordisk for comment on the potential link between semaglutide medications and alcohol use disorder.
Didnâ€™t get enough sleep during the week? Take heart â€” catching up on shuteye over the weekend could provide the bonus of improved cardiovascular health, according to a new study published in the journal Sleep Health.
Researchers from Nanjing Medical University in China analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which compiled information from 3,400 U.S. adults ages 20 years and older between 2017 and 2018.
The survey gathered information on how long the participants slept on weekdays and weekends, as well as whether they had heart disease, high blood pressure and/or diabetes.
The people who slept for at least one hour longer on weekends than weekdays were shown to have lower rates of cardiovascular disease â€” in particular, stroke, coronary heart disease and angina (chest pain due to reduced blood flow) compared to those who didnâ€™t get catch-up sleep.
The reduced risk was most significant among those who got less than six hours of sleep on weekdays and slept for at least two extra hours on weekends.
"Sleeping less than six hours per night increases our risk of stress hormone release and increased heart attack and stroke," said Dr. Marc Siegel, clinical professor of medicine at NYU Langone Medical Center and a Fox News medical contributor.
Siegel, who was not involved in the study, offered comment on the findings.
"The study found that you can make up for a sleep debt during the week and reset with more than two extra hours on the weekend, bringing your risk of heart disease back to baseline," he told Fox News Digital.
"Though this is observational and not proof, I believe this finding is real, because more sleep brings your metabolism down to a lower level where the risks are lower," he added.
Fox News Digital reached out to the study author for additional comments.
Dr. Biquan Luo, a San Francisco sleep expert and CEO of LumosTech, which produces a smart sleep mask to promote healthy circadian rhythms, shared her reaction to the study findings. She was not involved in the research.
"Under normal circumstances, when you are not sleep-deprived, a consistent sleep schedule helps maintain the bodyâ€™s circadian rhythms, supporting higher-quality sleep, better energy and cardiometabolic health," Luo told Fox News Digital.Â
"That's why sleep experts recommend not sleeping in during the weekend."
However, consistently lacking adequate sleep can cause chronic fatigue and increased risks for obesity and cardiovascular diseases, the expert pointed out.Â
"In this case, catching up on sleep on the weekend is more beneficial for your health," she said.
"It is important to note that making up sleep debt does not fully reverse the effects of chronic sleep deprivation," Luo added.
The Sleep Research Society and the American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommend at least seven hours of sleep per night for adults.
Insufficient sleep has previously been linked to a higher risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, depression, high blood pressure and other diseases and conditions, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
AI Integration in the Fight Against Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Wen Hwa Lee
In this interview, Wen Hwa Lee, CEO, and Chief Scientist at Action Against Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AAAMD), offers an enlightening perspective on merging AI with ophthalmology to forge new paths in healthcare and drug discovery.
Possible benefits of ginseng range from improving thinking to treating erectile dysfunction and lowering blood sugar. It also may help to reduce inflammation.
Ginseng refers to 11 different varieties of a short, slow-growing plant with fleshy roots. It has a light-colored, forked-shaped root, a relatively long stalk, and green leaves in an oval shape.
Both American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius, L.) and Asian ginseng (P. Ginseng) may boost energy, lower blood sugar and cholesterol levels, reduce stress, promote relaxation, treat diabetes, and manage sexual dysfunction in men.
People have traditionally taken ginseng to help with a range of medical conditions.
More research is needed to confirm if it has any benefit as a supplement. Researchers believe that ginsenosides, chemical components found in ginseng, are responsible for any clinical effects of the herb.
Western scientists and health professionals often question the medicinal properties of ginseng. There is no conclusive evidence about its true effectiveness.
Ginseng products can vary in their quality and potential medicinal properties. A person should check the ingredients of any ginseng product before purchase, as some products may contain a small or negligible amount of ginseng, and some could contain other substances.
Researchers suggest that ginseng may have the following health benefits:
Ginseng may help stimulate physical and mental activity in people who feel weak and tired. One study of 21 men and 69 women found that ginseng showed good results in helping people with chronic fatigue.
