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OG0-092 TOGAF 9 Part 2 thinking |

OG0-092 thinking - TOGAF 9 Part 2 Updated: 2023

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OG0-092 TOGAF 9 Part 2

TOGAF® 9 Part 2 Exam

Exam Summary

Exam Name: TOGAF® 9 Part 2 Exam

Exam Number:

OG0-092 - English

OG0-095 - Brazilian Portuguese

OG0-097 - Simplified Chinese

OG0-F92 - French

OG0-S92 - Latin American Spanish

Qualification upon passing: TOGAF 9 Certified

Delivered at: Authorized Examination Provider Test Centers

Prerequisites: TOGAF 9 Foundation or a pass of the TOGAF 9 Part 1 exam on the same day at the same test center

Supervised: Yes

Open Book: Yes, an electronic copy of the TOGAF 9 Standard is built into the exam. No hardcopy books may be used at test centers. (*)

Exam type: Scenario Based, Complex Multiple Choice

Number of questions: 8

Pass score: 60% (24 out of 40 points)

Time limit: 90 minutes (**)

Retake policy: If you fail the test you must wait one month before another attempt

Examination Fee: See Fees
TOGAF 9 Part 2
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OG0-092 TOGAF 9 Part 2
OG0-093 OG0-093 TOGAF 9 Combined Part 1 and Part 2
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TOGAF 9 Part 2
Question #71 Section 1
You are serving as the Lead Architect for an Enterprise Architecture project team within a multinational oil and gas
corporation. It is organized into two major business groupings:
Upstream operations which include exploration for crude oil and natural gas and operating the infrastructure
necessary to deliver oil and gas to the market
Downstream operations which include the manufacturing, distribution and marketing activities for oil products
and chemicals. Safety is a priority for the company, with the aim to ensure it causes zero harm to people and the
environment. The company has to satisfy the regulatory requirements of each of the countries it operates in.
The downstream business generates a third of the company's profits worldwide and includes more than 30,000
petrol stations and various oil refineries. In some countries it also includes oil refining, a retail petrol station
network, lubricans manufacture and marketing, industrial fuel and lubricans sales. The practice for the downstream
business has been to operate locally, managed by local "operating companies".
The Governing Board is concerned about the risk posed by operating in this complex global environment with a
large part of the downstrean business represented by local operating companies. As a result, the Chief Executive
Officer (CEO) has appoimted a Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) to be responsible for overseeing and managing
compliance issues to the corporation. The CCO reports directly to the CEO.
The CCO has approved the expenditure of resources to establish an Enterprise Architecture program, and has
mandated the use of the TOGAF standard as the framework. He has requested to be
You have been asked to recommend an approach that would enable the development of an architecture that
addresses the needs of the Chief Compliance
Officer, legal staff, auditors and the local operating companies.
Based on the TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2, which of the following is the best answer?
A. You recommend that an analysis of the stakeholders is undertaken, including development of a
Stakeholder Map. This will allow the architects to define groups of stakeholders who have common concerns.
The concerns and relevant viewpoints should then be defined for each group of stakeholders, and recorded in
the Architecture Vision document.
B. You recommend that the ArchiMate modeling language is used to create a set of models that can be
applied uniformly across all architecture projects. Each architecture should then be defined based on this
fixed set of models. All concerned parties can then examine the models to ensure that their needs have been
C. You recommend that a set of models be created for each project architecture that can be used to ensure
that the system will be compliant with the local regulations. A formal review should be held with the
stakeholders to verify that their concerns have been properly addressed by the models.
D. You recommend that a Communications Plan be created to address the powerful and influential
stakeholders. This plan should include a report that summarizes the key features of the architecture with
respect to each location and reflect the stakeholders' requirements. You will check with each stakeholder that
their concerns are being addressed.
Answer: B
Question #72 Section 1
You are working as a consultant to the Chief Architect at an intelligent and security organization responsible for
securing government communications and information systems. These provide real-time, highly secure
communication of voice, video, and message data to remove locations around the world. The agency has recently
received information from intelligence sources that the current encryption protocols may no longer be secure. In
response, a program is underway to upgrade the systems.
The agency has an established Enterprise Architecture (EA) capability based on the TOGAF standard. The
Executive Director of the agency is the sponsor of the
EA capability.
Since reliable, high-preformcane, and secure communications are essential to be preserving national security, the
Executive Director has placed stringent requirements for the architecture of the upgraded systems. It must be able
to provide assurance of the upgraded systems. It must be able to provide assurance and verification of specific
performance measures on the key services that are most crucial for system operation. Focusing on these service-
level details and specific measurements will allow stricter requirements to be enforced in service contracts. It will
also provide a high degree of assurance that necessary performance is being delivered and that notifications will
occur if any critical service fails to perform as required.
A portion of the program budget has been allocated to conduct a review of the EA. The scope of the review is to
evaluate the processes, content, and governance of the EA capability to ensure that the higher target performance
and service levels required by the upgraded system can be achieved.
The Chief Architect has noted that the core EA artifacts that have been in use are not able to describe these new
capabilities. The artifacts do not have explicit provisions for defining the in-depth measurement requirements
regarding specific services required for the system. She has learned that certain services within the current system
have service measurement implemenations that match some of the new requirements, but they are only used in a
few areas.
Recent EA efforts at another national agency have produced generalized high-performance communication system
models to realize similar requirements in a critical defense system involving secure communications. It is possible
that these models may be useful for the upgrade program.
[Note: You may need to refer to the Content Metamodel chapter, section 30.4 (located in Part IV) of the reference
