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NAPLEX North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination

The NAPLEX®, or North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination®, measures a candidates knowledge of the practice of pharmacy. It is just one component of the licensure process and is used by the boards of pharmacy as part of their assessment of a candidates competence to practice as a pharmacist.
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NABP confirms eligibility to sit for the NAPLEX and MPJE for candidates seeking licensure in the above listed states. If you are seeking licensure for any of these jurisdictions, including via score transfers, you will need to pay an additional non-refundable processing fee of $85. This fee covers both the NAPLEX and MPJE and is valid for a one-year period starting with the date of the initial application.
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Killexams : Medical Examination education - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/NAPLEX Search results Killexams : Medical Examination education - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/NAPLEX https://killexams.com/exam_list/Medical Killexams : MBBS admissions to continue through NEET UG exam, no separate medical entrance test for AIIMS, other INI
MBBS admissions to continue through NEET UG exam, no separate medical entrance test for AIIMS, other INI
New Delhi: MBBS admissions to all the AIIMS and other institutes of national importance will continue to be through the NEET UG exam with the proposal for a separate entrance test for such institutes being rejected at the recently held governing body meeting of the AIIMS. The governing body of AIIMS headed by Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya took the decision on December 6.

It rejected the proposal of a separate entrance examination at the undergraduate level, as distinct from NEET, for all the AIIMS and institutes of National Importance after deliberation.

"After deliberations, it was felt that the current practice of a combined entrance examination for all medical colleges is continued," the minutes of the meeting read.

The All India Institute of Medical Sciences was established as an Institution of National Importance (INI) by an Act of Parliament in 1956.

Beginning with the establishment of AIIMS, the objective of Institutes of National Importance (INI) in the field of medicine is to develop patterns of teaching in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in all its branches to demonstrate a high standard of medical education to all medical colleges and other allied institutions in India (AIIMS Act 1956).

Subsequently, more institutions PGIMER- Chandigarh, JIPMER, Puducherry (2008) and 21 newly established AIIMS for undergraduate and postgraduate education were added.

The INIs have the mandate to continuously innovate, establish and standardise newer methods of education at all levels ie undergraduate, postgraduate and super speciality, so that these can then be implemented in all the medical colleges under Central, State, Deemed and State Private Universities, an official said.

Accordingly, section 37 of the National Medical Commission Act, 2019 specifically provides a distinct recognition of the medical degree of the INI (Schedule under 37) in relation to all other medical colleges in India under its purview.

In order to recruit the highest calibre students for its medical undergraduate degree (MBBS), AIIMS New Delhi used to conduct an All-India entrance exam for admission of students to the MBBS program of all AIIMS.

"This exam was conducted till 2019. With the promulgation of the NMC Act in 2019, MBBS admission seats at all AIIMS were merged with the NEET UG exam conducted by the National Testing Agency and the AIIMS MBBS entrance exam was stopped. As a consequence, since 2020, admissions to MBBS seats at all AIIMS are being done through the NEET-UG exam," an official explained.

For all colleges in the country, admissions are done for the three levels of medical education through entrance exams.

As of date, admissions to PG (MD/MS) and super speciality (DM/MCh)are done through two separate exams each. For all INIs, these tests are called the INICET-PG (postgraduate) and INICET-SS(super-speciality) exams, conducted by AIIMS New Delhi.

The corresponding exams for all other medical institutions are done through the NEET-PG and NEET-SS exams However, for the MBBS seats, the separate exam for AIIMS and other INIs has been abolished and a single exam (NEET-UG is being held).

"In pursuance of highest standards and maintain the spirit of innovation, the admission into postgraduate (INICET-PG) and super-speciality (INICET-SS) medical courses are now done through a Combined Entrance Test (CFT) administered by AIIMS, New Delhi.

"It is in this context, it is proposed that admission into undergraduate courses in the INIs should be done through a Combined Entrance Test (INICET-UG)," a note submitted to the governing body stated.

"It was suggested that the MBBS entrance exam for AIIMS may be separated from the NEET-UG exam and reverted to the situation that existed till 2019. Similar to the pattern prior to 2020, admission to MBBS seats at all AIIMS may be done through a separate entrance exam. This exam could include MBBS seats of all INIs and be called the INICET-UG entrance exam," the official stated.

According to the note, the rationale for the re-establishment of INICET-UG was that the three levels of medical education (ie. undergraduate, MBBS, post-graduate, MD/MS) and Super speciality, SS) are implicitly and critically interlinked.

To ensure a seamless transition, it is imperative that the entrance test to all three levels has a similar approach and standards as envisaged by the Parliament.

Besides, the NEET-UG exam caters to over 80,000 MBBS seats and has a large number of stakeholders including students and colleges. The mammoth organisation task requires extensive logistics and consequent delays.

Further, due to multiple stakeholders (including Central, State, Deemed and Private Universities), the conduct of NEET examination and process of counselling is often delayed due to litigations at various courts.

A separate combined entrance test for undergraduate seats in INIs will shield them from events that affect the conduct of NEET, the note stated.

Mon, 12 Dec 2022 18:10:00 -0600 en text/html https://health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/education/mbbs-admissions-to-continue-through-neet-ug-exam-no-separate-medical-entrance-test-for-aiims-other-ini/96193733
Killexams : No separate medical entrance test for AIIMS, other INI; says governing body AIIMS was established as an Institution of National Importance by an Act of Parliament in 1956. © Provided by The Financial Express AIIMS was established as an Institution of National Importance by an Act of Parliament in 1956.

