NS0-520 test - NetApp Certified Implementation Engineer SAN, ONTAP Updated: 2023
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Exam Code: NS0-520 NetApp Certified Implementation Engineer SAN, ONTAP test November 2023 by Killexams.com team|
NS0-520 NetApp Certified Implementation Engineer SAN, ONTAP
Title: NetApp Certified Implementation Engineer SAN, ONTAP (NS0-520)
The NetApp Certified Implementation Engineer SAN, ONTAP (NS0-520) certification is offered by NetApp and validates the knowledge and skills required to implement and configure NetApp storage area network (SAN) solutions using the ONTAP operating system. The certification focuses on SAN implementation and demonstrates expertise in deploying and managing SAN environments with NetApp technology.
The NS0-520 certification program covers a comprehensive range of Topics related to NetApp SAN implementation and configuration. The course provides participants with a deep understanding of NetApp storage technologies, best practices, and SAN deployment methodologies. The following is a general outline of the key areas covered in the certification program:
1. NetApp Storage Fundamentals:
- Introduction to NetApp storage solutions and product portfolio
- Understanding NetApp SAN architectures and components
- Overview of ONTAP operating system and its features
- NetApp storage connectivity options and protocols
- SAN storage provisioning and management concepts
2. SAN Design and Implementation:
- SAN design considerations and best practices
- Planning and sizing SAN environments
- Configuring SAN connectivity (FC, FCoE, iSCSI)
- Fabric zoning and storage virtualization
- Implementing SAN security and access controls
3. NetApp SAN Configuration and Management:
- Configuring NetApp SAN components (controllers, switches, HBAs)
- Creating and managing LUNs and volumes
- Data protection mechanisms (SnapMirror, SnapVault)
- Performance optimization and troubleshooting techniques
- SAN monitoring and reporting tools
4. SAN Migration and Data Mobility:
- SAN data migration strategies and tools
- Performing data replication and migration tasks
- Data mobility and workload balancing
- Disaster recovery and business continuity planning
- SAN backup and restore methodologies
The NS0-520 certification exam assesses candidates' understanding of NetApp SAN implementation and configuration concepts, processes, and best practices. The exam objectives include, but are not limited to:
1. Demonstrating knowledge of NetApp storage fundamentals and SAN architectures.
2. Designing and implementing NetApp SAN solutions.
3. Configuring SAN connectivity options and protocols.
4. Managing and provisioning SAN storage resources.
5. Implementing data protection and disaster recovery mechanisms.
6. Performance optimization and troubleshooting of SAN environments.
The NS0-520 certification program typically includes instructor-led training or self-paced online learning modules. The syllabus provides a breakdown of the Topics covered throughout the course, including specific learning objectives and milestones. The syllabus may include the following components:
- NetApp Storage Fundamentals
- SAN Design and Implementation
- NetApp SAN Configuration and Management
- SAN Migration and Data Mobility
- exam Preparation and Practice Tests
- Final NetApp Certified Implementation Engineer SAN, ONTAP (NS0-520) Exam
|NetApp Certified Implementation Engineer SAN, ONTAP|
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NS0-520 Real Questions
NS0-520 Practice Test
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NetApp Certified Implementation Engineer – SAN, ONTAP
You have an SVM serving LUNs to your VMware environment. You have configured the SAN LIFs, zoning, and
multipath by using industry best practices. You need to temporarily migrate a SAN LIF to another host, preserving the
SAN LIF’s WWPN. You do not want to lose access to the LUNs during LIF migration.
In this scenario, what are three required steps that are needed to accomplish this task? (Choose three.)
A . Set the new home node and home port in the LI
C . Take the LIF offline.
D . Bring the LIF online.
E . Update the zone using the WWPN of the destination host’s physical port.
F . Nondisruptively migrate the LIF to the destination host.
An administrator is planning to rehost a SAN volume from one SVM to another SVM on a FAS8300 with all hard disk
After rehosting the volume, what are two policies that must be reconfigured? (Choose two.)
A . export policy
B . caching policy
C . volume efficiency policy
D . snapshot policy
Click the Exhibit button.
A customer has a 4-node AFF A700 cluster that uses ONTAP 9.7. The customer’s environment has the Emulex
LP31004-M6 and Emulex LPe32002-M2 HBAs.
Referring to the exhibit, using the NVMe protocol, which two host operating systems would be supported? (Choose
A . SLES 15 64-bit
B . SLES 12 SP3 64-bit
C . Microsoft Windows Server 2012 R2
D . RHEL 7.5 64-bit
Click the Exhibit button.
Referring to the exhibit, which switch in the fabric is the principal switch?
A . sw10
B . sw6
C . sw4
D . sw5
An administrator enabled the iSCSI protocol on an SVM and created a LUN for a VMware ESXi server.
After the administrator performs a rescan, the LUN is not visible on the host.
Which statement describes how to solve this problem?
A . Create an igroup, add the iSCSI IQN, then map the LUN to the igroup.
B . Enable ALUA support on the VMware host.
C . Perform a takeover/giveback of the controller that is hosting the LU
E . Create an igroup, add the WWPN of the host initiator, then map the LUN to the igroup.
Click the Exhibit button.
Referring to the exhibit, how many LUNs should the server administrator see on the Windows 2016 host?
Click the Exhibit button.
An administrator enabled the FC protocol on an SVM and created a LUN for a Windows Server 2019 server. After a
rescan, the LUN is not visible on the host.
Referring to the exhibit, which two steps must the administrator take to solve this problem? (Choose two.)
A . Enable NPIV on the switch.
B . Create an igroup, add the iSCSI IQN, and then map the igroup to the LU
D . Disable NPIV on the switch.
E . Create an igroup, add the WWPN of the host initiator, and then map the igroup to the LU
You have a 2-node AFF A400 serving FC LUNs. You are asked to make an instant-writable copy of a LUN in a
deduplicated volume. The writable copy must not take additional space.
In this scenario, which two ONTAP features would be used? (Choose two.)
A . clone split
B . volume clone
C . LUN move
D . file clone
A storage administrator is setting up a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.1 system to use NVMe storage in ONTAP 9.7.
In this scenario, which action is required?
A. Load the FC HBA drivers.
B. Set up the Red Hat auto mounter.
C. Load the Ethernet drivers.
D. Set up ALUA.
An administrator suspects abnormal operation and performance-related issues within a particular SAN environment.
The administrator wants to further investigate the environment in terms of overall health, best practice
recommendations, proactive remediation, and risk assessments, as compared to other SAN deployments.
