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Exam Code: MTCNA MikroTik Certified Network Associate thinking November 2023 by team

MTCNA MikroTik Certified Network Associate

Exam Detail:
The MikroTik Certified Network Associate (MTCNA) test is designed to assess the knowledge and skills of individuals in configuring and managing MikroTik routers and networks. The certification validates the candidate's understanding of basic networking concepts and their ability to work with MikroTik RouterOS software. Here are the details of the MTCNA exam:

- Number of Questions: The MTCNA test typically consists of multiple-choice questions and practical scenarios. The exact number of questions may vary, but it generally ranges from 30 to 60 questions.

- Time Limit: The time allocated to complete the MTCNA test is usually around 90 minutes. However, the duration may vary depending on the specific test requirements and the test delivery platform.

Course Outline:
The MTCNA course covers the following key topics:

1. Introduction to MikroTik RouterOS:
- Overview of MikroTik routers and RouterOS software.
- Understanding RouterOS licensing and packages.

2. Networking Fundamentals:
- TCP/IP fundamentals and addressing concepts.
- OSI model and network protocols.
- IP addressing, subnetting, and routing basics.

3. Router Configuration:
- Accessing and configuring MikroTik routers.
- Setting up IP addresses, interfaces, and DHCP.
- Configuring NAT, firewall rules, and routing.

4. Wireless Networking:
- Introduction to wireless technologies and standards.
- Configuring wireless interfaces and security features.
- Bridging wireless and wired networks.

5. Network Services and Management:
- Configuring DNS, DHCP, and NTP services.
- Implementing VLANs and switch features.
- Monitoring and managing network resources.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the MTCNA test are as follows:

- Assessing the candidate's understanding of basic networking concepts and protocols.
- Evaluating the candidate's knowledge and skills in configuring MikroTik routers and RouterOS software.
- Testing the candidate's ability to set up IP addressing, routing, and network services.
- Verifying the candidate's proficiency in implementing wireless networking solutions.
- Assessing the candidate's knowledge of network security and management practices.

Exam Syllabus:
The MTCNA test covers the following topics:

1. Networking fundamentals
2. MikroTik RouterOS software and licensing
3. Router configuration and management
4. IP addressing, subnetting, and routing
5. Wireless networking and security
6. Network services (DNS, DHCP, NTP)
7. Network monitoring and management
8. Firewall and security features

It's important to note that the test content and syllabus may be periodically updated by MikroTik. Candidates are advised to refer to the official MikroTik training resources and consult authorized training centers to obtain the most up-to-date information on the MTCNA exam.
MikroTik Certified Network Associate
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MikroTik Certified Network Associate
Question: 69
What kind of users are listed in the "/user" menu?
A . router users
B . wireless users
C . Hot-Spot users
D . pptp users
Answer: A
Question: 70
Which features are removed when advanced-tools package is uninstalled?
A . neighbors
B . LCD support
C . ip-scan
D . ping
E . netwatch
F . bandwidth-test
Answer: C,D,E
Question: 71
Which of the following is the valid host range for the subnet on which the IP address resides?
A .
B .
C .
D .
Answer: A
Question: 72
Which class of IP address provides a maximum of only 254 host addresses per network ID?
A . Class A
B . Class B
C . Class C
D . Class D
Answer: C
Question: 73
When sending out an ARP request, an IP host is expecting what kind of address for an answer?
B . IP address
C . MAC Address
D . 802.11g
Answer: C
Question: 74
How many usable IP addresses are there in a 23-bit ( subnet?
A . 512
B . 510
C . 508
D . 254
Answer: B
Question: 75
RouterOS log messages are stored on disk by default
A . True
B . False
Answer: B
Question: 76
Which of the following is the decimal and hexadecimal equivalents of the binary number 10011101?
A . 155, 0x9B
B . 157, 0x9D
C . 159, 0x9F
D . 185, 0xB9
Answer: B
Question: 77
How many different priorities can be selected for queues in MikroTik RouterOS?
A . 16
B . 1
C . 8
D . 0
Answer: A
Question: 78
Firewall NAT rules process only the first packet of each connection.
A . True
B . False
Answer: B
Question: 79
How many collision domains are created when you segment a network with a 12-port switch?
A . 1
B . 2
C . 5
D . 12
Answer: D
Question: 80
In which order are the entries in Access List and Connect List processed?
A . By Signal Strength Range
B . By interface name
C . In sequence order
D . In a random order
Answer: B
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MikroTik Certified thinking - BingNews Search results MikroTik Certified thinking - BingNews Design Thinking

Chōkdee Rutirasiri

Chōkdee Rutirasiri is a designer, technologist, and educator. He utilizes a human-centered approach to designing systems and solutions that are inclusive, equitable, holistic, and sustainable. He has over 25 years of experience and has designed solutions for K-12, higher education, health and human services, healthcare, population health, human resources, arts and museums, financial services, manufacturing, government, technology, startups, and nonprofits.

