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Mulesoft-CD MuleSoft Certified Developer -Level 1 (MCD-Level1) basics |

Mulesoft-CD basics - MuleSoft Certified Developer -Level 1 (MCD-Level1) Updated: 2023

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Exam Code: Mulesoft-CD MuleSoft Certified Developer -Level 1 (MCD-Level1) basics November 2023 by team

Mulesoft-CD MuleSoft Certified Developer -Level 1 (MCD-Level1)

Format: Multiple-choice, closed book, proctored online or in a testing center

Length: 60 questions

Duration: 120 minutes (2 hours)

Pass score: 70%

Language: English

The test can be taken a maximum of 5 times, with a 24 hour wait between each attempt.


MuleSoft Certified Developer - Level 1 (Mule 4)A MuleSoft Certified Developer – Level 1 should be able to successfully work on basic Mule 4 projects with guidance and supervision. The MCD – Level 1 (Mule 4) test validates that a developer has the required knowledge and skills to design, build, test and debug, deploy, and manage basic APIs and integrations: moving from Anypoint Platform to Anypoint Studio and back. S/he should be able to:

- Use MuleSoft-hosted Anypoint Platform to take a basic API through all the steps of its lifecycle: design, build, deploy, manage, and govern.

- Use Anypoint Studio to build, test, and debug basic integrations and API implementations.

- Connect to a range of resources including databases, files, web services, SaaS applications, and JMS queues.

- Perform basic data transformations using DataWeave 2.

- Control event flow and handle errors.

- Process batch records.

Explain MuleSofts proposal for closing the IT delivery gap

Describe the role and characteristics of the “modern API”

Describe the purpose and roles of a C4E

Define and describe the benefits of API-led connectivity and application networks

Define and correctly use the terms API, API implementation, API interface, API consumer, and API invocation

Describe the basics of the HTTP protocol and characteristics of requests and responses

Describe the capabilities and high-level components of Anypoint Platform for the API lifecycle

DEV:FUN4 Module 1

DEV:FUN4 Module 2

Designing and Consuming APIs

Describe the lifecycle of the “modern API”

Use RAML to define API resources, nested resources, and methods

Identify when and how to define query parameters vs URI parameters

Use RAML to define API parameters, requests, and responses

Use RAML to define reusable data types and format independent examples

Read a RAML spec and formulate RESTful requests with query parameters and/or headers as appropriate

DEV:FUN4 Module 3

DEV:DIY4 Exercise 3-1 and 4-1

Accessing and Modifying Mule Events

Describe the Mule event data structure

Use transformers to set event payloads, attributes, and variables

Write DataWeave expressions to access and modify event payloads, attributes, and variables

Enrich Mule events using target parameters

DEV:FUN4 Module 6

DEV:DIY4 Exercise 6-1, 7-1, and 7-2

Enriching Data with Target Parameters

Structuring Mule Applications

Parameterize an application using property placeholders

Define and reuse global configurations in an application

Break an application into multiple flows using private flows, subflows, and the Flow Reference component

Specify what data (payload, attributes, variables) is persisted between flows when a Flow Reference is used

Specify what data (payload, attributes, variables) is persisted between flows when a Mule event crosses a connection boundary

Specify what data (payload, attributes, variables) exists in a flow before and after a call in the middle of a flow to an external resource

DEV:FUN4 Module 7

DEV:DIY4 Exercise 7-1 and 7-2

Building API Implementation Interfaces

Manually create a RESTful interface for a Mule application

Generate a REST Connector from a RAML specification

Describe the features and benefits of APIkit

Use APIkit to create implementation flows from a RAML file

Describe how requests are routed through flows generated by APIkit

DEV:FUN4 Module 4

DEV:FUN4 Module 8

DEV:DIY4 Exercise 4-1

Routing Events

Use the Choice router to route events based on conditional logic

Use the Scatter-Gather router to multicast events

Validate data using the Validation module

DEV:FUN4 Module 9

DEV:DIY4 Exercise 9-1

Handling Errors

Describe the default error handling in a Mule application

Define a custom global default error handler for an application and identify in what situations it will be used

