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Exam Code: OG0-093 Practice exam 2023 by Killexams.com team
OG0-093 OG0-093 TOGAF 9 Combined Part 1 and Part 2

Exam Summary

This is a combined TOGAF 9 Part 1 and Part 2 examination for candidates who want to achieve Level 2 certification directly.

Exam Name: TOGAF® 9 Combined Part 1 and Part 2

Exam Number:

OG0-093 - English

OG0-098 - Simplified Chinese

Qualification upon passing: TOGAF 9 Certified

Delivered at: Authorized Examination Provider Test Centers

Prerequisites: None

Supervised: Yes

Open Book: Dependent on section. This examination comprises two separate sections. The TOGAF 9 Part 1 section is CLOSED Book. The TOGAF 9 Part 2 section is OPEN book. An electronic copy of the specification is built into the exam and becomes available in Part 2 only.

Exam type: The exam comprises two sections. Section 1: 40 Simple Multiple Choice questions + Section 2: 8 Scenario Based, Complex Multiple Choice

Number of questions: 48

Pass score: The pass mark for Part 1 is 55%, which means 22 or more points out of maximum of 40 points. For Part 2, the pass mark is 60%, which means 24 or more points out of a maximum of 40 points. Note that you must pass both parts of the exam to achieve an overall pass result. If you fail either part you fail the examination, however you only need retake the examination(s) corresponding to the failed section(s).

Time limit: 150 Minutes total. Each section has a maximum time limit as follows: 60 Minutes on TOGAF 9 Part 1. 90 Minutes on TOGAF 9 Part 2. Once you complete the TOGAF 9 Part 1 section you cannot return to it. There is no break between sections; Part 1 directly follows Part 2.

- The basic concepts of Enterprise Architecture and the TOGAF standard

- The core concepts of the TOGAF 9 standard

- The key terminology of the TOGAF 9 standard

- The ADM cycle and the objectives of each phase, and how to adapt and scope the ADM

- The concept of the Enterprise Continuum; its purpose and constituent parts

- How each of the ADM phases contributes to the success of Enterprise Architecture

- The ADM guidelines and techniques

- How Architecture Governance contributes to the Architecture Development Cycle

- The concepts of views and viewpoints and their role in communicating with stakeholders

- The concept of building blocks

- The key deliverables of the ADM cycle

- The TOGAF reference models

- The TOGAF certification program

- How to apply the ADM phases in development of an Enterprise Architecture

- How to apply Architecture Governance in development of an Enterprise Architecture

- How to apply the TOGAF Architecture Content Framework

- How to apply the concept of Building Blocks

- How to apply the Stakeholder Management Technique

- How to apply the TOGAF Content Metamodel

- How to apply the TOGAF standard recommended techniques when developing an Enterprise Architecture

- The TOGAF Technical Reference Model and how to customize it to meet an organizations needs

- The Integrated Information Infrastructure Reference Model

- The content of the key deliverables of the ADM cycle

- How an Enterprise Architecture can be partitioned to meet the specific needs of an organization

- The purpose of the Architecture Repository

- How to apply iteration and different levels of architecture with the ADM

- How to adapt the ADM for security

- The role of architecture maturity models in developing an Enterprise Architecture

- The purpose of the Architecture Skills Framework and how to apply it within an organization

OG0-093 TOGAF 9 Combined Part 1 and Part 2
The-Open-Group Combined exam Questions
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Six-mark questions are extended open response questions. These require longer answers than the structured questions that have fewer marks. It is wise to plan your answer first by making some notes. This will help you to include all the key points.

To gain full marks, you need to:

  • support explanations using scientific knowledge and understanding
  • use appropriate scientific words
  • write clearly and link ideas in a logical way
  • maintain a sustained line of reasoning

Six-mark questions often use these command words:

  • Describe means you should recall facts, events or processes accurately. You might need to supply an account of what something looked like, or what happened.
  • Explain means you need to make something clear, or state the reasons for something happening.
  • Compare means you need to describe similarities and differences between things. If you are asked to compare X and Y, write down something about X and something about Y, and supply a comparison. Do not just write about X only or Y only.
  • Evaluate means you must use information supplied, or your own knowledge, to consider the evidence for and against or to identify strengths and weaknesses. You must then complete your answer with a conclusion, stating which is better and why, for example.

Six-mark questions may be synoptic questions, which bring together ideas from two or more topics. For example, a question about fertilisers could include ideas about covalent substances, acids and alkalis, chemical calculations, and effects on the environment.

The answers shown here supply marking points as bullet points. You do not usually need to include all of them to gain six marks, but you do need to write in sentences, linking them logically and clearly.

These questions have been written by Bitesize consultants as suggestions to the types of questions that may appear in an exam paper.

Sun, 11 Aug 2019 19:34:00 -0500 en-GB text/html https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/zyndcj6/revision/7
Killexams : Prepare for the CCST Exam
  • The correct answer is D, A/D converter. A digital controller requires a digital signal as its input. A 4-20 mA transmitter outputs an analog signal. Therefore, a device to convert an analog (A) signal to a digital (D) is required. This class of device is referred to as an A/D converter.

    An I/P transducer is used to convert an analog current (I) signal to a pneumatic (P) signal, as for actuation of final control elements. A P/I transducer is used to convert a pneumatic signal (P) to an analog current (I) signal, as for a pneumatic transmitter in a programmable logic controller loop. A DP transmitter is a differential pressure transmitter, which can output a pneumatic, an analog, or a digital signal, depending on the model of transmitter used.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is C, "sample conditioning system." Answers A and C are items not generally associated with extractive field analyzers. Capillary tubes are used for collecting small samples (water, for instance) from a larger container. There are special capillary tubes that can be used in the analyzer chamber of a gas chromatograph, but they are not constructed from glass. Smooth-walled pipe is important for reducing friction losses in piping systems.

    A trial probe calibration system is important to the overall function and maintenance of an extractive field analyzer. However, these systems are not used to prepare the trial for analysis, but rather to provide a mechanism to verify and maintain analyzer performance.

    A trial conditioning system can contain devices, such as filters, demisters, flow regulators, and heaters. trial conditioning systems are used to bring the trial to the ideal process conditions for accurate measurement in the analyzer itself. The trial conditioning system can be a key maintenance item in an analyzer system, since each device needs to be calibrated, cleaned, etc.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is B, "equal to." In order for air to be discharged from the end of a bubbler purge tube, the air pressure in the tube must be equal to (or higher than) the pressure exerted by the liquid head in the tank.

    As the tank level is decreased, the liquid head pressure at the tip of the purge tube decreases, and more bubbles per unit of time can escape. The corresponding reduction in pressure in the purge tube is proportional to the level in the tank. Therefore, the point at which the liquid head pressure and the purge tube pressure are equal is the highest level (URV = 100%) that the device will measure.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is A, "51 K ohms ± 5%."

    The four-color band coding is:
    Color    Value    Multiplier
    Black    0    1
    Brown    1    10
    Red    2    100
    Orange    3    1000
    Yellow    4    10 K
    Green    5    100K
    Blue    6    1 M
    Violet    7    10 M
    Gray    8     
    White    9     
    Gold    ± 5%    0.1
    Silver    ± 10%    0.01

    So a resistor with four bands, green-brown-orange-gold, has a value of: 5 1 x 1000 ± 5% or 51 KΩ.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is D, series and energized. To measure current, you must connect the two leads of the ammeter in the circuit so that the current flows through the ammeter. In other words, the ammeter must become a part of the circuit itself. The only way to measure the current flowing through a simple circuit is to insert your ammeter into the circuit (in series) with the circuit energized.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is A; it prevents the formation of a second temperature measurement junction.

    A thermocouple measurement junction is formed wherever two dissimilar metals are joined. KX-type thermocouple extension wire is made of the same metals as the K-type thermocouple (chromel and alumel). When extending the thermocouple leads with an extension wire back to the control system input card, KX thermocouple extension wire must be used, and the chromel wire and the alumel wire must be joined to the wire of the same metal in the extension cable. If JX or another type of extension wire is used, another measurement junction is formed. For instance, if JX extension cable is used in the example in this problem, the point where the iron and chromel wires are joined would form another thermocouple. This will negatively affect the intended measurement signal. Proper installation of thermocouple extension wires also requires special terminal blocks to prevent additional junctions from being formed.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is B, "hydraulic actuation." Although many pneumatic actuators can provide a large force, they require either a large diaphragm area (in the case of a diaphragm actuator) or a large cylinder (in the case of a rack and pinion actuator).