Which tool should the administrator use to assess this information?
A . Active IQ
B . Active IQ OneCollect
C . Active IQ Config Advisor
D . Interoperability Matrix Tool (IMT)
You are asked to increase the size of your existing 4-node FAS8060 cluster running ONTAP 9.7 software with four
additional AFF A700 nodes.
Which tool enables you to confirm that this will be a valid addition?
A . Active IQ OneCollect
B . Hardware Universe (HWU)
C . Active IQ Config Advisor
D . Active IQ
You are called to help with a new customer’s SAN environment that consists of an 8-node AFF A700 cluster, Cisco
MDS fabric switches, and Cisco UCS servers.
Which two tools would help you to assess the environment? (Choose two.)
A . Active IQ OneCollect
B . Active IQ Upgrade Advisor
C . NetApp ONTAP Mediator
D . Brocade SAN Health
A database owner requests that two additional hosts be added to an application server cluster. This brings the host
count for the fabric to 10. The company’s internal procedure is to set SAN hosts with a queue depth of 256. The
FAS8300 2-node cluster is configured with one HBA per node with one port connected to fabric A and one port
connected to fabric B. Users complain about inconsistent performance.
What must the storage administrator do to ensure continuous operation of the hosts in this new configuration?
A . Add two more hosts to the application server cluster.
B . Reduce the number of LIFs per node on the FAS8300 cluster.
C . Create two additional LIFs per node on the FAS8300 cluster.
D . Reduce the queue depth of the hosts such that the total does not exceed 2048.
You have a new 2-node AFF All SAN Array A700 cluster serving iSCSI LUNs. You are asked to test failures of the
storage back-end subsystem.
In this scenario, which two actions satisfy the failure criteria? (Choose two.)
A . Disable Snapshot policies.
B . Pull an Ethernet cable from a Linux host.
C . Perform a storage controller failover.
D . Pull an Ethernet cable from a storage port with a cluster LI
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Chinese PC maker CWWK is selling a set of tiny desktop computers that measure just 75.4 x 75.4 x 52.5mm (3â€ł x 3â€ł x 2.1â€ł), but which pack a lot of functionality into that compact design. TheÂ CWWK Mini M1, for example, features dual 2.5 GbE Ethernet ports and support for up to three displays, while [â€¦]
Potential attacks, software and platform vulnerabilities, malware, and misconfiguration issues can pose serious threats to organizations seeking to protect private, confidential, or proprietary data. Fortunately, various technologies â€“ collectively known as unified threat management â€“ make it easy to use virtualized or appliance-based tools to provide comprehensive security coverage.
With a combination of regular updates, monitoring and management services, and critical security research and intelligence data, you can vastly improve your businessâ€™s cybersecurity. Weâ€™ll explore how to erect defenses with UTM and implement sound security policies to cope with an array of threats.
What is unified threat management?
Unified threat management is an all-in-one security implementation that helps protect businesses from online security risks. A UTM solution includes features like network firewalls, antivirus software, intrusion detection and virtual private networks. Many businesses may prefer UTM software platforms, but hardware options, such as dedicated firewalls and router networking devices, are also available.
By implementing a UTM program throughout your organization, you provide a single security source for all of your information technology (IT) needs that can scale as your business grows.Â
With a UTM guarding your organization, you get a streamlined experience with various security components working together seamlessly, instead of the potential issues that could arise if you integrated multiple services for each function.
Why is unified threat management important?
By its very nature, technology is constantly changing. Unfortunately, this includes cybercrime; as technology progresses and we become more connected, the number of threats keeps growing.Â
This unpredictability is why itâ€™s critical to implement a comprehensive UTM program throughout your organization. A UTM is like a cybersecurity force guarding against the most common vulnerabilities hackers could exploit. By essentially guarding every virtual entry point, a UTM is a great preventive security measure for any business.
Why is unified threat management necessary?
The history of information security and palliative technologies goes back to the 1980s, when perimeter security (through firewalls and screening routers) and malware protection (primarily in the form of early antivirus technologies) became available.Â
As threats evolved in sophistication and capability, other elements to secure business networks and systems became available. These solutions include email checks, file screening, phishing protection, and allow lists and block lists for IP addresses and URLs.
From the mid-â€™90s to the first decade of the 21st century, there was an incredible proliferation of point solutions to counter specific threat types, such as malware, IP-based attacks, distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, and rogue websites with drive-by downloads. This explosion led to an onslaught of data security software and hardware designed to counter individual threat classes.Â
Unfortunately, a collection of single-focus security systems lacks consistent and coherent coordination. Thereâ€™s no way to detect and mitigate hybrid attacks that might start with a rogue URL embedded in a tweet or email message, continue with a drive-by get when that URL is accessed, and really get underway when a surreptitiously installed keylogger teams up with timed transmissions of captured data from a backdoor uploader.Â
Worse yet, many of these cyberattack applications are web-based and use standard HTTP port addresses, so higher-level content and activity screening is necessary to detect and counter unwanted influences.Â
What does a unified threat management solution include?
The basic premise of UTM is to create powerful, customized processing computer architectures that can handle, inspect, and (when necessary) block large amounts of network traffic at or near wire speeds. It must search this data for blacklisted IP addresses, inspect URLs for malware signatures, look for data leakage, and ensure all protocols, applications, and data are benign.Â
Typical UTM solutions usually bundle various functions, such as the following.
Modern UTM systems incorporate all these functions and more by combining fast special-purpose network circuitry with general-purpose computing facilities. The custom circuitry that exposes network traffic to detailed and painstaking analysis and intelligent handling does not slow down benign packets in transit. It can, however, remove suspicious or questionable packets from ongoing traffic flows, turning them over to scanners or filters.Â
The UTM agency can then perform complex or sophisticated analyses to recognize and foil attacks, filter out unwanted or malicious content, prevent data leakage, and ensure security policies apply to all network traffic.
Since many businesses are shifting employees to remote work models, itâ€™s more critical than ever to invest in VPNs for data security.
Unified threat management providers
UTM solutions usually take the form of special-purpose network appliances that sit at the network boundary, straddling the links that connect internal networks to external networks via high-speed links to service providers or communication companies.
By design, UTM devices coordinate all aspects of a security policy, applying a consistent and coherent set of checks and balances to incoming and outgoing network traffic. Most UTM device manufacturers build their appliances to work with centralized, web-based management consoles. This lets network management companies install, configure and maintain UTM devices for their clients.Â
Alternatively, IT managers and centralized IT departments can take over this function. This approach ensures that the same checks, filters, controls, and policy enforcement apply to all UTM devices equally, avoiding the gaps that the integration of multiple disparate point solutions (discrete firewalls, email appliances, content filters, virus checkers, and so forth) can expose.