All India Institute Of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) governing body has rejected the proposal for a separate entrance test for admission to AIIMS and other Institutes of National Importance (INI). In a meeting headed by Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya, the governing body said MBBS admissions to AIIMS and INI will continue to be through National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET).

“After deliberations, it was felt that the current practice of a combined entrance examination for all medical colleges be continued,” the minutes of the meeting read.

AIIMS was established as an Institution of National Importance by an Act of Parliament in 1956. Beginning with the establishment of AIIMS, the objective of Institutes of National Importance in the field of medicine is to develop patterns of teaching in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in all its branches to demonstrate a high standard of medical education to all medical colleges and other allied institutions in India (AIIMS Act 1956).

Subsequently, more institutions — PGIMER- Chandigarh, JIPMER, Puducherry (2008) and 21 newly established AIIMS for undergraduate and postgraduate education — were added.

The INIs have the mandate to continuously innovate, establish and standardise newer methods of education at all levels-

undergraduate, postgraduate and super specialty, so that these can then be implemented in all the medical colleges under Central, State, Deemed and State Private Universities, an official said.

Accordingly, section 37 of the National Medical Commission Act, 2019 specifically provides a distinct recognition of the medical degree of the INI (Schedule under 37) in relation to all other medical colleges in India under its purview.

In order to recruit the highest calibre students for its medical undergraduate degree (MBBS), AIIMS New Delhi used to conduct an All-India entrance exam for admission of students to the MBBS program of all AIIMS.

“This exam was conducted till 2019. With the promulgation of the NMC Act in 2019, admissions to the MBBS seats at all AIIMS were merged with the NEET- UG exam conducted by the National Testing Agency and the AIIMS MBBS entrance exam was stopped. As a consequence, since 2020, admissions to MBBS seats at all AIIMS are being done through the NEET-UG exam,” an official explained.

For all colleges in the country, admissions are done for the three levels of medical education through entrance exams. As of date, admissions to PG (MD/MS) and super specialty (DM/MCh) are done through two separate exams each. For all INIs, these tests are called the INICET-PG (postgraduate) and INICET-SS(super-specialty) exams, conducted by AIIMS New Delhi.

The corresponding exams for all other medical institutions are done through the NEET-PG and NEET-SS exams However, for the MBBS seats, the separate exam for AIIMS and other INIs has been abolished and a single exam (NEET-UG is being held).

“In pursuance of highest standards and maintain the spirit of innovation, the admission into postgraduate (INICET-PG) and super-specialty (INICET-SS) medical courses is now done through a Combined Entrance Test (CFT) administered by AIIMS, New Delhi.

“It is in this context, it is proposed that admission into undergraduate courses in the INIs should be done through a Combined Entrance Test (INICET-UG),” a note submitted to the governing body had stated.

“It was suggested that the MBBS entrance exam for AIIMS may be separated from the NEET-UG exam and reverted to the situation that existed till 2019. Similar to the pattern prior to 2020, admission to MBBS seats at all AIIMS may be done through a separate entrance exam. This exam could include MBBS seats of all INIs and be called the INICET-UG entrance exam,” the official stated.

According to the note, the rationale for the re-establishment of INICET-UG was that the three levels of medical education ( undergraduate, MBBS, post-graduate, MD/MS) and Super specialty, SS) are implicitly and critically interlinked. To ensure a seamless transition, it is imperative that the entrance test to all three levels has a similar approach and standards as envisaged by the Parliament.

Besides, the NEET-UG exam caters to over 80,000 MBBS seats and has a large number of stakeholders including students and colleges. The mammoth organisation task requires extensive logistics and consequent delays.

Further, due to multiple stakeholders (including Central, State, Deemed and Private Universities), the conduct of NEET examination and process of counselling is often delayed due to litigations at various courts. A separate combined entrance test for undergraduate seats in INIs will shield them from events that affect the conduct of NEET, the note stated.

With inputs from PTI

Mon, 12 Dec 2022 15:49:51 -0600 en-IN text/html https://www.msn.com/en-in/news/other/no-separate-medical-entrance-test-for-aiims-other-ini-says-governing-body/ar-AA15d2DV
Killexams : NEET UG: No Separate Medical Entrance exam To Be Held For MBBS Admission for AIIMS

MBBS admissions to all the AIIMS and other institutes of national importance will be conducted through NEET UG only. The governing body rejected the proposal of a separate entrance examination at the UG level. Know details here

NEET UG: No Separate Medical Entrance exam for MBBS
NEET UG: No Separate Medical Entrance exam for MBBS

Medical Admissions: Going as per media reports recently, the governing body of AIIMS, headed by Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya has rejected the proposal to conduct a separate entrance exam for MBBS admission. Like usual, MBBS admissions for AIIMS and all other Institutes of National Importance (INI) will be held through the NEET UG exam only. The NEET UG exam caters to over 80,000 MBBS seats and has a large number of stakeholders including students and colleges.

As of now, for AIIMS admissions to PG courses and Super Specialty courses, candidates have to appear for the INICET PG and INICET SS exams, conducted by AIIMS New Delhi. For other institutions, the admissions are done through the NEET PG and NEET SS exams, conducted by the National Board of Examinations for Medical Sciences (NBE).

No Separate Exams for All AIIMS and INI 

The suggestion for a separate entrance test for MBBS was rejected at the recently convened governing body meeting of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS). "After deliberations, it was felt that the current practice of a combined entrance examination for all medical colleges be continued." said Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya.  On December 6, the AIIMS governing committee made this decision that no separate exams will be held for AIIMS or INI apart from NEET UG. 

Why There Should Be Separate MBBS Admission Entrance exam for AIIMS and INI? 