    Hydraulic actuators are driven by a high-pressure fluid (up to 4,000 psig) that can be delivered to the actuator by a pump that is remote from the actuator itself. Hydraulic cylinders can deliver up to 25 times more force than a pneumatic cylinder of the same size.

    Manual actuation is accomplished by turning a valve handle, and is limited to the amount of force that an operator can exert on the lever or hand wheel.

    Electric actuation delivers high torques for rotary-style valves, but electric actuators tend to be large and heavy compared to hydraulic actuators.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is D; they measure pressure by sensing the deflection of the diaphragm. For most pressure applications, changes in pressure are detected by the change in deflection of a measuring diaphragm.

    The deflection is converted into an electrical signal (voltage) by a piezoelectric or capacitance device. The small electrical current is converted to a standard signal (e.g., 4-20 mA or a digital signal) by a transmitter. Therefore, answer B is not correct.

    Answer A is not correct, because pressure sensors can measure very small pressure changes (inches of water) and in some cases, millimeters of water.

    Pressure measurement devices are not affected by volume, since they are measuring force over an area only. Many pressure sensors are sensitive to temperature (capillary tubes are filled with fluids that can expand with temperature). Therefore, answer C is not correct.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is C, "Gather information about the problem." Once a problem is identified, data must be gathered and analyzed to determine a viable set of potential actions and solutions.

    The logical analysis troubleshooting method consists of (in order):
    1. Identify and define the problem.
    2. Gather information about the problem.
    3. Evaluate the information/data.
    4. Propose a solution or develop a test.
    5. Implement the solution or conduct the test.
    6. Evaluate the results of the solution or test.
    7. If the problem is not resolved, reiterate until the problem is found and resolved.
    8. If the problem is resolved: document, store/file, and send to the appropriate department for follow up if required.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is B, “location, elevation, and tag number.” Instrument location plans are most often used to support new plant installations and supply the installer information about the genuine physical location of the installation of an instrument, the elevation of installation (at grade, on a platform, at what height on a process line, etc.), and the tag number of the instrument to be installed.

    Specification numbers (part of answers C and D) are usually indicated on instrument lists and instrument installation details. Wiring plans (part of answer A) are typically shown on conduit and wiring schedules or cabling diagrams. Although these details are useful in the installation of a plant, they are not part of the instrument installation plans.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • Thu, 02 Dec 2021 09:44:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.isa.org/certification/ccst/prepare-for-the-ccst-exam
    Killexams : Best Enterprise Architect Certifications

    Enterprise IT architect certifications appear most often at the apex of certification programs, where less than 1% of IT professionals ultimately ascend. Even so, many IT architect certifications are available, and you don’t need to invest in one certification sponsor’s vision to reach the top.

    Many IT certifications in this area fall outside vendor umbrellas, which means they are vendor-neutral or vendor-agnostic. Nevertheless, the number of vendor-specific IT certifications exceeds vendor-neutral ones by a factor of more than 2 to 1. That’s why we devote the last section of this article to all such credentials, as we encountered them in search of the best enterprise architect certifications.

    For IT pros who’ve already invested in vendor-specific certification programs, credentials at the architect level may indeed be worth pursuing. Enterprise architects are among the highest-paid employees and consultants in the tech industry.

    What do enterprise architects do?

    Enterprise architects are technical experts who are able to analyze and assess organizational needs, make recommendations regarding technology changes, and design and implement those changes across the organization.

    How much does an enterprise architect earn?

    The national average salary per SimplyHired is $130,150, in a range from $91,400 to a whopping $185,330. Glassdoor reports $133,433 as the average. Ultimately, the value of any IT certification depends on how long the individual has worked and in what part of the IT patch.

    How do I become an enterprise architect?

    Becoming an enterprise architect is not easy. While the requirements may vary by employer, most enterprise architects have a bachelor’s degree or higher in a computer-related field along with 5-10 years of professional work experience. Many enterprise architects obtain additional certifications past graduation.

    Why should I get certified?

    Certifications are a great way to demonstrate to prospective employers that you have the experience and technical skills necessary to do the job and supply you a competitive edge in the hiring process. Certification holders also frequently earn more than their uncertified counterparts, making certifications a valuable career-building tool.

    Which certifications are the best?

    Below, you’ll find our top five certification picks. Before you peruse our best picks, check out the results of our informal job board survey. Data indicates the number of job posts in which our featured certifications were mentioned on a given day. The data should supply you an idea of the relative popularity of each of these certifications.

    Job board search results (in alphabetical order, by certification)

    Certification SimplyHired Indeed LinkedIn Jobs LinkUp Total
    AWS Certified Solution Architect (Amazon Web Services) 1,035 464 2,672 240 4,411
    CTA (Salesforce) 303 787 3,201 353 4,644
    ITIL Master (Axelos) 641 848 1,218 1,119 3,826
    TOGAF 9 (The Open Group) 443 730 271 358 1,802
    Zachman Certified – Enterprise Architect (Zachman) 86 107 631 252 1,076

    AWS Certified Solution Architect

    Making its first appearance on the leaderboard is the Certified Solutions Architect credential from Amazon Web Services (AWS). AWS, an Amazon subsidiary, is the global leader in on-demand cloud computing. AWS offers numerous products and services to support its customers, including the popular Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) and Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). AWS also offers numerous cloud applications and developer tools, including Amazon Comprehend, Amazon SageMaker Batch Transform and Amazon Lightsail.

    AWS offers certifications at the foundation, associate and professional levels across five role-based categories: architect, developer, operations, cloud and specialty certifications. Foundation-level certifications validate a candidate’s understanding of the AWS Cloud and serve as a prerequisite to AWS specialty certifications. Foundation certifications are a recommended starting place for those seeking higher-level credentials.

    Associate credentials typically have no prerequisites and focus on technical skills. They are required to obtain professional-level certifications, which are the highest level of technical certification available. Specialty certs, meanwhile, focus on skills in targeted areas.

    AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate 2019

    AWS currently offers the following credentials:

    • Foundation credentials: AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner
    • Associate credentials: AWS Certified Solutions Architect Associate, AWS Certified Developer and AWS Certified SysOps Administrator
    • Professional: AWS Certified Solutions Architect Professional and AWS Certified DevOps Engineer
    • Specialty: AWS Certified Advanced Networking, AWS Certified Big Data and AWS Certified Security

    The AWS Certified Solutions Architect credential is available at the associate and professional levels. The associate credential targets candidates with at least one year of experience architecting and implementing solutions based on AWS applications and technologies. AWS updated the associate-level exam in February 2018 to include architecture best practices and new services.

    The AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Professional certification targets senior AWS architects who can architect, design, implement and manage complex enterprise-level AWS solutions based on defined organizational requirements. Candidates should have a minimum of two years’ direct experience deploying and designing on the AWS cloud and be able to translate organizational requirements into solutions and recommend best practices. The associate credential is a mandatory prerequisite.

    AWS Certified Solution Architect facts and figures

    Certification name Certified Solution Architect – Associate

    Certified Solution Architect – Professional

    Prerequisites and required courses Associate: One year of hands-on experience recommended, AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner

    Professional: Certified Solution Architect – Associate credential plus a minimum of two years of hands-on experience

    Number of exams Associate: One exam (65 questions, 130 minutes to complete)

    Professional: One exam (170 minutes to complete)

    Certification fees Associate: $150 (practice exam $20)

    Professional: $300 (practice exam $40)

    URL https://aws.amazon.com/certification/
    Self-study materials AWS makes trial questions, practice exams, exam guides, whitepapers and more available on the certification home page.

    CTA: Certified Technical Architect

    In 1999, Salesforce revolutionized the world of CRM when it introduced the concept of using the cloud to provide top-notch CRM software. Today, Salesforce has more than 150,000 customers, making it the industry leader for CRM enterprise cloud platforms. Currently, Salesforce offers solutions for various focus areas, including sales, service, marketing, commerce, engagement, community, productivity (Quip), platform and ecosystem, integration, analytics, enablement, internet of things (IoT), artificial intelligence, mobility, and industry (financial and health).

    To meet industry needs for qualified and experienced professionals with the skills necessary to support its growing customer base, Salesforce developed and maintains a top-tier certification program. It offers many paths to candidates, including for administration, app building, architecture and marketing.

    Salesforce Architect certifications are hierarchical, with most (but not all) lower-level credentials serving as prerequisites for more advanced credentials. At the top of the certification pyramid is the highest credential a Salesforce professional can earn – the Certified Technical Architect (CTA), which is our featured Salesforce certification.

