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NAB-NHA Nursing Home Administrator (NAB) course outline |

NAB-NHA course outline - Nursing Home Administrator (NAB) Updated: 2023

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Exam Code: NAB-NHA Nursing Home Administrator (NAB) course outline November 2023 by team

NAB-NHA Nursing Home Administrator (NAB)

Required Activity Areas:

The AIT Program should be based on the five domains of practice, which are covered in the various departments found in a long term care facility. The tool presents

the departments as modules and rotations; it is through these departments/modules
that the program should be designed, so that the individual AIT can meet an appropriate and tailored amount of time in each of the domains as appropriate. These modules include:

• Administration

• Human Resources

• Nursing

• Business Office/Financial Management

• Diet

• Rehabilitation

• Medical Records

• Activities

• Social Services/Admissions

• Housekeeping/Laundry

• Environmental Management/ Maintenance

A. Quality of Care/Nursing

1. Develop a rounding sheet with the administrator and director of nursing that is
resident- centered; initiate implementation.

2. Observe nurse peer review on administration of medications.

3. With director of nursing, ensure medications are not expired.

4. Develop resident satisfaction surveys and make recommendations for implementation as necessary.
B. Rehabilitation

1. Organize and implement a follow-up program for discharged residents
to the community.

2. Develop audit for equipment inventory and complete audit; report.

C. Medical/Resident Records

1. Conduct admission audit of current in-house resident population, analyze data
and report. Assist with recommendations, as needed.

2. Conduct audit of flu vaccination response variables, analyze data and report.
Assist with recommendations, as needed.

3. Conduct audit of admission and annual required vaccines, analyze data and
report. Assist with recommendations, as needed.

4. Conduct medical records audit with appropriate staff.

D. Activities

1. Develop and implement a volunteer program

2. Develop/enhance Life Enrichment/Person Centered Care program

a.Interview residents and families and analyze information to ensure that
desired activities are planned and implemented as necessary

b.Working with Directors of Activities and other personnel as needed, help
develop in-service for Life Enrichment/Person Centered Care; assist appropriate staff with delivering in-services.

E. Social Services/Admission

1. Conduct an audit of admissions documents (per regulations and organization
policy), analyze and report.

2. Complete an audit of resident preferences, such as time to eat, rise and retire,
bath/showers, time of therapy, etc. Make recommendations as necessary

3. Develop and implement an outreach program that communicates regularly with
residents and/or families post discharge.

F. Dietary

1. Develop a questionnaire for residents related to dietary satisfaction including
variables such as taste, temperature, timeliness, presentation, etc; implement,
analyze and report; make recommendations.

2. Meet with the dietician and dietary manager to learn how menus are developed,
followed, and implemented; conduct an audit to confirm residents are receiving
correct foods, drinks and adaptive devices.

3. Understand nutritionally compromised concerns and how weights are monitored.

4. Audit purchasing and storage of dietary supplies and food; report to dietary
manager and administrator.

5. Audit to ensure foods are served and maintained at proper temperatures and in
accordance with the Food Code.

G. Housekeeping/Laundry

1. Conduct weekly audits, evaluating such variables as dust, floors, toilet, showers
of designated public areas; track, trend and report accordingly.

2. Audit resident rooms for housekeeping variables;track, trend and report

3. Audit residents to determine if laundry is clean and received promptly.

4. Audit infection control, safety and cross contamination procedures and make
recommendations as necessary.

5. Follow the linen distribution system from soiled to clean and report accordingly.

6. Observe resident clothing management

II. Possible Activities/Assignments related to Domain 20: Human Resources

A. Conduct an employee file audit per regulations and organizational policy.

B. Collect annual turnover rates for last few years, and develop a strategic plan
with activities, timeframes, etc. for identified changes.

C. Develop an employee satisfaction questionnaire, administer it and analyze
data;develop a subsequent plan.

D. Develop, organize and implement several employee activities.

E. Track absentee information, such as shift, day of week, reason, frequency;

analyze and report the findings.

F. Audit external health care providers (e.g., physicians, dentists, podiatrists)
to determine current licenses, liability insurance, etc.; analyze and report the

G. Study and analyze recruiting plans/staffing patterns and offer ideas to
improve current processes to ensure that the needs of the residents cared
for are met.

H. Review and understand the facilitys employee handbook to ensure accuracy
and that all federal/state guidelines are followed and make recommendations
as necessary.

I. Review and evaluate payroll plans, compensation plans, and benefit packages

J. Participate in a complete employee hiring and orientation process ( interview,
background check, etc.).

K. Conduct a staff meeting and an in-service training program.

L. Participate in a disciplinary/grievance procedure and an employee
counseling session.

M. Understand and have knowledge of National Labor Relations Board (NRLB)
as it relates to the facility.

N. Review and evaluate the unemployment compensation record of the facility
and attend an unemployment compensation hearing as necessary.

O. Review and report on ways to encourage and support professional development of team members.

III.Possible Activities/Assignments related to Domain 30: Finance

A. Assist the administrator with all budget (capital, cash, operating, etc.) development and submission.

B. Understand and assist with accounts payable processing.

C. Analyze and understand how aged accounts work.

D. Understand the facilitys bad debt and write-off policy; determine avenues
for improvement.

E. Understand triple-check systems for private pay and all third party payors.

F. Describe and review regularly produced financial reports to determine if fiscal
issues have arisen and make recommendations as necessary

G. Review and describe the chart of accounts, bookkeeping procedures,
income and expense statements and balance sheets; make
recommendations as necessary.

H. Understand the financial audit process utilized by third party payors to ensure
billings are in accordance with services provided.

I. Analyze and understand third party payor cost reporting systems.

IV. Possible Activities/Assignments related to Domain 40: Environment

A. Audit preventative maintenance logs per regulations and company policy;track
and trend such variables as time of day, season, staff member, etc.

B. Audit resident rooms, utilizing audit tools to evaluate such items as electrical
outlet plates, call bells, water temperatures and beds; track, trend and report

C. Review emergency generator and life safety regulatory requirements according
to state, local, and federal laws specific to your building(s) and prepare a compliance report.Conduct audit of past year of the log; develop/revise preventative

maintenance log with maintenance supervisor.

D. Conduct an audit of the past years log; develop and/or revise preventative
maintenance logs with the maintenance supervisor.

E. Assist the administrator and maintenance supervisor with developing and
implementing an emergency plan.

F. Develop a rounding sheet with the administrator and maintenance supervisor
that is environmental and safety centered; initiate its implementation.

G. Audit Log Out/Tag Out procedures to ensure compliance.

V. Possible Activities/Assignments related to Domain 50: Management
& Leadership

A. Review policy and procedure manuals to determine if they are appropriate
and timely, per regulations and organization policy and make recommendations for change as necessary.

B. Develop and assist the administrator with an annual strategic planning

C. Review current internal and external contracts and agreements for accuracy,
efficiency and timeliness; organize and make recommendations as necessary.

D. Review and become comfortable with federal regulations and state specific
regulations; assist with educating department leaders, if needed.

E. Assist with writing a Plan of Correction and/or identified regulatory violations.

F. Review and update the facilitys organizational chart and job descriptions.

G. Review short-term and long-term goals of the organization for appropriateness.

H. Study the bylaws/mission statement/vision of the governing body and how
decisions and policies are made within the organization. Analyze the authority
throughout the facility.

I. Plan and attend internal and external meetings and prepare reports for the
organization, as necessary.

J. Review the facility marketing plan and make recommendations for change as
necessary based upon facility dynamics and community needs.

K. Review and understand the facilitys media publicity efforts, including (but not
limited to) writing news releases, facility publications, newsletters, etc.