text in order to answer this question.]
You have been asked to make recommendations for tailoring the Architecture Content Metamodel to accommodate
the requirements of the upgraded system.
Based on the TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2, which of the following is the best answer?
A. You recommend that the motivation and governance extensions are incorporated into the Architecture
Content Metamodel. Using these extensions will allow modeling the goals, objectives and drivers for the
architecture, linking them to servive levels and more detailed governance models. This will also enable the
ability to re-use existing profiles, customizing them for the various service contracts involved.
B. You recommend that a Communications Engineering view is created using the infrastructure
consolidation extension from the Architecture Content Metamodel. This view will allow architects to align
the needed performance measurement communications across the system. This will support the stringent
performance measurements needed for the more detailed governance views required for the upgraded system,
making the interfaces to the communication and network layer of the architecture highly visible at the
application level.
C. You recommend all of the extensions be incorporated into the Architecture Content Metamodel. The full
Content Metamodel will enable the EA team to capture and categorize all the important additional data neded
to support the performance and measurement objectives linked to these artifacts. Once the new repository
content has been implemented, on-demand queries can be used to generate a customized governance
stakeholder view that isolated the artifacts and data needed to assess measurement for any particular service.
If this view is found to be inadequate for the governance concerns, the servie models within those artifacts
can be expanded.
D. You recommend that the services extension be incorporated into the Architecture Content Metamodel. By
using this extension, the service model is no longer constrained by what is expected in typical business
service defintions, allowing more flexibility for adding customized models to support the more stringent
measurement requirements. The services extension can also be used to map terminology between the
business services and the application components.
Answer: D
Question #73 Section 1
You are serving as an Enterprise Architect at a large aerospace company. It designs, manufactures and sells civil
and military aviation products worldwide and manufactures in multiple countries both inside and outside of the
European Union. The company has grown rapidly by acquisition and has inherited numerous different procurement
processes and related IT systems.
Recently, several procurement processes, within the civil aviation business, have had problems related to the timing
of purchases, which has led to excess inventory. The Vice President in change of Supply Chain Management has
made the decision to consolidate and reduce redundant procurement processes and systems. He has committed to
the CEO that the business will move to a "Just-in-time" procurement system so as to keep inventory costs low.
The TOGAF standard is used for internal Enterprise Architecture activities. At presents, there are no architectural
assets in the Architecture Repository related to this initiative. All assets will need to be acquired, customized, or
created from scratch. The company prefers to implement commercial off the shelf package applications with little
customization. The CIO, who is the project sponsor, has stated that she is not concerned about preserving the
existing procurement processes or systems.
This project is using an iterative approach for executing the Architecture Development Method (ADM). The
architecture development project has completed the
Architecure Vision Phase and has started a number of iteration cycles to develop the Architecture. As a packeged
application is being considered, the next iteration will include both the Business and Application Architectures.
Stakeholder concerns that should be addressed by these architectures include:
1. What groups of people should be involved in procurement-related business processes?
2. What applications will these groups use once the architecture development is complete?
3. What non-procurement applications will need to be integrated with the new procurement applications?
4. What are the dependencies between the non-procurement and the new procurement applications?
[Note: You may need to refer to the Architectural Artifacts chapter, section 31.6 (located in Part IV) within the
reference text in order to answer this question.]
You have been asked to identify the most appropriate catalogs, matrices, and diagrams to support the next iteration
of Architecture development.
Based on the TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2, which of the following is the best answer?
A. You would describe the Baseline Business Architecture with an Organization/Actor catalog, a Business
Service/Function catalog, and a Data Entity/Business Function matrix. You would describe the Baseline
Application Architecture with an Application Portfolio catalog and an Application/Function matrix.
B. You would describe the Target Business Architecture with a Business Service/Function catalog, an
Organization/Actor catalog, and Data Lifecycle diagrams. You would describe the Target Application
Architecture with Application Communication diagrams, an Application Interaction matrix, and an
Application Portfolio catalog.
C. You would describe the Target Business Architecture with a Business Interaction matrix, and a Business
Service/Function catalog. You would describe the Target Application Architecture with an Application
Communication diagram, an Application/Organization matrix, an Application Interaction matrix and an
Interface catalog.
D. You would describe the Baseline Business Architecture with a Baseline Business Process catalog, and an
Object lifecycle catalog. You would describe the Baseline Application Architecture with an Interface catalog
and a Technology Portfolio catalog.
Answer: B
Question #74 Section 1
Your role is that of Lead Enterprise Architect for a chain of convenience stores. The chain includes over 15,000
retail outlets throughout the Asia-Pacific region.
Each store in the chain is an independently owned and operated franchise. The stores operate 24 hours a day and 7
days a week. Many of the stores have been wirh the franchise for more than 10 years and still use the original IT
systems deployed at that time.
The CEO of the chain has stated his concerns about the inefficiencies of the current systems and identified the need
to change. He has defined a new strategic vision that will enhance the business by providing its franchisees new
services to help them complete with other retail outlets and online retailers. This strategy is part of the long-term
commitment to enhance the brand image and increase revenue for the chain. He has also stated that he expects
improved financial results by the end of the current fiscal year.