    The Salesforce Architect certification pyramid has three levels:

    • Specializations: These form the bottom tier of the pyramid. Salesforce offers eight specializations, four of which support application solutions, while the other four support system solutions. Application specializations include certifications for Data Architecture and Management Designer, Sharing and Visibility Designer, Platform Developer I, and Platform App Builder. System specializations include Development Lifecycle and Deployment Designer, Identity and Access Management Designer, Integration Architecture Designer, and Platform Developer I credentials.
    • Domain Architect: There are two Salesforce Domain Architect credentials: the Certified Application Architect and the Certified System Architect. The Certified Application Architect designation targets professionals with expert-level knowledge in Salesforce product functionality and features, while the Certified System Architect credential focuses on governance, integration and testing. Both credentials require the candidate to first earn their corresponding specialization certifications in addition to meeting other requirements.
    • Technical Architect: The Certified Technical Architect (CTA) is the highest Salesforce credential available. CTAs are experts in all Salesforce domains and possess skills necessary to design, build and implement Salesforce platform solutions. To earn the CTA, candidates must first obtain both the Certified Application Architect and Certified System Architect credentials or pass a single exam. Candidates must meet experience requirements and pass a rigorous board review, which validates their knowledge and skills in Salesforce competency areas, such as communication, development lifecycle and deployment planning, integration, solution architecture, data, security, and systems architecture.

    Salesforce requires CTAs to maintain current skills. Credential holders must pass maintenance module exams with each new product release cycle (typically in summer, winter and spring). While challenging to earn, the CTA is important for IT professionals who are serious about a Salesforce technologies career.

    CTA facts and figures

    Certification name Certified Technical Architect (CTA)
    Prerequisites and required courses Salesforce Certified Application Architect and Salesforce Certified System Architect credential:
    • Five years of implementation experience (must include development experience across the full software development lifecycle)
    • Three years of experience in an architect role
    • Two years of experience with the Lightning Platform (one year must be in an architect role while implementing Salesforce technologies and applications)
    • Experience as a technical architect on multiple complex deployments OR equivalent knowledge through project participation
    • Additional experience – guiding teams on platform technology; identifying and mitigating technical risks; exposure to project globalization, object-oriented design patterns, platform-specific design patterns and limits; developing code on the Force.com platform; building and addressing security complexities, mechanisms, and capabilities on the Force.com platform as part of a functional security model; knowledge of data migration, design trade-offs and ETL tools, large data volume considerations, risks and mitigation strategies, general mobile solutions and architecture, on-platform mobile solutions, and considerations as well as project and development lifecycle methodologies
    Number of exams One exam (four hours to complete; candidates must formulate, justify and present recommendations based on a hypothetical scenario to a review board)
    Certification fees $6,000

    Retake fee: $3,000

    URL http://certification.salesforce.com/technicalarchitect
    Self-study materials Salesforce maintains links on the certification webpage to numerous review materials, including the online documentation, tip sheets, user guides, exam guide and outline, Architect Journey e-books, Trailhead trails, and the Salesforce Certification Guide.

    ITIL Master Certificate – IT Service Management

    One of our favorite credential sets (and for employers as well, judging by job board numbers) is the ITIL for IT Service Management credentials from Axelos. Axelos is a global provider of standards designed to drive best practices and quality throughout organizations. ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) joined the Axelos family in 2013.

    Axelos manages ITIL credentialing requirements and updates, provides accreditation to Examination Institutes (EIs), and licenses organizations seeking to use ITIL. In addition to ITIL certifications, Axelos offers credentials for Prince2 2017 (which includes Foundation, Practitioner and Agile qualifications), Prince2 Agile, Resilia, MSP, MoP, M_o_R, P30, MoV, P3M3 and AgileSHIFT.

    ITIL is a set of well-defined and well-respected best practices that specifically target the area of IT service management. There are more than 2 million ITIL-certified practitioners worldwide. ITIL is perhaps the most widely known and globally adopted set of best practices and management tools for IT service management and support.

    ITIL Foundation (2011): Complete course and 2 practice exams

    Axelos maintains a robust ITIL certification portfolio consisting of five ITIL credentials:

    • ITIL Foundation: An entry-level credential that validates general ITIL knowledge, including terminology, concepts, elements, services lifecycle and ITIL processes
    • ITIL Practitioner: A steppingstone credential for the Intermediate credential that tests a candidate’s ability to use ITIL principles within their business organization
    • ITIL Intermediate: An industry-recognized qualification with a modular structure, each module focusing on a different aspect of IT service management
    • ITIL Expert: An expert-level credential for candidates who possess broad ITIL knowledge that covers the entire ITIL scheme
    • ITIL Master: The highest ITIL credential from Axelos, targeting professionals who recommend and implement ITIL best practices

    Axelos introduced ITIL 4 in early 2019. ITIL 3 practitioners should check the Axelos website frequently for updates about the transition to ITIL 4 and availability of the ITIL 4 transition modules.

    The ITIL Master is the pinnacle ITIL certification, requiring experience, dedication, and a thorough understanding of ITIL principles, practices, and techniques. To gain the ITIL Master designation, candidates must have at least five years of managerial, advisory or other leadership experience in the field of IT service management. They must also possess the ITIL Expert certification. Once the skill and certification requirements are met, the real certification work begins.

    Upon completing the prerequisites, candidates must register with PeopleCert, the sole approved Axelos Examination Institute, and submit an application. Next, candidates prepare and submit a proposal for a business improvement to implement within their organization. The proposal submission is followed by a “work package,” which documents a real-world project that encompasses multiple ITIL areas.

    The work package (1) validates how the candidate applied ITIL principles, practices, and techniques to the project; and (2) documents the effectiveness of the solution and the ultimate benefit the business received as a result of the ITIL solution. Finally, candidates must pass an interview with an assessment panel where they defend their solution.

    Axelos will soon be sponsoring 50 lucky people in their quest to obtain the ITIL 4 Master certification. You can register your interest in the program here.

    ITIL Master facts and figures

    Certification name ITIL Master Certificate – IT Service Management
    Prerequisites and required courses ITIL Expert Certificate: Five years of IT service experience in managerial, leadership or advisory roles
    Number of exams No exam required, but candidates must complete the following steps:
    • Register with PeopleCert.
    • Submit application.
    • Submit proposal.
    • Submit work package.
    • Attend interview.
    Certification fees $4,440 if all ITIL credits obtained through PeopleCert

    $5,225 if some ITIL credits were obtained from other institutes

    URL https://www.axelos.com/certifications/itil-certifications/itil-master
    Self-study materials Axelos provides documentation to guide candidates in the preparation of proposal and work package submissions. Available documents include ITIL Master FAQs, ITIL Master Proposal Requirements and Scope, and ITIL Master Work Package Requirements and Scope.

    TOGAF 9

    A leader in enterprise architecture, The Open Group’s standards and certifications are globally recognized. The TOGAF (The Open Group Architecture Framework) standard for enterprise architecture is popular among leading enterprise-level organizations. Currently, TOGAF is the development and architecture framework of choice for more than 80% of global enterprises.

    TOGAF’s popularity reflects that the framework standard is specifically geared to all aspects of enterprise-level IT architectures, with an emphasis on building efficiency within an organization. The scope of the standard’s approach covers everything from design and planning stages to implementation, maintenance, and governance.

    The Open Group offers several enterprise architect credentials, including TOGAF, Open CA, ArchiMate, IT4IT and the foundational Certified Technical Specialist (Open CTS).

    The Open Group reports that there are more than 75,000 TOGAF-certified enterprise architects. At present, there are two TOGAF credentials: the TOGAF 9 Foundation (Level 1) and TOGAF 9 Certified (Level 2). (The TOGAF framework is currently based on version 9.2, although the credential name still reflects version 9.)

    The TOGAF 9 Foundation, or Level 1, credential targets architects who demonstrate an understanding of TOGAF principles and standards. A single exam is required to earn the Level 1 designation. The Level 1 exam focuses on TOGAF-related concepts such as TOGAF reference models, terminology, core concepts, standards, ADM, architectural governance and enterprise architecture. The Level 1 credential serves as a steppingstone to the more advanced TOGAF Level 2 certification.

    The TOGAF 9 Certified, or Level 2, credential incorporates all requirements for Level 1. Level 2 TOGAF architects possess in-depth knowledge of TOGAF standards and principles and can apply them to organizational goals and enterprise-level infrastructure. To earn this designation, candidates must first earn the Level 1 credential and pass the Level 2 exam. The Level 2 exam covers TOGAF concepts such as ADM phases, governance, content framework, building blocks, stakeholder management, metamodels, TOGAF techniques, reference models and ADM iterations.