As per the proposal, it has been stated that - "In pursuance of highest standards and maintain the spirit of innovation, the admission into postgraduate (INICET-PG) and super-specialty (INICET-SS) medical courses is now done through a Combined Entrance Test (CFT) administered by AIIMS, New Delhi. It is in this context, it is proposed that admission into undergraduate courses in the INIs should be done through a Combined Entrance Test (INICET-UG)."

Further, it stated that - "It was suggested that the MBBS entrance exam for AIIMS may be separated from the NEET-UG exam and reverted to the situation that existed till 2019. Similar to the pattern prior to 2020, admission to MBBS seats at all AIIMS may be done through a separate entrance exam. This exam could include MBBS seats of all INIs and be called the INICET-UG entrance exam." 

Besides, due to multiple stakeholders (including Central, State, Deemed and Private Universities), the conduct of NEET exam and process of counselling is often delayed. A separate combined entrance test for undergraduate seats in INIs will shield them from events that affect the conduct of NEET. However, after consideration, the committee decided against the idea of holding a different undergraduate entrance exam from NEET, for all AIIMS and other institutions of national importance.

MBBS Admissions Before 2019 

In order to select the highest calibre students for the medical undergraduate degree (MBBS), AIIMS New Delhi used to conduct an All-India entrance exam for admission of students to the MBBS program of all AIIMS. The medical entrance exam was conducted till 2019. With the promulgation of the NMC Act in 2019, admissions to the MBBS seats at all AIIMS were merged with the NEET - UG exam conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA). As a consequence, since 2020, admissions to MBBS seats at all AIIMS are being done through the NEET-UG exam. 

Medical Institutes of National Importance 

With the establishment of AIIMS, the objective of Institutes of National Importance (INI) in the field of medicine is to develop patterns of teaching in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in all its branches to demonstrate a high standard of medical education to all medical colleges and other allied institutions in India (AIIMS Act 1956). Subsequently, more institutions were added - PGIMER- Chandigarh, JIPMER, Puducherry (2008) and 21 newly established AIIMS for undergraduate and postgraduate education.

Medical Admissions in India 

As of now, for all colleges in the country, admissions are done for the three levels of medical education through entrance exams. Admissions to PG (MD/MS) and super speciality (DM/MCh) are done through two separate exams. For all INIs, these tests are called the INICET-PG (postgraduate) and INICET-SS (super-speciality) exams, conducted by AIIMS New Delhi. The corresponding exams for all other medical institutions are done through the NEET-PG and NEET-SS exams. However, for the MBBS seats, the separate exam for AIIMS and other INIs has been cancelled and a single exam - NEET-UG is being held.

Also Read: Punjab NEET UG 2022: Mop-Up Round Provisional Merit List Released at bfuhs.ac.in

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Mon, 12 Dec 2022 17:20:00 -0600 text/html https://www.jagranjosh.com/news/neet-ug-no-separate-medical-entrance-exam-to-be-held-for-mbbs-admission-for-aiims-165986
Killexams : No separate medical entrance for AIIMS, similar bodies Killexams : No separate medical entrance for AIIMS, similar bodies Mon, 12 Dec 2022 10:54:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.thehansindia.com/hans/young-hans/no-separate-medical-entrance-for-aiims-similar-bodies-773119 Killexams : Canadian doctors trained at international medical schools increasingly giving up on their home country for work

Matthew Macciacchera of Vaughan, Ont., stands in Dublin outside the original building of the Royal College of Surgeons Ireland, where he is studying in hopes of becoming an orthopedic surgeon. Canadians make up more than 40 per cent of the medical students here.Lorraine O'Sullivan/The Globe and Mail


With nearly 300 Canadian students enrolled in its programs, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland feels a lot like a medical school in Canada, just separated by 3,340 kilometres of Atlantic Ocean.

While this historic university in the heart of Dublin has been producing doctors since 1784, in accurate decades, it’s become an important training ground for many young Canadians who go overseas to pursue their dreams of becoming a physician.

More than 40 per cent of the students in RCSI’s four-year medical program are from Canada – more than any other nationality.

To help them feel at home, the students organize celebrations for Canadian Thanksgiving, annual Terry Fox runs and road trips to watch professional ice-hockey games in Belfast.

Even the curriculum is geared toward a career in medicine in North America – with an academic calendar built around the writing periods for Canadian and U.S. medical exams.

“There’s so many Canadians. It almost feels like you’re at a Canadian school,” said Matthew Macciacchera, an aspiring orthopedic surgeon from Vaughan, north of Toronto, in his final year at RCSI.

Mr. Macciacchera, like many of his classmates, wants to return to Canada to begin a career in medicine. He’s among the thousands of Canadians getting medical degrees in places such as Ireland, Australia, Britain, Israel, the U.S. and medical schools in the Caribbean affiliated with American education corporations.

They’re leaving Canada because it’s nearly impossible to get one of the 2,800 first-year seats in the country’s 17 medical schools – where roughly nine out of 10 applicants are rejected, often despite impeccable grades and qualifications, since demand far outstrips supply.

Many want to come home but can’t. These international medical graduates are increasingly working as doctors in other countries, where they’re highly coveted, because they’re often blocked from returning to Canada by a system that’s been slow to respond to crippling physician shortages here.

It’s a problem Canada can’t afford to keep ignoring, experts say. At a time when hospitals across the country are strained by backlogged surgeries, clogged emergency departments and burned-out staff, and millions of Canadians are struggling to find family doctors, the country needs to urgently tackle its medical brain drain and the many impediments for international medical graduates who want to work here. Provinces and medical faculties also need to create more training residencies for international graduates, which is one of the most cost-effective ways to solve Canada’s worsening health-access crisis.