L. Organize and write a report to include competitive information, such as
description of services and amenities, survey history, CMS 5-Star rating and
community involvement.

M. Review the facilitys corporate compliance program to ensure all appropriate
rules and regulations are followed.

N. Review and describe how the facilitys risk management program minimizes
legal liability.

O. Review and analyze facilitys information management system, including
technology, to ensure safeguards are in place to provide resident confidentiality, data security, social media, cell phones, etc.

P. Review and analyze the facilitys quality improvement programs.

Q. Review the facilitys customer satisfaction program, including resident relations initiatives, reception/concierge duties and resident/family surveys.

R. Transitional Care: understanding the various regional lines of service and how
they relate, as well as initiatives to ensure continuous delivery of safe and
quality care as consumers transition between the different lines of service.
Nursing Home Administrator (NAB)
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Nursing Home Administrator (NAB)
Question: 124
The absence of any written system for evaluation of long-term performanceexposes the individual more nearly to
A. good judgment of current managers
B. evaluation on present work
C. higher appraisals
D. the whim of managers
Answer: D
Question: 125
Employees, it has been observed, normally _____.
A. outperform their self-image
B. do not outperform their self-image
C. are self-starting, for the most part
D. require little supervision in the traditional nursing facility setting
Answer: B
Question: 126
An evaluator checking off the extent to which an employee meets a trait orrequirement is using a/an _____.
A. outmoded model
B. performance scale
C. rating scale
D. global rating
Answer: C
Question: 127
Department heads who consistently give high ratings to avoid confl ictillustrate the _____.
A. abuse of global ratings
B. leniency error
C. error of central tendency
D. halo effect
Answer: B
Question: 128
The supervisor is impressed by the fact that the employee never misseda day and was never late, so rated the
employee highly overall. This isa/an_____.
A. abuse of global ratings
B. leniency error
C. error of central tendency
D. halo effect
Answer: D
Question: 129
Transfer, promotion, demotion, and layoff are possible outcomes of _____.
A. poor work attitudes
B. a performance appraisal
C. good rating scales at work
D. global ratings for some managers
Answer: B
Question: 130
Workers expecting an exchange in which their wages and benefi ts are equalto their work effort when compared to
similarly situated employees illustratethe _____.
A. resiliency of worker expectation
B. fair exchange theory
C. compensation theory
D. equity theory
Answer: D
Question: 131
Giving an across-the-board wage increase based on the Consumer PriceIndex is giving a/an _____.
A. well-deserved raise to the staff
B. boost in staff pay levels
C. cost of living increase
D. indexed wage increase
Answer: C
Question: 132
In the nursing facility, the key job against which many staff measure theirwages is compensation of the _____.
A. administrator
B. medical director
C. owner
D. director of nursing
Answer: D
Question: 133
Unless the facility can convincingly illustrate that it had a just cause forfi ring an employee, that employee will
likely _____.
A. be rehired
B. remain on the facility payroll
C. collect unemployment
D. complain to the state
Answer: C
Question: 134
Grievance procedures offer a needed _____.
A. source of discipline
B. safety valve
C. protection to the management
D. reciprocity relationship
Answer: B
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Certification-Board Administrator course outline - BingNews Search results Certification-Board Administrator course outline - BingNews Best Storage Certifications

There’s no question that skills and knowledge related to various networked forms of storage – such as storage area networks (SANs), network-attached storage (NAS), virtualized storage, and even storage as a service (STaaS) – are in high demand. Also, IT professionals interested in data center or network-backbone-related positions are likely to need strong storage chops.

Average salaries for storage engineers are consistent (and lucrative) across several job-related websites. For example, SimplyHired reports the average nationwide salary is a little over $107,600 in a range starting at $74,085 and climbing just over $156,000. Potential earnings reported by Glassdoor are higher: The national average salary is just over $165,800, with the low end of the range at about $110,000 and the high end close to $182,000.

In some ways, the state of storage certification perfectly mirrors in a single subject area (or perhaps a closely clustered collection of related subjects) what occurs across the full spectrum of information technology. Some vendor-neutral storage certifications are available, particularly those from the Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) and Arcitura. Also, there are numerous vendor-specific storage credentials available from providers of storage systems and solutions, including Cisco, Dell EMC, Hitachi Data Systems (HDS), HPE, NetApp and Sun/Oracle, among others.

Like other IT certifications, vendor-neutral credentials recognize broad competency in design, implementation and management, while vendor-specific programs tend to match up with technologies active IT professionals interact within the workplace (or that they’d like to interact with for prospective employers).

How is a storage-minded IT professional supposed to pick a winner here? Name recognition is one factor. Big name and big company certifications tend to attract higher numbers of certified individuals, lending more credibility to such certifications.

Popularity with employers is another consideration when selecting a certification. In our informal survey, we searched several online job sites on a given day for specific storage certifications. Note that the Cisco CCNP swamps the other certifications because its coverage goes well beyond storage. (The CCNP Data Center specialization involves storage to some degree, but it does not focus only on storage.)

Job Board Search Results (in alphabetical order, by certification)

Certification SimplyHired Indeed LinkedIn Total
CCIE Data Center (Cisco) 366 516 345 364 1,591
CCNP Data Center (Cisco) 596 792 390 448 2,226
HDS Storage Administration (Hitachi) 205 256 104 110 675
NCDA (NetApp) 515 656 226 322 1,719
SNIA certifications 30 44 48 16 138

Based on name recognition and job board surveys, our picks for 2019 lie with Cisco, HDS, NetApp and SNIA. One item noticeably absent from the leader board this year is the Brocade storage program. This gap in the lineup isn’t for lack of popularity. In fact, quite the opposite is true as the job board search yielded over 3,000 employers seeking candidates with Brocade experience and certs. Unfortunately for certification seekers, after Brocade was acquired by Broadcom, its exams, accreditations, certifications, and instructor-led training are no longer available. However, many free web-based courses remain that cover Fibre Channel Storage Area Networking products for professionals seeking to expand their Brocade knowledge and skills.

The following sections explore each of the preceding certifications and/or programs.

CCIE Data Center: Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert

Of all the storage-related Cisco certifications, the CCIE Data Center is the most senior and the best recognized. While it is a difficult and demanding credential to earn, it comes with a terrific payoff for its holders.

An expert-level credential, CCIE Data Center professionals are masters when it comes to planning, designing, implementing and managing IT data center infrastructures. exam syllabus focus on connectivity (Layers 2 and 3), fabric infrastructure, storage networking and computing, network services, evolving and emerging technologies, and network services and automation.

To earn this credential, candidates must pass both a written and a rigorous 8-hour, two-part practical lab exam. The written exam must be passed before candidates may attempt the lab exam. Lab exams must be attempted within 18 months of successfully passing the written exam. The lab exam is delivered in two parts: The first part consists of a one-hour Diagnostic Module, while Part 2 consists of a 7-hour Configuration and Troubleshooting module. It is reputed to be fiendishly challenging.

CCIE Data Center Facts and Figures

Certification Name Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) Data Center
Prerequisites & Required Courses None
Number of Exams Two exams: CCIE Data Center (400-151) (written exam) and the CCIE Data Center lab exam
Cost per Exam Written Exam: CCIE Data Center 400-151: $450

Lab Exam: $1,600

Exam fees to not include travel-related costs.

Self-Study Materials Cisco maintains links to recommended training, including self-study materials, study groups, webinars, syllabus, recommended readings, and other resources on the CCIE Data Center and exam web pages.

CCNP Data Center: Cisco Certified Network Professional Data Center

Cisco offers a variety of certifications that address storage networking topics, including the Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician (CCENT) and the Data Center versions of the CCNA, CCNP, and CCIE (in order of difficulty). The CCNP Data Center credential hits the sweet spot in terms of warranting an IT professional’s knowledge and understanding of Cisco’s storage networking products and platforms in a data center context.