    Candidates wanting a fast track to Level 2 certification may take a combination exam, which covers requirements for both Level 1 and 2. Training is not mandatory for either credential but is highly recommended. Training classes run 2-5 days, depending on the provider and whether you’re taking the combined or single-level course. The Open Group maintains a list of approved training providers and a schedule of current training opportunities on the certification webpage.

    TOGAF 9 facts and figures 

    Certification name TOGAF 9 Foundation (Level 1)

    TOGAF 9 Certified (Level 2)

    Prerequisites and required courses TOGAF 9 Foundation (Level 1): None

    TOGAF 9 Certified (Level 2): TOGAF 9 Foundation (Level 1) credential

    Number of exams Level 1: One exam (40 questions, 60 minutes, 55% required to pass)

    Level 2: One exam (eight questions, 90 minutes)

    Level 1 and 2 combined exam (48 questions, 2.5 hours)

    Certification fees $320 each for Level 1 and Level 2 exams

    $495 for combined Level 1 and Level 2 exam

    Exams are administered by Pearson VUE. Some training providers include the exam with the training course.

    URL http://www.opengroup.org/togaf9/cert/docs/indiv.html
    Self-study materials A number of resources are available from The Open Group, including whitepapers, webinars, publications, TOGAF standards, the TOGAF Foundation Study Guide ($29.95 for PDF; includes practice exam), VCE exam (99 cents for PDF) and the TOGAF 9 Certified Study Guide (a combined study guide is available for $59.95). The Open Group also maintains a list of accredited training course providers and a calendar of training events.

    Zachman Certified – Enterprise Architect

    Founded in 1990, Zachman International promotes education and research for enterprise architecture and the Zachman Framework. Rather than being a traditional process or methodology, the Zachman Framework is more accurately referred to as an “ontology.” Ontologies differ from a traditional methodology or process in that, rather than focusing on the process or implementation, they focus on the properties, types and interrelationships of entities that exist within a particular domain. The Zachman Framework ontology focuses on the structure, or definition, of the object and the enterprise. Developed by John Zachman, this framework sets a standard for enterprise architecture ontology.

    Zachman International currently offers four enterprise architect credentials:

    • Enterprise Architect Associate Certification (Level 1): Candidates must attend a four-day modeling workshop and pass a single exam. The workshop covers key concepts relating to enterprise architecture and the Zachman Framework, case studies, engineering vs. primitive models and manufacturing vs. composite models, and hands-on experience building Framework models. The workshop fee ($3,499) includes the exam and certification fees for Level 1 and Level 2.
    • Enterprise Architect Practitioner Certification (Level 2): Architects must submit case studies of primitive and composite models that address specified management issues. Case studies must pass a referee review.
    • Enterprise Architect Professional Certification (Level 3): Candidates must complete a case study demonstrating primitive (architectural) and composite (implementation) models and complete a referee review. Level 3 credential holders may advertise themselves as “Zachman consultants.”
    • Enterprise Architect Educator Certification (Level 4): Designed for educators, this credential prepares candidates to develop and teach the Zachman Framework. To earn this credential, candidates should go through all educational materials related to the Zachman Framework, develop their own curricula and course materials, and present those materials for review and approval. While this is not required, Zachman recommends that Level 4 candidates obtain the Level 3 Professional designation.

    Zachman credentials are valid for three years. To maintain these credentials, candidates must earn continuing education credits (referred to as EADUs). The total number of EADUs required varies by certification level.

    Zachman Certified – Enterprise Architect facts and figures

    Certification name Enterprise Architect Associate Certification (Level 1)

    Enterprise Architect Practitioner Certification (Level 2)

    Enterprise Architect Professional Certification (Level 3)

    Enterprise Architect Educator Certification (Level 4)

    Prerequisites and required courses Level 1 Associate: Four-day Modeling Workshop ($3,499)

    Level 2 Practitioner: None

    Level 3 Professional: None

    Level 4 Educator: Review all materials related to The Zachman Framework; Level 3 Professional recommended

    Number of exams Level 1 Associate: One exam

    Level 2 Practitioner: No exam; case studies and referee review required

    Level 3 Professional: No exam; case studies and referee review required

    Level 4 Educator: None; must develop and submit curriculum and course materials for review and validation

    Certification fees Level 1 Associate: exam fee included as part of required course

    Level 2 Practitioner: None, included as part of Level 1 required course

    Level 3 Professional: Not available

    Level 4 Educator: Not available

    URL https://www.zachman.com/certification/what-we-certify/enterprise-architect#enterprise-architect-associate-level-1
    Self-study materials Live classroom and distance learning opportunities are available. Zachman also offers webcasts, a glossary, the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture and reference articles.

    Beyond the top 5: More enterprise architect certifications

    The Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) is a great credential, especially for professionals working with Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

    The Project Management Professional (PMP) certification from PMI continues to appear in many enterprise architect job descriptions. Although the PMP is not an enterprise architect certification per se, many employers look for this particular combination of skills.

    Outside of our top five vendor-neutral enterprise architect certifications (which focus on more general, heterogeneous views of IT systems and solutions), there are plenty of architect-level certifications from a broad range of vendors and sponsors, most of which are vendor-specific.

    The table below identifies those vendors and sponsors, names their architect-level credentials, and provides links to more information on those offerings. Choosing one or more of these certifications for research and possible pursuit will depend on where you work or where you’d like to work.

    <td”>EMC Cloud Architect Expert (EMCCAe) <td”>GoCertify </td”></td”>

    Sponsor Enterprise architect certification More information
    BCS BCS Practitioner Certificate in Enterprise and Solutions Architecture BCS homepage
    Cisco Cisco Certified Architect (CCAr) CCAr homepage
    Enterprise Architecture Center of Excellence (EACOE) EACOE Enterprise Architect

    EACOE Senior Enterprise Architect

    EACOE Distinguished Enterprise Architect EACOE Enterprise Architect Fellow

    EACOE Architect homepage
    FEAC Institute Certified Enterprise Architect (CEA) Black Belt

    Associate Certified Enterprise Architect (ACEA) Green Belt

    FEAC CEA homepage
    Hitachi Vantara Hitachi Architect (three tracks: Infrastructure, Data Protection, and Pentaho Solutions)

    Hitachi Architect Specialist (two tracks: Infrastructure and Converged)

    Training & Certification homepage
    IASA Certified IT Architect – Foundation (CITA-F)

    Certified IT Architect – Associate (CITA-A)

    Certified IT Architect – Specialist (CITA-S)

    Certified IT Architect – Professional (CITA-P)

    CITA homepage
    National Instruments Certified LabVIEW Architect (CLA) CLA homepage
    Nokia Nokia Service Routing Architect (SRA) SRA homepage
    Oracle Oracle Certified Master, Java EE Enterprise Architect Certified Master Java EE homepage
    Red Hat Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) RHCA homepage
    SOA (Arcitura) Certified SOA Architect SOA Architect homepage

    These architect credentials typically represent pinnacle certifications within the programs to which they belong, functioning as high-value capstones to those programs in many cases. The group of individuals who attain such credentials is often quite small but comes with tight sponsor relationships, high levels of sponsor support and information delivery, and stratospheric salaries and professional kudos.

    Often, such certifications provide deliberately difficult and challenging targets for a small, highly select group of IT professionals. Earning one or more of these certifications is generally the culmination of a decade or more of professional growth, high levels of effort, and considerable expense. No wonder, then, that architect certifications are highly regarded by IT pros and highly valued by their employers.

    Choosing the right IT architect credential

    Enterprise architect credentials will often be dictated by choices that your employer (or industry sector, in the case of government or DoD-related work environments) have already made independent of your own efforts. Likewise, most of the vendor-specific architecture credentials make sense based on what’s deployed in your work environment or in a job you’d like to occupy.

    Though there are lots of potential choices IT pros could make, the genuine number they can or should make will be influenced by their circumstances.

    Sun, 30 Jul 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10758-best-enterprise-architect-certifications.html
    Killexams : Mastering the SSC CGL exam 2023: Everything You Need to Know about Admit Card, Dates, Eligibility, Salary & Vacancies

    One of the most sought-after exams in India for applicants hoping to work in various government departments and ministries is the Staff Selection Commission Combined Graduate Level (SSC CGL) Exam. Each year, the exam is held to find applicants for B and Group C positions across various government agencies. To enhance your chances of success, it's imperative that you simply fully comprehend the exam format, syllabus, and other crucial elements if you plan to take the SSC CGL exam in 2023.