The changes will help provide the chain with improved products, and more efficient operations. The stores will also
act as delivery and return locations for a large online retailer which will further increase the number of potential
customers. The addition of a corporate-wide data warehouse will provide analytics that will enable the marketing
group to Improve its ability to target advertising and new products to specific regions.
The chain has a mature Enterprise Architecture practice based in its headquarters and uses the TOGAF standard as
the method and guiding framework. The CIO is the sponsor of the activity.
The Chief Architect engaged the services of a leading consulting firm that specializes in business strategy. An
initial study has been conducted to identify the strategic changes needed to implement the CEO's vision. This
recently completed with approval of a strategic architecture encompassing the entire chin, including detailed
requirements and recommendations.
Based on the recommendations from the initial study, the decision for the chain to adopt a packegd suite of
integrated applications that is tailored to the needs of the franchise has been taken.
You have been asked by the Chief Architect to propose the best approach for architecture development to realize
the CEO's vision.
Based on the TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2 which of the following is the best answer?
A. You proposed that the target architecture is defined first, followed by transition planning. This is because
the vision is well understood and the strategic architecture agreed. The target first approach will ensure that
the current problems and inefficiencies of the baseline architecture are not carried forward, and the baseline
architecture are not carried forward, and that the proposed solution addresses the requirements identified in
the initial study.
B. You propose that his engagement define the baseline architecture first in order to assess the current
infrastructure capcity and capability. The initial priority is to understand the problem. Then the focus should
be on transition planning and architecture deployment. This will identify requirements to ensure that the
prjects are sequenced in an optimal fashion so as to realize the vision.
C. You propose that the team focus on defining the target architecture by going through the architecture
definition phases (B-D). This is because the initial study identified the need to change. This will ensure that
the change can be defined in a structured manner and address the requirements needed to realize the vision.
D. You propose that the team focus on architecture definition with a specific emphasis on understanding the
strategic change parameters of the business strategy. Once understood, the team will be in the best position
to identify the requirements, drivers, issues, and constraints for this engagement. You would ensure that the
target architecture addresses non-functional requirements so as to ensure the target architecture is robust and
Answer: A
Question #75 Section 1
You have been assigned the role of Chief Enterprise Architect within a leading professional services company that
specializes in providing outsourcing services.
The company has over 20,000 professionals and works on some of the world's largest outsourcing projects.
Outsourcing services include business processes, infrastructure, and service management. The company also
provides business consulting services. Roughly half of its turnover comes from the private sector and hal from the
public sector.
With numerous service areas and a large number of diverse engagements in progress at any given time, overall
engagement management within the company has become challenging. The company has recently had a number of
high profile projects that have overrun on budget and under delivered, thereby damaging its reputation and
adversely impacting its share price.
The company has established an Enterprise Architecture program based on the TOGAF standard, sponsored jointly
by the Chief Executive Officer and Chief
Information Officer. An Architecture Board has been formed comprised of IT staff executives and executives from
the major service areas and consulting practice.
The Enterprise Architecture (EA) team has been working with the Strategic Planning team to create a strategic
Enterprise Architecture to address these issues.
The EA team has defined a framework and held workshops with key stakeholders to define a set of architecture
principles to govern the architecture work. They have completed an Architecture Version at a strategic level and
laid our Architecture Definitions for the four domains. They have set out an ambitious vision of the future of the
company over a five-year period. This will include three distinct transformations.
The CIO has made it clear that prior to the approval of the detailed implementation and Migration plan, the EA
team will need to assess the risks associated with the proposed architecture. He has received concerns from some
of the vice presidents across the company that the proposed architecture may be too ambitious and they are not sure
it can produce sufficient value to warrant the risks.
You have been asked to recommend an approach to satisfy these concerns.
Based on the TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2, which of the following is the best answer?
A. Before preparing the detailed Implementation and Migration plan, the EA team should review and
consolidate the gap analysis results from Phases B to D. This can be used to understand the transformations
that are required to achieve the proposed Target Architecture. The EA team should then assess the readiness
of the organization to undergo change. Once the architecture has been assembled, it should be analyzed using
a state evolution table to determine the Transition Architectures.
B. The EA team should apply an interoperability analysis to evaluate any potentital issues across the
architecture. This should include the development of a matrix showing the interoperability requirements.
Once all of the concerns have been resolved, the EA team should finalize the Architecture Roadmap and the
Implementation and Migration Plan.
C. The EA team should evaluate the organization's readiness to undergo change. This will allow the risks
associated with the transformations to be identified and mitigated for. It will also identify improvement
actions to be worked into the Implementaion and Migration Plan. The Business Value Assessment technique
should then be used to detetmine the business value and associated risks for the transformation.
D. The EA team should bring together information about potential solutions from the appropriate sources.
Once the target architecture has been assembled, it should be analyzed using a state evolution table to
determine the Transition Architectures. A value realization process should then be established to ensure that
the concerns raised are addressed.
Answer: C
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The-Open-Group TOGAF thinking - BingNews Search results The-Open-Group TOGAF thinking - BingNews Why Critical Thinking Matters in Your Business