Cisco requires the Cisco Certified Network Associate Data Center (CCNA Data Center) credential or any Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) certification as a prerequisite for the CCNP Data Center.

Cisco CCNP Data Center Facts and Figures

Certification Name Cisco Certified Network Professional Data Center (CCNP Data Center)
Prerequisites & Required Courses Valid CCNA Data Center certification or any CCIE certification. Training recommended but not required.
Number of Exams Four exams:

Implementing Cisco Data Center Unified Computing (300-175 DCUCI)  90 55-65

Implementing Cisco Data Center Infrastructure (300-165 DCII)

Implementing Cisco Data Center Virtualization and Automation (300-170 DCVAI)


Design track: Designing Cisco Data Center Infrastructure (300-160 DCID)


Troubleshooting track: Troubleshooting Cisco Data Center Infrastructure (300-180 DCIT)

Cost per Exam $300 per exam; $1,200 total (price may vary by region). Exams administered by Pearson VUE.
Self-Study Materials Instructor-led training is recommended. Information on self-study materials and Learning Partner training available at the URL above and on the Cisco Learning Network Data Center (CCNP Data Center) site.

Hitachi Qualified Professional – Storage Administration

Hitachi Vantara, formerly known as the Hitachi Data Systems corporation, is known for its hybrid storage systems, storage management, and networking solutions aimed at Fortune 100 and Fortune Global 100 enterprises. The company has a well-developed certification program to support its products and services.

Unlike most other IT certification sponsors, Hitachi’s program distinguishes between qualifications and certifications. Qualification credentials aim at the associate and professional levels where candidates have broad knowledge of syllabus and concepts. Hitachi certifications are either certified or experts, where candidates have deep knowledge of and ample hands-on experience with products and solutions.

Both types of credentials fall under various tracks: Administration (professional), Architect (specialist and expert), Implementation and Integration (specialist and expert), Installation and Support (specialist and professional), and Basics and Fundamentals (entry-level), as well as Sales and Presales.

The Hitachi Qualified Professional – Storage Administration credential, part of the Administration track, is an intermediate-level qualification aimed at storage networking professionals who can configure and troubleshoot Hitachi Command Suite products, as well as use Hitachi Device Manager to manage the storage environment. Candidates must pass one exam – Storage Administration HQT-6740 – to earn the credential.

Hitachi Qualified Professional – Storage Administration Facts and Figures

Certification Name Hitachi Qualified Professional – Storage Administration
Prerequisites & Required Courses: The TSI2565 Managing Hitachi Storage with Hitachi Command Suite v8.x instructor-led course, which runs five or six days, is offered at HDS training centers. Training costs begin at $4,875.
Number of Exams One exam: HQT-6740 (35 questions, 60 minutes)
Cost per Exam $100. exam administered by Kryterion Webassessor.
Self-Study Materials The exam PDF includes information on exam objectives and training. Candidates must create an HDS account to get more information.

NCDA: NetApp Certified Data Administrator

NetApp has been in the storage business since 1992, and offers a broad line of products and systems for backup and recovery, traditional and virtualized storage and cloud-based data centers. Although NetApp has some stiff competition – Dell EMC, HPE and Hitachi, to name a few – the company understands the value of flexibility and integration with other third-party products. For example, NetApp worked with Cisco to develop FlexPod, which helps customers manage Cisco, Citrix, Cloudera, Microsoft, NetApp, Oracle, Red Hat, VMware, and other applications and environments, and NetApp’s hybrid cloud storage integrates with Amazon Web Services and Microsoft Azure, among others.

The NetApp Certification Program (NCP) features several certifications within three tracks: Data, Hybrid Cloud and Converged Infrastructure. All NetApp certifications focus on some aspect of storage hardware or the software that powers these products. The Data track includes the NetApp Certified Storage Associate (NCSA) – Hybrid Cloud, the NetApp Certified Storage Installation Engineer, ONTAP as well as our featured certification, the NetApp Certified Data Administrator (NCDA).

The NCDA recognizes working knowledge of NetApp storage architecture, core ONTAP components, high availability, data clustering, protocol administration, storage performance, security and data protection. Candidates must be able to configure controllers running the ONTAP operating system in NFS and Windows (CIFS) environments, and understand NetApp SnapMirror, SnapRestore and SnapVault technologies.

Candidates must pass one exam to earn the credential.

NetApp certifications are valid for 27 months, and credential holders must meet recertification requirements during this period to maintain their certifications.

NCDA Facts and Figures

Certification Name NetApp Certified Data Administrator (NCDA)
Prerequisites & Required Courses Recommended:

6 to 12 months of experience implementing and administering NetApp data storage solutions

Knowledge of HA controller implementation and configuration, SyncMirror software or ONTAP solutions with single- or multi-node configurations

ONTAP Cluster Fundamentals

ONTAP Cluster Administration are also recommended

A NetApp Support Site account is required to enroll in NetApp University training.

Number of Exams NSO-159: NetApp Certified Data Administrator, ONNNTAP (60 questions, 1.5 hour to complete)
Cost of Exam $150. Exams administered by Pearson VUE.
Self-Study Materials NetApp offers instructor-led and web-based training, a practice test for the NS0-159 exam, and a list of reference documents. (See the NCDA web page for links to training resources.) The NetApp KB TV YouTube channel provides how-to videos on using NetApp technology. Candidates should also browse the NetApp University and Training website for insights on training and exams. No certification study guides or practice exams were found on the NetApp site or on Amazon.

SNIA SNCP: SNIA Storage Networking Certification Program

The Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) is a nonprofit organization incorporated in 1997 and comprises members from various storage vendors and service providers, as well as individuals. The association develops and promotes storage solution specifications and standards, and offers education and certification for storage and information management professionals.

SNIA recently rolled out several changes to its Storage Networking Certification Program (SNCP). Most notable among the changes is the retirement of the SNIA Certified Storage Engineer (SCSE) and SNIA Certified Storage Architect (SCSA). The exams for both credentials were withdrawn on January 31, 2019.

Both the SCSE and SCSA have been replaced by the SNIA Certified Information Architect (SCIA). SNIA will continue to recognize the SCSE and SCSA until November 31, 2021. The Storage Networking Certification Program (SNCP) offers several vendor-neutral certifications:

  • SNIA Certified Storage Professional (SCSP)
  • SNIA Certified Storage Networking Expert (SCSN-E)
  • SNIA Qualified Storage Sales Professional (SQSSP)
  • SNIA Certified Information Architect (SCIA)

Each certification requires candidates to pass the S10-110 Foundations exam or hold a current CompTIA Storage+ Powered by SNIA certification (exam no longer offered), which earns the Professional (SCSP) credential. The Networking Expert (SCSN-E) requires all of them.

SNIA certifications are good for three years from the date of certification. After that, a certification holder must take the most current exam to maintain the credential.

SNIA SCNP Facts and Figures

Certification Name Storage Networking Certification Program (SNCP)
Prerequisites & Required Courses Training is recommended but not required.
Number of Exams SCSP: One exam; Storage Networking Foundations S10-110 (65 questions, 90 minutes, passing score of 66 percent)

SCSN-E: Two exams; Foundations S10-110 OR CompTIA Storage+ Powered by SNIA (no longer offered) PLUS SNIA Storage Networking Management Administration (S10-210) OR SNIA Information Architect – Storage Advanced exam (S10-510) and two SNIA Certification Partner product credentials

SQSSP: One exam; SNAI Qualified Storage Sales Professional exam (S10-905)

SCIA: One exam, Storage Advanced exam S10-510

Cost per Exam All exams are $220 except the SQSSP exam which is $100. Exams administered by Kryterion.
Self-Study Materials SNIA provides links to study reference materials, practice exams and training on each certification’s web page. Study materials are also available through training partners.

