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NSE5_FAZ-7.0 Fortinet NSE 5 - FortiAnalyzer 7.0 student |

NSE5_FAZ-7.0 student - Fortinet NSE 5 - FortiAnalyzer 7.0 Updated: 2023

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Exam Code: NSE5_FAZ-7.0 Fortinet NSE 5 - FortiAnalyzer 7.0 student November 2023 by team

NSE5_FAZ-7.0 Fortinet NSE 5 - FortiAnalyzer 7.0

Test Details:
- test Name: Fortinet NSE5_FAZ-7.0 Fortinet NSE 5 - FortiAnalyzer 7.0
- test Format: Multiple-choice questions
- test Duration: 120 minutes
- Passing Score: Varies (set by Fortinet)
- Prerequisites: None
- Certification Validity: Valid for two years

Course Outline: Fortinet NSE5_FAZ-7.0 Fortinet NSE 5 - FortiAnalyzer 7.0

I. Introduction to FortiAnalyzer
A. Overview of FortiAnalyzer features and capabilities
B. Deployment options and system requirements
C. User interface and navigation

II. Log Management and Analysis
A. Collecting and managing logs from Fortinet devices
B. Analyzing and correlating logs for threat detection and incident response
C. Generating reports and alerts based on log data

III. Advanced Log and Event Management
A. Customizing log settings and filters
B. Configuring log forwarding and archiving
C. Managing event handlers and log processing

IV. FortiAnalyzer Administration and Troubleshooting
A. User and device management
B. System administration and maintenance tasks
C. Troubleshooting common issues and errors

V. Integration with Security Fabric
A. Integrating FortiAnalyzer with other Fortinet security solutions
B. Utilizing FortiAnalyzer for centralized security management and visibility
C. Monitoring and reporting on Security Fabric events

Exam Objectives:
- Understand the features and capabilities of FortiAnalyzer
- Configure and manage log collection from Fortinet devices
- Analyze and correlate logs for threat detection and incident response
- Generate reports and alerts based on log data
- Customize log settings and filters for advanced log management
- Perform administration tasks and troubleshoot FortiAnalyzer

The syllabus for the Fortinet NSE5_FAZ-7.0 Fortinet NSE 5 - FortiAnalyzer 7.0 course will cover the following topics:
- Introduction to FortiAnalyzer
- Log Management and Analysis
- Advanced Log and Event Management
- FortiAnalyzer Administration and Troubleshooting
- Integration with Security Fabric
Fortinet NSE 5 - FortiAnalyzer 7.0
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Fortinet NSE 5 - FortiAnalyzer 7.0
Question: 29
You’ve moved a registered logging device out of one ADOM and into a new ADOM.
What happens when you rebuild the new ADOM database?
A. FortiAnalyzer resets the disk quota of the new ADOM to default.
B. FortiAnalyzer migrates archive logs to the new ADOM.
C. FortiAnalyzer migrates analytics logs to the new ADOM.
D. FortiAnalyzer removes logs from the old ADOM.
Answer: C
Question: 30
In order for FortiAnalyzer to collect logs from a FortiGate device, what configuration is required? (Choose two.)
A. Remote logging must be enabled on FortiGate
B. Log encryption must be enabled
C. ADOMs must be enabled
D. FortiGate must be registered with FortiAnalyzer
Answer: A,D
Pg 70: “after you add and register a FortiGate device with the FortiAnalyzer unit, youmust also ensure that the FortiGate device is configured to send logs to
theFortiAnalyzer unit.”
Pg 45: “ADOMs must be enabled to support the logging and reporting of NON-FORTIGATE devices, such as FortiCarrier, FortiClientEMS, FortiMail, FortiWeb,
FortiCache, and FortiSandbox.”
Question: 31
What does the disk status Degraded mean for RAID management?
A. One or more drives are missing from the FortiAnalyzer unit. The drive is no longer available to the operating system.
B. The FortiAnalyzer device is writing to all the hard drives on the device in order to make the array fault tolerant.
C. The FortiAnalyzer device is writing data to a newly added hard drive in order to restore the hard drive to an optimal state.
D. The hard driveiIs no longer being used by the RAID controller
Answer: D
Question: 32
In FortiAnalyzer’s FormView, source and destination IP addresses from FortiGate devices are not resolving toa hostname.
How can you resolve the source and destination IPs, without introducing any additionalperformance impact to FortiAnalyzer?
A. Configure local DNS servers on FortiAnalyzer
B. Resolve IPs on FortiGate
C. Configure # set resolve-ip enable in the system FortiView settings
D. Resolve IPs on a per-ADOM basis to reduce delay on FortiView while IPs resolve
Answer: B
Question: 33
What is the purpose of a dataset query in FortiAnalyzer?
A. It sorts log data into tables
B. It extracts the database schema
C. It retrieves log data from the database
D. It injects log data into the database
Answer: C
Question: 34
Which two statements are true regarding fabric connectors? (Choose two.)
A. Configuring fabric connectors to send notification to ITSM platform upon incidentcreation Is more efficient than third-party information from the FortiAnalyzer
B. Fabric connectors allow to save storage costs and Boost redundancy.
C. Storage connector service does not require a separate license to send logs to cloud platform.
D. Cloud-Out connections allow you to send real-time logs to pubic cloud accounts like Amazon S3, Azure Blob, and Google Cloud.
Answer: A,D
Question: 35
The admin administrator is failing to register a FortiClient EMS on the FortiAnalyzer device.
What can be the reason for this failure?
A. FortiAnalyzer is in an HA cluster.
B. ADOM mode should be set to advanced, in order to register the FortiClient EMS device.
C. ADOMs are not enabled on FortiAnalyzer.
D. A separate license is required on FortiAnalyzer in order to register the FortiClient EMS device.
Answer: C
Question: 36
What can the CLI command # diagnose test application oftpd 3 help you to determine?
A. What devices and IP addresses are connecting to FortiAnalyzer
B.What logs, if any, are reaching FortiAnalyzer
C.What ADOMs are enabled and configured
D.What devices are registered and unregistered
Answer: A
Question: 37
What are analytics logs on FortiAnalyzer?
A. Log type Traffic logs.
B. Logs that roll over when the log file reaches a specific size.
C. Logs that are indexed and stored in the SQL.
D. Raw logs that are compressed and saved to a log file.
Answer: C
Question: 38
Which statements are true regarding securing communications between FortiAnalyzer and FortiGate with IPsec? (Choose two.)
A. Must configure the FortiAnalyzer end of the tunnel only–the FortiGate end is auto-negotiated.
B. Must establish an IPsec tunnel ID and pre-shared key.
C. IPsec cannot be enabled if SSL is enabled as well.
D. IPsec is only enabled through the CLI on FortiAnalyzer.
Answer: AB
Question: 39
For which two purposes would you use the command set log checksum? (Choose two.)
A. To help protect against man-in-the-middle attacks during log upload from FortiAnalyzer to an SFTP server
B. To prevent log modification or tampering
C. To encrypt log communications
D. To send an identical set of logs to a second logging server
Answer: A,B
Question: 40
Which two statements are true regarding high availability (HA) on FortiAnalyzer? (Choose two.)
A. FortiAnalyzer HA can function without VRRP. and VRRP is required only if you have more than two FortiAnalyzer devices in a cluster.
B. FortiAnalyzer HA supports synchronization of logs as well as some system and configuration settings.
C. All devices in a FortiAnalyzer HA cluster must run in the same operation mode: analyzer or collector.
D. FortiAnalyzer HA implementation is supported by many public cloud infrastructures such as AWS, Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud.
Answer: B,C
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Fortinet FortiAnalyzer student - BingNews Search results Fortinet FortiAnalyzer student - BingNews Fortinet - these are the issues facing SOC teams today and tomorrow, and how best to mitigate the risks No result found, try new keyword!The current limits facing cybersecurity teams are bad, but the changing nature of the threat landscape could make them a whole lot worse. Mon, 13 Nov 2023 03:07:06 -0600 en-us text/html Best private student loans for fall 2023
Private student loans can help you bridge the gaps when your federal financial aid falls short of your total college expenses. joan corominas/Getty Images