Many professionals hope to pursue careers they’re passionate about so they can find joy and meaning in their work. Caring deeply about your work is vital for engagement and productivity, but balancing emotions with critical thinking is essential in the workplace. 

When employees engage in critical thinking, they use an independent, reflective thought process to evaluate issues and solve problems based on knowledge and objective evidence. 

Critical thinking skills can guide your organization toward success, but to truly maximize the problem-solving benefits of critical thinking, it’s crucial to teach this skill to your entire team. We’ll explore critical thinking skills and how to teach them in the workplace to help your business Improve its decision-making and problem-solving. 

What is critical thinking?

Jen Lawrence, co-author of Engage the Fox: A Business Fable About Thinking Critically and Motivating Your Team, defines critical thinking as “the ability to solve problems effectively by systematically gathering information about an issue, generating further ideas involving a variety of perspectives, evaluating the information using logic, and making sure everyone involved is on board.”

This is a complex definition for a challenging concept. Though critical thinking might seem as straightforward as stepping back and using a formal thinking process instead of reacting instinctively to conflicts or problems, it is actually a much more challenging task.

Critical thinking’s ultimate goal is ensuring you have the best answer to a problem with maximum buy-in from all parties involved – an outcome that will ultimately save your business time, money and stress.

Why is critical thinking essential in the workplace?

A World Economic Forum report revealed that critical thinking is one of the most in-demand career skills employers seek when trying to attract and retain the best employees – and employers believe critical thinking skills will become even more necessary in the coming years. 

Critical thinking in the workplace guarantees objective and efficient problem-solving, ultimately reducing costly errors and ensuring that your organization’s resources are used wisely. Team members employing critical thinking can connect ideas, spot errors and inconsistencies, and make the best decisions most often. 

Employees with critical thinking are also more likely to accomplish the following:

  • Analyzing information
  • Thinking outside the box
  • Coming up with creative solutions to sudden problems
  • Devising thought-through, systematic plans
  • Requiring less supervision

Critical thinkers are sure about the reasoning behind their decisions, allowing them to communicate with employees clearly. This level of communication enhances employee engagement.

What are critical thinking skills?

Critical thinking is a soft skill that comprises multiple interpersonal and analytical abilities and attributes. Here are some essential critical thinking skills that can support workforce success.

  • Observation: Employees with critical thinking can easily sense and identify an existing problem – and even predict potential issues – based on their experience and sharp perception. They’re willing to embrace multiple points of view and look at the big picture. 
  • Analytical thinking: Analytical thinkers collect data from multiple sources, reject bias, and ask thoughtful questions. When approaching a problem, they gather and double-check facts, assess independent research, and sift through information to determine what’s accurate and what can help resolve the problem. 
  • Open-mindedness: Employees who demonstrate critical thinking are open-minded – not afraid to consider opinions and information that differ from their beliefs and assumptions. They listen to colleagues; they can let go of personal biases and recognize that a problem’s solution can come from unexpected sources. 
  • Problem-solving attitude: Critical thinkers possess a positive attitude toward problem-solving and look for optimal solutions to issues they’ve identified and analyzed. They are usually proactive and willing to offer suggestions based on all the information they receive. [Related article: How to Develop a Positive Attitude in the Workplace]
  • Communication: When managers make a decision, they must share it with the rest of the team and other stakeholders. Critical thinkers demonstrate excellent communication skills and can provide supporting arguments and evidence that substantiate the decision to ensure the entire team is on the same page. 

What are the benefits of critical thinking in the workplace?

Many workplaces operate at a frantic tempo that reinforces hasty thinking and rushed business decisions, resulting in costly mistakes and blunders. When employees are trained in critical thinking, they learn to slow the pace and gather crucial information before making decisions. 