    The SSC CGL exam 2023 Admit Card

    The Tier 1 test for SSC CGL 2023 will be held from July 14 to July 27. SSC CGL Admit Card 2023 has been released for all regions on July 11, 2023. At test locations all around the nation, the tier 1 exam will be administered in a number of shifts each day. Through the SSC CGL 2023 Exam, around 7500 positions are to be filled this year. By clicking on the link for their specific region and reviewing the comprehensive information about exam day, all candidates who are eligible for the tier 1 exam can now receive their SSC CGL Tier 1 admit card 2023.

    Important Dates for the SSC CGL exam 2023

    The Staff Selection Commission (SSC) conducts the SSC CGL exam in order to fill openings in the Grade "B" and "C" categories in various Government Ministries, Departments, and Offices. There are two phases, or Tiers, to the SSC CGL exam administration. The entire registration and contact process happens online via the SSC's official website. Candidates must pass each phase of the SSC CGL exam before moving on to the final selection stage. From July 14 through July 27, 2023, the SSC CGL 2023 Tier 1 exam will be held.

    Eligibility Criteria for the SSC CGL exam 2023

    Candidates must confirm that they satisfy the Staff Selection Commission's eligibility requirements before submitting an application for the SSC CGL exam 2023. Age restrictions, educational requirements, and nationality are among the eligibility requirements.

    The age range for candidates to be eligible for the SSC CGL exam 2023 is 18 to 32. However, in compliance with government standards, candidates from reserved groups receive age relaxations. Candidates must hold a bachelor's degree from an accredited institution or institute in order to be considered. Depending on the position being applied for, different educational requirements may apply.

    Salary and Benefits of the SSC CGL exam 2023

    The high compensation and benefits provided to chosen candidates are one of the SSC CGL Exam's main draws. Based on the post and level of the position, the SSC CGL exam compensation structure differs.

    Candidates chosen in the SSC CGL exam also benefit from a number of perks, including access to medical facilities, pension plans, and work stability, in addition to the competitive compensation package. The government also offers chances for advancement and career growth depending on performance and experience.

    Vacancies and Job Profiles in the SSC CGL exam 2023

    There are numerous career chances available through the SSC CGL exam in numerous government agencies and ministries. The exam is held to fill openings for a variety of positions, including Assistant Section Officer, Inspector, Tax Assistant, and Auditor.

    Each position has a distinct job description and duties. For instance, while an Inspector is in charge of performing inspections and investigations, an Assistant Section Officer is in charge of administrative chores. Candidates must comprehend job profiles in order to select a position that fits their interests and skill set.

    Tips to Prepare for the SSC CGL exam 2023

    Preparing for the SSC CGL exam 2023 requires a systematic and disciplined approach.

    Understand the exam Pattern: Familiarize yourself with the exam pattern, including the number of sections, marks distribution, and duration of the exam.

    Create a Study Schedule: Develop a study schedule that allows you to allocate sufficient time to each subject and topic. Consistently adhere to the timeline to ensure thorough planning.

    Study Material: Pick the appropriate memorizing material, including books, websites, and test questions from prior years. Refer to trusted sources and focus on understanding concepts rather than memorizing.

    Time Management: Learn time management techniques to effectively complete the exam within the given time. To increase your speed, practise answering questions in the allotted time.

    Conclusion and Final Thoughts

    To succeed in the SSC CGL exam 2023, you need to put in a lot of effort, be committed, and use the proper approach. You can Improve your chances of success by comprehending the exam structure, keeping up with significant dates, fulfilling the qualifying requirements, and efficientlypreparing. Always choose the proper study materials, practice frequently, and utilize your time wisely. You can confidently show up for the SSC CGL exam 2023 and open the door to a prosperous career in the public sector with the appropriate strategy.

    Thu, 17 Aug 2023 06:54:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.siliconindia.com/news/general/mastering-the-ssc-cgl-exam-2023-everything-you-need-to-know-about-admit-card-dates-eligibility-salary--vacancies-nid-224802-cid-1.html
    Killexams : The Upper West Side Therapy Cult That Broke All the Rules

    America loves a therapy story. The Shrink Next Door, based on the podcast of the same name, tells the true story of a therapist who took over a patient’s life so thoroughly that he essentially became his therapist’s servant. Shrinking is a light-hearted dramedy about a therapist who pushes the boundaries of traditional therapy, inviting a patient to live in his house. The Patient stars Steve Carrell as a therapist who gets abducted by a serial killer patient who wants him to talk him out of killing again. There’s the long-running In Treatment, which began in 2008 and had its most recent episodes in 2021. And of course, there are the shows that invite us into genuine therapy sessions—Couples Therapy or the podcast Where Should We Begin with Esther Perel.

    America also loves a cult story. There’s The Vow, about the NXIVM cult and its leader Keith Raniere; there’s Wild Wild Country, about a cult that built a supposedly utopian city in the desert of Oregon; Heaven’s Gate: The Cult of Cults, about the infamous UFO cult that ended with mass suicide in 1997; Jonestown: Terror in the Jungle, about the cult that led to mass murder-suicide in 1978; The Way Down: God, Greed, and the Cult of Gwen Shamblin, about the Remnant Fellowship church and the leader who preached weight loss as a spiritual assignment; Stolen Youth, about the cult at Sarah Lawrence college—and many, many more.

    The Sullivanians: Sex, Psychotherapy, and the Wild Life of an American Commune

    Alexander Stille

    Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 432 pp., $30.00

    I am an avid consumer of these stories; I firmly share America’s fascination. I have often thought that therapy stories hold interest because they invite us into intimacy with other humans that we don’t often access: an active examination is at play, human beings airing their vulnerability, their mistakes, and their hopes. Cult stories seem to exemplify the ways humans crave belief systems: They show how easy it is for people to supply up their will, and perhaps offer viewers a chance to declare themselves exempt, superior—that would never happen to me, I am not so susceptible.

    Alexander Stille’s book The Sullivanians is a therapy story and a cult story combined. It tells the story of a group formed on the Upper West Side of Manhattan beginning in 1953, professing a radical form of psychoanalysis that preached against the nuclear family and encouraged an alternative lifestyle. Over the years the group included Jackson Pollack, Judy Collins, critic Clement Greenberg, and novelist Richard Price, and at its peak had around 300 members.

    The story has the same features as many astonishing cult stories: coercion, sexual abuse, child neglect, extreme paranoia, disowning of families, theft, and kidnapping. But one of the most astonishing aspects of this story is the way it shows the practice of psychotherapy blurring into a form of social control. Perhaps, it suggests, the things that draw a person into an insular community are the same things that many of us also seek in therapy: to find support, to be offered a reflection of ourselves (which, in too many cases, means an ugly picture, as we believe ugly things), and to defy the terribly unsettling fact that we have no control over anything.

    The Sullivan Institute for Research in Psychoanalysis was officially founded in 1957 by Saul Newton and Jane Pearce, then a married couple with two children. Both had worked at the William Alanson White Institute, one of New York’s leading psychoanalytic institutes in the mid-1940s. Pearce, Newton’s fourth wife, was a psychiatrist doing her psychoanalytic training, while Newton, who had no formal training as a therapist, worked in the bursar’s office.

    The White Institute, Stille writes, “had a complicated relationship with the starchy Freudian orthodoxy that dominated the field.” Harry Stack Sullivan, one of its founders, was a hero of Saul Newton’s. Sullivan and his colleagues argued, in contrast to the Freudian focus on internal struggles, that therapists must understand patients “in relation to the other people in their life,” a product of interpersonal relations. The White Institute admitted so-called lay analysts, including Erich Fromm, who had a Ph.D. but not an MD. The Sullivan Institute, in turn, took this still further: Saul Newton never had any degree that would qualify him as a therapist, and others who trained and practiced as therapists in the group didn’t even have college degrees.

    Sullivan died in 1949. Despite his argument that the “self-system” was repressive and that the way out was through relation to other people, Sullivan had stopped short of arguing anyone should break free of the nuclear family and monogamous marriage; Newton and Pearce felt that after Sullivan’s death, “the White Institute did not have the courage to explore the full implications of his ideas.” They wanted to go further than Sullivan ever had to combat the orthodoxy of psychoanalysis. They founded the Sullivan Institute “to test a specific idea of human nature: that nature was nothing and nurture was everything.”