The 2023 academic year is upon us, and while many college students have already commenced their classes, some may still be searching for the funds needed to cover the current or upcoming academic terms. For many students, the costs of college encompass not only tuition but also expenses for books, transportation, and housing – all of which can accumulate swiftly.

If you're seeking ways to finance your education during these academic terms, a good starting point is to explore the various grants, scholarships, and federal student loans available to you. Federal student loans often prove to be the optimal choice when borrowing money for your educational pursuits due to their unique borrower benefits.

However, when you've exhausted these options, you might find it necessary to turn to private loans to bridge any financial gaps. Private student loans may not offer the same safeguards as federal loans, but they can still be a viable option when it comes to covering some or all of your educational expenses. Additionally, private student loans offer their own advantages, such as higher loan limits, flexible terms, and quick approval processes – making them a wise choice in certain circumstances. To assist you in your pursuit, here are the top private student loans available for the 2023 academic year.

Start exploring your student loan options here now to see what you're eligible to receive.

Best private student loans for fall 2023

Here are some of the best private student loans currently available, broken down into six categories:

Best overall: College Ave

College Ave gets our nod for the best private student loan because this lender check all the boxes. They provide loan amounts that vary from as low as $1,000 to the total cost of your entire school-certified expenses like tuition, fees and housing. Student loans rates are competitive, at 4.59% to 16.99% for fixed undergraduate loans and 4.59% to 14.49% for fixed-rate graduate loans. Variable rate loans range from 5.49% to 16.99% for undergraduate loans and 5.49% to 14.49% for graduate loans.

With an undergraduate or graduate student loan from College Ave, you have numerous in-school repayment options, including paying interest-only or a flat $25 monthly. Keep in mind, while in-school payments aren't mandatory, your loans will still accumulate interest during that time. By making even small payments while in school, you can manage the accruing interest and prevent your loan balance from growing excessively.

Repayment terms are for five, eight, 10 or 15 years. When choosing a repayment term, remember that shorter-term loans generally come with higher monthly payments than longer-term loans.

Learn more here.

Best for low rates: Earnest

Earnest provides low interest rates with an APR of 4.45% if you use a cosigner and 5.74% if you don't. These rates include Earnest's 0.25% auto-pay discount. This private student loan lender offers four repayment options during school: interest-only payments, full principal and interest payments, $25 monthly payments or payment deferral.

Unlike many lenders, Earnest offers several payment options, including repayment terms for five, seven, 10, 12 or 15 years. If you can afford a higher payment, it may make sense to pay off your loan with a shorter-term loan to save money on interest. Also, the minimum loan amount is only $1,000, so if you have a minimal financial gap to cover after federal financial aid, you don't need to incur more debt with a larger loan. And if you need more money, Earnest loans can cover up to 100% of school-certified costs of attendance.

Learn more now.

Best for parents: Sallie Mae

Sallie Mae is one of the largest and most well-known student loan servicers in the United States. The government sponsored the organization since its beginnings in 1972 before Sallie Mae transitioned into a private company in 2014.

Sallie Mae offers a Smart Option Student Loan, which it touts as a student loan with a cosigner. Your cosigner can be a parent, spouse, relative or any adult. Students can choose fixed or variable annual percentage rates (APRs) starting at 4.50% and 6.37%, respectively, which includes a 0.25% automatic payment discount. According to Sallie Mae, the process, from application to disbursement, takes around 10 business days or less.

Check Sallie Mae student loan rates here.

Best for no fees: Discover

More than just a credit card company, Discover also provides private student loans with several perks, including no application, origination or late fees. Discover's no-fee student loans combine with lower interest rates and cash rewards for good grades to lower the costs of borrowing for students.