Currently, Chōkdee teaches Innovation Through Design Thinking at Boston College; is a member of the Equity Innovation Lab at BC School of Social Work; and Associate Director/Head of UX at the Broad Institute at MIT and Harvard.

Thu, 31 Mar 2022 01:36:00 -0500 en text/html
Water Thinking

The facts on water point to a universally acknowledged crisis: More than 1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water; 6,000 children under age 5 die every day from water-related diseases; half the world’s hospital beds are filled because of water-related diseases; and 2.7 billion people lack access to hygienic sanitation facilities that prevent contamination and provide dignity.

There is no dearth of technological solutions to this tragedy. Yet successful projects to solve rural water problems require approaches other than technology—community organization, education, behavior change, ownership transfer, and long-term monitoring. These approaches, although necessary, create a complexity that has hampered our ability to take any solution to scale. Even with billions of dollars of funding over decades, we have not been able to reduce the size of the water crisis.

But the drinking water crisis can be solved. The Peer Water Exchange (PWX)—a technology platform I conceived and built for Blue Planet Network (BPN, formerly Blue Planet Run Foundation, or BPRF)—has used a network approach to manage diverse solutions to and resources for the global water crisis. PWX is a decentralized network and decision-making system that can effectively and transparently scale up the management of thousands of projects without a bureaucracy. Over the past six years, 73 small and large organizations around the world have proved that the PWX platform works.

We are small now, but our goal is ambitious: By 2027, we aim to provide safe drinking water to 200 million people. This will require $8.5 billion in funding and the management of 200,000 projects over 20 years.


To resolve the water crisis successfully, we need a healthy dose of criticism about current funding models and the disadvantages they create for solving social issues.

Management in the North: Foundations and NGOs are experts at raising money, but they find it hard to oversee small remote projects. BPRF was able to create a new global athletic event to build awareness of the water crisis, but managing projects in 14 countries was a challenge with no easy solution. Although I was a funder, was I really the right person to decide on projects? Wouldn’t using existing field expertise result in better decisions?

Fundraising in the South: Implementers are experts in their fields, but they spend significant time on fundraising and managing donors and donor agencies. A large fraction of energy can be spent in beautifying an application or report instead of executing a project.

Reporting: Funding agencies spend time and resources on reporting, which often involves repackaging reports from the field. Raw data are hidden, and only a tiny fraction of activity is reported.

Failures and learning: The entire philanthropic chain reports only good things and is unwilling to share mistakes, so no one learns from them.

Monitoring: Site visits are often a photo op and usually expensive. At BPN, we constantly balance the cost of travel with the cost of funding another project. Monitoring can and should be a learning, sharing, and teaching experience.

Cooperation and sharing: Implementers do not cooperate or share enough. They compete for resources and funding, which results in North-South communication instead of South-South dialogue.

All the points above contribute to the main problem with today’s practices: lack of scalability. Even if we increased investment in the water sector using the current model, not all the money can be absorbed and put to effective use. We need a new approach, one that is scalable, efficient, and collaborative, combining transparency with effectiveness—one that attracts the vast investment commitment that this crisis demands.


The core problem when we look at the water crisis is the lens through which we structure it, which I call Vaccine Thinking. This lens has developed over centuries as a result of a string of scientific and industrial successes. It has culminated in a mindset that is now deeply ingrained in our psyche and completely integrated with our educational, economic, and governmental systems. Vaccine Thinking seeks to find and deploy a single universal solution, a solution that can be mass-produced. It is used in projects to provide village-level electricity and in efforts like One Laptop per Child. But Vaccine Thinking has been unable to solve problems such as the water crisis, poverty, and climate change.

To address the water challenge we need to use a different lens—one that allows us to structure the problem differently, to examine many diverse and partial answers and processes, and to set up new expectations of results. The water crisis does not have a universal solution. There are many solutions, and they all involve a behavior change to deliver results. To deploy diverse solutions we need a new mindset, one I call Water Thinking.

Vaccine Thinking differs from Water Thinking as follows:

Dosage: Vaccine Thinking creates a one-time solution, a single dose, or projects involving a single set of transactions. Water Thinking creates a lifetime supply, requiring many different transactions, including preparatory and follow-up.

Point of impact: One cannot provide water, unlike vaccines, to people. It has to be delivered to households or communities. Administering community-level solutions requires going to the site, bringing people together, and coordinating activities.

Solution type: Vaccines are universal—the same vaccine applies to all genders, ages, and races. Solutions to water supplies, especially in rural areas, are localized in climate, geography, culture, gender relations, and political structure.

Knowledge transfer: Vaccines involve no transfer of knowledge about how the vaccine works or how it was developed. Successful solutions for water in rural areas require knowledge transfer. Why water purity is important and how to establish a good source of water and keep it clean are questions whose answers need to be ingrained into a population as part of any water project.