A B.C. physician demonstrates at the We Need Doctors Now rally outside the provincial legislature in Victoria this past October.Chad Hipolito/The Globe and Mail

Between its domestic and international graduates, and thousands more immigrant physicians who live here but don’t work in their field, Canada has more than enough doctors to help the country fill shortages in family medicine, clinics and hospitals. But for many physicians who did their studies overseas, the road to a medical career in Canada remains closed because of a lack of provincially funded residency positions – the two-year-long, postgraduation supervised training period required to become a licensed physician.

International graduates must compete for a separate and much smaller pool of residencies than those available to graduates of Canadian medical schools. There is no other stream for Canadians who have gone overseas to study – they’re seen as every other international student in the eyes of our medical system.

A 2010 study by the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS), the national, not-for-profit organization that pairs medical school students with postgraduate training residencies, estimated there were 3,500 Canadians going abroad for medical training every year, and 90 per cent of them wanted to return to Canada to work.

Of the 3,295 medical graduates matched to residency training programs in Canada this year, only 439 of them – just about 13 per cent – were educated at medical schools outside the country. A decade ago, Canada gave 499 residency positions to people who were trained internationally. In the late 1980s, it was nearly 700. As well, the number of residencies within the same pool that are designated for international grads has been in steady decline, from 346 in 2014 to 331 this year.

Because it’s so hard to secure a residency position in Canada, these medical graduates are choosing to work in countries such as the U.S., Britain and Australia, where the barriers to entry are lower for Canadian and other international medical graduates. While dozens of RCSI graduates do return to Canada every year, most end up in the American health care system, where international grads are on equal footing with domestically trained medical students.

“The messaging for so long has been that it’s nearly impossible to get a bloody residency in Canada if you’re an international graduate,” said Peter Nealon, the California-based CEO of the Atlantic Bridge Program, the admissions organization for North Americans who want to attend medical school in Ireland. “These people are the cream of the crop, and they’re simply going elsewhere, because they’re in demand. You tell people to go away long enough, and eventually, they go away.”



Foreign-trained physicians play a critical role in Canada’s health care system, historically accounting for about 25 per cent of all doctors. It’s especially true in family medicine, where nearly a third of all doctors have international medical degrees.

In some rural areas, such as Newfoundland and Labrador’s Central Health region, 62 per cent of family doctors were trained outside of Canada. In Saskatchewan’s Sun Country Health region, serving the southernmost part of the province, 88 per cent of family physicians graduated from international medical schools, according to data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information.

But the pipeline of foreign-educated physicians who have long staffed Canada’s hospitals and medical clinics is getting squeezed as fewer and fewer international medical school graduates choose to apply for Canadian residency positions. CaRMS, the national residency matching service, says the number of international applicants to entry-level positions has fallen steadily from 2,219 in 2013 to 1,322 in 2022 – a drop of 40 per cent in just a decade.

Prior to 1970, medical students were assigned residencies through the Canadian Association of Medical Students. Since then, CaRMS has filled this role, designed to be independent of political interference and governed by directors from Canada’s medical establishment, teaching programs, regulators and licensing bodies. Only one of its 17 board members represents the perspective of international medical graduates.

The head of CaRMS says the organization is watching the decline in international applications and acknowledges there’s a worry Canada could be losing good physicians to other countries. Part of the reason is that international medical graduates are increasingly being lured away by other countries facing their own physician shortages, said John Gallinger, CEO of the national matching service.

“There’s always that concern, that if the numbers are coming down, certainly good doctors will be part of that group,” Mr. Gallinger said. “But the fact we’re able to fill all the international medical graduate positions that are available says to me there’s sufficient numbers of qualified and interested international medical graduates.”

Those trying to find fixes for Canada’s doctor shortage say the most cost-effective solution is to create more training residencies for international medical graduates, at a fraction of the cost of creating new seats at our medical schools.

Many international applicants are actually Canadian, such as Mr. Macciacchera, the RCSI med student, but the CaRMS matching process only considers where their medical school is located, not where the applicant is from. Mr. Gallinger said there is no plan to deliver internationally trained Canadians their own stream to apply for residencies. Instead, some residency co-ordinators already rank them higher than non-Canadian applicants, giving them a greater chance at placements, he said.

Barriers to entry in the Canadian medical system, both through limited medical school seats and residencies for those who studied abroad, is a common complaint among his classmates, Mr. Macciacchera said. It’s especially frustrating for those who want to practise family medicine at home but feel they’re losing out to domestically educated students who are choosing primary care as a last resort.

“Some of my classmates would love to do family medicine, and even rural medicine. But they can’t get in at home, so they go internationally, pay a ton more money, and are losing spots to people back in Canada who are really trying to do other specialties,” said Mr. Macciacchera, who became interested in medicine after a sports injury and is now president of the Canadian Irish Medical Students Association.

Mr. Macciacchera says it's frustrating for him and his classmates to find so many barriers to practicing in Canada.Lorraine O'Sullivan/The Globe and Mail

Canadians who attend medical school in Ireland often graduate with a significant debt load and pressure to take a job wherever they can get it. As non-European Union students, they pay as much as $80,000 a year to study medicine in Ireland, nearly four times the tuition and fees at a Canadian university.

Many end up in the U.S., where Mr. Macciacchera completed his internships and may end up going for his postgraduate residency, something more than 1,400 Canadian medical graduates applied to do this year. Nearly 60 per cent of international graduates who applied were given a medical residency in the U.S. In Canada, the odds are much slimmer – fewer than a quarter of international graduates managed to get into a residency position here.