Discover's student loan APRs are as low as 6.12% for variable-rate loans and 5.29% for fixed-rate loans. They allow you to borrow up to 100% of school-certified costs, such as tuition, housing and books, minus any financial aid you receive. The company's minimum borrowing amount is only $1,000 and it only offers a single repayment term of 15 years.

Learn more here.

Best for students with bad credit: Ascent

Many students have poor credit scores because they lack an established credit history. That's one reason why most private student loan companies require a cosigner to offset the lender's perceived risk. Ascent is bucking that trend by offering non-cosigned loans to undergraduate, graduate, DACA and international students.

For example, students without established credit can apply for the Non-Cosigned Outcomes-Based loan without a cosigner, and your eligibility is based on your school, program, major, GPA and other criteria. And if your credit history is shorter than two years, you don't need to meet any minimum income requirements.

Learn more here.

Best for students with good credit: SoFi

You'll likely need good credit to qualify for a private student loan with SoFi. While SoFi doesn't publish minimum credit score requirements on its website, it does evaluate your credit history and debts when reviewing your application.

If you have decent credit, SoFi's student loans offer a wide array of benefits, including flexible repayment options, no fees and career services. With the autopay discount applied, the APRs for fixed-rate loans start as low as 4.49%, while the APRs for variable-rate loans begin at 5.16%.

The bottom line

As with any loan, aim to borrow only as much as you need since paying interest on money you don't need is never wise. When comparing private student loans, understand that getting a low-interest rate is essential, but rates aren't your only consideration. Weighing several key factors, such as the borrowing amount, interest rates and repayment terms and fees, can help you identify the loan that best suits your unique financial situation.

Tue, 31 Oct 2023 04:02:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Student Loans

An education loan, more commonly known as a student loan, is an amount of money borrowed from a federal or private lender to pay for a higher education. This sum can be used to cover the cost of tuition, textbooks, other school supplies, and basic living expenses so that a student may focus on earning their degree. Generally speaking, federal student loans offer lower interest rates than their private counterparts.

Wed, 22 Feb 2017 19:18:00 -0600 en text/html
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Managing student loans during college isn't something students or their parents generally want to think about. Most students probably don't plan to address their loans until after graduation. However, those who do may focus on the six-month grace period after graduation. This is the period before any payments are due.

This is a big mistake. If you borrow money for college, you'll likely accumulate multiple student loans as you earn your degree. You might have one federal loan for each year you're in school, plus private loans to cover any shortfall.

How you manage these loans while you're still in school can determine whether you experience a student loan crisis after graduation or if you stride into adult life with your loans under control and a plan to repay the balance quickly. That's why we're sharing this information about how to manage your student debt during college. Keep studying to see how much you could save by addressing your debt even before graduating.

Key Takeaways

  • You can manage your student loan debt during college, but a crisis after college may change your situation.
  • Consider the implications of borrowing or agreeing to a loan whose value is more than you need.
  • Unless you only have subsidized federal student loans, your balance will start accruing interest as soon as you receive the funds.
  • Calculating how much interest your student loans will accrue can help you decide whether to make interest payments during school.
  • Most federal loans come with a grace period after graduation, usually six months.

Overborrowing: Just Say No

Believe it or not, lenders may offer you more money than you need to pay for school. Yes, they're increasing their risk of not getting paid back by potentially allowing you to overextend yourself, but they're also increasing their potential profits by having you pay them more interest.

Student loans are hard to discharge in bankruptcy and can be collected in so many ways. For federal loans, the government can withhold your tax refund and garnish your wages. For private loans, you could face lawsuits and collection agencies, among others. That said, it's your job to figure out the smallest amount you need to borrow to earn your degree.

Student Loan Interest: Does It Accumulate During School?

First, figure out whether your student loans accrue interest while you're in school or if interest doesn't accrue until after graduation. This depends on the type of loan(s) you have.

Will Your Student Loan Accumulate Interest During School?
 Loan Type Interest Accumulated Through School?
Subsidized Federal Direct Loan No, provided you're enrolled at least half time
Unsubsidized Federal Direct Loan Yes
Private Loan Yes

Source: Federal Student Aid

Next, determine how much interest your loans will accumulate while you're in school. Otherwise, you could be shocked when you see how much more you owe compared to what you borrowed when the repayment period begins.

Use a student loan deferment calculator to do the math. Deferment occurs when you aren't required to make payments but your student loans accumulate interest.

Example of Interest Accruing on Unsubsidized Federal Student Loans
Loan Year  Principal borrowed (federal maximum)  Interest rate (set by govt.) Years (months) of school remaining Interest accumulated Interest with six-month grace period
Freshman year $5,500 3.76% 4 (48) $827 $930
Sophomore year $6,500 4.45% 3 (36) $867 $1,017
Junior year $7,500 5.05% 2 (24) $757 $947
Senior year $7,500 4.53% 1 (12) $339 $509
Total principal $27,000
Total interest $2,790 $3,398
Grand total (principal plus interest) $29,790 $30,398
Your interest rates may differ as they change each year. This is only an example and may not reflect current rates.

You can do the math for your own loans by looking up the federal student loan limits, along with current and past interest rates at the Federal Student Aid website.

Federal Student Loan Fees

When you are approved for a direct federal loan, you may be surprised to learn that you won't receive the full amount. The reason is that you must pay a loan fee of 1.057% for Direct Subsidized and Direct Unsubsidized loans and 4.228% for Direct PLUS loans issued between Oct. 1, 2020, and Oct. 1, 2024, which is taken out of the principal balance of your loan; however, you still have to pay interest on the full principal even though you don't actually get that amount.

For example, someone with a $7,500 loan and a 1.057% loan origination fee ($79.28) receives $7,420.72. But they are still responsible to pay the full $7,500 when it comes time for repayment.