Compare and contrast how the On Error Continue and On Error Propagate scopes work

Create one or more error handlers for a flow

Use the Try scope to specify error handlers for one or more event processors

Describe the data structure of the Mule Error object

Map errors to custom application errors

DEV:FUN4 Module 10

DEV:DIY4 Exercise 10-1

Transforming Data with DataWeave

Write DataWeave scripts to convert JSON, XML, and Java data structures to different data structures and data types

Use DataWeave functions

Define and use DataWeave variables, functions, and modules

Define and use custom data types

Apply correct DataWeave syntax to coerce data types

Apply correct DataWeave syntax to format strings, numbers, and dates

Call Mule flows from a DataWeave script

DEV:FUN4 Module 11

DEV:DIY4 Exercise 11-1

Using Connectors

Retrieve data from a Database using the Database connector

Create parameterized SQL queries for the Database connector

Retrieve data from a REST service using HTTP Request or a REST Connector

Use a Web Service Consumer connector to consume SOAP web services

Use the Transform Message component to pass arguments to a SOAP web service

List, read, and write local files using the File connector

List, read, and write remote files using the FTP connector

Use the JMS connector to publish and listen for JMS messages

DEV:FUN4 Module 4

DEV:FUN4 Module 8

DEV:FUN4 Module 12

DEV:DIY4 Exercise 4-1, 8-1, 12-1, and 12-2

Processing Records

List and compare and contrast the methods for processing individual records in a collection

Explain how Mule events are processed by the For Each scope

Use the For Each scope to process records

Explain how Mule events are processed by the Batch Job scope

Use a Batch Job with Batch Steps and a Batch Aggregator to process records

Use the Scheduler component to trigger a flow

Use connector listeners to trigger flows

Describe the features, benefits, and process to use watermarking

Describe the features, benefits, and process to use automatic watermarking vs. manual watermarking

Use connectors with automatic watermarking capabilities

Persist data between flow executions using the Object Store

DEV:FUN4 Module 12

DEV:FUN4 Module 13

DEV:DIY4 Exercise 13-1

Debugging and Troubleshooting Mule Applications

Use breakpoints to inspect a Mule event during runtime

Install missing Maven dependencies

Read and decipher Mule log error messages

DEV:FUN4 Module 6

DEV:FUN4 all WTs

DEV:DIY4 Exercise 6-1 and Walkthrough

DEV:DIY4 all exercises

Deploying and Managing APIs and Integrations

Package Mule applications for deployment

Deploy applications to CloudHub

Use CloudHub properties to ensure deployment success

Create and deploy API proxies

Connect an API implementation to API Manager using autodiscovery

Use policies, including client ID enforcement, to secure an API

Create SLA tiers and apply SLA based policies

DEV:FUN4 Module 5

DEV:DIY4 Exercise 5-1 and 5-2

Configuring API Autodiscovery in a Mule 4 Application
MuleSoft Certified Developer -Level 1 (MCD-Level1)
MuleSoft (MCD-Level1) basics