Beyond the Top 5: More storage certifications

Beyond the top five storage certifications mentioned in this article, there are lots of other certification programs that can further the careers and professional development of IT professionals who work in the networked storage arena.

Although no EMC storage certifications made our top five list for 2018 or 2019, EMC (acquired by Dell in 2016) has one of the longest-standing certification programs for storage. The program offers credentials for data scientists, cloud architects and administrators, storage administrators, cloud and implementation engineers, and a whole lot more.

In addition, look at the credentials available from Arcitura, HPE, Huawei, IBM, Nimble and Sun/Oracle:

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Although the FAA will not grant TIA until it is confident the airplane is ready and Boeing has addressed all design and system safety assurance questions, Boeing Commercial Airplanes President Stan Deal tells Aviation Week that the milestone is approaching. “I anticipate shortly we’ll be at the first phase of type inspection authorization on the airplane and getting the FAA and eventually [the European Union Aviation agency] on for score for all those test cards we’ve been flying,” Deal says.

“We’re over 1,100 flights on the program already and 3,200 [flight] hours, so we’ve we put more time on this airframe and engine combination than any other airplane in history [in terms of Boeing pre-certification flight tests]. The performance is looking good in terms of the fuel burn and system functionality,” Deal says.

“It’s super exciting that we're getting to that point in the program,” says Heather Ross, project pilot for the 777X and lead pilot for WH001, the first development aircraft which is in the flight display here at Dubai. The aircraft was used earlier this year to complete company testing of takeoff performance and velocity minimum unstick (VMU) evaluations, a campaign which determines the minimum takeoff speeds for a new aircraft.

“VMU testing was a big step. We also completed some brake testing—we've got a little bit more tuning to go but that's all kind of progressing at pace. We've also got some other stability and control (S&C) testing as we evolve the flight control laws and as we make some changes we’ll go out and re-do that phase,” she adds. “The whole program is involved in focusing on trying to get some of those safety assessment reviews completed and the paperwork closed out so that we can document it—then we can work through completing the remaining items before TIA.”

While the additional S&C work will be undertaken by the second test aircraft, WH002, the brunt of the certification effort will be performed by the third test aircraft, WH003, which originally joined the program in August 2020. “That is really our engine and steady state performance airplane,” Ross says. “They're getting ready, and they'll be the first up when we do get TIA because that's the majority of the work that the initial certification is going to take place on. So they’re getting spooled up ready to go.”

“WH003 has got propulsion testing, so they’re going to have the most up-to-date software and hardware on that airplane, so they'll be first in the barrel as it were for the certification effort,” Ross adds. The aircraft will be configured with the production standard GE9X engine with an updated combustor liner, which has been upgraded to counter issues encountered a year ago. “One engine issue we found through the test program on the combustor liner, which GE Aerospace has got well in hand,” Deal adds.

The third aircraft has been used primarily to evaluate flight loads and performance of the auxiliary power unit, avionics and the GE9X engines. WH001, which first flew in January 2020, has taken the lead in testing S&C as well as high and low-speed aerodynamics. It has also been used for avionics, flight control systems and brake tests. The second aircraft—the entry of which into the program was also delayed until April 2020 by coronavirus-related precautions—was mainly targeted at autoland system work as well as ground effects testing.

A fourth aircraft, WH004, which is currently stored, incorporates a production-representative cabin configuration, and will ultimately finish its test role with a phase of extended twin-engine operations (ETOPS) and airline-like functionality and reliability operations testing.

Sat, 11 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
AANP Vs. ANCC: Choosing An NP Certification

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

Becoming a nurse practitioner (NP), a type of advanced practice registered nurse (APRN), requires significant education and training, as well as knowledge, skills and competencies. Aspiring NPs must be licensed registered nurses (RNs), hold a bachelor of science in nursing and complete a masters in nursing or a doctorate of nursing program graduate programs.

The last step on the long journey to becoming an NP is passing a national nursing certification exam in your specialization. Passing the right exam demonstrates your advanced clinical knowledge and skills and shows employers you can succeed as an NP in your specialty.

Two national organizations, the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), offer nurse practitioner certifications. You must pass a board certification exam from either AANP or ANCC to become an NP.

NPs specializing in family or adult-gerontology primary care can take either an AANP exam or an ANCC exam. For other practice specialties, like psychiatric-mental health, only one organization offers the relevant exam and credential.

Learn more about AANP vs. ANCC nursing certifications, and figure out which path is right for you.


AANP and ANCC both offer NP certifications and board certification exams. AANP is a membership organization representing more than 121,000 nurse practitioners across North America. Its credentialing arm is the AANP Certification Board (AANPCB), which only offers NP certifications.

ANCC is an offshoot of the American Nurses Association (ANA), a professional group with 4 million members in the United States. ANCC administers certifications to both NPs and registered nurses with an associates degree or bachelor’s degree in nursing.

If you’re pursuing NP certification in family or adult-gerontology primary care, you can do so through AANPCB or ANCC. Other NP specializations do not offer a choice; you must take the relevant certification exam from whichever organization offers it.

For example, aspiring emergency nurse practitioners can only pursue certification through AANPCB. NPs seeking to specialize in psychiatric mental health, on the other hand, must earn their credentials through ANCC.

What Is the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners Certification Board (AANPCB)?

AANP created AANPCB, a nonprofit credentialing organization for nurse practitioners, to offer NP certifications in the following specialties:

  • Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner (A-GNP)
  • Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP)
  • Emergency Nurse Practitioner (ENP)

AANP members receive a $75 discount on AANPCB certification applications.

Certifications Offered by AANPCB

Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner (A-GNP)

The A-GNP certification demonstrates clinical knowledge of adults from age 13 until advanced age and end-of-life. This certification qualifies you for NP licensure specializing in adult patients. A-GNPs have demonstrated expertise and competencies in health assessment, pathophysiology, pharmacology, treatment and management of acute and chronic conditions, and evidence-based practice.

The certification’s competency-based exam includes 150 questions, including 15 pre-test questions that do not count toward your score. The test covers assessment, diagnosis, plan and evaluation domains, including questions about all age parameters. Online applications cost $240 for AANP members and $315 for nonmembers. Prices may change over time and discounts may be available for members of specific nursing organizations. Members should check with their association membership offices to see if discounts are applicable.

A-GNP applicants must hold an active RN license. Other eligibility requirements include a minimum of 500 graduate level clinical practicum hours and successful completion of a graduate or postgraduate adult-gerontology primary care nurse practitioner program at an accredited school of nursing.

To find out more about earning RN licensure, review our guide on how to become an RN.

Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP)

The FNP certification qualifies holders to apply for a state license to practice as an FNP offering primary care across the life span, from prenatal patients to older adults.

The competency-based exam includes 150 questions (135 scored questions and 15 unscored pretest questions). The test assesses knowledge of various age and practice domains like assessment, evaluation, diagnosis and planning. It covers syllabus like cultural competence, crisis management, pain management and anatomy.

FNP applicants with AANP memberships pay $240 to apply online, while nonmembers pay $315. Eligibility requirements for the FNP include an active RN license, completion of a graduate or postgraduate family nurse practitioner program at an accredited school and at least 500 clinical hours.

To learn more, see our guide on how to become a family nurse practitioner.

What Is the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC)?