Ownership transfer: Vaccines involve no transfer of ownership. Solutions to rural water problems need to be owned by the community for long-term success. In fact, if the community is not organized or does not desire to be self-sufficient, solutions are bound to fail.

Changes in behavior: Vaccine-based cures require no change in behavior. Social problems demand many changes in behavior. Water solutions need changes in water usage, hygiene, sanitation practices, and protection of the water supply.

Metrics: The metrics along the vaccination process can be captured easily. Solutions to water are very hard to quantify. For example, diarrhea rates are unlikely to go to zero immediately after the implementation of a project, but will produce good trends over time, often with spikes that may contradict progress.

Risks and failures: Our society accepts the risks and failures involved in creating a vaccine. We have the patience to keep funding cures for AIDS, cancers, and other diseases. Yet with small water projects we are very risk averse and respond negatively to failures. This drives behaviors that often misrepresent results, or focus on the successes only, both of which lead to the loss of much learning.

Funding and project size: For vaccines, we are able to centralize our funding. For social development projects in rural areas, the money has to be delivered in small chunks, something large institutions are not equipped to do. The management of thousands of small projects is one of the challenges of scale and requires us to think differently from our large funding mentality.


The Peer Water Exchange was deployed in 2006 to tackle today’s unscalable funding approach and apply Water Thinking. We have been using the Internet, especially Web 2.0 technologies, to manage projects in a way that minimizes bureaucracy, increases transparency, enables collaboration, improves effectiveness, and delivers results efficiently. Just as eBay and Craigslist do not deliver the same products to all consumers, but allow millions of different transactions, we do not manage projects with one approach or template. We also manage and coordinate interactions before, during, and after project implementation.

In PWX, work is assigned to leverage core competencies. Investors are in charge of fundraising and can focus on systemic issues. They evaluate proposals, seek and study trends, and act on them. Implementers—experts in their field—review each other’s standardized applications for funds, instead of spending time applying for funds. Reviewers, who are other applicants, funders, or third parties, can critique the approach, ask questions, and offer suggestions. We see this happen repeatedly: Reviewers want to share their experience and help others succeed. Collaboration and learning are part of the process. Independent third parties can participate to observe and monitor projects.

PWX has been using Web 2.0 models of social and collaborative knowledge development networks for six years now. The network has grown through referrals; as more organizations join PWX, more resources are added to manage more work, and collaboration increases along with the knowledge base. Last year we introduced a set of business intelligence software tools for the water sector.

PWX continues to evolve. It is currently the only scalable, map-driven, and completely transparent platform in the water sector, as well as the only participatory decision-making system where applicants weigh in on funding decisions. The next step is to build out the first social development exchange—where all transactions are tracked, knowledge is disseminated, and people come together to solve global crises.

Water Thinking and PWX can tackle and solve the water crisis. My hope is that it also will energize society by showing that collective action is a way to solve many of our social problems.

Rajesh Shah is a founding member of the Blue Planet Network and the designer and leader of the Peer Water Exchange. He has more than 25 years of experience in strategy and technology consulting, finance, and operations, in nonprofits, startups, and for-profits.

Support SSIR’s coverage of cross-sector solutions to global challenges. 
Help us further the reach of innovative ideas. Donate today.

Read more stories by Rajesh Shah.

Fri, 07 Aug 2015 06:35:00 -0500 en-us text/html
Certified Automation Professional (CAP)

The ISA Certified Automation Professional® (CAP®) certification is a mark of career excellence that affirms your commitment to quality and demonstrates your expertise and knowledge of automation and controls. ISA CAP certification provides you with a non-biased, third-party, objective assessment and confirmation of your skills and expertise as an automation professional.

Who Are CAPs?

ISA CAP logo
CAPs are individuals who have proven they possess an extensive knowledge of automation and controls and that they have the expertise and qualifications to excel in their fields. As automation professionals who work in process automation and manufacturing automation industries around the globe, CAPs are responsible for direction, definition, design, development/application, deployment, documentation and support of software and equipment systems used in control systems, manufacturing information systems, systems integration, and operational consulting.

CAP Certification Requirements

To become an ISA CAP, you must meet certain education and work experience requirements, pass an exam, and commit to the ISA Code of Conduct. Learn more about CAP requirements.

CAP Body of Knowledge

The CAP Body of Knowledge (BOK) encompasses the full scope of knowledge, skills, and abilities needed for competent job performance. It defines automation project domains, the tasks within the domains, and the knowledge and skills required to complete the tasks. View the CAP Body of Knowledge.

How to Apply

There is no application form to fill out for CAP certification. Simply complete the following steps:

  1. Commit to the ISA Code of Conduct.
  2. Meet CAP certification criteria, qualifications, and conditions.
  3. Acknowledge that you are subject to a random application verification audit.
  4. Agree to provide the supporting documents proving your qualifications if you are audited.
  5. Pay the test fee.