Other international grads are heading to Britain, where foreign-born doctors are now more than a third of the physician work force, up from a quarter just six years ago. Or Australia, where the government is aggressively recruiting foreign medical grads and the number of physicians who are internationally born has grown to nearly 60 per cent, up from less than half in 2001.

Jessica Langevin is among those Canadians studying at RCSI who hope to return home to practise family medicine.

She grew up in Sarnia, Ont., and says she’s loved getting her education in Ireland, with training classrooms spread throughout Dublin and teaching hospitals scattered around the country dotted with old castles and pastoral sheep farms.

But the 26-year-old with an interest in rural medicine is worried she may not get the chance to become a physician in Canada because of the limited number of residencies for international grads. That’s why she’s also applying in the U.S., where there are so many more opportunities for people like her to begin their careers.

“It would be really terrible to go through this entire process and not be able to practise as a doctor in Canada in the end,” she said, on a accurate break from her studies in Dublin.

“I think every international student in my program has that same concern. We all just want to come home to be able to practise.”


Jessica Langevin, a Canadian student at RCSI, says she's enjoyed her Irish education but it would be 'really terrible' to finish it and not have a chance to practise in Canada.


Today’s restrictions on international physicians are the legacy of decisions by governments in the early 1990s to get ballooning health care costs under control, says Dr. Herb Emery, a health economist who heads the Atlantic Institute for Policy Research at the University of New Brunswick. As part of the effort to reduce the supply of doctors, provinces reduced seats in Canadian medical schools by about 10 per cent across the board and began dramatically cutting back the intake of international graduates into residency programs.

In 1988, Canada took in nearly twice as many international medical graduates for residency programs as it did in 2019. The number of international grads being given other forms of postgraduate training here, such as internships, also began to drop in the 1990s.

All of these cost-control policies did exactly what they were intended to do, Dr. Emery said, and provincial leaders in 2022 who want to address the health care challenges are running headfirst into an entrenched system of roadblocks that prevents easy fixes. It’s taken a crisis for things to begin changing, he added.

“The disconnect is we have politicians and the public screaming for a better level of service, but what we’ve built is a very bureaucratic machine, with 30 years of inertia, that’s designed at restricting physician supply,” he said. “Even if governments want to fix this and expand supply, they’re dealing with a system that’s designed to do the opposite. And it’s not going to be easy to change that.”

Mr. Gallinger, the CEO of CaRMS, says any adjustments to policies that could reverse the loss of young physicians to other jurisdictions would have to come from the provinces and their respective medical schools, which supervise the clinical training done through residencies.

“We simply implement it. We’re not even in the policy conversation, other than to be on the receiving end,” he said. “Those decisions at the policy level need to come from medical faculties and provinces together.”

Doctors work on a COVID-19 ward at a Texas hospital. The U.S. health-care system is competing for the same pool of med-school graduates as Canada.Christopher Lee/The New York Times

The U.S. is also trying to attract the same doctors as Canada. To deliver its hospitals an edge, it offers residency positions weeks before Canada’s residency matching system does. Canadian applicants can’t turn down these binding agreements once they’re matched.

“The Americans now have first dibs on Canadians training overseas. They’re only too happy to take these people,” said Dr. Desmond Leddin, a Halifax-based professor of internal medicine who has taught and practised in both Canada and Ireland. “And the reality is, people often end up staying where they were trained.”

He argues Canadian provinces need to create new residencies targeted specifically at the thousands of Canadians educated by medical programs in other countries, particularly those who may have roots in the region doing the recruiting. “They’re an untapped resource,” Dr. Leddin said. “There’s a deal to be made here, but the problem is it’s still so incredibly difficult to find postgraduate work in Canada. It’s a real chokepoint.”

Canadian medical schools are graduating hundreds more students than they were a few decades ago – up from 1,704 in 1991 to 2,876 in 2020, according to the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, which represents the country’s 17 faculties of medicine. But for many Canadian students, the odds of getting accepted into a domestic medical program remain frustratingly slim because demand far exceeds available seats.

Other countries have picked up the slack. Ireland, one of the largest international training destinations for Canadian medical students, produces far more doctors than it needs because of historic overcapacity in its medical schools, and it exports these surplus graduates around the world. More Canadians are also getting trained in Britain and applications to British medical schools from Canadians have more than doubled in the past decade, according to Britain’s Universities and Colleges Admissions Service.

At St. George’s University in Grenada, which now produces more first-year residents each year for North American teaching hospitals than any other medical school in the world, 92 per cent of Canadian students end up getting a residency position in the United States. Since the school opened in 1981, more than 2,100 Canadians have received their medical degrees from here – and 1,796 of them have gone to postgraduate residencies at U.S. hospitals. The number of Canadians from the school who returned home to finish their training at a residency is significantly smaller – just 190.

'This system doesn’t need to be completely rebuilt. It just needs to be modified,' says Makini McGuire-Brown, chair of Internationally Trained Physicians of Ontario.Eduardo Lima/The Globe and Mail

Although the CaRMS algorithm is agnostic to where an international medical grad was born, the ranking of applicants is open to bias by those who co-ordinate residencies at Canada’s various teaching hospitals. That’s why most of the residencies available to foreign-trained students ultimately go to Canadians studying abroad, not to foreign-born and trained applicants.

“You’re leaving out a lot of skilled and qualified people. There’s just no way they can get in,” said Makini McGuire-Brown, chair of an advocacy group called Internationally Trained Physicians of Ontario. “This system doesn’t need to be completely rebuilt. It just needs to be modified. And to do that, you need to increase residency spots. There’s no other way around it.”