Along with reducing costly errors, critical thinking in the workplace brings the following benefits: 

  • Critical thinking improves communication. When employees think more clearly and aren’t swayed by emotion, they communicate better. “If you can think more clearly and better articulate your positions, you can better engage in discussions and make a much more meaningful contribution in your job,” said David Welton, managing partner at Grove Critical Thinking.
  • Critical thinking boosts emotional intelligence. It might seem counterintuitive to associate analytical rationality with emotional intelligence. However, team members who possess critical thinking skills are less prone to rash, emotion-driven decisions. Instead, they take time to analyze the situation and make the most informed decision while being mindful and respectful of the emotional and ethical implications. 
  • Critical thinking encourages creativity. Critical thinkers are open to new ideas and perspectives and accumulate a significant amount of information when facing decisions. Because of this, they’re more likely to come up with creative solutions. They are also curious and don’t shy away from asking open-ended questions. 
  • Critical thinking saves time and money. By encouraging critical thinking in the workplace, you minimize the need for supervision, catch potential problems early, promote independence and initiative, and free managers to focus on other duties. All this helps your company save valuable time and resources. 

Critical thinking skills are essential for dealing with difficult customers because they help your team make informed decisions while managing stressful situations.

How do you teach critical thinking in the workplace?

Experts agree that critical thinking is a teachable skill. Both Lawrence and Welton recommend exploring critical thinking training programs and methods to Improve your workplace’s critical thinking proficiency. Here’s a breakdown of how to teach critical thinking in the workplace: 

  1. Identify problem areas. Executives and managers should assess workplace areas most lacking in critical thinking. If mistakes are consistently made, determine whether the issue is a lack of critical thinking or an inherent issue with a team or process. After identifying areas that lack critical thinking, research the type of training best suited to your organization. 
  2. Start small. Employees newly embracing critical thinking might have trouble tackling large issues immediately. Instead, present them with smaller challenges. “Start practicing critical thinking as a skill with smaller problems as examples, and then work your way up to larger problems,” Lawrence said.
  3. Act preemptively. Teaching and implementing critical thinking training and methodology takes time and patience. Lawrence emphasized that critical thinking skills are best acquired during a time of calm. It might feel urgent to seek critical thinking during a crisis, but critical thinking is a challenging skill to learn amid panic and stress. Critical thinking training is best done preemptively so that when a crisis hits, employees will be prepared and critical thinking will come naturally.
  4. Allow sufficient time. From a managerial perspective, giving employees extra time on projects or problems might feel stressful in the middle of deadlines and executive pressures. But if you want those working for you to engage in critical thinking processes, it’s imperative to supply them ample time. Allowing employees sufficient time to work through their critical thinking process can save the company time and money in the long run.

How do you identify successful critical thinking?

Successful critical thinking happens during a crisis, not after.

Lawrence provided an example involving restaurants and waitstaff: If a customer has a bad experience at a restaurant, a server using critical thinking skills will be more likely to figure out a solution to save the interaction, such as offering a free appetizer or discount. “This can save the hard-earned customer relationship you spent a lot of marketing dollars to create,” Lawrence said. This concept is applicable across many business and organizational structures. 

You should also be aware of signs of a lack of critical thinking. Lawrence pointed out that companies that change strategy rapidly, moving from one thing to the next, are likely not engaging in critical thinking. This is also the case at companies that seem to have good ideas but have trouble executing them.

As with many issues in business, company leadership determines how the rest of the organization acts. If leaders have excellent ideas but don’t follow critical thinking processes, their team will not buy into those ideas, and the company will suffer. This is why critical thinking skills often accompany positive communication skills.

“Critical thinking doesn’t just help you arrive at the best answer, but at a solution most people embrace,” Lawrence said. Modeling critical thinking at the top will help the skill trickle down to the rest of the organization, no matter your company’s type or size.

To get your employees thinking critically, conduct employee surveys with well-designed questions to help them identify issues and solutions.

Critical thinking is the key to your business success

When critical thinking is actively implemented in an organization, mistakes are minimized, and operations run more seamlessly. 

With training, time and patience, critical thinking can become a second-nature skill for employees at all levels of experience and seniority. The money, time and conflict you’ll save in the long run are worth the extra effort of implementing critical thinking in your workplace.

Rebecka Green contributed to the writing and reporting in this article. Source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article.

Nadia Reckmann

Contributing Writer at

During her years as a professional business writer, Nadia Reckmann has written hundreds of articles with a focus on SMB strategy, operations, technology, and tools that are essential for business success. In addition to that, she creates content that helps small businesses and entrepreneurs Improve their marketing techniques, sales performance, and communication strategy. She also writes about CRM and other essential business software, team and project management, and productivity.

Mon, 23 Oct 2023 11:59:00 -0500 en text/html
Building Critical Thinking Skills to Solve Problems at Work

Critical thinking is a vital soft skill that uses one’s experiences and analytical skills to deduce information and make educated decisions. It’s an essential skill to have in the workplace, as the ability to use information from a broader and more impartial perspective allows your employees to make more informed decisions and see a comprehensive view of any situation. 

The U.S. Department of Labor identified critical thinking as a key component for essential workplace skills, including problem-solving and decision-making. Here’s how to build – and implement – critical thinking skills in the workplace.

>> Learn more: 12 Business Skills You Need to Master

How to use critical thinking to problem-solve

Here is a six-step problem-solving process to try with your team to build and use this skill.