A 2014 study of people receiving cancer treatment found that ginseng helped reduce cancer-related fatigue. However, researchers only documented the energy-boosting effects of ginseng in people currently undergoing treatment. Ginseng did not show statistically significant improvements in people who had already finished cancer treatment.
Sharper cognitive function
Ginseng may Improve thinking processes and cognition. A 2018 report examined the accuracy of this claim.
This report concluded that, based on human and animal studies, ginseng components have the potential to treat some cognitive deficits. These studies showed ginseng could reduce oxidative stress, which could lead to enhancement in cognitive function.
A 2016 study on the effects of Korean red ginseng on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimerâ€™s disease found promise as well.
The study involved 14 people, three men, and 11 women, with a median age of 74.93 years old. The patients received 4.5 grams of Korean red ginseng for 12 weeks.
The study concluded that the Korean red ginseng helped Improve frontal brain lobe function.
Treatment of erectile dysfunction
Men may take ginseng to treat erectile dysfunction.
A systematic review tested the effects of red ginseng on erectile dysfunction. The review demonstrated that the number of trials, total sample size, and the quality of the experimental methods were not enough to demonstrate ongoing clinical benefit.
A 2012 study of 119 men with mild-to-moderate erectile dysfunction found that ginseng berry extract improved overall sexual function. The study lasted 8 weeks, during which some of the group received Korean ginseng berry extract, and others received a placebo.
More research is needed to determine if ginseng is a reliable treatment for erectile dysfunction.
Findings of another study suggested that red ginseng extract could Improve the survival of human lung epithelial cells infected with the influenza virus.
It is undetermined exactly how the anti-viral mechanisms in ginseng work based on the above study.
Lowering blood sugar
A 2014 study suggests that ginseng may help lower blood sugar and help treat diabetes. Ginsenosides may affect insulin production in the pancreas and Improve insulin resistance using other mechanisms.
Another 2014 study showed similar benefits of ginseng on lowering blood sugar. Some participants took 2.7 grams of fermented red ginseng each day, while others took a placebo. Researchers found that ginseng was effective in lowering blood sugar and increasing insulin levels after a meal compared to the placebo.
More clinical studies and standardization of ginseng root are needed to determine whether ginseng is a possible complementary therapy for diabetes. Researchers also need to investigate what specific doses might be effective.
Over half of Black patients expect to be insulted by medical professionals, study shows
According to a KFF Survey, 60% of Black adults say they prepare for medical visits by expecting insults from healthcare workers or by being very careful about their appearance. CNN's Victor Blackwell speaks to VP and Director at KFF, Samantha Artiga.
The results of the study will support the Companyâ€™s IDE submission to the FDA to commence its human clinical study
BRAINTREE, Mass., Dec. 28, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Microbot Medical Inc. (Nasdaq: MBOT), developer of the innovative LIBERTYÂ® Endovascular Robotic Surgical System, today announces the successful completion of its GLP pivotal pre-clinical study, done under the guidelines of FDA-required levels of planning, controlling, monitoring, and reporting, using a porcine model.
As previously announced on December 7, 2023, the study was conducted by three leading interventional radiologists that utilized the LIBERTY Endovascular Robotic Surgical System to perform a total of 96 robotic navigations. Target vessels with surrounding tissue were examined and evaluated microscopically after they were subjected to procedures using a range of commercially available intravascular catheterization devices controlled and manipulated via the LIBERTY Endovascular Robotic Surgical System.
â€śI am very pleased with the positive outcomes of the histopathology report and the completion of the GLP study,â€ť said Juan Diaz Cartelle, Chief Medical Officer. â€śThis gives us confidence to move forward to the next stage of human clinical studies.â€ť
â€śTodayâ€™s announcement marks another important milestone for the Company, as we continue our transition from R&D and pre-clinical phase into the clinical, regulatory and pre-commercial phase,â€ť commented Harel Gadot, CEO. â€śWe expect to submit our IDE application to the FDA soon and commence our pivotal human clinical trial, completing our transition to a clinically stage company.â€ť
About Microbot Medical
Microbot Medical Inc. (NASDAQ: MBOT) is a pre-clinical medical device company that specializes in transformational micro-robotic technologies, with the goals of improving clinical outcomes for patients and increasing accessibility through the natural and artificial lumens within the human body.