As part of ANA, ANCC offers various certifications to help NPs and RNs advance their careers. ANCC’s NP certifications include:

  • Adult-Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Certification (AGACNP-BC®)
  • Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner Certification (AGPCNP-BC®)
  • Family Nurse Practitioner Certification (FNP-BC™)
  • Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (Across the Lifespan) Certification (PMHNP-BC™)

In addition to providing certifications, ANCC also accredits healthcare organizations that offer or approve continuing education for nurses. ANCC recognizes healthcare organizations that encourage safe and effective nursing practice as well. ANA members can save $100 on ANCC’s NP certification application fees.

NP Certifications Offered by ANCC

Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner Certification (AGPCNP-BC)

ANCC’s AGPCNP-BC credential qualifies you to practice as an entry-level adult-gerontology primary care nurse practitioner. To qualify for the AGPCNP-BC, you must hold RN licensure and pass a national certification exam.

To obtain this credential, you must earn an accredited AGPCNP master’s in nursing, a DNP or a postgraduate certificate including at least 500 supervised clinical hours. Applicants must complete three APRN core graduate courses in advanced physiology or pathophysiology, advanced health assessment and advanced pharmacology.

The Accreditation Board for Specialty Nursing Certification provides accreditation for this certification, which requires renewal every five years. For initial certification, ANA members pay $295, and nonmembers pay $395. AANP members, AANP student members and Gerontological Advanced Practice Nurses Association (GAPNA) members also receive discounts.

The AGPCNP exam assesses competency in clinical knowledge and skills for this specialty. The competency-based test lasts 3.5 hours and includes 175 questions (150 scored and 25 unscored pretest questions). Questions cover the patient assessment process, plan of care and professional practice, spanning different age groups, body systems and drug agents.

You can take ANCC’s Adult-Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner Readiness Test to assess your preparedness for the official exam. You can use ANCC’s study aids to prepare for the test.

Family Nurse Practitioner Certification (FNP-BC)

ANCC’s FNP-BC credential qualifies you to apply for state licensure to work as a family nurse practitioner. This certification requires renewal every five years.

To earn this credential, you must pass the competency-based FNP-BC exam to demonstrate that you have the clinical skills and knowledge necessary for FNP work. The 3.5-hour test includes 175 questions (150 scored questions and 25 unscored pretest questions). exam content covers assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluation with questions about different age groups, drug agents and body systems.

ANA members pay $295 for initial certification; nonmembers pay $395. AANP members, AANP student members and GAPNA members also receive discounts.

Eligibility requirements for the FNP-BC certification include a current RN license and an FNP master’s, postgraduate certificate or DNP from an accredited school. The FNP program must include 500 faculty-supervised clinical hours. Applicants must also complete three graduate-level APRN core courses covering advanced physiology or pathophysiology, advanced health assessment and advanced pharmacology.

You can take ANCC’s FNP readiness test to assess your exam readiness and to get a better idea of what to expect. ANCC also provides other study aids, including trial questions and a test content outline.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About AANP vs. ANCC

What is the difference between AANP and ANCC?

AANP and ANCC both offer national certification exams for nurse practitioners. AANP, a professional organization for nurse practitioners, only offers NP certifications. ANCC is a wing of ANA and offers certifications for RNs at various levels, including NPs.

What does certification for an NP mean?

NPs must earn certification to apply for a state license to practice their specialty. To obtain certification, you must pass a national board exam in your NP specialty area. You must also meet other requirements, including holding an RN license, earning a BSN degree and completing a graduate NP program with at least 500 clinical hours.

Thu, 26 Oct 2023 19:02:00 -0500 Liz Simmons en-US text/html
Youngkin announces administration, board, agency appointments
virginia politics
(© josephsjacobs –

Gov. Glenn Youngkin’s effort to move Virginia way, way over to the right is over now. Back to governing, the lame duck announced a run of appointments on Friday, including three to the Virginia LGBTQ+ Advisory Board, which you just know he handed off to a junior staffer.

Youngkin, in name, at least, appointed Teri Crawford Brown, the CEO of Blackberry Winter, an Appalachian-based nonprofit, to the advisory board, along with Carson Cox, an associate attorney with the Richmond-based firm Troutman Pepper Hamilton, and Jeffrey Hoeflich-Nickels, owner of the Roanoke-based i77 Strategies.

Here’s to Youngkin actually listening to their advice.



  • Gillian RichmondSpecial Assistant


  • Jona RokaSpecial Assistant




  • Charles Huntley of Middlesex County, Director of Technology, County of Essex



  • Jimmy Carr of Richmond, Chief Executive Officer, All Points Broadband
  • Christian R. Goodwin of Mineral, County Administrator, Louisa County
  • Ray LaMura of Richmond, President, VCTA – Broadband Association of Virginia
  • Casey Logan of Boydton, COO, Mecklenburg Electric Cooperative and EMPOWER Broadband
  • Steven Sandy of Vinton, Assistant County Administrator, Franklin County
  • Richard Schollmann of Henrico, Executive Director, Virginia Broadband Industry Association 



  • Monica Hall of Chesterfield, E-Commerce Director, Lincare Holding, Inc.


  • Minesh Patel of Powhatan, President, Owner, and Founder, Ram’s of Virginia, Inc. and Shiv Traders, Inc. 


  • Chief Walt Red Hawk Brownof Southampton County, Chief, Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe of Southampton County Virginia
  • Brandon G. Thundercloud Custalow of West Point, Tribal Council Member, Mattaponi Indian Tribe and Reservation


  • Roberto Jose Coquis of Falls Church, Deputy Director, Human Resources, Barbaricum 
  • Eduardo Gil of Falls Church, Director, Capdesvilas Advisors



  • The Honorable Mike Cherryof Colonial Heights, Member, House of Delegate, 66th District



  • Becky Alwood of Midlothian, Occupational Therapist, Sheltering Arms Institute
  • Heidi Lawyer of Glen Allen, Curriculum Support Specialist, Parent Educational Advocacy Training Center (PEATC)
  • Brandy Schantz of Alexandria, CEO, Schantz Group


  • Jennifer Sellers, MAED of Harrisonburg, community volunteer



  • Steve Ahn of Damascus, Science Teacher, Washington County Schools


  • Carolyn Berry of Charlottesville, Participant Coordinator, Independence Resource Center
  • H. Cline, Jr., of Staunton, retired teacher and coach, Virginia School for the Deaf and Blind


  • General Dennis Via, Ret. of McLean, Executive Vice President, Booz Allen Hamilton


  • Arrow Brooks of Bristol, student
  • Sarah Byman of Virginia Beach, student
  • Elizabeth Cobb of Henrico, student
  • Rafael Ibanez of Crozet, student
  • Yordanose Moges of Fairfax County, student
  • Preston Riddle of Halifax County, student
  • Lance Toapanta of Salem, student
  • Abubakkar Rahim of Stafford, student


  • Gloria Marrero Chambers of McLean, Community Volunteer



  • Mark Llobell of Virginia Beach, Founder and CEO, Virginia Autism Foundation


  • Ronnie Hayes of Richmond, Polysomnographic Technologist, VCU Health
  • Hannah Tyler of Chester, Polysomnography Technologist, VCU Health


  • Monique Ford of Fredericksburg, CPA/Owner, Monique Valentine Ford, CPA
  • Tyler Pieron of Fluvanna County, Board of Directors,


  • Lynn Hall Campbell of Richmond and Gloucester, Regional Practice Administrator, Bon Secours/Mercy Health
  • Latonya Dickerson Hughes of Hampton, Assistant Dean, Hampton University


  • Corliss V. Booker, PhD, APRN, FNP-BC of Chester, Nurse Practitioner, Nursing Education Resources
  • Shawn H. Hobbs of Richmond, Optometrist, Commonwealth Eye Care Associates