Top UTM providers
These are some of the most respected UTM providers:
Cyberthreat intelligence gives you a direct line into new and developing cyberattacks worldwide, so you can know the enemy and build an effective solution to prevent breaches.
How to choose the right UTM provider
When choosing a business UTM solution, you should seek the standard functions described above as well as these more advanced features:Â
Advanced UTM devices must also support flexible architectures whose firmware can be easily upgraded to incorporate new means of filtering and detection and to respond to the ever-changing threat landscape. UTM makers generally operate large, ongoing security teams that monitor, catalog, and respond to emerging threats as quickly as possible, providing warning and guidance to client organizations to avoid exposure to risks and threats.
Some of the best-known names in the computing industry offer UTM solutions to their customers, but not all offerings are equal. Look for solutions from reputable companies like Cisco, Netgear, SonicWall and Juniper Networks. Youâ€™re sure to find the right mix of features and controls to meet your security needs without breaking your budget.
IT InfoSec certifications that address UTM
As a visit to the periodic survey of information security certifications at TechTargetâ€™s SearchSecurity confirms, more than 100 active and ongoing credentials are available in this broad field. However, not all of the best IT certifications address UTM directly or explicitly.Â
While no credential focuses exclusively on UTM, some of the best InfoSec and cybersecurity certifications cover UTM aspects in their exam objectives or the associated standard body of knowledge that candidates must master:
Of these credentials, the generalist items (such as CISA, CISSP, and CHPP/CHPA) and the two SANS GIAC certifications (GCIH and GCWN) provide varying levels of coverage on the principles of DLP and the best practices for its application and use within the context of a well-defined security policy.Â
Out of the above list, the CISSP and CISA are the most advanced and demanding certs. The Cisco and Juniper credentials concentrate more on the details of specific platforms and systems from vendors of UTM solutions.
With the ever-increasing emphasis on and demand for cybersecurity, any of these certifications â€“ or even entry-level cybersecurity certifications â€“ can be a springboard to launch you into your next information security opportunity.
Eduardo Vasconcellos contributed to the writing and research in this article.
John Dielissen, Andrei RÂ˘adulescu, Kees Goossens, and Edwin Rijpkema Philips Research Laboratories, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
SoC communication infrastructures, such as the Ă†thereal network on chip (NoC), will play a central role in integrating IPs with diverse communication requirements. To achieve a compositional and predictable system design, it is essential to reduce uncertainties in the interconnect, such as throughput and latency. In our NoC, these uncertainties are eliminated by providing guaranteed throughput and latency services. Our NoC consists of routers and network interfaces. The routers provide reliable data transfer. The network interfaces implement, via connections, high-level services, such as transaction ordering, throughput and latency guarantees, and end-to-end flow control. The network interfaces also implement adapters to existing on-chip protocols, such as AXI, OCP and DTL, to seamlessly connect existing IP modules to the NoC. These services are implemented in hardware to achieve high speed, and low area. Our NoC provides run-time reconfiguration. We show that in the Ă†thereal NoC, this is achieved by using the NoC itself, instead of an additional control network. We present an instance of a 6-port router with an area of 0:175mm2 after layout, and a network interface with 4 IP ports having a synthesized area of 0:172mm2. Both the router and the network interface are implemented in 0:13Âµm technology, and run at 500 MHz.
As systems on chip (SoC) grow in complexity, the traditional on-chip interconnects, such as buses and switches, cannot be used anymore, due to their limited scalability. Networks on chip (NoC) scale better, and, therefore, they are a solution to large SoCs [2â€“5, 7, 9â€“11, 14].
NoCs offer well-defined interfaces [2, 8, 14, 16], decoupling computation from communication, and easing design. It has been shown that NoCs can provide interfaces to existing on-chip communication protocols, such as AXI , OCP , DTL , thus, enabling reuse of existing IP modules [8, 15].
A disadvantage of large interconnects in general (e.g., buses with bridges, or NoCs) is that they introduce uncertainties (e.g., due to contention). Applications also introduce uncertainties as they become more dynamic and heterogeneous. All these complicate integration, especially in hard real-time systems (e.g., video), as the user expects the resulting system to be predictable.
In the Ă†thereal NoC, we advocate the use of differentiated services and the use of guaranteed communication to eliminate uncertainties in the interconnect, and to ease integration . We allow differentiated services by offering communication services on connections that can be configured individually for different services. Examples of properties that can be configured on a connection are throughput and latency that can be configured to have no guarantees (i.e., best effort) or guaranteed for a particular bound. By providing guarantees, our NoC offers predictable communication, which is a first step in designing a predictable system.
In the next section, we present the Ă†thereal NoC, which offers both guaranteed and best-effort services. The NoC consists of routers and network interfaces. Our routers, described in Section 2.1, use input queuing, wormhole routing, link-level flow control and source routing. It has two traffic classes for the GT and BE data. For GT, time slots are reserved such that no contention occurs, while for BE, we use a round-robin arbitration to solve contention. The network interfaces, described in Section 2.2, have a modular design, composed of kernel and shells. The NI kernel provides the basic functionality, including arbitration between connections, ordering, end-to-end flow control, packetization, and a link protocol with the router. Shells implement (a) additional functionality, such as multicast and narrowcast connections, and (b) adaptors to existing protocols, such as AXI or DTL. All these shells can be plugged in or left out at instantiation time according to the needs to optimize area cost.
The network connections are configurable at runtime via a memory-mapped configuration port. In Section 3, we show how the network is used to configured itself as opposed to using a separate control interconnect for network configuration.
2 Concepts of the Network
The network on chip as is exemplified by Figure 1, consists of two components: the routers and the network interfaces (NI). The routers can be randomly connected amongst themselves and to the network interfaces (i.e., there are no topology constraints). Note that in principle there can be multiple links between routers. The routers transport packets of data from one NI to another. The NIs are responsible for packetization/depacketization, for implementing the connections and services, and for offering a standard interface (e.g., AXI or OCP) to the IP modules connected to the NoC.