1. Name the situation.

When you name the situation, you present a single discussion point that everyone in the discussion can identify. This statement can be written on a whiteboard as a visual prompt so that the team can focus on the point and redirect the discussion when the course shifts. Critical thinking involves keeping an open mind about situations. You help participants remember the goal of the group by naming the situation.

2. List all possible solutions.

Brainstorming takes place during this part of the process. There is nothing outside the realm of possibilities at this point in the discussion. When you open the conversation to unlimited options, you expand thinking beyond one person. The ability to expand your thinking offers the conversation many possible solutions that you may not have considered without the expression of thoughts and opinions. Make sure that all potential solutions discussed during this time stay on task for the situation that has been named in the first step. Critical thinking includes the ability to keep an open mind to other considerations and viewpoints without losing track of the end goal. You expand the discussion to see new options and stay on task by identifying multiple opportunities.

3. Narrow your solutions to three options.

Everyone on the team needs to agree with at least one of the three options. Individuals who can find a compromise and create solutions from many perspectives are better able to bring a team together. Write each solution at the top of a whiteboard and include below each one a list of its advantages and disadvantages. Critical-thinking skills offer the ability to look at situations rationally without judgments of good and bad or wrong and right. You can maintain a rational discussion when you bring consensus to a few intentionally chosen solutions.

Critical thinking helps individuals look at situations from multiple sides and imagine several ways to respond.

4. Choose one option from the three choices.

Make a final choice that offers the best chance of success based on rational discussion about the situation. Review this choice in relation to how well it solves the designated problem. Critical thinking skills help individuals use a more systematic way to come to conclusions. This reduces the chance of making decisions based on incorrect inferences arising from emotional conclusions.

5. Put a plan in place to implement the chosen solution.

Your chosen solution should have timelines and a list that identifies which participants are responsible for what parts of the final plan. Critical-thinking skills include the ability to commit to the chosen solution. You increase attention to detail and interest from the participants in implementing the solution when they are an integral part of the process.

6. Complete the plan.

Some employees find this part of the process the most difficult. Think of the number of times a great plan floundered because there was no follow-up. Make sure each person from the team has a part to play in the process that emphasizes their areas of expertise and interest. Complete regular reviews of people and timelines for project management. Critical thinking involves the ability to see the value of the overall plan. At this point in the process, individuals should be able to see the value of the solution and have buy-in since they were part of the process.

This problem-solving process creates an environment where critical thinking becomes a working part of finding a solution. For individuals who struggle with this method, you may want to consider some training in critical thinking. Overall, though, this process promotes critical thinking in your employees. You can also integrate this activity for making plans and creating a mission. The value added to your organization includes improved engagement, insight and productivity from your team.

According to research from America Succeeds, durable skills – such as critical thinking – accounted for 7 out of 10 requested skills in a study of 82 million job postings.

Why critical thinking is essential in the workplace

In recent decades, companies have recognized the need for integrating critical thinking into the workplace to help build the success of their organizations. Strong critical-thinking skills can greatly benefit everybody in the workplace. Not only does thinking more openly introduce ideas and solutions that widen the opportunities for success, but it also provides an increase in teamwork and productivity and a decrease in conflict. Here are some additional benefits of critical thinking in the workplace.

Required in certain professions

In many professions – particularly those based on research or that require deductive reasoning, such as finance, education, research and law – acquiring critical-thinking skills is necessary. With critical thinking, employees can solve problems objectively by considering varying perspectives and analyzing facts without bias, allowing for smart decision-making and problem-solving.

Improves decision-making

Those with critical-thinking skills mull over their decisions thoroughly by researching, looking at information objectively, asking questions, and weighing the pros and cons before acting. This skill can help businesses stay on track when making decisions by thoroughly reviewing the risk versus reward of each decision. 

Boosts happiness

Critical thinking can boost happiness, as it is empowering to have the skills to make your own, well-informed decisions. Those who possess this skill are more in tune with their goals, needs and personal ethics, and they have a better understanding of what in their situation needs to change to make themselves happy or grow. [Read related article: How Hiring a Chief Happiness Officer Can Save Your Business]

One of the main reasons businesses don’t embrace critical thinking as an essential part of their organization is that they feel they are just too busy; however, the benefits of critical thinking are invaluable to a team.

How to build critical-thinking skills

Here are a few ways you can polish your critical-thinking skills.

Practice active listening.

Practice actively listening by keeping an open mind and being attentive to those around you, from associates to executives. Listen to what others are saying to gain an understanding of each person’s individual perspective, needs and expectations, and show them empathy. This level of understanding will allow you to work together more effectively and make decisions that everyone is satisfied with.

Ask critical questions.

Instead of taking information at face value, be curious and ask questions to ensure you have everything you need to make a well-informed decision. Using open-ended questions offers an opportunity for further exploration, as they dive deeper and provide insightful details that can be helpful when making decisions.

Vet new information.