    Their practice was based on the idea that people should follow their desires rather than adapt or conform to what their parents or society expected of them. Parenthood for the Sullivanians (Stille uses this term to refer to the group born out of the Institute, though he acknowledges that no official term exists), “was a kind of death trap from which both parent and child needed to be liberated.” The nuclear family was “the basic unit of capitalist production,” and psychoanalysis as it worked under Freud was only serving to perpetuate the status quo. Newton and Pearce “believed that therapy could carry out a personal revolution in each person by offering a patient the opportunity to reach for the ‘infinities of growth.’” This growth was attainable by means of regular therapy and by practicing free love and unattachment to any single other person, including one’s offspring.

    Sullivan had championed an idea called “chumship” among his patients, encouraging his most troubled patients and those with schizophrenia to live together in all-male group housing, suggesting that community could help with mental distress. Newton and Pearce took this idea further, arguing that their patients could break free of monogamy and the nuclear family by living together in same-sex apartments and avoiding any single “focus” on any one person, including their children, whom they most often sent away to boarding schools. The therapists lived in the group apartments alongside their patients, and they were frequently sleeping with them. There was a “training program,” where specially chosen patients were invited to train to be therapists; it is unclear what the parameters of this training were, and it seems it was mostly a way to create a hierarchy. In therapy sessions, patients were encouraged to break ties with their families, who were portrayed as evil, the source of all ills.

    Patients filled datebooks with sexual encounters and study dates, along with friendship dates, group classes, and “sleepovers”—often with same-sex friends. Every weekend there were parties, “which invariably ended with everyone pairing off and going to bed with someone else. To do otherwise was seen as a refusal to grow.” It is easy to see how appealing all of this was: In the late 1950s and the ’60s, when the group was growing, rebellion against societal strictures was becoming more popular in leftist circles, and the Sullivanians offered a ready-made community that could satisfy all your desires (sexual, political, social) at once.

    Many of the famous people who passed through the group play only cameo roles in the overall story, though the group left lasting marks even on those who were briefly enmeshed. Judy Collins, for example, who remained in Sullivanian therapy for 15 years, wrote about it in her memoir: “I sure got a lot of mileage out of the Sullivanian belief that alcohol was good for anxiety and that having multiple sex partners was a political statement and a healthy lifestyle … Only later, after I had left them, did I realize I had fallen under the spell of a cult.”

    Michael Cohen, who joined as a young man in 1972, was drawn much deeper into the group. He had lost both of his parents by the time he graduated from high school, and he initially entered the group because of its revolutionary politics and because it provided him with friends and an active sex life. Cohen began therapy with Joan Harvey, who in 1972 was Saul Newton’s fifth wife and one of the group’s leaders (Pearce, by this point, was marginalized in the group). Harvey told Cohen repeatedly that he could never survive without therapy—this was one of the group’s most often repeated lines. Without the group, “he would wind up in a mental hospital, or dead, or in prison.” He believed it.

    Harvey, who was Jewish, ridiculed Cohen’s family as “fat, ugly, stupid Jews,” and encouraged him to break off all ties with his one surviving sister (who lived in Israel), which he did. Sullivanian therapists carried out this routine over and over with others—patients wrote letters to break off ties with family members, and therapists watched from the window as patients put their letters in the mailbox. Many members didn’t speak to family for many years; many had parents die while they were in the group, and never saw them again. When Cohen’s sister called, he was “instructed to tell her to ‘fuck off,’ that she was a ‘fascist Zionist pig.’” All of this Cohen did, as he trained to become a therapist just like Harvey, encouraging others to cut off ties with their families in turn. He stayed in the group for more than a decade.

    Like Cohen, DeeDee Agee, daughter of writer James Agee, was young when she joined. In 1971, she was 24 years old, married, and with a 2-year-old son, living an isolated and unhappy life in upstate New York. Her husband was an alcoholic who was frequently away for work. Thanks to therapy, she left her husband and moved into a group apartment, breaking with a family pattern that had repeated over three generations—early death, alcoholism, and a female existence built around the fate of a man. After three years of therapy, her therapist encouraged her to send her son, then 5, away to boarding school. She was told, as were many others, that she was so dangerous to her son that she shouldn’t visit him or spend vacations with him. 

    Eventually, she lost her son in a custody battle with her husband (the judge: “plaintiff … spends more time with her therapist than she does with her son”). In 1982, DeeDee Agee had another child via what the group called a “sperm pool,” whereby a woman would sleep with multiple people during her ovulation period, and the leadership refused her access to the infant, insisting that her breast-feeding was creating dependence in the child, which was ultimately bad for both mother and baby (it should be noted that members of the group’s leadership were always allowed to hang on to their children and used much of the money they pilfered from their patients to send them to fancy Manhattan private schools). 

    Over the decades, the group became more and more insular, more and more leader-driven, more and more abusive and cult-like (although to this day some former members bristle at the classification). On a few occasions the group used violence to defend its turf: In 1985, when the recent college graduates who lived next door to one of the group buildings refused to remove some paint they had spilled on the building, the group broke in and attacked their place, smashing dishes, furniture, sinks, and toilets, and “when one of the young men came over to protest what had happened, one of the men from the group pulled him into the lobby and hit the boy so hard he broke his own wrist.”   

    When the nuclear accident happened at Three Mile Island in 1979, the whole group flew to Florida because the leadership told them New York City was unsafe. During the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, new restrictions were put in place, members were disallowed from sleeping with people outside of the group, as well as from eating any food not prepared by a group member. The Sullivanians became more and more hierarchical, with Saul Newton and the leadership (his fifth and sixth wives and the fifth wife’s new husband, a long-time Sullivanian therapist) enjoying rights denied to other members and buying real estate with members’ money, while members worked multiple jobs to be able to stay in the group. 

    Saul Newton appears to have abused his patients over the entire course of the group’s existence, demanding oral sex during therapy sessions, fondling young girls, and as the years went on, erupting into maniacal rages, all the while taking money from his patients. By the late 1980s he was showing signs of dementia, and his demands were even more out of control; his sixth wife and fellow group leader Helen Moses, no longer interested in sex with him, would send him young women to occupy him. In one particularly horrifying story, Newton forced a young group member to move out of her apartment when she was six months pregnant, the stress of which caused her to deliver her baby prematurely. Upon returning from the hospital, she reported to therapy, and Newton made her perform oral sex on him. Instead of having an orgasm, he defecated in his pants.

    The group’s attitude toward the nuclear family has left a long trail. In 2019, dozens of kids who were born in the group, never knowing who their parents were, banded together to share genetic data. Major custody battles ensued—Stille takes a lot of material from court transcripts—including one case in which a father who left the group spent years fighting for custody of his twin girls, only to find out many years later that he was not their biological father at all. Michael Cohen, who participated in two different “sperm pools,” learned he had two biological children he hadn’t known about. Stille asks him how it was possible that he could have had sex with ovulating women and then not even consider that their offspring could be his.

    In one of these encounters, Cohen participated willingly, with fond feelings and a genuine desire to help; in the other case, the experience was a horror. He was made to sleep with Helen Moses, Saul Newton’s sixth wife, under extreme duress. Cohen’s therapist, Joan Harvey (Newton’s fifth wife), pushed him to do it, but Cohen resisted; then Newton himself intervened, screaming, threatening Cohen, saying he would kick him out of the group if he didn’t. Cohen, afraid “he would be a homeless, penniless, friendless, unemployed twenty-three-year-old with no family and no direction,” eventually acquiesced, but was so disturbed he couldn’t perform until he calmed himself with drugs. Years later—he was able by then to call it rape—it shocked Cohen to realize this happened within a year of his entering the group, and yet, he still went on to become a true believer in the group’s philosophy.

    Stille’s book and the story of the Sullivanians raise questions about just what we are seeking when we go to a therapist for help. I know I have been frustrated by therapists who offer no solutions or advice, who simply validate my confusion. Is that all you can do to help me? There is something inherently unsatisfying in responsibly practiced therapy and therapy narratives, which are often open-ended and undirected (some of the popular depictions play with this frustration: In Shrinking, for instance, the therapist breaks traditional rules to tell his patients what he actually thinks). Perhaps many of us would like our therapy to be more directed; we would like, in fact, to be told what to do.

    The story Stille tells shows the risks of handing over control of one’s life. A therapist tells a female patient to “shut your mouth and open your legs.” Therapists were forbidding new mothers to breastfeed their children for more than 20 minutes at a time, then for no more than seven, and then forbidding them to see their babies at all. That the group met its end when brutal custody battles in the 1990s exposed many abuses is a rather tidy irony. Being told what to do often does not solve our problems. Forcibly cutting off families, removing children from their parents, bucking the nuclear family with violence only led to more conflict—none of it examined.