Upon paying the test fee, the application process is complete, and you have acknowledged that you meet the requirements listed above in numbers 1–3.

Next Steps

  1. Watch for an email from our testing provider, Meazure Learning ( Expect to receive it fifteen days before your test window. The email will include information about how to schedule your test online or at a test center. NOTE: If you have attended a CAP review course and wish to apply for CAP certification, you must also meet the requirements listed above in numbers 1–3. Since the application fee is included in the cost of the CAP review course, you will receive an test invitation within three business days after completing the review course.
  2. Schedule and take your exam. You will be notified whether you pass or not immediately upon completing the exam.
  3. Watch for an email summarizing your test results. If you pass your exam, you will also receive your digital badge and you will be listed in the ISA Credential Directory.
  4. Watch for an email from regarding an audit. You will only receive this email if you have been randomly selected to be audited. If you do not receive this email, you do not need to do anything. Audits are conducted three times per year, so it may take several months after completing your test to receive an email if you have been selected for an audit.

Click the button below to add the test fee to your cart.

Add CAP test Fee to Cart

About the Exam

You can take the CAP test online from your office or home if the testing environment meets the requirements and your computer meets specifications. You can also take the test at a Scantron test center. The CAP test has 150 multiple-choice questions and is four hours long. Learn more about Certification Exams and Testing.

How to Prepare

We highly recommend taking the Certified Automation Professional (CAP) test Review Course (EC00). ISA has also developed an extensive library of training courses, study guides and publications that are built around the technologies and subjects covered on the CAP exam. These resources have been developed and reviewed by subject matter experts. Learn more about the review course and the additional resources here.

Reference to Standards and Codes

The aspects of automation covered on the CAP test reflect the tasks performed in the range of practice settings throughout the United States. Familiarity with the following standards and codes is recommended. get the Reference to Standards and Codes (PDF).

  • ISA Standards
  • IEEE Standards
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards
  • National Electrical Code (NEC)
  • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Standards
  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standards
  • National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Standards
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Codes and Federal Regulations
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Standards
  • US Food and Drug Administration Regulations
  • American Petroleum Institute (API) Standards

For International applicants, note that the validation study for the exams was done in the United States, so there may be questions on the test that reference US standards and codes.

Have Questions?

For assistance with certification or certificate programs, contact us at

For frequently asked questions, visit the following pages:

Important Announcement for CAPs and CCSTs

We are pleased to announce that our Certified Automation Professional® (CAP)® and Certified Control System Technician® (CCST®) certification programs have a brand-new look! Please check your Badgecert account to access your new logo.

Thu, 16 Nov 2023 04:46:00 -0600 en text/html
Why Critical Thinking Matters in Your Business

Many professionals hope to pursue careers they’re passionate about so they can find joy and meaning in their work. Caring deeply about your work is vital for engagement and productivity, but balancing emotions with critical thinking is essential in the workplace. 

When employees engage in critical thinking, they use an independent, reflective thought process to evaluate issues and solve problems based on knowledge and objective evidence. 

Critical thinking skills can guide your organization toward success, but to truly maximize the problem-solving benefits of critical thinking, it’s crucial to teach this skill to your entire team. We’ll explore critical thinking skills and how to teach them in the workplace to help your business Improve its decision-making and problem-solving. 

What is critical thinking?

Jen Lawrence, co-author of Engage the Fox: A Business Fable About Thinking Critically and Motivating Your Team, defines critical thinking as “the ability to solve problems effectively by systematically gathering information about an issue, generating further ideas involving a variety of perspectives, evaluating the information using logic, and making sure everyone involved is on board.”

This is a complex definition for a challenging concept. Though critical thinking might seem as straightforward as stepping back and using a formal thinking process instead of reacting instinctively to conflicts or problems, it is actually a much more challenging task.

Critical thinking’s ultimate goal is ensuring you have the best answer to a problem with maximum buy-in from all parties involved – an outcome that will ultimately save your business time, money and stress.

Why is critical thinking essential in the workplace?

A World Economic Forum report revealed that critical thinking is one of the most in-demand career skills employers seek when trying to attract and retain the best employees – and employers believe critical thinking skills will become even more necessary in the coming years. 

Critical thinking in the workplace guarantees objective and efficient problem-solving, ultimately reducing costly errors and ensuring that your organization’s resources are used wisely. Team members employing critical thinking can connect ideas, spot errors and inconsistencies, and make the best decisions most often. 

Employees with critical thinking are also more likely to accomplish the following:

  • Analyzing information
  • Thinking outside the box
  • Coming up with creative solutions to sudden problems
  • Devising thought-through, systematic plans
  • Requiring less supervision

Critical thinkers are sure about the reasoning behind their decisions, allowing them to communicate with employees clearly. This level of communication enhances employee engagement.