Don’t assume all new information you hear is true; instead, take time to thoroughly vet it by ensuring it’s up to date and it comes from a trustworthy source. Look at the existing evidence and the new facts being presented, then question thought processes and consider whose voice is missing.

Consider more than one perspective.

While you may feel that you have the “right” perspective, consider all points of view to fully understand others and their reasoning. This will help you Improve your working relationships, better understand where your peers are coming from and tailor your communication to meet their needs.

Question your own biases.

Regardless of whether or not you try to avoid it in your decision-making process, everybody has their own biases, which are the foundation of their thinking. By uncovering your own biases and being actively aware of them, you can grow as a critical thinker and work to keep them separate from your decision-making process. 

Conduct research.

If there are any unanswered questions or gaps in the information provided, conduct research to further your understanding and reach a decision. Consider a source’s intention when conducting research, avoiding any that are sales-based or contain ill will. Don’t use social media to obtain information; stick to reputable publications free of bias and cite their sources.

Form your own opinion.

Be an independent thinker and form your own opinions by considering the information presented to you, including facts and evidence. Listen to and consider the opinions of others, but use deductive reasoning to form your own opinion – and stay true to it.

Lynette Reed contributed to the writing and reporting in this article. 

Tue, 31 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Thani Sokka

Enterprise Cloud Platform Strategic Account Manager


Thani Sokka has over 17 years of experience in systems engineering, enterprise architecture, design and development, software project management, and data/information modeling, working with the latest IT systems technologies and methodologies. He has spent significant time designing solutions for the public sector, media, retail, manufacturing, financial, biomedical, and social/gaming industries. At Google, Thani is a Strategic Account Manager focused on empowering Google Cloud Platform’s largest customers derive the most from Google’s cloud technologies, including it’s compute, storage, and big data solutions. He also works closely with the Google Cloud Platform Product Management and Product Engineering teams to help drive the direction of Google's Enterprise Cloud Platform business. Prior to Google, Thani was an enterprise architect at Oracle focused on helping Federal organizations implement SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) solutions. Thani also worked as a senior IT consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton, a lead software architect at Thomson Reuters, and a software engineer at MicroStrategy. Thani has achieved various IT certifications from organizations such as MicroStrategy, Oracle, and The Open Group (TOGAF). He holds a M.S. degree in Computer Science from Johns Hopkins University and a B.S. degree in Computer Science, Biomedical Engineering, and Electrical Engineering from Duke University.

Fri, 06 Mar 2015 18:37:00 -0600 en text/html
Best Online Group Therapy and Support Groups Of 2023

Simply put, group therapy is the treatment of multiple individuals at once by one or more mental health professionals, and can be used as a treatment modality for a range of conditions including trauma, anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), among others.

Individuals dealing with similar conditions can receive both treatment and support in this group setting. The length of each group therapy session, as well as the duration of sessions, tend to be very individualized.

What Is Online Group Therapy?

Online group therapy is exactly what it sounds like—group therapy that occurs online via video conferencing tools, like Zoom.

While online group therapy is still a relatively new option, research shows this type of group therapy to be effective—and certain individuals may even find it more effective than in-person group therapy. However, more research needs to be done to pinpoint exactly who may benefit from online group therapy the most.

Thu, 26 Oct 2023 22:02:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Interest Groups Home Interest Groups

Which candidates is the computer industry giving to? What are the patterns in tobacco contributions over the past 10 years? Where is the political money coming from within the agribusiness industries? You can answer these kinds of questions effortlessly here, with's one-of-a-kind resource.

Wed, 27 May 2020 07:21:00 -0500 en text/html
Failed to open the Group Policy Object on this computer

I use Group Policy Editor to configure a lot of settings on Windows 11 or Windows 10. Recently when I tried opening it from Run prompt or directly through Control Panel, I received an error stating—Failed to open the Group Policy Object on this computer. You might not have the appropriate rights — unspecified error. If you get the same error, then here is how you can quickly fix the issue and gain back access to the Group Policy Editor.

Failed to open the Group Policy Object on this computer

The message was surprising because I had not changed anything that could have resulted in the error message. When I navigated to C:\Windows\System32\GroupPolicy, it had all the policies intact, but the Group Policy Editor wasn’t working. So here is what I did to resolve the issue. Make sure that your user account has Admin privileges.

Rename Machine Folder

  1. Set Windows to show hidden files and folders
  2. Navigate to the Group Policy folder
  3. Select Machine folder, and press F2 to rename it
  4. Rename Machine to Machine.old
  5. It will prompt for admin permission.
  6. Click on the Continue button.
  7. After the folder is renamed, open Group Policy Editor by typing gpedit.msc in the Run prompt followed by pressing the Enter key.
  8. Group Policy Editor will launch without a problem.
  9. Go back to the C:\Windows\System32\GroupPolicy folder, and you should see a new Machine folder.
  10. Now whatever changes you will make will be available in this folder.

Failed to Open group Policy Object on this computer

There is one more way to fix this.