The Ă†thereal NoC provides both best-effort and guaranteed services (e.g., latency or throughput). To implement guarantees, we use contention-free routing, which is based on a time-divisionmultiplexed circuit-switching approach, where one or more circuits are set up for a connection . This requires a logical notion of synchronicity, where all routers and NIs are in the same slot. Circuits are created by reserving consecutive slots in consecutive routers/NIs. This is, the circuits are pipelined, in the sense that if a circuit is set from router R to router Râ€™, and slot s is reserved at router R, then slot s + 1 must be reserved at router Râ€™. On these circuits, data received in one slot will be forwarded to the next router/NI in the next slot. By setting up circuits, we ensure that data is transported without contention. In this way throughput and latency are guaranteed. We call this guaranteed traffic as guaranteed throughput (GT) data, as opposed to the best-effort (BE) data, for which no throughput guarantees are given.
As mentioned above, circuits are set up by reserving slots. These slots are reserved such that no more than one GT data is scheduled at the same time on an output port of a router or NI. BE data is transferred on the slots that are not used by the GT data: either the slots are unreserved, or the slots are reserved, but not used. BE data can be delayed because of the higher priority GT data, or because of contention on the ports.
In the following sections, we describe in detail the router and NI architectures.
2.1 Router Architecture
Routers send data from one network interface to the other by means of packets. Such a packet consists of one or more flits, were a flit is the minimal transmission unit. As a transmission scheme we use wormhole routing, because of the low cost (the buffer capacity can be less than the length of a packet) and low latency (the router can start forwarding the first flit of a packet without waiting for the tail). To reduce queuing capacity of a router, and thus the area, input queuing is used, as shown in Figure 2.
We select source routing as an addressing scheme, because it allows topology independence, while at the same time has a low cost: no expensive (programmable) lookup tables are needed in the router. In source routing the path on which the packet travels is included in the header of a packet. In Ă†thereal, this path is a list of destination ports, from which each router on the path removes the first element for its own use.
In the Ă†thereal network guarantees are given by statically calculating the GT schedule. In this way conflicts at the destination ports at each router can be avoided. In fact a pipelined circuit switching network is set-up. Since the network is distributed, also the circuit switching configuration, being the time at which GTpackets arrive and to which destination port they have to go, has to be distributed In earlier versions of the Ă†thereal router , this was done in â€ťlocalâ€ť slot tables. When programming a GT connection, all slot tables on the path are consulted to avoid con- flicts in the schedule. In this way distributed programming is enabled, which is essential for large networks. However, for the next years we expect the network to be small and a centralized programming scheme is chosen, for which no â€ťlocalâ€ť slot table is needed. The area cost of the â€ťlocalâ€ť slot table is quite high because first of all, the table itself costs area (approximately 25% of the total area of a router with 6 bidirectional ports and 256 slots), and second the programming unit, and the connected additional port on the router have to be provided (an additional 25%). In this paper we present a NoC with centralized configuration. We include the switching configuration (the path) in the packet header, and, as a consequence the slot tables are removed from the routers.
Besides the path, the header also contains information for the Network interface, which is explained in section 2.2.1. As explained, a network packet is build up of one or more network flits. For the current Ă†thereal network, the flit size is chosen 3 to optimize the data clock frequency and control frequency. The information of the type of flit is annotated in the first element of the sideband information, being the id. The format of the flits is shown in Figure 3. The figure shows that the flit contains a header and 2 payload words. Only the first flit of a packet has a header and as a consequence, the next flits can have 3 payload words. Note that when packets consist of multiple flits, the overhead of the header is reduced. The amount of valid words in the flit is stored in the size field. The end of the packet is notified by the eop flag in the sideband information. As an example, Figure 4 shows how a packet, containing 10 payload words can be build up.
GT and BE-flits are semantically the same, but they are handled differently by the scheduler: GT-flits are always scheduled for the next cycle. The BE-flits are scheduled to the remaining destination ports according a round-robin schedule. Ones a first flit of a BE-packet is send to a certain destination port, than port remains locked until the packet is finished: the port does not schedule BE-flits from the other input ports. In this way the interleaving of BE-packets is avoided, which makes implementation simple and cheap. Note that BE-packets can still be interleaved with GTpackets. For GT-flits the interleaving amongst themselves has to be avoided in the static schedule.
The router has a controller and a data path elements. In the data path, the input messages, from either routers or network interfaces are parsed by the header-parsing units (hpu). These units, shown in Figure 2, remove the first element for the path, send the parsed flits into GT or BE queues and notify the controller that there is a packet. The controller schedules flits for the next cycle. After scheduling the GT-flits, the remaining destination ports can serve the BE-flits. In the case of conflicts (e.g. two BE-flits address the same destination), a round-robin arbitration scheme is applied. The controller sets the switches in the right direction for the duration of the next flit cycle. Furthermore the read commands will be given to the fifoâ€™s.
To avoid overflow in the BE-input queues, a link-level flow control scheme is implemented. Each router is initialized with the amount of free space in the connected routers and network interfaces. Every time a flit is send to a next router, the free space counter corresponding to that destination port is decremented. When a router schedules a flit for the next slot, it signals its predecessor that the free space counter can be incremented. Since GT-packets follow a pipelined circuit, a GT-flit is always send to the next router in the next cycle, and therefore link-level flow control can be omitted.
We synthesized and layouted in a 0:13m technology a prototype router with 6 bidirectional ports, and BE input queues of 32-bit wide and 24-word deep each (see Figure 5). In the floorplan the area-efficient custom-made hardware fifos, that we use for the BE and GT queues, are clearly visible. The design is fully testable using the well known scan-chain test method, and power stipes are included. The total area of the router sums up to 0:175mm2. The router runs at a frequency of 500 MHz, and delivers a bandwidth of 16 Gbit/s per link in each direction.
2.2 Network Interface Architecture
The network interface (NI) is the component that provides the conversion of the packet-based communication of the network to the higher-level protocol that IP modules use. We split the design of the network interface in two parts: (a) the NI kernel, which packetizes messages and schedules them to the routers, implements the end-to-end flow control, and the clock domain crossing, and (b) the NI shells, which implement the connections (e.g., narrowcast, multicast), transaction ordering, and other higher-level issues specific to the protocol offered to the IP. We describe the architectures of the NI kernel and the NI shells in the next two sections, and the results for their implementation in Section 2.2.3.
2.2.1 NI Kernel Architecture
The NI kernel (see Figure 6) receives and provides messages, which contain the data provided by the IP modules via their protocol after sequentialization. The message structure may vary depending on the protocol used by the IP module. However, the message structure is irrelevant for the NI kernel, as it just sees messages as pieces of data that must be transported over the NoC.