    As Stille shows, many of the former members struggled for decades after the group dissolved with the choices they had made and with the legacy of those choices. DeeDee Agee, in a letter to her son 25 years later, wrote, “We believed that we are all more alike than different, that nurture trumps nature every time, and it wasn’t such a big leap to the notion that it was of no account who your biological father was.” Replying to her son’s suggestion to move on from what happened, she added, “The past is alive in us always, all the more so when we try to ignore it or forget. It calls for attention like a phantom limb. Sometimes it’s more real, more potent than the present.”

    It seems to me that it’s in the space between these two assertions that many of our struggles lie. We are many of us haunted by the past, even as we try to tell ourselves it doesn’t matter, that it is the present that matters most. We are haunted, too, just as much by the questions we don’t know the answer to as those we do. Even if nurture trumps nature, we still want to know who we are in every way that we can; we still want to understand our origins, and why we make the choices that we make, especially when those choices lead us down bewildering paths. Maybe this, actually, is what we need therapy for. 

    Wed, 16 Aug 2023 22:04:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://newrepublic.com/article/173520/upper-west-side-therapy-cult-broke-rules-stille-sullivanians-review
    Killexams : Can Oxford and Cambridge Save Harvard From ChatGPT?

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is capable not just of disrupting higher education but of blowing it apart. The march of the smart machines is already well advanced. AI can easily pass standardized tests such as the GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test) and the GRE (Graduate Record Examination) required by graduate schools. AI received a 3.34 GPA (grade point average) in a Harvard freshman course and a B grade on the final exam of a typical core Wharton Business School MBA course. 

    What can be done to avoid a future in which AI institutionalizes cheating and robs education of any real content? This question is stirring an anxious debate in the university world, not least in the United States, a country that has long been a pacemaker in higher education and technology, but one that is losing confidence in its ability to combine equity with excellence. With the return to campus nigh, the Washington Post warns of an autumn of “chaos” and “turmoil.” This debate should also be coupled with another equally pressing one: What does the ease with which machines can perform many of the functions of higher education as well as humans tell us about the deficiencies of the current educational model?

    One solution to the problem is to ban students from using AI outright. Sciences Po in Paris and RV University in Bangalore are taking this draconian approach. But is trying to ban a technology that is rapidly becoming ubiquitous realistic? And is it a good preparation for life after university to prevent students from using a tool that they will later rely on in work? The banners risk making the same mistake as Socrates who, in Plato’s Phaedrus, opposed writing things down on the grounds that it would weaken the memory and promote the appearance of wisdom, not true wisdom.

    A more realistic solution is to let students use AI but only if they do so responsibly. Use it to collect information or organize your notes or check your spelling and facts. Refrain from getting it to write your essays or ace your tests. But this raises practical questions of how you draw the line. How do you tell if students have merely employed it to organize their notes (or check their facts) rather than write their essays? And are you really doing research if you get a bot to do all the work and then merely fluff the material into an essay?

    The “use it responsibly” argument opens the possibility of an academic future that is a cross between an arms race and a cat-and-mouse game. The arms race will consist of tech companies developing ever more sophisticated cheating apps and other tech companies developing even more sophisticated apps to conceal the cheating. The cat-and-mouse game will consist of professors trying to spot the illicit use of AI and students trying to outwit them.

    Neither approach seems to work, particularly for spotting cheating, let alone eliminating it. Open AI, the maker of ChatGPT, unveiled an app that was supposed to expose AI-generated content this January only to scrap it quietly because of its “low rate of accuracy.” Another company, Turnitin.com, has discovered that bots frequently flag human writing as being AI generated. A professor at Texas A&M, Jared Mumm, used ChatGPT to check whether his students might have been using the system to write their assignments. The bot claimed authorship and the professor held up his students’ diplomas until they provided Google Docs timestamps showing that they had actually done the writing. It turns out that ChatGPT is over enthusiastic in its claims of authorship.

    So, what can be done to prevent educational Armageddon? The best answer lies not in fine-tuning machines — the solution to the problems of technology seldom lies in more technology but in adopting a teaching method that goes back to Plato and Socrates and has been perfected in Oxford and Cambridge over the past 150 years: the tutorial method. Call it the Oxbridge solution.

    In Oxbridge students meet once a week individually or in a group of two (or on rare occasions three) with their tutors. The tutor sets them an essay question and provides them with a memorizing list. The students do the necessary memorizing on their own, write their essays, and then either submit them to their tutors (the preferred method in the days of email) or else read them aloud (the method in my day). The tutors then probe the essays for weaknesses. What did you mean when you said that? What about X, or Y, or Z? Why didn’t you take Professor Snodgrass’s views into consideration? (Or alternatively, if the student relied too heavily on Snodgrass, why didn’t you recognize that Snodgrass, though a dear colleague, is a blithering idiot?) The tutorial partner is also obliged to join in with the discussion in the same spirit of testing hypotheses, looking for alternative explanations or generally playing with ideas.

    The spirit of the tutorial is both gladiatorial and egalitarian. Knowledge is contested. Debate is of the essence. Authorities are there to be dethroned. Tutors happily concede arguments to their pupils if the pupils get the better of them. “A good tutorial should be a sparring match” not a “substitute for a lecture” pronounced Dacre Balsdon, a fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, from 1927 to 1969.

    The students’ grade is determined by high-stakes exams that involve writing essays at speed and under exam conditions; these are then marked by an alien caucus of examiners appointed by the university (perhaps Snodgrass will be among them). The tutors compete to get the best results for their pupils, and the colleges compete to get the best collective performance. There have recently been moves to lighten the burden of examinations — letting pupils type rather than write, and introducing theses as well as examinations. But AI may have the paradoxical effect of strengthening the role of old-fashioned hand-written exams. Sometimes the best way forward is backwards.

    It would be hard to think of a system that is better designed to expose the over-reliance on AI. A pupil who had the chatbot compose the essay verbatim — or who had the bot do the memorizing and simply fluffed up the essay — would immediately be exposed under cross-examination as a fraud. The point of the essay is not merely to answer the question and get a mark. It is to start a discussion in which your understanding of the memorizing is examined. Fail to do the memorizing and you are destined to spend an uncomfortable hour being pulverized by a skillful sparring partner.

    Tutorials don’t just expose cheating. They expose the illusion that AI can do the work of real education. Real education is not just about the assembling of facts into plausible patterns. Nor is it about the accumulation of marks and the awarding of certificates. It is about the open-ended exploration of ideas and, as a reward, admission into the world of learning and argument.

    The great Oxford historian-cum-philosopher-cum archeologist, R. G. Collingwood, captured the difference between real learning and AI-generated pseudo learning in his 1939 Autobiography, in the context of historical writing. He denounced “scissors-and-paste” history that consisted of the rearrangements of the statements of various authorities as pointless. The real historian doesn’t engage in such futility. Instead, he concentrates on finding “something that has got the answer hidden in it” and concentrates on getting “the answer out by fair means or foul.” The aim of tutorials is to get beyond “scissors and paste” — the world of AI — and get the answer out by interrogating the literature and debating with fellow scholars.

    The (admittedly self-satisfied) history of the University of Oxford (published in eight volumes by Oxford University Press) describes tutorials as “the hyphen which joined, the buckle which fastened senior to junior members.” By fastening senior to junior members, tutorials also add a moral element to education. This moral element is a safeguard against cheating: There is all the difference in the world between trying to fool an impersonal educational bureaucracy and trying to fool a tutor whom you meet personally in both educational and social contexts. But the tutorial is much more than that — “a gymnasium for the personality,” as the theater critic Kenneth Tynan put it, or perhaps even “a cure for souls” as the don Kenneth Leys ventured.

    The best tutors can serve as both role models and moral guardians. They might also act as life-long mentors, opening doors to jobs, acting as sounding boards, offering advice and getting their proteges out of various pickles.

    The opening of doors and unpickling of pickles underlines the ability of the tutorial system to prepare students for later life as well as adorn universities. It teaches people three of the most important skills that they need in most high-profile professions: how to present arguments under pressure, illustrating big points with vivid facts; how to absorb mountains of information in short order; and how to make fine judgments about the plausibility of various explanations. It also teaches people something that is just as useful outside your career as within it: the ability to learn and think independently — to act, as it were, as your own teacher.

    The AI revolution may thus have a salutary impact on US education, where the “scissors and paste” approach has conquered even the most elite institutions. American universities emphasize the “sage on the stage” pronouncing from on high (you must wait until graduate school to establish anything like a close relationship with these demi-gods). The transmission of knowledge is tested by routine exams that are usually marked by graduate students, or by multiple-choice questions that can be marked by machines.