What are critical thinking skills?

Critical thinking is a soft skill that comprises multiple interpersonal and analytical abilities and attributes. Here are some essential critical thinking skills that can support workforce success.

  • Observation: Employees with critical thinking can easily sense and identify an existing problem – and even predict potential issues – based on their experience and sharp perception. They’re willing to embrace multiple points of view and look at the big picture. 
  • Analytical thinking: Analytical thinkers collect data from multiple sources, reject bias, and ask thoughtful questions. When approaching a problem, they gather and double-check facts, assess independent research, and sift through information to determine what’s accurate and what can help resolve the problem. 
  • Open-mindedness: Employees who demonstrate critical thinking are open-minded – not afraid to consider opinions and information that differ from their beliefs and assumptions. They listen to colleagues; they can let go of personal biases and recognize that a problem’s solution can come from unexpected sources. 
  • Problem-solving attitude: Critical thinkers possess a positive attitude toward problem-solving and look for optimal solutions to issues they’ve identified and analyzed. They are usually proactive and willing to offer suggestions based on all the information they receive. [Related article: How to Develop a Positive Attitude in the Workplace]
  • Communication: When managers make a decision, they must share it with the rest of the team and other stakeholders. Critical thinkers demonstrate excellent communication skills and can provide supporting arguments and evidence that substantiate the decision to ensure the entire team is on the same page. 

What are the benefits of critical thinking in the workplace?

Many workplaces operate at a frantic tempo that reinforces hasty thinking and rushed business decisions, resulting in costly mistakes and blunders. When employees are trained in critical thinking, they learn to slow the pace and gather crucial information before making decisions. 

Along with reducing costly errors, critical thinking in the workplace brings the following benefits: 

  • Critical thinking improves communication. When employees think more clearly and aren’t swayed by emotion, they communicate better. “If you can think more clearly and better articulate your positions, you can better engage in discussions and make a much more meaningful contribution in your job,” said David Welton, managing partner at Grove Critical Thinking.
  • Critical thinking boosts emotional intelligence. It might seem counterintuitive to associate analytical rationality with emotional intelligence. However, team members who possess critical thinking skills are less prone to rash, emotion-driven decisions. Instead, they take time to analyze the situation and make the most informed decision while being mindful and respectful of the emotional and ethical implications. 
  • Critical thinking encourages creativity. Critical thinkers are open to new ideas and perspectives and accumulate a significant amount of information when facing decisions. Because of this, they’re more likely to come up with creative solutions. They are also curious and don’t shy away from asking open-ended questions. 
  • Critical thinking saves time and money. By encouraging critical thinking in the workplace, you minimize the need for supervision, catch potential problems early, promote independence and initiative, and free managers to focus on other duties. All this helps your company save valuable time and resources. 

Critical thinking skills are essential for dealing with difficult customers because they help your team make informed decisions while managing stressful situations.

How do you teach critical thinking in the workplace?

Experts agree that critical thinking is a teachable skill. Both Lawrence and Welton recommend exploring critical thinking training programs and methods to Improve your workplace’s critical thinking proficiency. Here’s a breakdown of how to teach critical thinking in the workplace: 

  1. Identify problem areas. Executives and managers should assess workplace areas most lacking in critical thinking. If mistakes are consistently made, determine whether the issue is a lack of critical thinking or an inherent issue with a team or process. After identifying areas that lack critical thinking, research the type of training best suited to your organization. 
  2. Start small. Employees newly embracing critical thinking might have trouble tackling large issues immediately. Instead, present them with smaller challenges. “Start practicing critical thinking as a skill with smaller problems as examples, and then work your way up to larger problems,” Lawrence said.
  3. Act preemptively. Teaching and implementing critical thinking training and methodology takes time and patience. Lawrence emphasized that critical thinking skills are best acquired during a time of calm. It might feel urgent to seek critical thinking during a crisis, but critical thinking is a challenging skill to learn amid panic and stress. Critical thinking training is best done preemptively so that when a crisis hits, employees will be prepared and critical thinking will come naturally.
  4. Allow sufficient time. From a managerial perspective, giving employees extra time on projects or problems might feel stressful in the middle of deadlines and executive pressures. But if you want those working for you to engage in critical thinking processes, it’s imperative to provide them ample time. Allowing employees sufficient time to work through their critical thinking process can save the company time and money in the long run.

How do you identify successful critical thinking?

Successful critical thinking happens during a crisis, not after.

Lawrence provided an example involving restaurants and waitstaff: If a customer has a bad experience at a restaurant, a server using critical thinking skills will be more likely to figure out a solution to save the interaction, such as offering a free appetizer or discount. “This can save the hard-earned customer relationship you spent a lot of marketing dollars to create,” Lawrence said. This concept is applicable across many business and organizational structures. 

