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NBRC The National Board for Respiratory Care

The RRT credential is nationally recognized as the “standard of excellence” for respiratory care professionals.

The examinations for the RRT credential objectively and uniformly measure essential knowledge, skills and abilities required of advanced respiratory therapists. The NBRC evaluates the competency of respiratory therapists and ensures that graduates of accredited respiratory care education programs have every opportunity to earn the RRT credential. It is in high demand nationwide, and we work diligently to help to fill the shortage of qualified respiratory therapists in the field.

The first examination for earning the RRT is the Therapist Multiple-Choice (TMC) Examination (prior to January 2015, it was known as the Written Registry Examination). The TMC Examination evaluates the abilities required of respiratory therapists at entry into practice and determines eligibility for the Clinical Simulation Examination (CSE). The CRT and/or RRT credentials are used as the basis for the licensure in all 49 states that regulate the practice of respiratory care.

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Candidate Handbook: Information, applications and other forms for all NBRC credentialing examinations

TMC practice examination and CSE practice examination. Online simulations of the real examination experiences are available using identical software. ATTENTION – By accessing this examination, you agree not to reproduce, distribute, disclose, offer for sale, or sell any portion of these copyrighted National Board for Respiratory Care, Inc. materials in any format. Failure to comply with these terms may result in disciplinary action by the National Board for Respiratory Care, Inc. including loss of your credential, losing your ability to retake an examination, and/or legal action related to copyright infringement. To access the practice exams and your results:

Log in with your email address – this is the email address where your results will be sent.

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When you have completed the examination, click Finish and Display. Your results will be displayed on the screen and emailed to the address you provided at login.

If you need assistance using the examination software, click on the Help button in the lower portion of the screen once you begin the examination.

To take the online practice exams, you will need a compatible internet browser such as the current version of Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox, or Safari. Other browsers may or may not work. Cookies and scripting must be enabled and pop-up blocking must be disabled.
The National Board for Respiratory Care
Medical Respiratory tricks

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Podiatry-License-Exam-Part-III Podiatry License test Part III - 2023 NBRC test PDF comprises of Complete Pool of NBRC Q&A with Dumps checked and updated with references and clarifications. Our objective to assemble the NBRC Q&A is not just to pass the NBRC test at the first attempt yet Really Improve Your Knowledge about the NBRC test subjects.
The National Board for Respiratory Care
Answer: D
Question: 46
PAH is secreted in which of the following locations?
A. Distal tubule
B. Loop of Henle
C. Collecting tubule
D. Proximal tubule
Answer: D
Question: 47
Which of the following is not an anterior pituitary gland secretion?
C. Vasopressin
D. Prolactin
Answer: C
Question: 48
Thyroid Hormone T3 does not have which of the following functions?
A. Stimulate bone development and growth
B. Create beta-adrenergic responses
C. Cause brain development
D. Decrease calcium re-absorption
Answer: D
Question: 49
Hypercalemia has not been linked with which of the following?
A. Paget's disease
B. Aldosterone
C. Sarcoidosis
D. Malignancy
Answer: B
Question: 50
Which of the following does not require the pre-cursor progesterone?
A. Cortisol
B. Testosterone
D. Aldosterone
Answer: C
Question: 51
Which of the following is the source cell for the secretion Pepsinogen?
A. Chief cell
B. Plasma cell
C. G cell
D. Parietal cell
Answer: A
Question: 52
Which of the following is the primary activator of zymogen secretion?
A. Somatostatin
B. Secretin
C. Acetylcholine
D. Gastrin
Answer: C
Question: 53
Which of the following is not a function of Angiotensin II?
A. Causes release of aldosterone
B. Causes vasodilation
C. Causes increased posterior pituitary activation
D. Elevates blood pressure
Answer: B
Question: 54
Which of the following is not a function of Progesterone?
A. Causes increased body temperature.
B. Causes some smooth muscle relaxation.
C. Causes increased spiral artery growth
D. Causes activation of FSH
Answer: D
Question: 55
Which of the following is not a function of Estrogen?
A. Causes breast growth.
B. Causes inhibition of FSH
C. Increased follicle development
D. Decreased overall transport proteins
Answer: D
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Medical Respiratory tricks - BingNews Search results Medical Respiratory tricks - BingNews Best Vitamins And Foods To Boost Your Immune System

To keep your body healthy, energized and protected, consider including some of these nutrients in your daily diet.

Vitamin C

When it comes to health and immunity, one of the first vitamins most people think of is vitamin C. This water-soluble vitamin is known for its ability to ward off sickness and can help shorten the duration of colds once contracted. A powerful antioxidant, it can fight free radicals, which may prevent or delay certain cancers, heart disease and aging. Vitamin C supplementation can also help prevent and treat respiratory infections.