Federal Student Loan Forgiveness and Payment Changes

On June 30, 2023, the Supreme Court ruled that the Biden administration lacked the authority to cancel up to $20,000 in federal student debt per borrower. Shortly thereafter, the administration announced its Saving on a Valuable Education (SAVE) plan. This plan, which took effect in August 2023, cuts payments on undergraduate loans in half, reduces some borrowers' monthly loan payments to $0, ensures that balances don't grow as long as payments are kept up to date, and provides early forgiveness for low-balance borrowers.

Student Loan Grace Period

Your student loans enter the repayment period after you drop below half-time enrollment for any reason, including graduation. But you often get a six-month grace period during which things continue as they did during school: Interest still accumulates, but you won't have to make payments yet.

The federal forbearance on student loan payments and interest that began in 2020 is over. Student loans began accruing interest starting on Sept. 1, 2023, and payments resumed Oct. 1, 2023.

Paying Student Loan Interest During College: Is It Worth It?

Is it really such a big deal if you accumulate $2,790 or even $3,398 in student loan interest during school? That's a personal question only you can answer. But here are some factors to consider if you are thinking about starting to pay during school versus paying after graduation.

In-School Considerations

  • Calculate how much net income you need to earn per month to pay your student loan interest. How many hours will it take you to earn that money?
  • Perhaps your parents are willing to pay your student loan interest while you're in school. Could you sweeten the deal by asking them to pay it as long as you maintain a certain GPA?
  • If your classes and studies are all-consuming, focusing on academics may be more valuable than paying down interest.
  • If you're taking extra classes to graduate early, you're already looking at a semester or a year of savings on tuition and fees. If working to pay interest during school will keep you from meeting that goal, it's definitely not worth it.

Post-Graduation Considerations

  • If your first job out of school is likely to pay handsomely, the accumulated interest may be so easy to knock out post-graduation that it's not worth worrying about during school.
  • If you have no clear career path, minimizing your borrowing costs might be a priority.
  • Working during school can have benefits beyond allowing you to repay student loan interest. You might build your resume, make friends, network, learn new skills, and Boost your time-management skills.

How Private Student Loans Change the Interest Payment Picture

Let's say the federal student loan limits don't fully cover your tuition and fee shortfall after grants, scholarships, and parental contributions. What does the math look like with larger loan amounts and private loan interest rates? We'll assume you'll need to borrow $15,000 per year and you'll max out your federal loans. That leaves $7,500 to $9,500 per year in private loans.

Private Student Loan Interest Accumulation During School
Loan year Principal borrowed Interest rate Years (months) of school remaining Total interest accumulated during school Total interest with six-month post-school grace period
Freshman year $9,500 9.0% 4 (48) $3,422 $3,848
Sophomore year $8,500 9.0% 3 (36) $2,295 $2,678
Junior year $7,500 9.0% 2 (24) $1,350 $1,688
Senior year $7,500 9.0% 1 (12) $675 $1,011
Total principal $33,000        
Total interest       $7,742 $9,225
Grand total: (principal plus interest)       $40,742 $42,225

Private student loan interest rates depend on many factors. This includes your credit history, your cosigner's credit history (if you have one), market interest rates, and the lender's offerings. You'll also have the option of a fixed- or variable-rate loan. Remember that variable loan rates often start out lower than fixed rates but can escalate over time.

For simplicity, we chose a 9.0% fixed interest rate for our private student loan example in the table above. Private lenders are not required to offer a grace period, but many do, so we showed that option as well.

The more you borrow and the higher the interest rate, the more you may gain by paying interest during school. And it doesn't have to be an all-or-nothing deal. Paying some interest will do you more good than paying no interest. If you're able to pay the interest, have some spending money to do fun things with friends, and still have money left over, you might even consider paying down your student loan principal during school.

Special Considerations

Student loan borrowers should be aware that President Biden and his administration proposed numerous policies that address the student loan crisis. One such provision, included in the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, makes all student loan forgiveness completely tax-free from Jan. 1, 2021, to Dec. 31, 2025.

What Is the First Rule Regarding Student Loan Payback While in College?

Knowing how interest accumulates on your loan is critical. Is it suspended or deferred while you are a student, or does it accumulate regardless of status? Interest on private and unsubsidized federal direct loans accumulates while you're in school, while interest on subsidized federal direct loans doesn't.

What About the Grace Period?

You must begin paying back student loans once you're enrolled in less than half of the courses expected of a full-time student. Still, a six-month grace period is often available. During this time things continue as they did during school: Interest accumulates, but you won't have to make payments.

Should I Begin Paying My Student Loan Interest During School?

The answer isn't a simple yes or no. Are you able to work while going to school? Are your parents able to pay the interest? If working to pay interest during school will keep you from meeting your educational goals, paying the interest may not be worth it.

The Bottom Line

By calculating how much student loan interest you will accrue during school, you'll have the information you need to make an important decision. Should I make student loan interest payments during college? There's no correct answer. But it is an analysis every student, perhaps with some help from their parents, needs to perform for themselves.

By doing this analysis ahead of time, making the choice, and understanding your borrowing circumstances, you'll be well prepared to pay off your remaining debt after graduation. And you won't be hit with any unwelcome surprises after you receive your diploma.

Sun, 16 Oct 2022 22:35:00 -0500 en text/html
Student loan debt: Averages and other statistics in 2023

The cost of college has more than doubled over the past four decades — and student loan borrowing has risen along with it. The student loan debt balance in the U.S. has increased by 66% over the past decade, and it now totals more than $1.77 trillion, according to the Federal Reserve. 

Here’s a closer look at student loan debt statistics in the U.S. today, broken down by age, race, gender and other demographics. 

Total student loan debt statistics

As of the first quarter of 2023, student loan debt in the U.S. stands at a total of over $1.77 trillion. More than 92% of this is federal student loan debt while the remaining amount is owed on private student loans, according to Federal Student Aid (an office of the Department of Education). 

In the 2020-2021 academic year, 54% of bachelor’s degree students who attended public and private four-year schools graduated with student loans, according to the College Board. These students left school with an average balance of $29,100 in education debt.