You should also be aware of signs of a lack of critical thinking. Lawrence pointed out that companies that change strategy rapidly, moving from one thing to the next, are likely not engaging in critical thinking. This is also the case at companies that seem to have good ideas but have trouble executing them.

As with many issues in business, company leadership determines how the rest of the organization acts. If leaders have excellent ideas but don’t follow critical thinking processes, their team will not buy into those ideas, and the company will suffer. This is why critical thinking skills often accompany positive communication skills.

“Critical thinking doesn’t just help you arrive at the best answer, but at a solution most people embrace,” Lawrence said. Modeling critical thinking at the top will help the skill trickle down to the rest of the organization, no matter your company’s type or size.

To get your employees thinking critically, conduct employee surveys with well-designed questions to help them identify issues and solutions.

Critical thinking is the key to your business success

When critical thinking is actively implemented in an organization, mistakes are minimized, and operations run more seamlessly. 

With training, time and patience, critical thinking can become a second-nature skill for employees at all levels of experience and seniority. The money, time and conflict you’ll save in the long run are worth the extra effort of implementing critical thinking in your workplace.

Rebecka Green contributed to the writing and reporting in this article. Source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article.

Nadia Reckmann

Contributing Writer at

During her years as a professional business writer, Nadia Reckmann has written hundreds of articles with a focus on SMB strategy, operations, technology, and tools that are essential for business success. In addition to that, she creates content that helps small businesses and entrepreneurs Improve their marketing techniques, sales performance, and communication strategy. She also writes about CRM and other essential business software, team and project management, and productivity.

Mon, 23 Oct 2023 11:59:00 -0500 en text/html
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Certified Equity Professional Institute
  • Accounting
  • Equity Plan Design
  • Analysis and Administration
  • Corporate and Securities Law
  • Taxation

Candidates can elect to complete just the first level of the program - resulting in the ECA designation, or to continue on for the remaining two levels, at which point they will have earned the CEP designation. The CEP designation is granted to individuals who have passed all three exams, and have demonstrated mastery of equity compensation related issues in all of the core disciplines. The CEP Institute also offers an test solely focused on accounting; the Advanced Equity Compensation Accounting Certificate (AECA) exam is for financial reporting professionals in any organization that offers equity compensation, as well as the accounting professionals who are required to verify proper expensing under ASC 718 and other standards.

Register for an Exam

If you are a current ECA/CEP who'd like to share your story, we'd love to hear from you. We are excited to be sharing your stories on the CEPI LinkedIn page and would love to hear a bit about how the CEPI has helped you throughout your journey.

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Wed, 15 Nov 2023 11:46:00 -0600 en text/html
The world’s first certified passenger-carrying air taxi takes flight

Imagine flying over the city in a pilotless, electric-powered aircraft that can take you from point A to point B in minutes without a pilot onboard. Sounds like science fiction, right? Well, not anymore. 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.

What are electric air taxis? 

Ehang’s EH216-S air taxis are electric vertical take-off and landing (eVTOL) aircraft that can carry up to two passengers or 600 pounds of cargo. They are powered by 16 electric rotors and can fly at speeds of up to 80 mph and distances of up to 18 miles.


How do electric air taxis operate without pilots? 

The air taxis are controlled by a centralized command and control center that monitors the flight status, routes and weather conditions.

Passengers can simply select their destination on a touchscreen inside the cabin and enjoy the ride without worrying about piloting the aircraft

The air taxis do not require traditional infrastructure such as airports or runways. They can take off and land vertically from any flat surface, such as a rooftop, parking lot, or park. 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)


The air taxis use electric power to reduce environmental harm caused by emissions. They can be fully charged in two hours and have low noise levels. 

The EH216-S vehicles have multiple redundancies in their systems, such as backup batteries, rotors, and communication links. 

They also have emergency landing systems and parachutes in case of any malfunction. 

How did these China-based electric air taxis get the approval to fly? 

Since 2014, over 40,000 test flights have been conducted in various locations around the world. In January 2021, Ehang applied for a type certificate from the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), which is the official recognition of the airworthiness of an aircraft. 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)


The CAAC evaluated Ehang’s air taxis for over 500 parameters, such as structural strength, software simulation, flight performance and electromagnetic compatibility. The process took more than 1,000 days and involved extensive laboratory, ground and flight tests. 

On October 15, 2023, Ehang announced that it had received certification from the CAAC, making it the first company in the world to obtain such a certification for passenger-carrying eVTOL aircraft. This means that Ehang can now start commercial operations of its air taxis in China. As Ehang’s founder-chair and CEO Huazhi Hu said, "Embracing the certification as our springboard, we will launch commercial operations of the EH216-S air taxis, prioritizing safety above all." 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)


 What are the potential applications of electric air taxis? 

Ehang's air taxis have a wide range of potential applications for urban air mobility (UAM), which uses aerial vehicles to provide transportation services in urban areas. 