The NI kernel communicates with the NI shells via ports. At each port, peer-to-peer connections can be configured, their number being selected at NI instantiation time. A port can have multiple connection to allow differentiated traffic classes (e.g., best effort, or guaranteed throughput), in which case there are also connid signals to select on which connection a message is supplied or consumed.
For each connection, there are two message queues (one source queue, for messages going to the network, and one destination queue, for messages coming from the network) in the NI kernel. Their size is also selected at the NI instantiation time. Queues provide the clock domain crossing between the network and the IP modules. Each port can, therefore, have a different frequency.
Each channel is configured individually. In a first prototype of the Ă†thereal network interface, we can configure if a channel is best effort (BE) or providing timing guarantees (GT), reserve slots in the latter case, configure the end-to-end flow control, and the routing information.
End-to-end flow control ensures that no data is sent unless there is enough space in the destination buffer to accommodate it. This is implemented using credits . For each channel, there is a counter (Space) tracking the empty buffer space of the remote destination queue. This counter is configured with the remote buffer size. When data is sent from the source queue, the counter is decremented. When data is consumed by the IP module at the other side, credits are produced in a counter (Credit) to indicate that more empty space is available. These credits are sent to the producer of data to be added to its Space counter. In the Ă†thereal prototype, we piggyback credits in the header of the packets for the data in the other direction to Improve network efficiency. Note that at most Space data items can be transmitted. We call sendable data, the minimum between the data items in the queue and the value in the counter Space.
From the source queues, data is packetized (Pck) and sent to the network via a single link. A packet header consists of the routing information (NI address for destination routing, and path for source routing), remote queue id (i.e., the queue of the remote network interface in which the data will be stored), and piggybacked credits (see Figure 3).
There are multiple channels which may require data transmission, we implement a scheduler to arbitrate between them. A queue becomes eligible for scheduling when either there is sendable data (i.e., there is data to be sent, and is space in the channelâ€™s destination buffer), or when there are credits to send. In this way, when there is no sendable data, it is still possible to send credits in an empty packet.
The scheduler checks if the current slot is reserved for a GT channel. If the slot is reserved and the GT channel is eligible for scheduling, then the channel is granted data transmission. Otherwise, the scheduler selects an eligible BE channel using some arbitration scheme: e.g. round-robin, weighted round-robin, or based on the queue filling.
Once a queue is selected, a packet containing the largest possible amount of credits and data will be produced. The amount of credits is bound by implementation to the given number of bits in the packet header, and packets have a maximum length to avoid links being used exclusively by a packet/channel, leading to congestion.
On the outgoing path, packets are depacketized, credits are added to the counter Space, and data is stored in its corresponding queue, which is given by a queue id field in the header.
2.2.2 NI Shells: The interface to the IP
With the NI kernel described in the previous section, peer-to-peer connections (i.e., between on master and one slave) can be supported directly. These type of connections are useful in systems involving chains of modules communicating peer-to-peer with one another (e.g., video pixel processing ).
For more complex type of connections, such as narrowcast or multicast, and to provide conversions to other protocols, we add shells around the NI kernel. As an example, in Figure 7, we show a network interface with two DTL and two AXI ports. All ports provide peer-to-peer connections. In addition to this, the two DTL ports provide narrowcast connections, and one DTL and one AXI port provide multicast connections. Note that these shells add specific functionality, and can be plugged in or left out at design time according to the requirements. Network instantiation is simple, as we use an XML description to automatically generate the VHDL code for the NIs as well as for the network topology.
In Figures 8 and 9, we show a master and slave shells that implement a simplified version of a protocol such as AXI. The basic functionality of such a shell is to sequentialize commands and their flags, addresses, and write data in request messages, and to desequentialize messages into read data, and write responses. Examples of the message structures (i.e., after sequentialization) passing from NI shells and NI kernel are shown in Figure 10.
In full-fledged master and slave shells, more blocks would be added to implement e.g., the unbuffered writes at the master side, and read linked, write conditional at the slave side.
We have synthesized an instance of a NI kernel with a slot table of 16 slots, and 4 ports having 1, 1, 2, and 4 channels, respectively, with all queues being 32-bit wide and 8-word deep. The queues are area-efficient custom-made hardware fifos. We use these fifos instead of RAMs, because we need simultaneous access at all NI ports (possibly running at different speeds) as well as simultaneous read and write access for incoming and outgoing packets, which cannot be offered with a single RAM. Moreover, for the small queues needed in the NI, multiple RAMs have a too large area overhead. Furthermore the hardware fifos implement the clock domain boundary allowing each NI port to run at a different frequency. The rest of the NI kernel runs at a frequency of 500 MHz, and delivers a bandwidth towards the router of 16 Gbit/s in each direction. The synthesized area for this NI-kernel instance is 0:13 mm2 in a 0:13m technology.
Next to the kernel there are also a number of shells to implement one configuration port, two master ports, and one slave port. These shells add to the are another 0:04 mm2, resulting in a total NI area of 0:172 mm2.
3 Network Configuration
As mentioned in Section 2.1, in our prototype Ă†thereal network, we opt for centralized programming. This means that there is a single configuration module that configures the whole network, and that slot tables can be removed from the routers.
Consequently, only the NIs need to be programmed when opening/ closing connections.
NIs are programmed via a configuration port (the DTL MMIO port on which the Cfg modules is connected). This port offers a memory-mapped view on all control registers in the NIs. This means that the registers in any NI are readable and writable using normal read and write transactions.
Configuration is performed using the network itself (i.e., there is no separate control interconnect needed for network programming). This is done by directly connecting the NI configuration ports to the network like any other slave (see NI2â€™s configuration port in Figure 11).
At the configuration module Cfgâ€™s NI, we introduce a configuration shell (Config Shell), which, based on the address configures the local NI (NI1), or sends configuration messages via the network to other NIs. The configuration shell optimizes away the need for an extra data port at NI1 to be connected to the NI1â€™s configuration port.
In Figure 12, we show the necessary steps in setting up a connection between two modules (master B and slave A) from a con- figuration module (Cfg). Like for any other memory-mapped register, before sending configuration messages for programming the B to A connection, a connection to the remote NI must be set up. This involves two channels, one for the requests and and one for the responses between NI1 and the configuration port of NI2. This connection is opened in two steps. First, the channel to the remote NI configuration port is set up by writing the necessary registers in NI1 (Step 1 in Figures 11 and 12). Second, we use this channel to set up (via the network) the channel from configuration port of NI2 to the configuration port of NI1 (Step 2). The three shown messages are delivered and executed in order at NI2. The last of them also requests an acknowledgment message to confirm that the channel has been successfully set up.