Average federal student loan debt

The majority of student loan debt in the U.S. is made up of federal student loans. The total federal loan portfolio is more than $1.6 trillion. This is spread amongst nearly 44 million borrowers, according to Federal Student Aid. 

Here’s how much borrowers owe by federal student loan type:

Average private student loan debt

As of the third quarter of 2022, only 7.22% of the total national student loan debt comes from private student loans, according to Enterval Analytics. These loans are issued by private institutions like banks, credit unions and online lenders. 

Students borrowed about $13 billion in private student loans during the 2021-2022 academic year. Of these students, 10% who earned a bachelor’s degree from a public four-year school graduated with $32,100 in private student loan debt. Another 13% who attended four-year private schools graduated with $42,800 in private loans. 

Unlike most federal student loans, private student loans generally have strict credit and income requirements. Because of this, most private loan borrowers apply with a co-signer. During the 2022-2023 academic year, nearly 91% of private undergraduate loans and 66% of private graduate loans had a co-signer, according to Enterval Analytics. 

The crisis of student loan debt in the U.S. 

Total student debt in the U.S. has nearly tripled in the past 15 years, from more than $619 billion in quarter one of 2008 to more than $1.77 trillion in quarter one of 2023, according to the Federal Reserve. 

With this debt rising as average wages have fallen, many borrowers struggle to repay their student loans and are unable to pursue other life goals, such as buying a home or starting a family. Delinquencies and defaults on student loans are also more common compared to other types of debt.

Additionally, as of 2021, 40.4 million student loan borrowers left school without completing a degree, according to the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. This means that many borrowers don’t enjoy the higher earnings that a college education can bring. 

Average student loan debt by year

While there’s little data available regarding average private student loan debt per year, more than 92% of all student debt is made up of federal loans. Here’s how the average federal student loan debt increased between 1995 and 2017, based on the most latest data from the Congressional Budget Office. 

Who has student loan debt?

The amount of student loan debt borrowers owe varies based on a variety of factors. Here’s a snapshot of the average student loan debt by state, age and gender as well as by race and ethnicity: 

Average student loan debt by state

Average student loan debt ranged from $18,344 in Utah up to $39,928 in New Hampshire for the graduating class of 2020, according to the latest data from The Institute for College Access and Success. 

Here’s the average student loan debt for college graduates by state:

Average student loan debt by age

Here’s how federal student debt loads compare by age group in 2023, according to Federal Student Aid data: 

Average student loan debt by gender

The burden of student loan debt doesn’t fall equally between men and women. In general, women borrow more for their education, and they hold nearly two-thirds of the total student loan debt in the U.S., according to the American Association of University Women (AAUW). 

On average, women who earn their bachelor’s degree owe $2,700 more than men upon graduation, and they take about two years longer to pay it off. This is partly due to the gender pay gap, the unemployment crisis facing latest graduates and the growing cost of education, according to the AAUW.

Here’s how student loan debt compares between genders, further broken down by race and ethnicity:

Average student loan debt by race and ethnicity

Young adult women and Black adults are more likely to carry student loan debt compared to young adult men and young white adults, respectively, according to the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. The gender wage gap and gender discrimination as well as both the racial wage gap and racial discrimination faced by Black adults play into these amounts of debt.

Here’s the average amount owed in federal student loans four years after completing a bachelor’s degree in the 2015-2016 academic year, broken down by race and ethnicity:

Average student loan debt expected for a high school graduate

In 2023, borrowers have an average of $37,338 in federal student loan debt and $54,921 in private student loan debt, according to the Education Data Initiative. For 2023 high school graduates, these averages could increase if tuition costs continue to rise at both public and private colleges.

How long does it take to repay student loans?

The amount of time it takes to repay student loans depends on the type of loans you have and your repayment plan. According to a survey of 61,000 individuals by, student loan borrowers take an average of more than 20 years to pay off their education debt. 

If you have federal student loans, you’ll generally be placed on the standard 10-year repayment plan. However, you can switch to a different repayment plan that could extend your term. For example, you’ll have 20 or 25 years to repay your loans under an income-driven repayment (IDR) plan, after which the remainder of your balance will be forgiven. You could also opt to consolidate your federal loans, which can extend your term by up to 30 years. 

You’ll typically have five to 25 years to repay private student loans, depending on the lender. Note that private student loans don’t offer the repayment options that federal loans do — the only way to change your term on a private student loan is to refinance. 

Regardless of whether you have federal or private loans, you might be able to pay off your balance faster by making extra payments. You could also consider pursuing federal student loan forgiveness to have some or all of your federal balance canceled.

How many student loans are forgiven?

There are a variety of options for receiving federal loan forgiveness, including the Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) program, Teacher Loan Forgiveness program and Perkins Loan cancellation. 

As of March 2023, there have been 3,139,959 PSLF applications processed, according to the Federal Student Aid. In May 2023, the Department of Education announced that more than 615,000 borrowers have had a total of $42 billion forgiven through the program. This was a result of the changes made by the Biden-Harris Administration that made it easier to qualify for this forgiveness.

How many student loans are in default?

A student loan is considered delinquent the day after a payment is missed. Here’s how many are in default, according to the type of loan:

Federal student loans

A federal student loan will generally enter default after payments have been missed for 270 days, depending on the type of loan. However, due to the Covid-19 pandemic, federal student interest accrual and loan payments were paused in March 2020. Eligible loans already in default also received various relief measures, such as halting interest accrual and wage garnishments. 

Here’s how many federal loans were in default in the five years before this administrative forbearance, according to Federal Student Aid:

Private student loans

Private student loans usually enter default after 90 days, depending on the lender. As of the third quarter of 2022, 3% of private loans were 30 to 89 days past due, and 1.58% were 90 or more days past due, according to Enterval Analytics.

How to take control of student loan debt

If you’re one of the nearly 44 million Americans with student loans, here are some strategies that might help you better manage your loans: 

Pursue federal student loan forgiveness

Several forgiveness programs are available for federal student loan borrowers. For example, if you work full time for a government or nonprofit organization for at least 10 years and make 120 qualifying payments, you might qualify for PSLF. Or if you’re a highly-qualified teacher, you could have $5,000 or $17,500 forgiven (depending on what you teach) after working full time for five consecutive years at a low-income school.