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Mulesoft-CD MuleSoft Certified Developer -Level 1 (MCD-Level1)
MCD-ASSOC MuleSoft Certified Developer - Integration and API Associate
MCIA-Level-1 MuleSoft Certified Integration Architect - Level 1
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MuleSoft Certified Developer Level 1
Question: 52
How can you call a flow from Dataweave?
A. Not allowed
B. Include function
C. Look up function
D. Tag function
Answer: C
Question: 53
What is the value of the stepVar variable after the processing of records in a Batch Job?
A. -1
B. 0
C. Null
D. Last value from flow
Answer: C
Question: 54
What is not an asset?
A. Exchange
B. Template
C. Example
D. Connector
Answer: A
Question: 55
How to import Core (dw::Core) module into your DataWeave scripts?
A. import dw::core
B. Not needed
C. None of these
D. import core
Answer: B
Question: 56
How would you debug Mule applications?
A. Using breakpoints
B. Checking RAML
C. By Deploying apps on production
D. Cannot do it
Answer: A
Question: 57
What does to the attributes of a Mule event happen in a flow after an outbound HTTP Request is made?
A. Attributes do not change.
B. Previous attributes are passed unchanged.
C. Attributes are replaced with new attributes from the HTTP Request response.
D. New attributes may be added from the HTTP response headers, but no headers are ever removed.
Answer: C
Question: 58
The new RAML spec has been published to Anypoint Exchange with client credentials.
What is the next step to gain access to the API?
A. Email the owners of the API.
B. Create a new client application.
C. No additional steps needed.
D. Request access to the API in Anypoint Exchange.
Answer: D
Question: 59
What is the difference between a subflow and a sync flow?
A. Sync flow has no error handling of its own and subflow does. B. Subflow has no error handling of its own and sync
flow does.
C. Subflow is synchronous and sync flow is asynchronous.
D. No difference.
Answer: B
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MuleSoft (MCD-Level1) basics - BingNews Search results MuleSoft (MCD-Level1) basics - BingNews Dark Money Basics

What is Dark Money?

“Dark money” refers to spending meant to influence political outcomes where the source of the money is not disclosed. Here’s how dark money makes its way into elections:

  • Politically active nonprofits such as 501(c)(4)s are generally under no legal obligation to disclose their donors even if they spend to influence elections. When they choose not to reveal their sources of funding, they are considered dark money groups.
  • Opaque nonprofits and shell companies may provide unlimited amounts of money to super PACs. While super PACs are legally required to disclose their donors, some of these groups are effectively dark money outlets when the bulk of their funding cannot be traced back to the original donor.

Dark money groups have spent roughly $1 billion — mainly on television and online ads and mailers — to influence elections in the decade since the 2010 Citizens United v. FEC Supreme Court ruling that gave rise to politically active nonprofits.

Citizens who are barraged with political messages paid for with money from undisclosed sources may not be able to consider the credibility and possible motives of the wealthy corporate or individual funders behind those messages.

Infographic: See how Dark Money flows between nonprofits

Types of Election Spending

Political jargon can get confusing. What you need to know about spending to influence elections is that there are two main types.

Hard money: traditional political spending

With this kind of spending, donors must be disclosed, contribution limits apply and organizations are allowed to coordinate their efforts to help elect a candidate. This is not dark money. These groups include candidate committees, political parties and traditional Political Action Committees (PAC).

Soft money: outside political spending

Outside spending — sometimes referred to as independent or non-coordinated spending — refers to political spending made by organizations and individuals other than the candidate campaigns themselves. All outside groups that aren't political parties — except for a few traditional PACs that make independent expenditures — are allowed to accept unlimited sums of money from individuals, corporations or unions. With these donations, groups may engage in a number of direct political activities, including buying advertising that advocates for or against a candidate, going door to door, or running phone banks. However, these organizations are not allowed to coordinate their spending with political candidates or parties. While some outside groups — like super PACs — are required to disclose their donors, others are not. These nondisclosing organizations are referred to as dark money groups.

As the chart below illustrates, dark money groups are growing in size, scope and share of election spending with each election cycle.

Graph: Outside Spending by Nondisclosing Groups, Excluding Party Committees

Based on data released daily by the FEC. Last updated on October 24, 2023.

Types of Dark Money Spending

Whenever money is spent in a political election with the purpose of influencing the decision of a voter and the source of the money is not disclosed, it is dark money. Common types of organizations that can spend in elections while shielding the sources of their money are outlined in greater detail below.

Political Nonprofits

Nonprofit, tax-exempt groups organized under section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code may engage in varying amounts of political activity. Because they are not technically political organizations, they are generally not required to disclose their donors to the public. These groups, like super PACs, cannot coordinate spending with political parties or candidates, and therefore are allowed to raise unlimited sums of money from individuals, organizations and corporations.