Originally from Trinidad and Tobago, she received her medical degree in Jamaica and was trained in family medicine and as an anesthesiologist. But after four attempts to get matched through CaRMS, she’s given up on her dream of being a physician in Canada. Instead, she earned her MBA with distinction and is working on her PhD in health care administration at York University.

Some other developed countries, meanwhile, have medical systems that streamline the addition of international physicians into their hospitals and clinics.

In Britain, international medical graduates aren’t required to do a residency to begin working. Instead, entrance into the British medical system is more of an apprenticeship, done under the supervision of a senior physician, typically in a hospital or community clinic setting.

Australia uses a similar system, building residencies and internships into medical students’ training prior to graduation. Internationally trained physicians don’t need to spend two years in a residency program to begin working there and can apply to become a general practitioner after passing clinical and written exams and a 12-month on-the-job supervision period.

Both Britain and Australia also have higher rates of physicians per capita than Canada. In Britain, there are 5.8 doctors per 100,000 population, according to World Bank figures from 2019. In Australia, the rate is 3.8, while in Canada it’s 2.4.

In the U.S., where the rate is 2.6, licensing of immigrant doctors is a polarizing political issue. American-trained physicians from countries such as India can be forced to wait up to 10 years before they can file their final step for a green card.


A patient waits at a clinic in Sidney, B.C. Canada has fewer physicians per capita than either Britain or Australia, where international medical graduates get a streamlined process to practise locally.Chad Hipolito/The Globe and Mail


Several Canadian provinces are beginning to remove barriers to internationally trained physicians. Newfoundland and Labrador, which recently announced $100,000 signing bonuses for homegrown physicians who agree to return to the province for five years, just created five new seats for international medical graduates at Memorial University in St. John’s.

Nova Scotia, where Tim Houston’s Progressive Conservative government was swept into power on a promise to address chronic shortages in the health care system, just announced 10 new residency positions for international medical grads. British Columbia has steadily increased the residency positions for international medical graduates at the University of British Columbia from six spots in 2003, to 58 today, with 50 of these positions in primary care.

Adding residency seats for international grads is a far cheaper, and faster, way to add new doctors into the system than funding more seats at Canadian medical schools, which can take years to produce fully trained physicians. Those who go overseas for their medical degrees aren’t subsidized by Canadian taxpayers but must complete the same assessments and exams as anyone trained domestically if they want to work here.

Dr. Leddin, who has advised the Nova Scotia government on its physician shortage, estimates provinces could add new residency positions for a few hundred thousand dollars each – far less than what it costs to add seats to a medical school. “There is nothing here that is insurmountable,” he said. “We have a treasure trove of talent, trained overseas, and desperate to come home. And we have thousands of patients who are desperate for doctors. Surely, to heavens, we can work out a solution here.”

The Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada agrees residency positions need to be expanded, but also argues the number of medical school seats has fallen behind population growth. It says increasing both requires a national and co-ordinated approach – and calls on the federal government to work with the provinces to expand that capacity.

In Nova Scotia’s case, they’re focusing on Canadian international graduates who are from rural areas where physician shortages are most pronounced. Dr. Leddin believes they’ll have a better retention rate than graduates from Dalhousie University’s medical program, where only 38 per cent of grads remain in the province.

All provinces have the ability to fund new residency positions for international graduates, he said. But these grads need to be supervised by a Canadian medical school, find family health clinics or hospitals with the resources and time to do this training, and it all must be done in co-ordination with CaRMS, he said.

As the family doctor shortage reaches crisis levels in many parts of the country, Dr. Leddin predicts political leaders will be under greater pressure to address the chokepoints that have kept so many from working here.

Newfoundland and Labrador, which has historically relied on foreign-trained physicians more than most other provinces, has embraced international medical grads as part of the solution to its doctor shortage. Beginning next July, the first wave of five new international graduates will begin training in the family medicine residency program at Memorial University, focused on rural and remote areas.

The province is working with the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Newfoundland and Labrador to lower licensing barriers, while increasing financial incentives, offering to pay foreign doctors’ licensing costs, and developing “bridging” agreements to help international medical grads who may not yet have all the training needed for the job.

Newfoundland is also taking its pitch on the road, conducting a series of recruitment drives in English-speaking countries where medical schools are training large numbers of Canadians. Premier Andrew Furey recently visited RCSI and other Irish campuses, meeting with Canadians studying there. The province says it has more planned on the recruitment side.

Ms. Langevin, finishing her last year of study in Ireland, says she’s excited about the new residency positions in Newfoundland and plans to do her best to get one. But as an international medical student, she knows it will be extremely competitive. So she needs to keep her options open and is doing interviews with American residency co-ordinators as she heads toward her final exams in April, 2023.

“I’m applying everywhere,” she said. “Like everyone, I’m hoping I’ll have a job at the end of it.”

STEP 1

Enroll in an undergraduate program and receive a bachelor's degree. This step usually takes four years.

STEP 2

Receive a medical degree from a medical school that is accredited by Canada. This step usually takes three to four years.

STEP 3

Pass a series of exams, including the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination (MCCQE) Part 1 exam and the National Assessment Collaboration (NAC) Examination.

  • MCCQE Part 1 is a one-day, computer-based exam to assess a medical graduate’s medical knowledge, competency, and clinical decision-making skills.
  • NAC is a one-day exam that assesses readiness to enter a Canadian residency program.

STEP 4

An international medical graduate who is not already a permanent resident or Canada citizen will need to apply for a permit to work in Canada through Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada.