Many states also offer student loan repayment assistance programs to qualifying professionals. To qualify for one of these programs, you’ll typically have to work in a particular career field (such as in healthcare or law) and agree to serve in a certain area for a specified amount of time.

Sign up for an income-driven repayment plan

Most federal student loan borrowers are eligible for at least one of the four IDR plans, which can help to make payments more affordable. 

“If you are experiencing long-term financial difficulty, such as you have a job but it doesn’t pay enough to make student loan repayment affordable, and you have no prospects for increasing income, [sign up for] an income-driven repayment plan or extended repayment plan,” says financial aid expert Mark Kantrowitz. “These repayment plans reduce the monthly payment by stretching out the term of the loan.”

Each of the plans extends your repayment term up to 20 or 25 years (depending on the plan) while adjusting your monthly payments to a percentage of your discretionary income. If you still owe a balance at the end of your term, it will be forgiven.

Here are the four main IDR plans to choose from: 

  • Pay As You Earn (PAYE): Payments are 10% of discretionary income (never more than what you’d pay on a standard 10-year plan) with forgiveness after 20 years.
  • Revised Pay As You Earn (REPAYE): Payments are 10% of discretionary income (no cap on amount) with forgiveness after 20 years for undergraduate loans or 25 years for graduate loans.
  • Income-Based Repayment (IBR): For loans made on or after July 1, 2014, payments are 10% of discretionary income with forgiveness after 20 years. For loans made before July 1, 2014, payments are 15% of discretionary income with forgiveness after 25 years. Payments on this plan are never more than what you’d pay on a standard 10-year plan.
  • Income-Contingent Repayment (ICR): Payments are 20% of discretionary income (or what you’d pay on a 12-year plan with fixed payments) with forgiveness after 25 years.

Keep in mind that while an income-driven plan can make your monthly payments more affordable, it can increase your costs of borrowing over time. This is because extending your repayment term means paying more in interest.

Ask your employer about student loan assistance

An increasing number of employers have begun offering student loan repayment assistance to their employees, such as Google and Starbucks. If you work at one of these companies, be sure to take advantage of this benefit if possible. 

If your employer doesn’t offer student loan assistance, consider meeting with your boss or human resources department to see if it could be implemented. Be prepared to provide evidence for how this type of program works at other companies and how it can benefit both you and the employer. 

Refinance your high-interest loans

Student loan refinancing is the process of paying off one or more of your current loans with a new private loan. Depending on your credit, you might be able to qualify for a lower interest rate, which could save you money on interest and potentially help you pay off your loans faster. You could also opt to extend your repayment term to reduce your payments — though remember that this means you’ll pay more in interest over time.

You can refinance both federal and private loans. However, keep in mind that refinancing federal student loans means forfeiting access to federal repayment plans, forgiveness programs and other borrower protections.

Ascent’s undergraduate and graduate student loans are funded by Bank of Lake Mills or DR Bank, each Member FDIC. Loan products may not be available in certain jurisdictions. Certain restrictions, limitations; and terms and conditions may apply. For Ascent Terms and Conditions please visit: Rates are effective as of 11/1/2023 and reflect an automatic payment discount of either 0.25% (for credit-based loans) OR 1.00% (for undergraduate outcomes-based loans). Automatic Payment Discount is available if the borrower is enrolled in automatic payments from their personal checking account and the amount is successfully withdrawn from the authorized bank account each month. For Ascent rates and repayment examples please visit: 1% Cash Back Graduation Reward subject to terms and conditions. Cosigned Credit-Based Loan student must meet certain minimum credit criteria. The minimum score required is subject to change and may depend on the credit score of your cosigner. Lowest APRs require interest-only payments, the shortest loan term, and a cosigner, and are only available to our most creditworthy applicants and cosigners with the highest average credit scores.

Tue, 31 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Fortinet forecasts weak fourth-quarter revenue, shares drop

Nov 2 (Reuters) - Cybersecurity firm Fortinet (FTNT.O) forecast fourth-quarter revenue below Wall Street estimates on Thursday, as it grapples with weak corporate spending in an uncertain economy, sending its shares down more than 16% in extended trading.

The company is also facing intense competition from companies including Palo Alto Networks (PANW.O) and CrowdStrike Holdings (CRWD.O) for a slice of the cybersecurity market.

Added to that, analysts have said large customers of cybersecurity companies are opting for short-term deals to ensure safety of their IT systems against online threats as they keep a tight leash on their spending.

Chief Financial Officer Keith Jensen said on an earnings call that Fortinet continues "to see increased deal scrutiny and longer sales cycles, which is constraining (the company's) near-term results."

"We expect these longer sales cycles to continue along with the associated budgetary scrutiny," he added.

The Sunnyvale, California-based company expects current-quarter revenue between $1.38 billion and $1.44 billion, while analysts were expecting $1.50 billion, according to LSEG data.

Fortinet also cut its full-year revenue outlook to a range of $5.27 billion to $5.33 billion, from its prior forecast of $5.35 billion to $5.45 billion.

Meanwhile, high-profile breaches at gambling giants MGM Resorts International (MGM.N), Caesars Entertainment (CZR.O) and the cleaning supplies maker Clorox (CLX.N) underlined the need for robust cyber safety solutions.

Fortinet, however, raised its annual adjusted profit per share outlook in the range of $1.54 to $1.56, from a prior $1.49 to $1.53 per share.

Third-quarter revenue stood at $1.33 billion, falling short of estimates of $1.35 billion.

The company posted an adjusted profit of 41 cents per share, compared with estimates of 36 cents per share.