Types of 501(c) Organizations

There are a number of types of 501(c) organizations with different structures, uses and capabilities. None of these organizations are required to publicly disclose the identity of their donors or sources of money though some disclose funding sources voluntarily.

  • 501(c)(3) groups: These organizations operate for religious, charitable, scientific or educational purposes. These groups are not supposed to engage in any political activities, though some voter registration activities are permitted. Donations to these organizations are tax-deductible.

    Groups you may know: NAACP, Center for American Progress, Heritage Foundation, OpenSecrets

  • 501(c)(4) groups: Often referred to as "social welfare" organizations, these nonprofits are the most common kind of dark money group. They may engage in political activities, as long as these activities do not become their primary purpose. The IRS has never defined what "primary" means, or how a percentage should be calculated, so the current de facto rule is 49.9 percent of overall expenditures, a limit that some groups have found easy to circumvent. Donations to these groups are not tax-deductible.

    Groups you may know: National Rifle Association, Planned Parenthood, Majority Forward, One Nation

  • 501(c)(5) groups: These are labor and agricultural groups and may engage in political activities, as long as they adhere to the same general limits as 501(c)(4) organizations. They are generally funded by dues from union employees. Donations to these groups are not tax-deductible.

    Groups you may know: Service Employees International Union (SEIU), American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME)

  • 501(c)(6) organizations: These are business leagues, chambers of commerce, real estate boards and trade associations, which may engage in political activity as long as they adhere to the same general limits as 501(c)(4) organizations. Donations to these groups are not tax-deductible.

    Groups you may know: US Chamber of Commerce, American Bankers Association, National Association of Realtors

Graph: 501(c) Spending by Type

Based on data released daily by the FEC. Last updated on October 24, 2023.

Super PACs

Technically known as independent expenditure committees, super PACs may raise and spend an unlimited amount of money and accept contributions from companies, nonprofits, unions and individuals. Since super PACs cannot provide money directly to candidates, they are exempt from the limits on fundraising and spending that regular PACs must abide by.

Despite the sometimes inaccurate portrayal of them in the media, super PACs must identify all of their donors to the Federal Election Commission (FEC), and thereby to the public. They must do so on a monthly or semiannual basis in non-federal election years and monthly in the year of an election. In that sense, super PACs are quite transparent, except when the donor is a shell corporation or a nonprofit that doesn't disclose its donors.

So-called pop-up super PACs formed shortly before an election may game disclosure deadlines, enabling them to spend unlimited sums influencing races without disclosing their funding sources until after voters go to the polls.

While super PACs are not allowed to coordinate any of their independent expenditures with a candidate's campaign, many single-candidate super PACs are run by individuals who are personally close to a candidate or formerly associated with a campaign.

Hybrid PACs (Carey Committees)

A hybrid PAC has the ability to operate both as a traditional PAC, contributing funds to a candidate's committee, and as a super PAC that makes independent expenditures. To do so, these committees must have a separate bank account for each purpose. The committee may collect unlimited contributions from almost any source for its independent expenditure account, but may not use those funds for its traditional PAC contributions.

LLCs and Shell Companies

Limited Liability Companies (LLC) perform a number of necessary business functions. However, their unique structure may easily be abused or used in order to hide less than above-board activity. In politics, LLCs are sometimes established to help disguise the identity of a donor or source of money spent on behalf of a political candidate.

LLCs are governed by state law, but generally, minimal information is necessary to file the required articles of incorporation. In states such as Delaware, New Mexico, Nevada and Wyoming, LLCs may be incorporated without even disclosing the names of members or managers.

This lack of accountability and transparency have helped disguise the source of millions of dollars in political spending. Shell companies make major contributions to super PACs each election cycle, leaving voters in the dark while the recipient often knows the donor's true identity.