  • Michelle E. Hoffer of Richmond, Attorney, Whiteford, Taylor & Preston LLP


  • Megan R. Bureau, PT, DPT of Winchester, Associate Professor, Director of Clinical Education, Division of Physical Therapy, Shenandoah University
  • Srilekha Palle of Fairfax, visiting fellow, Independent Women’s Forum


  • Nupur Bal of Manakin Sabot, Shareholder/Attorney, Bowen Ten Long & Bal, PC
  • Christian Paasch of Alexandria, Executive Committee Chair, Virginia Chapter, National Parents Organization


  • Karina Martich, PhD, of Richmond, President, Berakah Inc.
  • Daniel Villar of Henrico, Director for the Office of Ethnic Ministries, Catholic Diocese of Richmond
  • Zarmina Yusufi, MD, of Fredericksburg, Internal Medicine Specialist, Stafford Hospital 


  • Gwen Traficant, Vice-Chair, of Fairfax County, community volunteer, caregiver


  • Adrian Frierson of Mechanicsville, Director of Transportation, Hanover County Public Schools


  • Craig Connors of Toano, Senior Director of Payor Relations, Virginia Hospital & Healthcare Association



  • Audrey Janosik of Richmond, Manager, Medical Program & Regulatory Compliance, Altria Client Services



  • Barbara L. Inman of Newport News, Vice President for Student Success and Enrollment Management, Hampton University
  • Geneda Kearney of Chesterfield County, Academic Coach, Walden University
  • Cameron Patterson of Farmville, Vice President for Student Affairs, Longwood University; Senior Partner for Strategic Initiatives, Robert Russa Moton Museum 


  • Howard Shafferman of RichmondFounder and Principal, The Haswell Group, LLP; former Chief of Staff and Counselor, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Retired Partner, Ballard Spahr, LLP


  • Adam Kinsman of James City County, County Attorney, James City County
Sat, 11 Nov 2023 15:01:00 -0600 View all posts by Chris Graham en-US text/html
Biden administration outlines actions to address antisemitism on college campuses No result found, try new keyword!The announcements from the DOJ, DHS and Education Department come as several administration officials have individually engaged with Jewish leaders and campus communities. Education Secretary ... Mon, 30 Oct 2023 03:50:00 -0500 en text/html Election 2023: Perkiomen Valley School Board candidates outline their views [Updated with 2 more candidates]

The Perkiomen Valley School Board race pits two teams of five candidates against each other and each team handily won at least one ballot line during the spring primary.

The “Vote 5 for PV” team took the five Republican ballot lines. That team consists of incumbents Matthew Dorr and Kim Mares, joined by Russ Larson, Heidi Brown and Jordan (Jay) Scott Cohen.

The “PV Forward” team took the five Democratic lines. That team consists of incumbent Laura White, Wayde Weston, Treena Sadler, Todd McKinney and Robert Liggett.

All candidates were invited through an article in The Mercury and social media posts to answer 10 questions in an online questionnaire, the first five of which asked about basic information like work experience and education.

As of the newspaper’s Friday, Oct. 27, deadline, Dorr, Sadler, Brown and Mares had not filled out the questionnaire.

The subject questions were:

1) What role would you like to see public schools performing for society heading into the future?

2) Do you believe the use of bathrooms, locker rooms and ability to play on school athletic teams should be determined by the sex assigned to a child at birth? Please explain why.

3) Do you believe the unpleasant aspects of American history — things like slavery, lynching and forced migration and suppression of the culture of Native Americans among others — should be taught alongside the nation’s more celebratory and traditional history? Why or why not and to what extent?

4) What is your opinion of the growing influence of outside organizations and political action committees in school board matters? Have you received contributions or endorsements from a PAC or PACs? If so, which?

5) Please outline your views on the use of vouchers, tax credits, or other sources of public funding, for use in paying tuition at non-public schools.

What follows are the responses of the candidates in the order in which they were received.

Robert Liggett

Robert Liggett, 54, lives in Perkiomen Township and has never held elected office before.

He holds a bachelor’s degree in youth and human services from Salem-Teikyo University and works as a CAD/CAM programmer for a local marble and granite company. “I create the programs for a water jet and saw to cut,” he explained.

“The role of public schools remains the same, to prepare our youth to be productive citizens, ready to further their formal education, join the military or the workforce. The students determine their path and we should provide the foundation for their success,” Liggett wrote. “Hopefully, they will gain a life-long love of learning and have the tools needed to be a positive influence wherever they go. They need to be prepared for the future. That future will be diverse and dependent on understanding and respecting others.”

Robert Liggett (Submitted Photo)
Robert Liggett (Submitted Photo)

On the subject of gender, bathrooms, locker rooms and athletics, Liggett wrote “sex assignment at birth is a snapshot of that moment. Growth and change from that moment is to be expected. Children as they grow may vary from what a binary society expects. In 1973 the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality as a disorder and in 2015, same-sex marriage became legal in the US. Transgender people are at a similar moment,” he wrote.

“Our mission as a school district is: ‘We cultivate an inclusive community of learners empowered to grow intellectually, socially and emotionally.’ Based solely on our mission, we should support the rights of transgendered people as part of our inclusiveness and support their rights to be a full part of the community without being segregated or diminished.” Liggett wrote. “Federal law, specifically Title IX, and precedent-setting case law in our federal district (Doe vs, Boyertown School District) supports the rights of students to use the facilities that matches their gender identity. This is exactly how restrooms work in the rest of our society in the public sphere. I would argue that not allowing people to use the restroom that aligns with their lived gender identity would cause more problems and discomfort for everyone. The policy restricting facilities by gender assigned at birth, is unenforceable, illegal and immoral. That some people are uncomfortable with this says more about them than the transgender youth just trying to relieve themselves.”

Liggett further added, “PIAA rules state that the decision of whether a person can compete on an athletic team that is specific to a gender lies with the principal of the school. While not a perfect system, it allows for many factors to be considered by the principal before allowing someone to compete in athletics. I understand the discomfort in this, but this also allows for a girl to play football. Since the rules need to be the same for all schools, we should not place additional restrictions on our athletes that go beyond what PIAA has in place. Our treatment of transgendered people should and must be seen through the lens of civil rights. Denial for the sake of the comfort of some is the path away from equal rights for all. History tells us that identifying an “other” and restricting their rights is the first step towards widening restrictions.”

On the subject of unpleasant aspects of American history being taught, Liggett wrote “Absolutely they should be taught. Our history is a mixture of things all of which affect our understanding of where we are and where we came from. The entire history, warts and all, gives a better understanding of why things are and gives a better perspective on how we should take those lessons and apply them today. We carry the burden of history with us and choose today to make decisions that will hopefully reflect better on us in the future. “

“While it is invigorating as a candidate to receive endorsements and financial help from outside/larger groups; it is disturbing how much money is now needed for school board elections,” Liggett wrote in response to the question about the growing influence of political action groups. “Everyone is on notice that school boards, especially in purple districts, need much more money to counter this. In this election, people are aware of this and are becoming donors to help even the playing field.”

“Our PV Forward campaign has the support of many local elected leaders and party organizations including PACs of local officials and groups. We are especially proud of the support of our district’s teachers’ union, PVEA. Our local teachers, the ones we entrust the education of our children to everyday, have endorsed all of the candidates of PV Forward,” Liggett wrote. “Based on that endorsement the state organization, Pennsylvania State Education Association SEA has given financial donations to our campaign. Our campaign, PV Forward, is proud of the wide range of support we have received. While we have large donors, I am especially proud of the many small donations. These show that we are reaching the people that will be most affected by our election to the board.”

On the question of vouchers, Liggett wrote “I am firmly against these kinds of measures. I advocate against the diversion of funds away from public schools. Those who get funding from the public taxes need to be held accountable to that public. Private schools are not accountable to the public for its use and it is not an equitable use of public dollars,” Liggett wrote. “When my parents chose for me to have a Catholic education, they did not expect a government handout to support that. These measures undermine public education.”