Reporting by Jaspreet Singh in Bengaluru; Editing by Anil D'Silva and Shailesh Kuber

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

Fri, 03 Nov 2023 06:58:00 -0500 en text/html
The best student credit cards of November 2023

A good credit score is essential when making many of the major life decisions you face after graduation, such as renting an apartment or applying for an auto loan. Opening a college student credit card is a smart way to start building credit early while also taking advantage of rewards and special financing offers.

Student cards provide useful benefits for different types of students — from travelers and foodies to commuters. Some cards are lenient with credit history requirements, meaning you may qualify with no credit history at all. You do have to be 18 to apply for a credit card and need to have a steady source of income.

If you're feeling overwhelmed by all the choices, don't stress. We did the research for you. CNBC Select, dug into various cards' perks and drawbacks, to find the best student credit cards based on your spending habits. (See our methodology for more information on how we choose the best cards.)

Best student credit cards

Best for cash back

Discover it® Student Cash Back

On Discover's secure site

  • Rewards

    Earn 5% cash back on everyday purchases at different places you shop each quarter like grocery stores, restaurants, gas stations, and more, up to the quarterly maximum when you activate. Plus, earn unlimited 1% cash back on all other purchases-automatically.

  • Welcome bonus

    Discover will match all the cash back you've earned at the end of your first year

  • Annual fee

  • Intro APR

    0% for 6 months on purchases

  • Regular APR

  • Balance transfer fee

    3% intro balance transfer fee, up to 5% fee on future balance transfers (see terms)*

  • Foreign transaction fee

  • Credit needed


  • Cash-back program
  • Generous welcome bonus


  • Cash-back categories must be activated each quarter
  • Cash-back program limits earnings: Enroll every quarter to earn 5% cash back in various categories on up to $1,500 in quarterly purchases, then 1%
  • You must be a U.S. citizen and college student to apply for this card

Who's this for? The Discover it® Student Cash Back card is a well-rounded card with no annual fee that offers college students enrolled in a two- or four-year college the chance to build credit while earning rewards. You must be over 18 and a U.S. citizen to apply.

Cardholders can enroll every quarter to earn 5% cash back on rotating categories on up to a $1,500 maximum each quarter (then 1%). All other purchases earn unlimited 1% cash back automatically.

There are no foreign transaction fees, which makes it a good choice for students studying abroad.

Best for groceries and dining

Capital One SavorOne Student Cash Rewards Credit Card

On Capital One's secure site

  • Rewards

    Earn 10% cash back on purchases made through Uber & Uber Eats, plus complimentary Uber One membership statement credits through 11/14/2024, 8% cash back on Capital One Entertainment purchases; unlimited 5% cash back on hotels and rental cars booked through Capital One Travel, Terms Apply; 3% cash back on dining and at grocery stores (excluding superstores like Walmart® and Target®); 3% cash back on popular streaming services and entertainment; 1% cash back on all other purchases

  • Welcome bonus

    Early Spend Bonus: Earn $50 when you spend $100 in the first three months

  • Annual fee

  • Promo APR

  • Regular APR

    19.99% - 29.99% variable APR

  • Balance transfer fee

    $0 at the Transfer APR, 3% of the amount of each transferred balance that posts to your account at a promotional APR that Capital One may offer to you

  • Foreign transaction fee

  • Credit needed


  • Excellent cash back categories on broad spending categories
  • Exclusive access to curated experiences in sports, dining and entertainment
  • Unlimited cash back that doesn't expire for the life of the account
  • Pick the monthly due date that works best for you


Best for travel

Bank of America® Travel Rewards for Students credit card

  • Rewards

    Unlimited 1.5 points for every $1 spent on all purchases

  • Welcome bonus

    25,000 online bonus points after you spend at least $1,000 in purchases in the first 90 days of account opening, which can be redeemed for a $250 statement credit toward qualifying travel and dining purchases

  • Annual fee

  • Intro APR

    0% APR for the first 18 billing cycles on purchases, and for any balance transfers made within the first 60 days of opening your account

  • Regular APR

  • Balance transfer fee

    3% of the amount of each transaction

  • Foreign transaction fee

  • Credit needed


  • No annual fee
  • Points can be redeemed for flexible travel expenses, including flights, hotels, vacation packages, cruises, rental cars or baggage fees
  • No limit or expiration on points
  • Strong welcome bonus of 25,000 points if you spend $1,000 in the first 90 days
  • Intro 0% APR for 18 billing cycles on purchases and balance transfers
  • No fee charged on purchases made outside the U.S.
  • You don’t have to be a U.S. citizen to apply for this card


  • No student-centric benefits or incentives to practice responsible credit behavior
  • Estimated rewards earned after 1 year: $466
  • Estimated rewards earned after 5 years: $1,528

Rewards totals incorporate the points earned from the welcome bonus

Who's this for? The Bank of America® Travel Rewards for Students is a great choice for college students who plan on studying abroad or traveling during breaks. The rewards program is geared toward travel, and cardholders earn 1.5 points per dollar spent on all purchases.

You can redeem rewards as a statement credit to cover the cost of qualifying travel purchases — a simple way to reduce the cost of taking a spring break vacation or buying a plane ticket home. The Bank of America Travel Rewards Student card has no foreign transaction fees, making it an ideal card for students studying abroad.

This card also comes with a longer-than-average special financing offer of no interest for 15 billing cycles (then 17.99% - 27.99% variable APR). Over a year of no interest is a great way for you to pay off new purchases over time, without incurring interest charges.

You must be 18 or older and enrolled in school (college, vocational or trade school) to qualify for this card.

Best for gas stations

Discover it® Student Chrome

On Discover's secure site

  • Rewards

    Earn 2% cash back at Gas Stations and Restaurants on up to $1,000 in combined purchases each quarter. Plus, earn unlimited 1% cash back on all other purchases – automatically.

  • Welcome bonus

    Discover will match all the cash back you've earned at the end of your first year.