After these two configuration channels have been set up, the remote NI2 can be safely programmed. We can, therefore, proceed to setting up a connection from B to A. For programming NI2 (Bâ€™s NI), the previously set up configuration connection is used. For programming NI1, the NI1â€™s configuration port is accessed directly via Config Shell. First, the channel from the slave module A to the master module B is configured by programming NI1 (Step 3). Second, the channel from the master module B to the slave module A is configured (Step 4) through messages to NI2.
In this paper, we present the Ă†thereal network on chip, developed at the Philips Research Laboratories. This network offers, via connections, high-level services, such as transaction ordering, throughput and latency guarantees, and end-to-end flow control. The throughput/latency guarantees are implemented using pipelined time-division-multiplexed circuit-switching.
The network consists of routers and network interfaces. The routers use input queuing, wormhole routing, link-level flow control and source routing. It has two traffic classes for the GT and BE data. For GT, time slots are reserved such that no contention occurs, while for BE, we use a round-robin arbitration to solve contention. We show an instance of a router with 6 bidirectional ports, and BE input queues of 32-bit wide and 24-word deep each implemented using custom-made fifos. This router has an area of 0:175mm2 after layout in 0:13m technology, and runs at 500 MHz. This has been achieved by omitting the slot tables, and making low area cost decisions at all levels.
The network interfaces have a modular design, composed of kernel and shells. The NI kernel provides the basic functionality, including arbitration between connections, ordering, end-to-end flow control, packetization, and a link protocol with the router. Shells implement (a) additional functionality, such as multicast and narrowcast connections, and (b) adaptors to existing protocols, such as AXI or DTL. All these shells can be plugged in or left out at instantiation time according to the needs to optimize area cost.
We show an instance of our network interface with a slot table of 16 slots, and 4 ports having 1, 1, 2, and 4 channels, respectively. All queues are 32-bit wide and 8-word deep, and are implemented using custom-made fifos. These fifos also implement the clock domain boundary allowing NI ports to run at a different frequency than the network. The NI kernel runs at a frequency of 500 MHz. The synthesized area for the complete network interface is 0:172 mm2 in a 0:13m technology,
The network connections are configurable at runtime via a memory-mapped configuration port. We use the network to con- figured itself as opposed to using a separate control interconnect for network configuration.
In conclusion, we provide efficient network offering high-level services (including guarantees), which allows runtime network programming using the network itself.
Best Black Friday Wi-Fi Mesh Network System Deals This Week*
*Deals are selected by our commerce team
Sure, maintaining smooth Wi-Fi performance and throughput for video streaming, gaming, andÂ linking up smart home devicesÂ is important. But now that so many folks are working from home, you also need to consider how crucial work applications and different modes of work communication (especiallyÂ video conferencing) perform over your home network. If your job or your children's education rely on robust connectivity, strong, whole-house wireless coverage goes from a nice-to-have to a must.
That's where Wi-Fi mesh router systems come in. These kits blanket your home in a consistent web of Wi-Fi signal, using multiple physical pieces of transmitting hardware to help spread the signal. Let's take a look at the best Wi-Fi mesh routers we've tested, followed by tips for understanding the features to consider before you buy one.
Deeper Dive: Our Top Tested Picks
Asus ZenWiFi AX (XT8)
Best Wi-Fi Mesh System for Most People
Why We Picked It
The Asus ZenWiFi AX (XT8) is a tri-band Wi-Fi 6 mesh system that delivered speedy throughput scores in testing. Itâ€™s a two-piece system that offers plenty of coverage for medium to large homes (up to 5,500 square feet) and can be paired with other Asus devices that support AIMesh technology. Itâ€™s a snap to install and manage thanks to a user-friendly mobile app, and it comes with free lifetime parental controls and network security software.
Who Itâ€™s For
The Asus ZenWiFi AX (XT8) is a solid choice for anyone looking for an easy way to eliminate wireless dead spots. Its robust parental controls and anti-malware software make it an ideal choice for families that want to monitor and limit online activities while providing secure Wi-Fi 6 coverage to all corners of their home. Itâ€™s also a great choice if you plan on making wired connections, as its 2.5Gbps WAN/LAN port lets you take advantage of high-speed internet plans and provides speedy connectivity to NAS devices. Plus, at $399 for a two-pack and frequently available on sale, its current pricing is less than it was when we tested it three years ago, making it still expensive but potentially more attractive to people who want to maximize their networking budget.
Vilo Mesh Wi-Fi System
Best Budget Wi-Fi Mesh Network System
Why We Picked It
The Vilo Mesh Wi-Fi System is the most affordable three-piece mesh system weâ€™ve come across. It's now $115.99 for a three-pack, up from $59.99 when we tested it in 2021, but it's still a steal even at current pricing. Itâ€™s not a superstar performer, and it uses older Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac) technology, but it is very easy to install and manage, offers good range, and comes with parental controls that let you schedule internet access times and allow or disallow internet access for any device.
Who Itâ€™s For
If you need to fill in Wi-Fi dead zones but donâ€™t have the money for a mesh system that uses the latest Wi-Fi 6 technology, the Vilo Mesh Wi-Fi system will get the job done. We donâ€™t recommend this system for users who do a lot of 4K video streaming or those who get large chunks of data, but it is more than suitable for everyday web surfing and basic home networking duties.
Asus ROG Rapture GT6 Wi-Fi 6 Gaming Mesh System
Best Wi-Fi Mesh System for Gaming
Why We Picked It
Asus' ROG Rapture GT6 is a sleek-looking, two-piece mesh system designed with gamers in mind. It combines game-enhancing settings, fast throughput, strong signal performance, and free Trend Micro network security software in a package that's a snap to set up and manage. The Asus ROG Rapture GT6 kit not only delivered superior throughput and strong Wi-Fi signals in our tests, but it offers numerous features designed to enhance your online gaming experience, including a dedicated game port and a variety of gamer-centric settings. Throw in a cool-looking design with Aura RGB lighting effects, and it's obvious why this mesh system should be at the top of gamers' lists.
Who It's For
The GT6 is a no-brainer addition to any household with many connected devices, especially if several of those are gaming PCs and consoles. The two reasons to opt for a cheaper non-mesh gaming router over the GT6 are if you've got a smaller home with less interference from neighboring Wi-Fi networks, or you're on a strict budget.