They can help you avoid traffic jams and save time on your commute. They can also take you to places that are hard to reach by car or public transportation. Whether you need to go to a business meeting, a tourist attraction or a hospital, Ehang's air taxis can get you there quickly and conveniently. Ehang's air taxis can also offer you a new perspective of the city with views of the skyline, landmarks and nature, all from above. 

Beyond just transporting people, these aircraft can be used for delivering goods, such as packages, medical supplies or food. They can also be used for emergency situations, such as natural disasters or accidents. In those situations where time is of the essence, these vehicles could transport much-needed medical personnel or equipment to the scene quickly and safely. 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)


What are the challenges for pilotless air taxis? 

Ehang’s air taxis are a groundbreaking innovation that could revolutionize the future of transportation. However, they also face some challenges in terms of regulation, technology, market demand and social acceptance. 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)

Ehang’s air taxis need to comply with the laws and regulations of different countries and regions where they might operate. They also need to coordinate with other aircraft that use the same airspace. Ehang has been working closely with regulators to establish standards and policies for UAM. 

One big hurdle is working to gain social acceptance and trust from the public. The manufacturer needs to educate and inform us about the benefits and risks of UAM. It also needs to address the potential issues and concerns of noise, privacy and environmental impact. For its part, Ehang has been conducting public demonstrations and campaigns to raise awareness and confidence in UAM. 

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)


Kurt's key takeaways 

Ehang’s air taxis are a pioneering achievement that could transform how we travel in cities across this country. By receiving the first industry approval for fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis, Ehang has opened up new possibilities and opportunities for UAM. But with all new technology comes challenges, and those are what Ehang needs to tackle to be successful moving forward. 

How do you feel about the idea of traveling in an air taxi with no pilot? Do you think this is a recipe for trouble? Let us know by writing us at

China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)

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China-based Ehang has become the world’s first company to receive airworthiness certification for its fully autonomous, passenger-carrying air taxis.  (Ehang)

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Sat, 28 Oct 2023 06:08:00 -0500 Fox News en text/html
What is certified payroll? Everything you need to know

If you’ve been hired as a contractor to work on a government project, you’ll need to adhere to some additional payroll requirements. This includes submitting weekly certified payroll reports. If you don’t comply, you may face some hefty consequences.

What is certified payroll?

Certified payroll is a weekly payroll report that contractors and subcontractors chosen to work on federally funded projects must fill out and submit. To stay compliant and meet requirements, you must file a WH-347 form to the Department of Labor each week.

Short for ‘wage and hour form 347’, it includes information such as the name of the workers hired for the project and their work classifications, hours worked and deductions. The report ensures your workers are paid the average rate for workers in their particular occupation. This is also known as a prevailing wage. 

Besides filling out the WH-347 form, as a contractor or subcontractor, you must fill out and submit a statement of compliance that confirms the payroll report you’re filing is complete and free from errors. 

Davis-Bacon Act

The Davis-Bacon Act was passed by Congress in 1931 to ensure that contractors and subcontractors hired for federally funded projects pay workers the prevailing wage. Any government project with a value of at least $2,000 that deals with the construction, repair or alteration of a public building or public works project falls under this category. Workers might include laborers and mechanics and, under certain conditions, watchmen, guards or foremen. 

Prevailing wage laws

Under the Davis-Bacon Act and related acts, contractors are required to pay, at minimum, the prevailing wage. You can think of prevailing wage as the combination of the basic hourly rate of a worker on a federally funded project, plus any fringe benefits. The contractor—or subcontractor—is responsible for paying all on-site hours, including said fringe benefits.

The Department of Labor (DOL) determines the prevailing wage, and the DOL’s Wage and Hour division breaks down the classifications and prevailing wage rates on, which is the U.S. Government’s system for award management. 

This also includes fringe benefits the worker receives, such as benefit plans, funds or programs. The contractor’s obligation to pay fringe benefits can be fulfilled through these benefits or cash paid instead of doling out these agreed-upon benefits. 

Businesses working on a federally funded project need to sign up for a account. They are then assigned a unique 12-digit ID. From there, they can search for the prevailing wage rates based on the wage determination (WD) number, public building or works or service contract act. 

Certified payroll requirements

You must administer certified payroll requirements if your business is a contractor on a federally funded project valued at $2,000 or more. To fulfill these requirements, you’ll need to check off the following: 

  • Meet prevailing wage requirements: You are required to pay your workers for all hours worked plus fringe benefits. You can find information on current prevailing wage rates on the U.S. government’s website. 
  • Fill out the WH-347 form: This is a detailed form that must be filled out and submitted weekly, even if no wages or fringe benefits are owed to the workers on the project. 

It’s essential to stay on top of these requirements. The Department of Labor will carefully review certified payroll reports to ensure you’re paying workers on these projects fairly and in a timely manner. 

If you don’t fulfill these requirements and, so, break Davis-Bacon laws, your small business might be forced to shut down. Also, knowingly submitting false information on these reports can result in criminal or civil prosecution charges. 