Get it from food: Oranges are chock-full of this nutrient, as are tropical fruits like kiwi, guava papaya and lychee and non-citrus fruits like plums, cherries, strawberries, currants and persimmons. Vegetables that are good reservoirs of vitamin C include cruciferous choices like Brussels sprouts and broccoli, as well as mustard spinach, sweet peppers, chili peppers and kale, says Dr. Fenster. Rosehips, parsley and thyme also provide abundant doses.

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Vitamin A

Vitamin A can help the body fight infections, especially of the respiratory variety. It’s known as an anti-inflammation vitamin because of its role in developing and enhancing the immune system. Since the body doesn’t make vitamin A on its own, it must come from the foods you eat or supplementation.

Get it from food: Foods rich in vitamin A include natural cheeses (not processed cheese like slices of American cheese), milk products like yogurt, eggs and fatty fish like salmon, tuna, anchovies and herring.

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Vitamin D

Research shows vitamin D can protect us from colds and the flu, both of which are rampant during the colder months . Studies have also found over 80% of COVID-19 patients have vitamin D deficiency . “We get 90% of our needed vitamin D from our skin exposure to the sun; however, during the winter, we tend to avoid outside activities, and even when we are outside, we bundle up with extra clothing,” says Friedman. So unless you live on a tropical island, it’s likely that you’re going to have to ingest your vitamin D in the winter.

Get it from food: Oily fish—such as salmon, sardines, herring and mackerel—red meat, liver and egg yolks are all great sources of vitamin D. But since it’s not easy to get enough vitamin D in the winter, supplementation is often recommended, says Friedman. Learn more about the benefits, sources and supplementation in our complete guide to Vitamin D.

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Vitamin B6

Vitamin B generally refers to a group of eight vitamins (which includes riboflavin and niacin), but when it comes to immunity, vitamin B6 is the one to focus on. Otherwise known as pyridoxine, vitamin B6 is in charge of keeping the immune system strong, aiding in the production of white blood cells and T cells (which regulate immune response) and helping transport oxygen throughout the body. Vitamin B6 deficiencies can lead to a reduction in antibodies needed to ward off infection.

Get it from food: Heritage and pasture-raised pork and poultry deliver plenty of vitamin B6. Tuna and salmon are also good options. Plant sources include peanuts, soy, chickpeas, leafy greens, oats and bananas.

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Zinc is a micronutrient that can help the immune system fight off invading viruses and bacteria. “Zinc is a very popular remedy for the common cold, and extensive research confirms its efficacy,” says Friedman. In fact, results from 13 randomized placebo-controlled trials show taking zinc soon after the onset of symptoms of the common cold can significantly reduce both the duration and severity of symptoms .

Studies have also alluded to the efficacy of zinc supplementation in thwarting COVID-19 and other respiratory infections . “With so much evidence supporting zinc’s immune-boosting powers, it’s become one of the most popular supplements sold during the pandemic,” says Friedman.

Get it from food: While zinc is prevalent in oysters, crab, lobster, beef, chickpeas, cashews and beans, it can be hard to get enough for an immunity boost through diet alone when you’re sick. In such cases, supplementation in capsule, tablet or lozenge form may be a good idea. “The recommended daily zinc intake is 8 milligrams for women and 11 milligrams for men,” says Friedman.

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This lesser-known antioxidant is essential for the activity of virtually all arms of the immune system. People who are deficient in this trace element may have less protection against bacteria, viruses and even cancer. On the other hand, studies show that increased blood levels of selenium are associated with enhanced immune response to the flu .

Get it from food: Brazil nuts are one of the best sources of selenium, but you can also get this nutrient in healthy doses via tuna, halibut, ham, turkey and cottage cheese.

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Thu, 04 Jan 2024 22:10:00 -0600 en-US text/html
How to Stop a Cold in Its Tracks: MDs Share Their Top Tips So You Can Feel Better Fast No result found, try new keyword!Science has yet to find a way to prevent colds, but that doesn't mean you have to suffer. "Fortunately, your body can fight off a cold virus on its own," Dr. O'Mahony says. "And cold remedies may make ... Wed, 03 Jan 2024 09:08:59 -0600 en-us text/html How to get rid of a lingering cough after a cold, the flu, or COVID, according to doctors No result found, try new keyword!There are *** variety of respiratory illnesses going around like the flu, COVID and RSV. As we spend more time indoors, there has reportedly also been an uptick in *** persistent cough that doctors ... Sun, 24 Dec 2023 09:48:00 -0600 en-us text/html Respiratory illnesses are on the rise after the holidays

In most U.S. states, respiratory illness levels are currently considered "high" or "very high," according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

A few respiratory viruses have been driving the upward trend. "The influenza virus is the thing that's really skyrocketing right now," says Dr. Steven Stack, public health commissioner for the state of Kentucky and president of the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. "Influenza is sharply escalating and driving more hospitalizations."