Feel free to distribute or cite this material, but please credit the OpenSecrets. For permission to reprint for commercial uses, such as textbooks, contact OpenSecrets:

Sun, 09 Apr 2023 08:01:00 -0500 en text/html
Emulating All The TRS-80 Software

Even if you didn’t own a TRS-80, the widespread footprint of Radio Shack in malls meant that if you are old enough, it is a good bet you have seen one and maybe even played with one. The games were crude, but state-of-the-art for 1982. If you wanted business software, that was there too, just don’t expect much on any of the personal computers of the day. My old TRS-80 Model III doesn’t boot anymore and is waiting for me to find time to pull it apart. But it turns out you can run all those old programs with almost no effort. If you’ve experimented with emulators before, you know there are two major problems. First, you need to install the sometimes-fidgety emulator. Second, you need to find the software you want to run and probably convert it into some format the emulator will read. The website named The Big List of TRS-80 Software solves both problems.

You are probably thinking this doesn’t solve any problem because it is just a list of links to software. That’s a reasonable thing to think, but we think the website really needs a new name. There are 15,873 pieces of software on the site, although some of them are duplicates or multiple versions of a single program. You can get them in a format that is useful for some emulators or, in some cases, the original files. But here’s the kicker. You can also click to launch a virtual TRS-80 in your browser and start the program.

Sounds great, right? Well, for the most part, it is. However, some of the programs are finicky and don’t run well in the browser. There’s also the problem of finding the documentation, but you can’t have everything. If you want a quick run of a very common game from back in the day, try Flying Saucers.

A Tale of Two Emulators

The browser-based emulator is from [Peter Phillips]. If the program you want to run doesn’t work well in the browser, you might want to try trs80gp, a full-featured stand-alone emulator that can run the DMK files you can get from the list.

The trs80gp software can emulate just about every TRS-80 and variant including the Model II and MC-10 Color Computer. The emulator is simply amazing. It not only emulates complete systems with cassettes, floppies, or hard drives, but it can even emulate the terrible display you’d expect from a vintage 1980s computer.

The emulator can slow down or run at full speed. You can even have cassette audio output captured automatically on the PC. Unfortunately, one of my old favorites — Asylum — acts the same in both emulators. It starts up, asks you a yes or no question, and refuses to accept any keyboard input. Keyboard input works for other programs, though. Even the emulator’s on-screen keyboard (both of them have one) won’t put input into this and a few other programs I tried.

Trash-80 Wine

There is a problem with the stand-alone emulator, though. There are versions available that don’t require Windows. However, the website mentions that the Windows version has more features. It does, however, run under Wine. In my case, I installed it using Crossover Office, which is a paid version of Wine. I can confirm that it works great.

Computer-aided design circa 1981

If you find a program you want to try on the list, you can start with the AUTORUN link to run it directly in the browser. If you prefer, you can get the DMK file and mount it as a floppy on the stand-alone emulator. Some floppies are bootable, and others require you to use the second drive with a standard boot floppy in the main drive. Don’t forget, the drives are numbers in TRSDOS and most other TRS-80 operating systems. So DIR :1 will list the files on the secondary drive.

If things don’t work, you can try the DEBUG link. This lets you select if you want to boot under DOS Plus, LDOS, NewDos-80, or TRSDOS. Another option is to pick up the individual files. You can’t get these files directly from the table. Instead, you click on the file name, and a page will show you the file along with several options.

BattleTrek, one of many Star Trek clones for the TRS-80

You can pick a few options for emulating or downloading the program from that page. You can also show and get the program parsed as a BASIC file, a text file, a Z80 program, or a  few other formats. The “Hex File” option, as far as I can tell, actually means raw, not an Intel hex format file. You can even edit the program in place and emulate it if you like, although for machine language programs, that will be difficult.

If you want a few things to try in addition to the UFO game mentioned above, try Battle Trek, or try your hand at word processing (type SCRIPSIT at the prompt). Just be prepared to explore the disks, run a few things, and maybe Google some old user manuals.


Is all this practical? No way. But if you enjoy computer history, this is an easy way to poke around in what would have been a truly extensive software library in its day. Sure, a real TRS-80 would be even more fun. But it would also be a lot more work, not the least of which would be transferring media around.