STEP 5

Apply and compete for post-graduate residency positions through the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS). Because of the limited number of positions available for international medical grads each year, this process is highly competitive. Only about 13 per cent of residencies go to international applicants.

STEP 6

Complete a family medicine residency training program under the supervision of a Canadian medical school. This usually takes at least two years.

STEP 7

Pass the Certification Examination in Family Medicine and obtain Certification in the College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC).

STEP 8

Apply for a licence from a provincial/ territorial medical regulator to practise family medicine independently.

Family medicine in Canada: More from The Globe and Mail

The Decibel podcast

Dr. Robert Bell, an orthopedic surgeon and former deputy health minister in Ontario, explains what he thinks must be done to make health care in Canada more accessible. Subscribe for more episodes.

The national picture

Canada has more family doctors than ever. Why is it so hard to see them?

For these Canadians without family doctors, long waits for lower-quality care are a test of patience

Canada’s supply of family doctors doesn’t match demand, and provinces lack data to find out why

Cross-Canada challenges

B.C. expanding program that offers international doctors a pathway to be licensed

Why Quebec’s family doctor crisis is the worst in Canada

Almost 20 per cent of Toronto doctors are considering closing their practice in the next five years

Mon, 12 Dec 2022 18:07:00 -0600 en-CA text/html https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-internationally-trained-doctors-work-canada/
Killexams : 3,744 PG medical seats remained vacant in 2021-22: Govt

Of 60,202 postgraduate (PG) medical seats available for 2021-2022, 3,744 remained vacant after counselling, Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya informed the Rajya Sabha on Tuesday.

Similarly, of the 92,065 UG seats available in 2021-2022, 197 seats were left vacant for MBBS courses after counselling, the minister said in response to a question.

As per information received from National Testing Agency (NTA), 15,44,273 students had appeared for the NEET-UG examination in 2021 while 17,64,571 appeared in 2022.

Mandaviya further said that 1,425 PG seats were left vacant after counselling in 2020-21, while 4,614 seats in 2019-2020.

He also said that 273 seats had remained vacant for MBBS in 2019-2020 and 274 in 2018-2019.

(This story has not been edited by Devdiscourse staff and is auto-generated from a syndicated feed.)

Mon, 12 Dec 2022 21:18:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.devdiscourse.com/article/education/2284294-3744-pg-medical-seats-remained-vacant-in-2021-22-govt
Killexams : Russians take children from occupied Luhansk Oblast to Chechnya for "re-education"

Serhii Haidai, Head of Luhansk Oblast Military Administration, has reported that the Russian occupiers take children from occupied Luhansk Oblast to Chechnya to deliver them a "patriotic education".

Source: Haidai on Telegram

Quote: "Kadyrov abducts Luhansk children in order to raise murderers, who will then go on to kill Ukrainians.

The invaders are taking children from Luhansk Oblast  to Chechnya en masse to deliver them a "patriotic education".

There are more than 100 similar cases of deportation of teenagers to the territory of the Russian Federation."

Details:

Earlier, the National Resistance Center informed that the Russian occupation administration in the temporarily occupied territory of Luhansk Oblast reported that 15,000 children between the ages of 2 and 17 had undergone in-depth medical examinations.

Doctors brought from Russia noted in the examination documents that 70% of these children "need special medical care".

Haidai points out that the Russians use this conclusion to cover up the deportation of children to the territory of Russia.

Journalists fight on their own frontline. Support Ukrainska Pravda or become our patron

Tue, 06 Dec 2022 19:21:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://news.yahoo.com/russians-children-occupied-luhansk-oblast-092100588.html
Killexams : Kerala: Girl attends medical college without qualifying entrance exam, probe ordered

Thiruvananthapuram: The Kerala Police on Friday commenced a probe after a student, who did not even qualify for medical entrance examination, was found attending first year MBBS classes in the Kozhikode Medical College for a few days.

Last month, the girl from Malappuram district had announced on social media that she had secured admission to the MBBS course. On November 29, when the session started, she attended the classes along with 244 other students.

This went on for the next few days after which she was not seen.

What baffled the authorities was that though her name did not figure in the list of candidates, it was there in the attendance list.

The principal then registered a complaint with the Kozhikode Police and an assistant commissioner of police has now started their probe.

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Fri, 09 Dec 2022 18:16:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.freepressjournal.in/education/kerala-girl-attends-medical-college-without-qualifying-entrance-exam-probe-ordered
Killexams : Higher Brain Cancer Risk After CT exam in Childhood

There has been an escalating risk of brain cancer associated with increasing radiation dose to the brain from CT examinations, a cohort study of more than 650,000 children and young adults indicated.

Researchers observed a significant dose-response relationship such that for every 10,000 people who received a single head CT scan, approximately one patient developed brain cancer attributable to radiation exposure in the 5 to 15 years following the examination, reported Michael Hauptmann, PhD, biostatistician at Brandenburg Medical School in Neuruppin, Germany, and colleagues of the EPI-CT study.

"To put this finding into context, the number of pediatric head CT examinations per year during the past decade probably exceeds 1 million in the [European Union] and 5 million in the USA," they reported in The Lancet Oncology.

"Only a small fraction of the attributable brain cancers might be preventable (i.e., those with unnecessarily high doses during CT examinations or the presumably larger group with clinically unjustified CT examinations)," Hauptmann and colleagues wrote. "Nevertheless, these figures emphasize the need to adhere to the basic radiological protection principles in medicine, namely justification (procedures are appropriate and comply with guidelines) and optimization (doses are as low as reasonably achievable)."