Nationally, levels of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) appear to have plateaued and possibly peaked, while COVID-19 levels are elevated and are expected to climb higher.

"After the holidays, after we've traveled and gathered, we are seeing what is pretty typical of this time of year, which is a lot of respiratory viruses," says Dr. Mandy Cohen, director of the CDC. "We're seeing particularly high circulation in the southeast, but no part of the country is spared."

Staggered start for viruses this season

The flu is coming in later this season, compared with the 2022-2023 season, when "RSV and flu really took off right at the same time along with COVID," says Marlene Wolfe, assistant professor of environmental health at Emory University and a program director at WastewaterScan. "All three of those together were pretty nasty. This year, there's more of an offset."

That has been good news so far for hospital capacity, which has remained stable this season, meaning that people who are quite ill and need medical care are generally able to get it.

Some hospitals in different parts of the country — from Massachusetts to Illinois to California — are starting to require masks for staff again and in some cases for patients and visitors.

Vaccines can still help

Health officials say that getting the latest flu and COVID-19 vaccines now can still protect people this season. While Stack, with Kentucky's Department for Public Health, encourages seasonal preventive shots for everyone 6 months and older, he says it's particularly important for "everybody who is elderly — and not even old elderly — like young elderly, 60 and older," since they are more likely to get very sick from these viruses.

CDC data shows that fewer than half of U.S. adults have gotten a flu shot this fall and winter. That's still better than the vaccination rate for this season's COVID-19 booster, which fewer than 20% of U.S. adults have gotten, even though COVID-19 remains the bigger danger.

"The thing that is putting folks into the hospital and unfortunately taking their lives — the virus that is still the most severe [at the moment] — is the COVID virus," says the CDC's Cohen, citing the latest weekly data showing 29,000 new COVID-19 hospitalizations and 1,200 COVID-19 deaths in the United States.

Beyond vaccines, health officials say there's still a place for masking as a preventive measure.

Early testing can aid treatment

Those who are sick should stay home and watch their symptoms. If they progress beyond a runny nose and a light cough "to body aches, fevers, difficulty moving through your day, a heavier runny nose, a worsening cough ... [those more severe symptoms] should trigger you to go get tested," says Cohen.

Getting tested and diagnosed early, with COVID-19 or the flu, can help those at risk of serious illness get access to prescription pills that can reduce their chances of ending up in the hospital.

Flu and COVID-19 vaccines, tests and treatments should be covered by health insurance.

For those who are uninsured, the government is also offering a program called Test to Treat that offers free tests, free telehealth appointments and free treatments at home.

Cohen says people can protect themselves over the next few weeks by staying aware of what's happening in the community and their individual circumstances. "You want to know what's happening in your community," she says. "Is there a lot of virus circulating? And then, what are the tools that I could layer on to protect myself, depending on who I am, my age, my risk, as well as who I'm around?"

The CDC has maps of COVID-19 hospitalizations down to the county level on its website, and it provides weekly updates on respiratory viruses nationwide. Cohen says there are many tools — including vaccines, masks, rapid tests and treatments — available to help people reduce their risks this season.

Copyright 2024 NPR. To see more, visit

Thu, 04 Jan 2024 20:00:00 -0600 en text/html
What to know about respiratory acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is when breathing out does not remove enough carbon dioxide from the body, and the leftover carbon dioxide mixes with water in the body, causing high levels of acid in the blood.

Many medical conditions and situations can lead to this. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the name for a group of diseases that are particularly likely to cause respiratory acidosis..

In this article, we look at the symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

Respiratory acidosis refers to high levels of acid in the blood due to increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the body.

CO2 is a waste gas that a person with a healthy respiratory system exhales.

If this gas remains in the body, it can shift the natural balance of acids and bases. CO2 mixes with water in the body to form carbonic acid.

When respiratory acidosis is chronic, or lasting, the body partially makes up for the retained CO2 by trying to maintain a near-natural balance of acids and bases. Carbonic acid dissolves into hydrogen and bicarbonate. The kidneys excrete more hydrogen and retain bicarbonate to compensate for respiratory acidosis.

Respiratory acidosis can also be acute, developing suddenly from acute respiratory failure. When the acidosis is acute and severe, a person needs emergency medical treatment to:

  • restore healthy breathing
  • restore the acid-base balance
  • treat the cause of the respiratory failure

Acid-base balance and acidosis

When acid levels in the body are in balance with the base levels, the pH of blood is around 7.4.

A lower pH number reflects higher levels of acid, and a higher pH number represents higher base levels.