    Every stage of this process is open to disruption by AI. The lectures can be replaced by better lectures available on the internet. The essays can be churned out by AI. The tests can be taken by machines as well as marked by them. The progressive mechanization of the system by elite professors trying to devote as much of their time as possible to research may finally have reached its Waterloo in the form of AI. The only way forward is to increase the human element in education.

    The obvious objection to introducing tutorials into US education is that they are expensive — tutors must devote 12 or more hours a week to teaching and class-student ratios are reduced to 2-to-1. But Ivy League universities make Oxford and Cambridge look like paupers. They can also afford to lavish money on athletic facilities and vast administrative cadres, both of which have nothing to do with education and one of which arguably impedes it.

    State universities may have a better case about money — particularly the local universities below the state flagships which specialize in providing a meat-and-potatoes education to less gifted students. But even here AI will demand an increase in the human touch. Flagship universities could introduce tutorials as a reward for the most talented students. Local universities will have to insist that their professors adapt their teaching to the AI age — shifting from lectures to seminars and setting more demanding essays.

    American universities became world-beating institutions in the late 19th and early 20th centuries because they combined the best of the two available university systems: Oxford and Cambridge with their residential colleges and tutorial system, and German universities with their obsession with research. Harvard and Yale introduced houses that functioned like Oxbridge colleges and experimented with the tutorial system. Johns Hopkins and the University of Chicago increased the emphasis on research.

    The Germanic model eventually won out over the Oxbridge model. Professors were subjected to a regime of publish or perish and thus spent most of their time learning more and more about less and less. Universities became more hierarchical and more bureaucratic: The aim of the ambitious academic was to become a big-name professor who was too busy flying to conferences and cultivating disciples to meet any undergraduates. Many Oxbridge academics looked at these pampered creatures with envy — Max Beloff complained that “we keep our best historians tied to the routine tasks of giving individual tuition to those unworthy of it.” But the price of such pampering was that the pastoral side of universities — mentoring students and shaping their moral lives — was either ignored or left to bureaucrats.

    This system not only short-changed the undergraduates who ended up paying more and more for less and less contact with the tenured faculty. It also ended up producing a lot of useless research. Research might be the gold standard of the hard sciences, which end up not only pushing forward the frontiers of knowledge but also producing practical knowledge. But what about literary studies where the primary goal is surely to educate people’s sensibilities rather than produce yet another article for an obscure academic journal? And what about the proliferation of various “studies” whose aim is to promote an ideological agenda rather than either advance knowledge or solve practical problems?

    The supposed threat from AI should be treated as an opportunity to recalibrate US higher education away from the research-centered Teutonic model and back to the human-centered Oxbridge model — and away from producing research and back toward training in thinking. The British prime minister Harold Macmillan recounted the educational philosophy of his ancient philosophy tutor at Balliol, J. A. Smith, before the First World War. Smith said that “a few — I hope a very few — will become teachers and dons.” For the rest, what they would learn at Balliol would be pointless except for one thing — “you should be able to detect when a man is talking rot, and that, in my view, is the main, if not the sole, purpose of education.” There is no better technique for teaching us to recognize the talking of rot than the tutorial system. And there is no time in history, given the proliferation of charlatan politicians, shady intellectuals and dubious management gurus, all empowered by AI bots, when the ability to spot “rot” has been more important.

    More From Bloomberg Opinion:

    • CEOs Must Soldier On Even as AI Anxieties Loom: Adrian Wooldridge

    • Your Future AI Will Have Multiple Personalities: Parmy Olson

    • AI Will Supercharge Productivity. But Will Workers Benefit?: Nir Kaissar

    For more Bloomberg Opinion, subscribe to  our newsletter .

    This column does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the editorial board or Bloomberg LP and its owners.

    Adrian Wooldridge is the global business columnist for Bloomberg Opinion. A former writer at the Economist, he is author, most recently, of “The Aristocracy of Talent: How Meritocracy Made the Modern World.”

    More stories like this are available on bloomberg.com/opinion

    Tue, 22 Aug 2023 20:45:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2023/08/23/can-oxford-and-cambridge-save-harvard-from-chatgpt/71bd07ae-416c-11ee-9677-53cc50eb3f77_story.html
    Killexams : Ohioans on both sides regroup after defeat for anti-abortion side in first referendum

    Ohioans on both sides of the abortion debate are looking toward November's vote to enshrine abortion rights in the state constitution after anti-abortion advocates on Tuesday lost their push to increase the threshold to pass a referendum amendment.

    "I think this just is really going to bring our base together more and make us realize how much more we need to be messaging to all Ohioans and really broadening our base of support," Amy Natoce of Protect Women Ohio, the lead anti-abortion group in the state, told the Washington Examiner.


    Ohioans voted in a special election on Tuesday on Issue 1, whether to require a super majority of 60% popular vote to add an amendment to the state constitution. The final results showed a 57-43 opposition to Issue 1 after over 3 million ballots had been tabulated.

    "Our pro-life grassroots base is incredible. They carried this fight in August," Natoce affirmed. November, however, must be "a matter of bringing everybody into the fold because every single parent should be concerned about this amendment. Every single woman should be concerned about this amendment."

    Supported by the American Civil Liberties Union and Planned Parenthood, November's amendment prohibits the state from acting in a way that would, “directly or indirectly, burden, penalize, prohibit, interfere with, or discriminate against” individual exercise or assistance in obtaining abortion and contraception access. Although the amendment allows the state legislature to regulate abortion after fetal viability, the amendment still allows a physician to determine that an abortion is in the best health interest of the mother past that point.

    The amendment also would invalidate existing parental consent laws and certain safety regulations for abortion clinics, such as required hospital admittance privileges and proximity to an emergency room.

    Secretary of State Frank LaRose, a Republican running for the Buckeye State's open Senate seat in 2024, was a vocal supporter of Issue 1 and remains against this November's abortion amendment.

    "Ohioans will see the devastating impact of this vote soon enough," LaRose posted in a statement on social media platform X, formerly known as Twitter. "I've said for months now that there's an assault coming on our constitution, and that hasn't changed. I'm just getting started in the fight to protect Ohio's values."

    Abortion rights advocates, by contrast, are taking the Issue 1 vote as a sign that they have rallied even greater support for the November vote.

    "The voices of Ohioans will never be silenced. Ohioans will now turn their focus to protecting their right to access abortion and to once again rejecting extremism and government control," said the state's top pro-abortion rights organization, Ohioans United for Reproductive Rights. "Ohioans still have a voice and an opportunity this November to ensure families have the freedom to make decisions that are best for them, free from government meddling and interference."

    "Just 90 days till we secure abortion access for all Ohioans in November," said Jordan Close, deputy director of Ohio Women's Alliance, another pro-abortion rights advocacy organization.

    In August 2022, voters in Kansas struck down a proposed constitutional amendment that would have given the state legislature the opportunity to act to restrict abortion access by explicitly stating that the constitution did not recognize the right to an abortion. Since then, Kansas has become a prime destination for those out of state traveling to obtain an abortion, with nearly 69% of the over 12,000 abortions in Kansas being from out-of-state residents.

    Natoce also said that it is a "tremendous concern" that November's amendment will make Ohio another destination in the Midwest for traveling to obtain an abortion.

    The amendment states that "it would protect anybody any third party that assists somebody with obtaining an abortion," Natoce said. This, combined with the removal of parental consent, "means we would now be seeing, you know, a teacher, a soccer coach, a predator. Anybody could take an underage girl to get an abortion with no questions asked, and they will face no repercussions."

    "That is a major concern that it will be harder to find and to prosecute predators," Natoce said.


    Abortion rights advocates, however, fear that not passing the amendment will eventually result in the abolition of abortion entirely.

    "All year, hundreds of thousands Ohioans have been fighting for their reproductive freedom, volunteering, talking to their neighbors, and signing our ballot petition to protect abortion rights," Ohioans United for Reproductive Rights said. "Ohioans know that if we don’t succeed, the government will have the power to ban abortion completely, even in cases of rape, incest, or when someone’s life is in danger. Our grassroots movement across Ohio is continuously growing, and we will be working hard every day to ensure their voices are heard in November."

    Wed, 09 Aug 2023 08:38:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/policy/healthcare/ohio-pro-anti-abortion-regroup-issue-1
    Killexams : Data dive: What spending more money on elections means for voter turnout No result found, try new keyword!Kansas voter turnout is generally higher in counties with bigger election office budgets, but questions remain on how to best spend it. Mon, 21 Aug 2023 23:00:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ Killexams : Can Oxford and Cambridge save Harvard from AI's educational Armageddon Killexams : Access Denied

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