The LIBERTYÂ® Endovascular Robotic Surgical System aims to Improve the way surgical robotics are being used in endovascular procedures today, by eliminating the need for large, cumbersome, and expensive capital equipment. The Company believes the LIBERTYÂ® Endovascular Robotic Surgical Systemâ€™s remote operation has the potential to be the first system to democratize endovascular interventional procedures.
Further information about Microbot Medical is available at http://www.microbotmedical.com.
Statements to future financial and/or operating results, future growth in research, technology, clinical development, and potential opportunities for Microbot Medical Inc. and its subsidiaries, along with other statements about the future expectations, beliefs, goals, plans, or prospects expressed by management, constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and the Federal securities laws. Any statements that are not historical fact (including, but not limited to statements that contain words such as â€świll,â€ť â€śbelieves,â€ť â€śplans,â€ť â€śanticipates,â€ť â€śexpectsâ€ť and â€śestimatesâ€ť) should also be considered to be forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties, including, without limitation, market conditions, risks inherent in the development and/or commercialization of potential products, including LIBERTY, the outcome of its studies to evaluate LIBERTY, whether the Companyâ€™s core business focus program and cost reduction plan are sufficient to enable the Company to continue to focus on its LIBERTY technology while it stabilizes its financial condition and seeks additional working capital, any failure or inability to recruit physicians and clinicians to serve as primary investigators to conduct regulatory studies which could adversely affect or delay such studies, uncertainty in the results of pre-clinical and clinical trials or regulatory pathways and regulatory approvals, disruptions resulting from new and ongoing hostilities between Israel and the Palestinians, such as employees of Microbot and its vendors and business partners being called to active military duty, any lingering uncertainty resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, need and ability to obtain future capital, and maintenance of intellectual property rights. Additional information on risks facing Microbot Medical can be found under the heading â€śRisk Factorsâ€ť in Microbot Medicalâ€™s periodic reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which are available on the SECâ€™s web site at www.sec.gov. Microbot Medical disclaims any intent or obligation to update these forward-looking statements, except as required by law.
In a new study of more than 50,000 Korean adolescents, those who used a smartphone for more than 4 hours per day had higher rates of adverse mental health and substance use. Jin-Hwa Moon and Jong Ho Cha of Hanyang University Medical Center, Korea, and colleagues present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on December 6, 2023.
Study: Association between smartphone usage and health outcomes of adolescents: A propensity analysis using the Korea youth risk behavior survey. Image Credit:Â FotoHelinÂ / Shutterstock
Prior research has shown that smartphone use among adolescents has increased in exact years and that this usage may be associated with a higher risk of adverse health, such as psychiatric disorders, sleep issues, eye-related problems, and musculoskeletal disorders. However, growing evidence suggests that at least some daily internet usage may be associated with better physical and mental health for adolescents.
To deepen understanding of the relationship between adolescents' use of smartphones and health, Moon, Cha, and colleagues analyzed data on more than 50,000 adolescent participants in the ongoing Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected in 2017 and in 2020. The data included the approximate number of daily hours each participant spent on a smartphone and various health measures. The statistical analysis employed propensity score matching to help account for other factors that could be linked to health outcomes, such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status.
The researchers found that in 2020, the percentage of adolescents in the study who used a smartphone for more than 2 hours per day was 85.7 percent, up from 64.3 percent in 2017. Adolescents who used a smartphone for more than 4 hours per day had higher rates of stress, thoughts of suicide, and substance use than those with usage below 4 hours per day. However,Â adolescents who used a smartphone for 1-2 hours per day encountered fewer problems than those who did not use a smartphone at all.
The authors note that this study does not confirm a causal relationship between smartphone use and adverse health outcomes. Nonetheless, the findings could help inform usage guidelines for adolescents-; especially if daily usage continues to rise.
The authors add: "This research shows the impact of using smart devices for more than 4 hours a day on adolescent health."
Funding: This work was supported by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (RS-2023-00267049), and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF2019R1F1A1058704) to J.H.M. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or manuscript preparation.
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