Then again, you could build a clone. Or play with some other browser-based retro computers.

Sun, 26 Feb 2023 21:14:00 -0600 Al Williams en-US text/html
Complete Subject and Complete Predicate

Which part is the subject and which part is the predicate? This grammar worksheet deconstructs the basic building blocks of any sentence. Catered to the third grade, it asks students to underline the complete subject and complete predicate in 10 trial sentences. Children who have a strong understanding of verbs and subject-verb agreement will finish this worksheet in no time.

View aligned standards
Tue, 08 Feb 2022 14:57:00 -0600 en text/html
Best basic bank accounts 2023

Credit unions mainly offer savings and loans to their members, but some also offer basic banking services without the need for a credit check.

The Engage account is the most high-profile example. It's offered by various credit unions across the UK and is available to anyone, whatever your credit score or financial history.

You pay a monthly management fee of £2, and must load money onto the prepaid Visa debit card in advance. (Bank transfers are free and you can request up to £50 cashback at participating UK retailers when making a purchase, but Paypoint top-ups cost 50p plus 2.5%.)

There's no overdraft facility, so you can't run up debt, although you do pay 75p for cash-machine withdrawals. And if you use your card abroad, you'll pay an extra £1 (£2 for foreign cash-machine withdrawals) plus 2% of the transaction value.

You get your own UK sort code and account number, so you can set up direct debits, and participating retailers pay up to 15% in cashback rewards when you buy their goods with your Engage card.

As with other prepaid cards, the Engage card is issued by Contis Financial Services Limited under an e-money licence, so deposits are not covered by the Financial Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS). However, they are held in a segregated account so that if the firm becomes insolvent, your money is protected against claims made by creditors.

Thu, 19 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Go-Ride for schools

Each school club must have a British Cycling qualified coach to run the coaching sessions. This can either be an external British Cycling qualified coach (eg from a local community club), or a qualified teacher who has attended one of British Cycling's coaching courses. The sessions can be run as either an after-school club, or during curriculum PE.

Teachers completing 'Coaching cycling for schools' (previously known as the ACAT) will be provided with Go-Ride Gears coaching workbooks, which outline various activities and skills tests relevant to the age and ability of the group in question.

The workbook series consists of seven distinct levels or gears. Each Go-Ride Gears activity can be adjusted to make it easier or harder, depending on the age and ability of the participants. As such, your school will be able to choose from over 100 different coaching activities, ensuring that sessions never get boring or repetitive.

Linking with a Go-Ride Club can benefit your school by:

  • Providing appropriate opportunities for further development and participation for young people
  • Bringing cycling to a wider range of young people
  • Helping to develop competition officials for major school events through British Cycling's Cycling Award for Young Volunteers (CAYV)
  • Optimising the provision of coaching expertise and leadership in cycling at school level

For more information please see the Go-Ride for Schools Leaflet.

Go-Ride and the School Games

School Games Challenge and Competition cards for primary and secondary schools can be downloaded using the links below.

Level 1 Primary Challenge
Level 1 Primary Competition
Level 1 Secondary
Level 2 and 3 Primary & Secondary (pages one - five)
Level 2 and 3 Primary & Secondary (pages six - eleven)

Go-Ride and Bikeability

British Cycling's cycle training team are currently running cycle training instructor courses that qualify attendees to deliver Bikeability to young people, passing on the necessary skills needed to cycle safely on the road.

Bikeability (previously known as cycling proficiency) is split into three levels:

  • Level 1 - Basic skills delivered in a traffic free environment.
  • Level 2 - Basic road skills on quiet roads.
  • Level 3 - Advanced road skills on busier roads.

What is the next step?

If you are interested in becoming a Go-Ride school club, please contact your regional development manager for more information.

Tue, 10 Apr 2012 19:24:00 -0500 en text/html
EMDR Therapists in Ann Arbor, MI

Through treatment interventions such as EMDR , somatic body work, and mindfulness, we will work together to create an environment that makes space for healing, empowerment, and building skills to help you cope with daily life.