TP-Link Deco X4300 Pro
Best Wi-Fi Mesh System for Medium to Large Homes
Why We Picked It
Any Wi-Fi mesh system worth its salt is easy to use, delivers good performance, and comes with parental control software that allows you to monitor and limit internet usage. The TP-Link Deco X4300 Pro checks all these boxes, plus it delivers up to 7,000 square feet of coverage for those who like to live large. It installed in minutes using the intuitive Deco mobile app and performed admirably on our throughput and signal strength performance tests. It also uses most of the latest Wi-Fi 6 technologies, including support for 160MHz channel bandwidth. Â
Who Itâ€™s For
If your current Wi-Fi router is unable to bring a strong wireless signal to every room in your four-to-six-bedroom house, the Deco X4300 Pro can help. Itâ€™s a moderately priced three-piece system that comes with free basic network security and parental control software, and also offers a paid subscription for more advanced parental controls and network security tools.
Netgear Orbi RBKE963 WiFi 6E Mesh System
Best Wi-Fi Mesh System for Very Large Homes
Why We Picked It
The Netgear Orbi RBKE963 is a three-piece mesh system that employs the latest Wi-Fi 6E technology to access the relatively uncrowded 6GHz radio band. This wildly expensive system delivered very fast throughput speeds in our performance tests, and it offers excellent signal range. Itâ€™s loaded with high-end components and is easy to configure.Â
Who Itâ€™s For
People with very large dwellings (up to 9,000 square feet) and very large bank accounts who want to blanket their home in the latest Wi-Fi technology should take a look at the Orbi RBKE963. This beefy mesh system offers multi-gig WAN and LAN ports and comes with basic parental controls, but you can subscribe to Netgearâ€™s Smart Parental Controls if you require age-based web filters, detailed browser history reports, and internet time rewards.
Eero Pro 6E
Best Wi-Fi 6E Mesh System
Why We Picked It
As with the Eero 6+, the Eero Pro 6E delivered fast throughput scores and strong signal strength in our performance tests. Both also offer the ability to control home automation devices and easy setup. But in return for a slightly higher price, the Eero Pro 6E adds multi-gig connectivity and support for Wi-Fi 6E. As more and more compatible client devices become available, this mesh system will let you take advantage of the relatively un-crowded 6GHz radio band without missing a beat.
Who Itâ€™s For
If you want a Wi-Fi 6E powered mesh system that is easy to set up and manage, the Eero Pro 6E is worth a look. As every high-end mesh system should, it supports 160MHz channel bandwidth for optimal throughput speeds. A USB port or two would be nice, and it's unfortunate that parental controls require an optional subscription, but if easy setup and strong performance are your main concerns, the Eero Pro 6E will fit the bill.
Wyze Wi-Fi 6E Mesh Router Pro
Best Budget Wi-Fi 6E Mesh System
Why We Picked It
Reasonably priced as far as mesh systems go, the Wyze Wi-Fi 6E Mesh Router Pro delivered speedy 5GHz throughput in testing, is easy to manage, and offers multi-gig and USB connectivity. Its performance on the 6GHz (Wi-Fi 6E) band is also good, though not quite as good as its 5GHz performance. It comes with free network security software, and you can add an additional node to cover homes up to 6,000 square feet for a total price of $393.99.
Who It's For
The Wyze Wi-Fi 6E Mesh Router Pro two-pack is a good value and a smart choice for anyone looking to jump on the 6GHz bandwagon. Itâ€™s also a breeze to install and manage using the Wyze mobile app.
Best Expandable Wi-Fi Mesh System
Why We Picked ItÂ
Amazonâ€™s Eero 6+ is more than just a stylish three-piece Wi-Fi 6 mesh system. Sure, it delivers fast wireless throughput and strong signal transmissions in homes of up to 4,500 square feet, but it also has hidden talents. It functions as a home automation hub that controls Zigbee devices such as cameras, smart plugs, and thermostats. And of course, it works with Alexa voice commands and routines.
Who Itâ€™s For
The Eero 6+ is a good fit for those who use Amazon Alexa to control their smart home devices. It uses sleek, low-profile nodes to bring Wi-Fi 6 connectivity and home automation control to every room in the house, and it can access 160MHz channels. It comes with a thoughtfully designed mobile app that lets you control everything from your phone, but youâ€™ll have a pay a bit more for parental control and network security software.
Google Nest Wifi
Best-Looking Wi-Fi Mesh System
Why We Picked It
Designed to be placed out in the open, the Google Nest WiFi is a two-piece Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac) mesh system that also serves as a Google Assistant smart speaker. It delivered impressive throughput scores in our tests and was easy to install. It can be expanded with up to five nodes for larger homes and offers easy-to-use parental controls that allow you to pause internet access, create access schedules for family members, and restrict access to websites that contain adult content.Â Â
Who Itâ€™s For
With the Google Nest WiFi mesh system, you get impressive Wi-Fi 5 performance and three stylish nodes that pull double duty as Google Assistant smart speakers. That makes it a great choice for people who want a router and smart home hub all in one device to listen to music, place hands-free calls, and control certain smart products such as lights and cameras.
TP-Link Deco XE75 Pro Tri-Band Mesh System
Best Wi-Fi Mesh System for Efficient Wireless Backhaul
Why We Picked It
A mesh system can use one of a few different means of communicating between its nodes. This process, called backhaul, is essential to blanketing your home with strong, fast Wi-Fi signals. While most mesh systems use a dedicated 2.4GHz or 5GHz band for backhaul, the TP-Link Deco XE75 Pro instead defaults to using a 6GHz band, known as Wi-Fi 6E. This is among the most efficient setups we've seen, since few client devices have Wi-Fi 6E support yet, and the 6GHz spectrum is still relatively uncrowded. And if you do have Wi-Fi 6E-capable devices or are lucky enough to have a wired Ethernet connection for backhaul, the XE75 Pro can be configured to use 6GHz for client communications instead.
Who It's For
If you're in the market for a cutting-edge Wi-Fi 6E mesh system, but don't have many Wi-Fi 6E-capable devices, you might want to consider the XE75 Pro. It puts Wi-Fi 6E technology to good use behind the scenes, while standing ready to use the 6GHz band for client devices in the future. Plus, at the current MSRP of $299 for a two-pack (cheaper than when we reviewed it), it's reasonably priced.