  • Annual fee

  • Intro APR

    0% for 6 months on purchases

  • Regular APR

  • Balance transfer fee

    3% intro balance transfer fee, up to 5% fee on future balance transfers (see terms)*

  • Foreign transaction fee

  • Credit needed


  • Cash-back program
  • Generous welcome bonus


  • Cash-back program limits earnings: 2% cash back at gas stations and restaurants on up to $1,000 in combined purchases each quarter, then 1%
  • You must be a U.S. citizen and college student to apply for this card

Who's this for? If you want all the perks of a Discover card but you don't want to deal with activating bonus rewards categories each quarter, you should consider the Discover it® Student Chrome. It has a strong rewards program for college students frequently filling up their gas tank or dining out, with 2% cash back at gas stations and restaurants on up to $1,000 in combined purchases each quarter, then 1%. Plus, earn unlimited 1% cash back on all other purchases automatically.

The Discover it Student Chrome doesn't charge foreign transaction fees, and new card members get 0% APR for the first six months on new purchases. After the intro period, there's an 18.24% - 27.24% variable APR. We always recommend you pay your balance on time and in full to avoid interest charges.

Best for 0%-APR offer

BankAmericard® for Students credit card

  • Rewards

  • Welcome bonus

  • Annual fee

  • Intro APR

    0% for the first 18 billing cycles on purchases and balance transfers

  • Regular APR

  • Balance transfer fee

    3% of the amount of each transaction.

  • Foreign transaction fee

  • Credit needed


  • No annual fee
  • One of the longest intro periods for a no-fee card


  • 3% foreign transaction fee
  • No rewards program
  • Transfer timeline: Balances must be transferred within 60 days from account opening
  • Estimated total fees and interest on debt repayment: $441

Who's this for? The BankAmericard for Students is ideal for students seeking a special financing offer. Instead of offering ongoing rewards or a welcome bonus, new applicants can take advantage of 0% APR for 21 months (then a variable standard APR of 15.99% - 25.99%).

The introductory APR applies to purchases and balance transfers you make within the first 60 days of account opening. This could be a good option for financing certain purchases or providing some relief for high-interest debt. There is a 3% balance transfer fee for each transaction, which puts a dent in your savings. This card also has no annual fee.

Best for no credit history

Petal® 2 "Cash Back, No Fees" Visa® Credit Card

  • Rewards

    1% cash back on eligible purchases right away and up to 1.5% cash back on eligible purchases after making 12 on-time monthly payments; 2% to 10% cash back at select merchants

  • Welcome bonus

  • Annual fee

  • Intro APR

  • Regular APR

  • Balance transfer fee

  • Foreign transaction fee

  • Credit needed


  • No credit history required (if you do have a credit history, that does factor into the credit decision)
  • No fees whatsoever
  • 1% cash back on eligible purchases right away and up to 1.5% cash back on eligible purchases after making 12 on-time monthly payments; 2% to 10% cash back at select merchants
  • Credit limits range from $300 to $10,000


  • Card isn't for rebuilding credit, but it's good for building credit
  • No special financing offers
  • No welcome bonus
  • Estimated rewards earned after 1 year: $249
  • Estimated rewards earned after 5 years: $1,577


Should college students have credit cards?

It's important for college students to have credit cards as they can help build credit history, raise your credit score and teach you how to manage money. When used responsibly, student credit cards can save you money through the rewards you earn on your purchases. Student credit cards also provide more security through their various built-in protections.

How can a student with no income get a credit card?

A student with no income can get a credit card by applying with a qualified cosigner or by being added as an authorized user under a parent's card. If they are over 21 years of age, students are also able to apply for credit cards using their household income.

Which type of credit card is best for students?

The best type of credit card for students is a card that can earn rewards and help you build credit at the same time. It's even better if you can qualify for a card that earns extra rewards in categories where you spend the most.

Are student cards good for building credit?

Student credit cards can be a good way to build credit because they are easier to qualify for than a typical credit card. But for a student credit card to help your credit, you'll need to pay your balance in full and on time every month.

Are student credit cards hard to get?

Student credit cards are generally easier to qualify for than many of the best credit cards. However, the application may require proof of college enrollment in addition to the standard information required for a credit card application.

Bottom line

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Why trust CNBC Select?

Our methodology

To determine which cards offer the best value for students, CNBC Select analyzed over a dozen of the most popular credit cards available for college students looking to build credit.

We compared each card on a range of features, including: credit limit, rewards program, introductory and standard APR, welcome bonuses and foreign transaction fees, as well as factors such as required credit score and customer reviews when available. We also considered any special student-centric programs that offer incentives or extra rewards.

Because it's unusual for college student cards to have robust rewards programs, we did not analyze how many reward points you can earn in the first year. For students who are looking to build their credit history and develop strong financial skills, it's more important to practice good credit card habits — spending within your means, paying your balance on time and in full — than try to optimize your points balance.

Catch up on CNBC Select's in-depth coverage of credit cards, banking and money, and follow us on TikTok, Facebook, Instagram and Twitter to stay up to date.

*For Capital One products listed on this page, some of the above benefits are provided by Visa® or Mastercard® and may vary by product. See the respective Guide to Benefits for details, as terms and exclusions apply

For rates and fees of the Discover it® Student Cash Back, click here.

For rates and fees of the Discover it® Student Chrome, click here.

Information about the Bank of America® Travel Rewards for Students has been collected independently by Select and has not been reviewed or provided by the issuer of the card prior to publication.

Editorial Note: Opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the Select editorial staff’s alone, and have not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any third party.

Tue, 31 Oct 2023 16:59:00 -0500 en text/html
Student Loans

Blueprint is an independent publisher and comparison service, not an investment advisor. The information provided is for educational purposes only and we encourage you to seek personalized advice from qualified professionals regarding specific financial decisions. Past performance is not indicative of future results.

Blueprint has an advertiser disclosure policy. The opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the Blueprint editorial staff alone. Blueprint adheres to strict editorial integrity standards. The information is accurate as of the publish date, but always check the provider’s website for the most current information.

Thu, 21 Sep 2023 06:33:00 -0500 en-US text/html

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