Indeed, CT use has already declined in accurate years amid efforts to both justify and optimize these exams, according to Nobuyuki Hamada, PhD, radiation biologist of Japan's Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Tokyo, and Lydia Zablotska, MD, PhD, radiation epidemiologist of University of California San Francisco.

"Such continued efforts, along with extended epidemiological investigations, would be needed to minimize the risk of brain cancer after pediatric CT examination," they wrote in an editorial accompanying the study.

In the EPI-CT study, Hauptmann and colleagues identified 978,174 individuals from nine European countries who had at least one CT before age 22 documented between 1977 and 2014.

For purposes of this analysis, the researchers included 658,752 people who were alive and cancer-free (including free from known brain tumors of benign or unknown behavior) 5 years after their first CT examination and followed them for an additional median 5.6 years.

Of the patients analyzed, 82% were younger than 30 years old at the end of follow-up, 56% were men, and 73% had received at least one head or neck CT.

During follow-up, 165 cases of brain cancer were reported, 73% of which were gliomas.

With a 5-year lag, mean cumulative brain dose had been 47.4 mGy among all individuals and 76.0 mGy among people with brain cancer.

Hauptmann and colleagues estimated that every 100 mGy of brain dose incurred a 127% increase in brain cancer risk (95% CI 51-269), 111% increase in glioma risk (95% CI 36-259), and 213% increase in brain cancer risk excluding gliomas (95% CI 25-136).

The average brain dose per head or neck CT in 2012-2014, 38 mGy, was associated with excess brain cancer risk compared with a brain dose of 0 mGy (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0).

The authors acknowledged several limitations to the observational study, including the possibility of reverse causation.

Although a 5-year exclusion period after the first recorded CT examination had been chosen to minimize the possibility of someone having pre-existing brain cancer, the authors acknowledged that participants had real, or suspected, medical problems for which a CT scan was indicated. Thus, they suggested, "these problems could, in theory, be early symptoms of subsequently diagnosed brain cancer."

They also said there could be some uncertainly regarding dose estimates because they were obtained retrospectively from a number of data sources. "Detailed technical information for dose estimation was particularly scarce for years before 1990," they noted.

Hamada and Zablotska added that longer follow-up would be necessary to understand age trends, as the average age at the end of the present study was only 22 years and it isn't until an average 30 years of age that population rates of glioma start increasing.

  • Mike Bassett is a staff writer focusing on oncology and hematology. He is based in Massachusetts.

Disclosures

The study was supported by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme and the Belgian Cancer Registry; La Ligue contre le Cancer, L'Institut National du Cancer, France; Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan; German Federal Ministry of Education and Research; Worldwide Cancer Research; Dutch Cancer Society; Research Council of Norway; Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain; US National Cancer Institute; UK National Institute for Health Research; Public Health England.

Hauptmann, Hamada, and Zablotska had no disclosures.

A study co-author reported multiple relationships with industry.

Fri, 09 Dec 2022 07:59:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.medpagetoday.com/hematologyoncology/braincancer/102180
Killexams : Ghana: 'Scrap Medical Fees Charged for Examination of Survivors of GBV'

Mrs Mercy Acquah-Hay-ford, the National Coordi-nator of Inerela+ Ghana, a non-governmental organisation, has called for a scrap of medical fees charged for examination on survivors of Gender-Based Vio-lence (GBV).

She said the practice delayed jus-tice for survivors of gender based violence.

"The government should come out with a policy to make these medical examinations free be-cause the survivors are already traumatised and then you are asked to pay GH¢ 500 or more. Where are they going to get the money from? So, most people take forms and they don't return to the police station to continue the case.

When we do that, supposing he or she is exposed and do not get post-exposure prophylaxis within the first two hours in the 72 hours window period, we end up with more HIV infection in the system," she said.

Mrs Acquah was speaking at a community durbar in Maamobi in the Ayawaso East Municipality of the Greater Accra region as part of activities to mark this year's 16 days activism against gender-based violence.

The annual campaign, started on November 25 and ending on December 10, advocates the elim-ination of all forms of violence against women.

Despite provisions in Ghana's Domestic Violence Act, 2007 (Act 732) section 8 (3) which provides that survivors of sexual and gender-based violence access free medical treatment in state health institutions, the reverse is the case.

At present, survivors are reportedly forced to pay between GH¢300 and GH¢1,500 for con-sultation, medical examination and treatment depending on scope of investigations in order to complete police medical forms.

Mrs. Acquah, said although Ghana has made some progress in the last 30 years of activism on GBV, a lot more could be done to nip it in the bud.

She called for concerted efforts in reviewing some negative cultural and traditional norms in the society as well as strengthen social protection interventions to empower wom-en and girls to live up to their full potential.

HIV/AIDS Ambassador, Rev-erend John Azumah decried the resurgence of HIV especially among children and adolescents in the country.

"Currently, we have more than 50,000 children living with HIV in Ghana and a large chunk of persons living with the virus are between 15 and 40 years," he said.

Rev. Azumah said negative societal perceptions brewing stigma and dis-crimination continued to discourage people from testing to know their status and taking measures to adopt healthy lifestyles to halt spread of the virus.

He called for intensified HIV/AIDS education to reduce spate of new infections and accelerate Ghana's efforts at attaining the 2030 UNAIDS target.

As part of the durbar, some selected survivors of domestic violence in the community who have received skills training in millinery from Inerela+Ghana were out-doored and awarded certificates.

Sun, 11 Dec 2022 19:22:00 -0600 en text/html https://allafrica.com/stories/202212120291.html
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