Buying Guide: The Best Wi-Fi Mesh Network Systems for 2023
Many late-modelÂ wireless routersÂ can project strong signal to most rooms of a typical medium-size house. But larger homes and dwellings with dense walls, multiple floors, metal and concrete substructures, and other material impediments may require additional components to bring Wi-Fi to areas that a single router can't reach. Range extenders can help fill dead zones, but most provide only half the bandwidth that you get from your main router. Access points, meanwhile, offer more bandwidth than range extenders, but they require a wired connection to the main router. And both solutions typically create a new network SSID that you have to log in to as you move from one area of the house to another.
If you're new to networking, you might be worrying that all of the above will leave you sitting on the floor surrounded by a lot of router documentation and questioning your life choices. Fortunately, there's another alternative: a mesh Wi-Fi system.
What Is a Wi-Fi Mesh System?
Also known by popular brand names like Google Nest Wi-Fi Pro, or TP-Link Deco, mesh systems (or mesh Wi-Fi routers) are designed to blanket your home with wireless coverage. These systems are a hybrid of sorts, made up of several networking components. A main router connects directly to your modem, and a series of satellite modules, or nodes, get placed throughout your house. They are all part of a single wireless network, and they share the same SSID and password. Unlike range extenders, which typically communicate with the router via the 2.4GHz or 5GHz radio bands, most Wi-Fi system satellites useÂ mesh technologyÂ to talk to the router and to each other.
Setting up and maintaining a traditional wireless home network can be daunting, even if you're tech-savvy. Wi-Fi mesh systems, on the other hand, are geared toward users with little or no technical knowledge and can be installed in minutes. They typically come with a user-friendly mobile app that walks you through the installation process with easy-to-follow illustrated instructions. The app tells you where to place each node for maximum coverage and chooses the best Wi-Fi channel and radio band for optimal throughput performance, so you can maintain a strong wireless connection as you move about the house.
(Credit: TP-Link )
Wi-Fi mesh systems are easy to expand (with no current limit on the number of nodes you can add) and manage using your smartphone. From an app, you can disable Wi-Fi access to specific devices with the press of a button, or supply certain devices network priority without having to log in to a complicated network console.
What Should I Look for in Wi-Fi Mesh Router Design and Features?
Most Wi-Fi mesh systems look nothing like a traditional setup with a router and range extender. The router and nodes use internal antennas and are almost always tastefully designed so you can place them out in the open rather than in a closet or under a desk. (Don't expect to find a lot of flashing LED indicatorsâ€”these systems are designed to blend in with your home's dĂ©cor.) They usually have at least one LAN port for connecting to devices likeÂ TVsÂ andÂ gaming consoles, but USB connectivity is a rare feature at this point.
Similar to modern standalone routers, mesh systems are multi-band networking devices that operate on the 2.4GHz and 5GHz radio bands. Some models offer support for Multi-User Multiple Input Multiple Output (MU-MIMO)Â technology, which streams data to multiple compatible wireless clients simultaneously rather than sequentially. Most Wi-Fi systems use band steering to automatically select the least-crowded radio band for the best performance and offer easy-to-use parental controls, guest networking, and device-prioritization options. While designed for ease of use, they usually let you configure port forwarding and wireless security settings but lack the advanced network-management options such as individual band control, firewall settings, and wireless transmission rate settings that you get with a traditional router. Nor can you use third-party WRT firmware to customize the system for enhanced performance and network monitoring.
Do Wi-Fi Mesh Systems Support Wi-Fi 6?
Some do, yes, and you should insist on it in a new mesh system if you own client devices that support it. Wi-Fi 6 (also called 802.11ax) is an evolution of 802.11ac technology that promises increased throughput speeds (up to 9.6Gbps), less network congestion, greater client capacity, and better range performance courtesy of several new and improved wireless technologies, includingÂ Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple AccessÂ (OFDMA).Â OFDMA improves overall throughput by breaking Wi-Fi channels into sub-channels, allowing up to 30 users to share a channel at the same time.Â
Additionally, 802.11ax takes advantage of previously unused radio frequencies to provide faster 2.4GHz performance and uses MU-MIMO streaming, too.Â Some Wi-Fi 6 devices can also communicate on the less-crowded 6GHz band, which is known as Wi-Fi 6E. For more on the benefits of the 802.11ax protocol, check out our speed tests and primerÂ What Is Wi-Fi 6?
Which Is Better: A Wireless Mesh Router, or a Range Extender?
If you're worried what these systems might cost, don't sweat it; aside from a few pricey contenders, most mesh systems are only slightly more expensive than a router/range extender combination. Wi-Fi systems range in price from less than $100 for a single-node system to at least $300 for a setup that can cover a 3,000-square-foot house with three or more nodes.
The pricing looks higher with these systems because, in most cases, you're paying for at least two devices, the router and a router node that forms the mesh. Most systems, in fact, come with two nodes, so you're buying three devices in total. If you break it down per device, you'll most often find that they cost only a little more than you'd pay for a similarly powered router andÂ range extender solution. That's especially true now that we're seeing prices coming down on mesh systems, even the newer models compatible with Wi-Fi 6.
Also remember: Wi-Fi systems are all about ease of use. They are a snap to set up and manage, offer whole-house coverage via a series of attractive nodes, and provide seamless room-to-room roaming over a single network. If you want total control over your network and require the best possible throughput performance and connectivity options, stick with a traditional router solution. If you don't want to deal with things like assigning radio bands and logging in to different networks as you move throughout your home, however, a Wi-Fi system makes sense. (For more about the differences between these two technologies, check out our explainerÂ Wi-Fi Range Extender vs. Mesh Network: What's the Difference?)
So, What Is the Best Wi-Fi Mesh System to Buy?
We've laid out our top mesh picks in the detailed spec breakout chart below. For even more detail, you can click through to our full reviews of the best Wi-Fi systems we've tested. Need some more help getting all your devices up and running their fastest? Check out our tips forÂ troubleshooting your internet connection. And once you've picked out the best product for your home, read our primer onÂ how to set up a mesh Wi-Fi router.
Date:Â April 9, 2021
Time: 9:00am PDT, 11:00am EDT
There are tick-borne diseases beyond what causes Lyme disease. Different geographies have differing prevalenceâ€™s of tick-borne infections. In the northeastern USA, some of the other infectious agents are Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia species and Ehrlichia species. This talk will describe our experiences on the processes used to implement a multiplex molecular laboratory developed test (LDT) for the detection of A. phagocytophilum, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in a clinical reference laboratory. We will discuss various testing options including assay types and ordering algorithms. Our experiences and lessons learned after implementation will be discussed, including the testing challenges we had related to COVID-19.
Webinars will be available for unlimited on-demand viewing after live event.
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