Russ Larson

Russ Larson, 54, did not provide his municipality of residence and has never held elected office before.

He holds a bachelor’s degree, although he did not provide the institution that issued it, and has worked for 30 years as a professional and executive in “sales operations” and “Information Technology” in the healthcare industry with a focus on outcomes.

Larson wrote the purpose of public school is to “educate students in core subjects, civics, and prepare them for any of the different pathways (college, trades, military, volunteering); ensure students receive balanced lessons for any syllabus that include politics; ensure curriculum is grounded in established, non-partisan, standards.”

On the question of whether the sex assigned at birth should determine bathroom and locker room use and participation in athletics, Larson wrote “Yes. Allowing biological boys to play on an all-girls sports team will harm girls’ ability to compete, earn scholarships, and love sports.”

Asked about whether and how unpleasant chapters of American history should be taught, Larson replied “Yes, as long as (1) the history lessons are developed by a non-partisan organization that is recognized by both Democrats and Republicans as non-partisan and as an acceptable source of those lessons, and (2) the materials are age-appropriate (i.e., they shouldn’t be overly graphic for a very young student) and (3) they don’t assign culpability to children and citizens that weren’t born before these events (i.e., we don’t ascribe original sin on children). New facts of past events are uncovered over time (so we can expect curriculum to update periodically) but educational historians should not apply revisionist history on lessons as part of a political agenda. I’ll reiterate that changes to curriculum must be vetted by recognized non-partisan organizations.”

Russ Larson (Submitted Photo)
Russ Larson (Submitted Photo)

On the subject of the growing influence of political action committees in school board affairs, Larson replied “I think it’s organic that outside organizations (including PACs) will insert themselves into school board elections. I don’t think they should hold any sway or influence on elected school board officials. My campaign received funds ONLY from parents/voters in the community and did not have any PACs contribute. I can’t affect endorsements from PACs as they make those decisions independently based on their values and how they perceive the candidates’ values. Both slates (Democrats and Republicans) received endorsements from PACs and political organizations that they couldn’t necessarily control. However, I am pleased that my campaign only took money from voters and not from organizations.”

Larson wrote “As a school board candidate, I recognize that I have no direct influence or say on vouchers or school choice initiatives. Certainly the fact that this is a potential for our state, it’s important for our schools to have a laser-like focus on improving academic outcomes for all cohorts (by looking at the data for the cohorts and by implementing the best curriculum programs) so that our schools are competitive if school choice became a reality in Pennsylvania.”

Laura White

Laura White, 42, lives in Skippack Township and is an incumbent school board member seeking reelection.

She is currently working to complete a bachelor’s degree from Temple University and has worked in real estate full-time since 2018.

White wrote that she “would love for public schools to expand the resources they are able to offer the communities that they serve — especially for those that experience food insecurity. Offering cultural and practical education are also potential avenues of growth. This would only be possible with state and national reform to provide more funding at the local levels.”

“It is my belief that every single child in our buildings should feel safe and supported in whatever manner that would be possible. If that were to extend to acknowledging and allowing a student to use the restroom that matches their self-identification then that should be afforded to them,” White wrote in response to a question about the district’s bathroom policy debates.

“Bathrooms and locker rooms and sports teams are all very different subjects. And each carry nuance. Privacy and protection and a safe environment should be the baseline for all decisions. There is a tremendous amount of fear and ignorance surrounding gender identity and biological sex- not just in our schools but also in our community and nation,” she wrote. “Only through educational opportunities and continued advocacy will we be able to move forward from this moment in history.”

Laura White (Submitted Photo)
Laura White (Submitted Photo)

Regarding the teaching of less pleasant chapters of American history, White wrote, “History, national and world, should be taught without censorship and in age-appropriate context of multiple points of view. Only when analyzing and debating the damages of global colonialism will society be able to ensure that atrocities of the past (and present) do not happen in the future.”

White wrote that “my campaign, PV Forward, and our PAC — Friends of PV Forward — has received endorsements from individuals and groups that align with our values, ethics and goals for governance. In some instances there have been monetary support associated with that endorsement,” White wrote in response to a question about the growing influence of political action committees in school board matters.

“The position of a school board director is volunteer and without fundraising and candidate coordination, running a successful bid for a seat would be impossible in todays’ political environment. All of our funding is public and transparent through normal campaign finance rules and practice. We are endorsed by: Rep. Madeleine Dean, D-4th Dist., state Rep. Joe Webster, D-150th Dist., state Rep. Matt Bradford, D-70th Dist., Collegeville Democrats, Montgomery Country Area 4 Democrats, Montgomery County Area 15 Democrats, PSEA-PACE, Perkiomen Valley Education Association, Skippack Democrats, Trappe Democrats. We have also received individual monetary contributions from friends, family, and community members,” White wrote.

Her response to a question about vouchers was succinct. “I do not support or believe in vouchers, tax credits or public funding for tuition at non-public schools.”

Wayde Weston

Wayde Weston, 64, lives in Collegeville Borough.

He was elected to the school board in 2017 and served on the board from 2017-2021.

He received a bachelor’s degree from Haverford College in 1984 and a Ph.D., from the University of Pennsylvania in 1989.

Weston worked as a Postdoctoral fellow/research assistant professor at Thomas Jefferson University, from 1989 to 1997, at GlaxoSmithKline from 1997 to 2015 and at Pfizer from 2015 to 2020.

“Public schools are the centerpiece of a strong community. We work at different jobs, attend different houses of worship, and take part in different recreational activities, but public schools are the one community institution where we all can come together,” Weston wrote. “The purpose of public schools is to educate and prepare our children to take their place as adults in our community and in our nation. Part of that preparation should be learning to celebrate our great community; honoring and respecting our differences while appreciating the strength that diversity can bring. That’s how I see the role of public schools going forward.”

Wayde Weston (Submitted Photo)
Wayde Weston (Submitted Photo)

In response to the question about gender and bathroom use, Weston wrote “Students should feel safe and comfortable in private spaces. Bathrooms and locker rooms should be set up to ensure privacy, and students need to respect each other’s privacy. If an individual doesn’t feel comfortable in a particular space, they can choose to use a different space, and we need to make sure that all students have access to spaces where they feel comfortable. But it’s a choice that the individual makes; you don’t make that choice for someone else. “

Weston wrote, “Athletic team participation is a complicated issue. The discussion is being dominated by issues concerning elite-level athletes and I think that’s a very different issue from the small numbers of trans students who just want to play and compete in sports that they love. The gloom and doom predictions of boys taking over the girls’ teams are not coming to pass; we are not seeing, for example, boys cut from the baseball team charging over to the girls’ softball tryouts. There are legitimate concerns about fairness in competition and PIAA needs to take the lead on this discussion. Until they do schools will continue to look at things on an individual athlete basis, and that unfortunately will continue to cause confusion and resentment.”

Regarding the teaching of unpleasant chapters of American history, Weston replied “I can’t remember who said it, but there’s a quote out there saying that America is the only nation in history that was founded on a good idea. And I think that’s true. I believe with all my heart that America is the greatest nation in the world, and that ever since our founding we’ve been a force for good in the world. But to continue to be a force for good means we must live up to our founding ideals, and unfortunately there’ve been many times in our history that we haven’t lived up to those ideals. When we teach American history, we need to teach all of our history; the times when we’ve been great as well as the times we’ve been not so great. We cannot change the past, but we can learn from it. Those learnings can help us to be an even greater America moving forward.”