You can choose to delete all the files inside the Machine folder instead of renaming it. Windows will automatically recreate the required files when you relaunch the policy editor.

The reason behind Failed to Open Group Policy Object error

After going through Microsoft and Technet forums, I noticed some users reporting about the same, and one of them shared about the corruption of Registry.pol with Event ID 1096. The file stores Registry-based policy settings, which include Application Control Policies, Administrative Templates, and more. There was a log in the Event Viewer which pointed towards this corruption. The description stated:

The processing of Group Policy failed. Windows could not apply the registry-based policy settings for the Group Policy object LocalGPO. Group Policy settings will not be resolved until this event is resolved. View the event details for more information on the file name and path that caused the failure.

It affirms the user’s report, and what you can do is delete the Registry.pol file available inside the Machine folder, and launch Group Policy again.

Read: Computer policy could not be updated successfully, The processing of Group Policy failed.

I hope this helps you resolve the error.

Now read: How to reset all Local Group Policy settings to default in Windows 11/10.

Failed to Open group Policy Object on this computer
Mon, 04 Apr 2022 02:51:00 -0500 en-us text/html
How to open Group Policy Editor in Windows 11/10

The Group Policy Editor in Windows 11 or Windows 10 is a vital configuration editor that allows you to change settings organization-wide. Primarily it’s designed for IT admin can change the advanced settings of a remote computer. However, if you have an administrator account, you can open Group Policy Editor in multiple ways, and manage your computer and network.

These are the methods you can use to open the Group Policy Editor on Windows systems:

  1. Using Windows Search box
  2. Create a shortcut
  3. Using Command Prompt or Power Shell
  4. Using Run Prompt
  5. Via Control Panel
  6. Via Settings.

Before you begin, you should know that the Group Policy Editor is available in Windows 11/10 Pro, Windows 11/10 Enterprise, and Windows 11/10 Education editions only, and not in Windows 11/10 Home.

1] Windows Search

Open Group Policy Editor in Windows 10

  1. Press the Windows button to open Start Menu
  2. Type “group policy.”
  3. It should list the policy editor on the tap
  4. Click open to open the Group Policy Editor.

Read: How to search Group Policy for specific GPO in Windows 11/10.

2] Create a Desktop Shortcut

open Group Policy Editor from Shortcut

If you use it often, it is best to create a shortcut on the desktop and even assign a hotkey.

  1. Navigate to C:\Windows\System32
  2. Search for “gpedit.msc”
  3. Once it appears, right-click on it, and select Create a shortcut.
  4. Click Yes when it prompts that the shortcut can only be created on the desktop
  5. Next time you want to open it, double-click to launch it.

You can also assign a hotkey to it, and you can start it using a keyboard combination.

3] Using Command Prompt or Power Shell

If you are a power user who uses Command Prompt or the Power Shell, here is a nifty solution for you.

Open GPE from Command Prompt or Power Shell

Make the WinX Menu show PowerShell instead of Command Prompt.

Then open Win+X and select Windows Power Shell (Admin).

Or you could search for CMD and choose to launch it with admin privileges.

Type “gpedit” and it will open the GPE in a few seconds.


4] Using Run Prompt

Probably the easiest method, and also the most common one.

  • Open the Run prompt (WIN+R)
  • Type gpedit.msc, and hit Enter
  • You may get prompted with the UAC prompt
  • Choose yes, and it will launch the Group Policy Editor

5] Via Control Panel

Open Group Policy from Control Panel

  • Open the search bar, and then type control
  • It will reveal the Control Panel. Click or tap to start it
  • In the search box on the top right, type “group.”
  • Look for Administrative Tools > Edit group policy
  • Click to launch it

It is useful for those who use the Control Panel for almost everything to manage the computer.

6] Via Settings

  • Open Windows Settings
  • Type Group Policy and GPE should be available
  • Click on the result, and it will start the editor.

Which method to open Group Policy Editor is your favorite? Let us know in the comments.

Related read: How to repair a corrupt Group Policy in Windows.

Why can’t I find Group Policy Editor?

The Group Policy Editor is available in Windows Pro, Windows Enterprise, and Windows Education editions only, and not in Windows Home – so maybe you are running Windows Home Edition. If you are using Windows Home Edition, you need to add the Local Group Policy Editor to your computer. See this post if Windows cannot find GPEDIT.MSC on Windows Pro/Enterprise or Education editions.

How to open Group Policy Editor with CMD?

To open Group Policy Editor using the Command Prompt, PowerShell, or Windows Terminal enter gpedit.msc in the command line and hit Enter, as explained above.

How to open Local Group Policy Editor as administrator?

To open Local Group Policy Editor in Windows as an administrator, open Command Prompt as administrator, type gpedit and hit Enter. This will open the Local Group Policy Editor in elevated mode.

Sat, 28 Aug 2021 03:04:00 -0500 en-us text/html
‘Full-plate’ thinking creates stress and anxiety: Here’s how to stop Your browser is not supported |
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Mon, 23 Oct 2023 02:56:00 -0500 en-US text/html

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