The narrow pH range for expected function is between 7.35 and 7.45.

Acidemia, which is highly acidic blood, occurs when the pH of the blood is lower than 7.35. Alkalemia, which is blood with a high level of base, refers to a pH higher than 7.45.

Doctors classify acidosis as either metabolic or respiratory, depending on the main cause of the acid-base imbalance.

Metabolic acidosis does not result from increased CO2 due to unhealthy air exchange in the lungs. Instead, it may stem from an overproduction of acid in the body or a loss of bicarbonate, among other factors.

Diabetic ketoacidosis and kidney disease, as well as many other conditions, can cause metabolic acidosis.

Respiratory acidosis occurs when breathing out does not get rid of enough CO2. The increased CO2 that remains results in overly acidic blood. This can result from respiratory problems, such as COPD.

When increased CO2 in the bloodstream stems from respiratory acidosis, doctors call this hypercapnia.

In people with chronic respiratory acidosis, hypercapnia can persist without the level of acid in the blood becoming dangerous because of the body’s responses to compensate. The kidneys get rid of more acid and reabsorb more base to try and restore a balance.

Immediate medical attention is necessary if this kidney response is no longer enough to maintain the balance of acids and bases. A person should also receive urgent medical attention if acute respiratory acidosis results from respiratory failure.

Here, learn the symptoms of acute respiratory failure.

The symptoms of respiratory acidosis stem from the effects of raised CO2 levels.

The symptoms of chronic respiratory acidosis are less noticeable than those of acute respiratory acidosis, because in chronic cases, the body compensates to help keep the blood pH balanced.

In the blood of people with in chronic respiratory acidosis, the acidifying effect of raised CO2 might reduce. However, the compensatory actions of the kidneys are not as effective for acid levels in the brain, leading to symptoms that affect thought, sleep, and memory.

These symptoms can include:

In people with acute respiratory acidosis or chronic respiratory acidosis that worsens over time, the effects of raised CO2 in the brain become more severe.

Symptoms can include:

  • confusion
  • drowsiness
  • stupor
  • muscle jerking

In these cases, the blood rapidly becomes more acidic and dangerous. Effects of a drastically low pH in the blood include:

Managing chronic respiratory acidosis focuses on treating the underlying illness that disrupts the breathing process and exchange of gases.

A doctor may also give treatments to Improve respiration, including drugs that help open the passages to the lungs.

For people with acute respiratory acidosis, doctors can provide noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, called BiPAP, through a facemask. This directly assists breathing.

In more severe cases, a doctor improves respiration by inserting a tube into the airway for mechanical ventilation.

A person can take steps to support healthy lung function and prevent respiratory acidosis.

For anyone with a long-term respiratory illness, such as asthma or COPD, close management and monitoring are essential for maintaining a good quality of life and avoiding further health problems.

Also, for people with chronic respiratory problems, it can be important to avoid medications that reduce respiratory activity, such as benzodiazepines and extremely strong pain relief medications, including opioids. This can help reduce the risk of an acid-base imbalance developing or worsening.

People who need these medications should take the smallest effective dosages.

And because smoking tobacco has a strong association with developing COPD, reducing tobacco exposure is a crucial way to limit the risk of other respiratory problems.

Meanwhile, obesity can reduce the ability to breathe efficiently and increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes. Having a balanced, nutritious diet and getting regular exercise benefit both the heart and lungs.

Respiratory acidosis develops when the body cannot get rid of enough CO2, and this leftover gas raises the level of acid in the blood until it is unsafe.

When the condition is chronic, a person may have no noticeable symptoms because the body takes steps to compensate. Treatment involves addressing the underlying cause.

When the condition is acute, the symptoms involve the brain and can include confusion and drowsiness, for example. Initial treatment includes breathing support in an emergency care setting.

COPD is one of the main causes of respiratory acidosis. The best way to prevent the condition is to protect lung health.

Sun, 17 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
News tagged with respiratory diseases

Diseases, Conditions, Syndromes

Mayo Clinic researchers mapped how the measles virus mutated and spread in the brain of a person who succumbed to a rare, lethal brain disease. New cases of this disease, which is a complication of the measles virus, may ...

Tue, 12 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
The Best Health Care Jobs That Don't Require Medical School No result found, try new keyword!This is a career path that foregoes medical school and instead requires an associate degree. Learn more about respiratory therapists. Registered nurses have another job that is on the frontlines ... Mon, 24 Jan 2022 20:30:00 -0600 Respiratory Therapist Salary No result found, try new keyword!How Much Does a Respiratory Therapist Make? Respiratory Therapists made a median salary of $61,830 in 2021. The best-paid 25% made $77,240 that year, while the lowest-paid 25% made $59,280. Wed, 03 Jan 2024 10:00:00 -0600

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