Weston wrote that “endorsements from outside organizations or PACs can mean one of two things. They can mean that the organization supports the values your team represents. Or they can mean that the organization has an agenda they expect you to support. I and my fellow PV Forward candidates are proud to have been endorsed by our local Democratic party organizations and several of our local elected officials, as well as our local and state teacher’s unions. They’ve endorsed us because they believe in what we stand for, not for any expected quid pro quo.”

On the question of school vouchers, Weston replied that “public funds should be spent in ways that are accountable to the public. Non-public schools have no public accountability. Voucher programs undermine public education by pulling tax dollars away from the schools they are meant to support. States and communities have a responsibility to provide high-quality public education for all. Vouchers and similar programs are an abandonment of that responsibility.”

Jordan Cohen

Jordan Cohen, 65, is a resident of Perkiomen Township and has never held elected office before.

Cohen holds a bachelor of science degree from the University of Illinois in management and computer science. His “professional career has encompassed 43 years in electronic security and fire detection primarily in product design, engineering, application development and management.”

“I believe an increased emphasis in developing critical thinking through our core classes is essential. I further believe that at the high school level additional focus should be on classes instructing real-world skills, such as [embedded programing, graphic design, engineering, trades, life-skills (to name a few) must be further developed and become graduation prerequisites,” Cohen wrote. “Our students need to trial and understand what awaits them after graduation no matter what their pursuit path might be.”

“The usage of bathrooms, locker rooms, and athletics should be determined by biological sex assigned at birth for definition. Our children must feel safe and comfortable when they need to use bathrooms and locker rooms. For those who are uncomfortable with a multi-user facility for whatever reason, schools should provide adequate single-user facilities to accommodate needs beyond what has traditionally been accepted,” wrote Cohen.

“With respect to athletics, an unfair competitive advantage and in some cases an injurious situation exists as a result of biological males who possess greater strength competing against biological females,” Cohen wrote.

Jordan Cohen (Submitted Photo)
Jordan Cohen (Submitted Photo)

“Factual history is important and essential in understanding how America has evolved to where it is today. While some of the history points should be tempered at the elementary level, middle and high school students need to understand the real thinking and results from all sides. Allow the facts and culture of the historical moments to influence our students’ views,” Cohen wrote.

“With respect to school board matters, the voices and views of the local community are the only ones which matter,” wrote Cohen. “Outside of our own PAC (Vote 5 for PV), we have received no contributions or funding from any PAC. Vote 5 for PV has been endorsed by 1776 Project PAC.”

Cohen wrote that “our state school funding formula has been and continues to be broken. We currently have a situation where the public schools are underfunded, the state continues to mandate additional requirements and the district inevitably raises taxes each year. Until the state can properly fund the public schools, you cannot consider current funding pieces to be peeled off for those that seek alternative schooling.”

Todd McKinney

Todd McKinney, 58, lives in Collegeville and has never held elected public office.

He holds a bachelor’s in political science, and a master’s degree in education, both attained at West Chester University.

McKinney spent 33 years at Ursinus College as “associate dean of students, overseeing student engagement, serving as a member of the crisis protocol team, including emergency on-call duty rotation. Currently, McKinney is the director of community engagement and student program working with Charles Rice Memorial Scholarship program, Crossroads Mentoring program, Community Cooperation Program, also tasked with connecting students to the community and community organizations such as NGOs, local government, state government, national government, chamber of commence, school districts, non-profits, business leaders, etc.”

“The role I would like to see public schools performing heading into the future is that students understand that we are all interconnected globally and that we need to learn about the value of every person’s humanity. Our schools should help students, faculty, and staff develop communities of care that foster respect, understanding, kindness, and care for one another. To use the education attained in our school district to the betterment of all in our society,” he wrote.

Todd McKinney (Submitted Photo)
Todd McKinney (Submitted Photo)

“I believe that we cannot deny any student, faculty, or staff their humanity. We should try to understand the needs of all of our community members. I believe there is no one answer to the questions posed,” McKinney wrote. “I will answer the first of the questions about bathrooms, which should be according how the person identifies and not determined by sex assigned at birth. The questions about locker rooms and sport teams are not at issue in our district from what I know of currently.”

“American history… all of American history needs to be taught in schools,” wrote McKinney. “We need to teach facts and not niceties or feel-good stories about the nation’s founding to omit the mistreatment of marginalized groups.”

“I think we need to get back to school boards working as non-political entities. Unfortunately, that’s not where we are at in today’s world,” McKinney wrote. “Yes, our team has received numerous endorsements and contributions from local democratic organizations and the district’s teacher’s union.”

“If you want to break public education, then the use of tax dollars to fund private or charter schools, is the vehicle to do so… Every student is entitled to a quality public education, and we have to ensure that tax dollars are used to see this occurs,” wrote McKinney. “Vouchers and tax credits tend to harm the most vulnerable of our children who even with these forms of assistance still in many instances do not have the monetary resources to attend school outside of the public school system.”

McKinney also wrote “Communities need to come together around supporting the education of all children in the care of Perkiomen Valley. There is a divide along the lines of political, religious, gender identities, socioeconomic, etc. that hinder and harm students, faculty, and staff. I hope with all that has happened in Perkiomen Valley, we have the ability to pick up the pieces and repair the damage done to our community. “

Kim Mares

Incumbent Kim Mares, who did not give her age, lives in Skippack and has been on the school board since 2019.

She holds a bachelor’s degree from James Madison University and works as a special education advocate.

“Public schools should focus on how to educate students well and teach them the skills of critical thinking, persevering through challenging classes and/or sports, extracurricular experiences, character development and leadership skills, so they are equipped to contribute to the greater community in which they live,” Mares wrote. “Schools can best prepare and support students for post-graduation choices by providing them with an academically excellent education. A strong academic foundation is critical for the success of every student, regardless of their post-graduation choices. Our public schools need to prepare students for the next chapter in their lives after high school graduation.”

Kim Mares
Kim Mares

On the question of whether the sex assigned at birth should determine bathroom use, locker room use and athletic participation, she replied simply “yes” and offered no explanation for her views.

“What has happened in the past, is our history,” Mares wrote. “History can be taught in an age-appropriate way that doesn’t bias students but educates them. Critical thinking, looking at history from different perspectives, provides for robust, historical learning.”

On the subject of the growing influence of national political action committees, Mares wrote “I have not received contributions from outside PACs. Our slate has received an endorsement.”

Mares also wrote, “because a school director is not able to influence the use of vouchers or tax credits, I do not have a strong opinion about this. But, it is imperative that our public schools offer the best education available. This must be the goal of our public schools.”

Matt Dorr

Matthew Dorr, 51, lives in Skippack Township and currently serves on the school board.

He hold’s a bachelor’s degree in computer science from DeSales University and for more than 20 years, Dorr has worked in the medical device industry.

In his response, Dorr wrote that he sees the purpose of public schools to provide “a robust, and well-rounded education that prepares our children for a successful future.”

Matthew Dorr
Matthew Dorr

On the question of whether a student’s sex at birth should determine which bathroom and locker room they use and on what sports team they can compete, Dorr wrote “I do. There is ample evidence to support this, chief among it is the safety of our young ladies.”

“I think our entire history should be taught, both the good and bad. My concern lies in how complete the content is, and is it being taught to divide us, or unite us,” Dorr replied to the question of whether unpleasant chapters of American history should be taught.

“I’m aware of the breadth of outside influence is out there for local elections. Endorsements versus contributions are different. There have been groups endorsing candidates that were not requested by the candidates themselves. My ticket has its own PAC and has not received financial contributions from any outside PACs,” Dorr wrote.

On the subject of vouchers, Dorr replied “I firmly believe the money should follow the child.”

Sat, 28 Oct 2023 01:26:00 -0500 Evan Brandt en-US text/html

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