Welcome! I’m so glad you’re here. Brene Brown once said, “Vulnerability sounds like truth and feels like courage. Truth and courage aren’t always comfortable, but they’re never weakness”. Our experiences in life can sometimes leave us feeling sad, angry, confused, lost, and everything in between. Whether you’re struggling with experiences of trauma, depression, anxiety, loss, any relational conflicts, or school difficulties, I’m here to walk alongside you on a path towards vulnerability and compassion for all parts of you. Instead of being who you’ve had to be (because trauma), this journey can bring you to who you’re meant to be.

Tue, 03 May 2022 04:47:00 -0500 en-us text/html
British woman Emma Langley’s death on Mt Ruapehu: Lack of safety rope and hypothermia factors

Emma Langley slid nearly 500m down an icy slope on Mt Ruapehu in 2020. Photo / Supplied

A lack of warm emergency gear and the decision to traverse an icy slope not suitable for novice climbers may have contributed to the death of British woman Emma Langley in Mt Ruapehu, a coroner has found.

Langley, 37, died in 2020 when she slid nearly 500 metres down the mountain while on a trip with the NZ Alpine Club.

Bad weather prevented a helicopter from reaching her at 2200m, so rescue teams had to climb up to her in separate teams.

Ultimately it took about eight hours to get her into a mountain lodge, by which time she had succumbed to hypothermia.

Coroner Matthew Bates did not assign blame to anyone for Langley’s death, saying the trip leaders had enough experience and were qualified to lead the hike.

But he said the group’s decision to change its plans to take a steep slope at Cathedral Rocks above Whangaehu Glacier at 12.30pm greatly increased the risks.

“At no time was there any place for novice members of this group to be traversing steep sloping,” Bates said.

Another contributing factor was Langley’s decision to descend the slope without using a belay rope.

Bates said one of the trip leaders had been in the act of setting up the rope to help the group go down safely, but Langley and another member descended before it was ready.

Bates said it was unlikely that Langley, a novice mountaineer who had undertaken a two-day Level 1 Basic Snowcraft Course, would have descended if she had heard the instruction to wait.

“Therefore, the issue appears to have been clear communication,” he said, noting that high winds could have made it hard to hear.

More could have been done to protect Langley after the fall, Bates and a report prepared by the NZ Mountain Safety Council noted.

That was partly due to the trip leaders’ “well-intentioned” haste to reach her.

Bates said that, after Langley slid down the mountain, the leaders decided one of them would hurry to help, while the other would lead the rest of the group down safely.

But the NZMSC report noted the trip leaders did not first stop to assess and divide their emergency equipment.

That meant that, when the first trip leader reached Langley, he did not have all the gear, such as a sleeping bag, needed to prevent hypothermia and shock.

He then had to wait some time before the rest of the group made it to the location.

“It took approximately four hours for Emma to be placed in a sleeping bag and to have basic shelter from above provided,” Bates said.

“She was not completely insulated in the sleeping bag, nor was she suitably insulated from the freezing ground beneath her, and it took nearly nine hours before she was adequately insulated from the freezing environment (wrapped and insulated from the ground inside a shelter).”

Bates consequently made a series of recommendations to try to prevent similar deaths.

They included ensuring instructors, leaders and mentors on high mountain trips should have a minimum of two days’ outdoor first aid training.

This training should emphasise the management and treatment of hypothermia and emergency response procedures, he said.

Langley’s family shared a message with the coroner, remembering their daughter and sister as an “adventurous, bright and articulate” woman “with a wicked wit and a wonderful sense of humour”.

Thu, 19 Oct 2023 03:14:00 -0500 Ben Leahy en text/html
Mission Samarth launched to bolster numeracy, literary skills at Punjab government schools No result found, try new keyword!School principals are tasked with evaluating students from Class 3 to 8 and categorising them into two groups–level 1 (basic) and level 2 (Advanced). This classification, based on the students ... Tue, 24 Oct 2023 11:46:00 -0500 en-us text/html

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