How to do certified payroll

Now that we’ve given an overview of the main certified payroll requirements, we’ll go over the basics of administering certified payroll. According to Mitch Chailland, president of Canal HR, a professional employer company that serves Louisiana and the Southeastern United States, in a broad sense, certified payroll involves the following:

  • Detailed records: This includes worker classification, hours worked, wages, benefits and deductions.
  • Statement of compliance: This is a signed document that states the payroll is accurate and free of errors.
  • Weekly submissions: As a contractor or subcontractor, you’ll be required to submit certified payroll reports weekly. Even if there’s a lull in the project and you don’t owe your workers any pay in a given week, you’re still on the hook for submitting a certified payroll report.

If you need assistance administering certified payroll for your business, you can get professional help from a payroll software provider. If they offer certified payroll, they can help you fulfill certified payroll requirements. 

Consequences of not complying with certified payroll

You’re looking at significant repercussions if your small business doesn’t comply with certified payroll requirements. According to Chailland, they may include: 

  • Financial penalties: As a contractor, your small business can face hefty fines.
  • Being blocked from working on future projects: Non-compliant contractors can be prohibited from working on future public projects. 
  • Criminal charges: In extreme cases, willful violations can result in criminal charges or civil prosecution. 
  • Restitution: If your workers are underpaid, you may have to pay back wages. 

“Certified payroll ensures workers on public projects receive [fair] wages and demands meticulous attention and understanding,” said Chailland. “Non-compliance isn’t just costly; it can have long-term repercussions for the business’s reputation and ability to secure future contracts.” 

Tips for filling out form WH-347 

The WH-347 form can be found on the U.S. Department of Labor’s website. Information that needs to be filled out includes: 

  • The name of the contractor or subcontractor. 
  • The contractor’s address. 
  • The payroll number.
  • The project name and location. 
  • The project and location number. 

For each worker: 

  • The worker’s name and individual identifying number. 
  • The number of withholding exemptions.
  • The worker’s work classifications.
  • Whether the pay is covering overtime (OT) or standard pay (ST). 
  • The day and date.
  • The number of hours worked each day. 
  • The worker’s pay rate. 
  • The worker’s deductions.
  • The worker’s net pay for the week. 

The contractor or subcontractor also needs to provide their signature, fill out and sign a statement and note any fringe benefits paid. Here are some tips on filling out the WH-347 form, according to Jackie Slater, head of human resources at Pressat: 

  • Ensure accuracy: Double-check the form to make sure everything is accurate. All fields should contain precise information. Plus, common mistakes, like mathematical errors, should be checked and corrected. 
  • Submit frequently: Even if the project is on pause and you don’t need to pay your workers in a given week, a WH-347 must still be submitted weekly. In this case, you label the form “no work performed.” 
  • Pay attention to employees’ classifications: Each employee should be classified based on their work type. Misclassifying a worker can lead to stringent penalties.

Navigating the form, especially if you haven’t filed and submitted one before, can be tedious. Even if you have an accounts payable department, they might not be familiar with the ins and outs of certified payroll. According to the Department of Labor, it can take an average of one hour to properly fill out the form. If you’re busy running a small business, you might not have the time or know-how to properly complete the form.

The good news is there are a number of payroll providers that can help small businesses fill out this form, including: 

“When managing certified payroll, diligence, thoroughness and a comprehensive grasp of prevailing wage regulations are crucial,” said Slater. “Business owners might benefit from expert advice or specialized software to ensure adherence.”

Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

Several payroll providers do certified payroll, including:

However, each company’s features, functionalities, capabilities and pricing vary.

Certified payroll requirements originate from the Davis-Bacon Act, which Congress passed in 1931. Its ultimate mission is to provide “fair wages, also known as a ‘prevailing wage,’” to those hired to work on federally funded projects. These pertain to projects under contract with the federal government that pay over $2,000.

Standard payroll includes recording earnings, making deductions, withholding taxes and paying employees. On the other hand, certified payroll is a particular payroll process and report (form WH-347) that contractors and subcontractors hired for publicly funded projects are required to submit. It requires additional steps than normal payroll, such as documentation and validation.

Certified payroll refers to the specific payroll report that contractors and subcontractors must submit when working on publicly funded projects. It requires additional documentation and validation to provide compliance with federal, state or local wage requirements. Standard payroll involves the routine process of paying employees, recording earnings and making deductions.

Jackie Lam has covered personal finance for nearly a decade. Her work has appeared in TIME, CNET, BuzzFeed,, Forbes Advisor, and others. As an AFC® financial coach and educator, she is committed to helping self-employed creatives and artists with their money.

Alana is the deputy editor for USA Today Blueprint's small business team. She has served as a technology and marketing SME for countless businesses, from startups to leading tech firms — including Adobe and Workfusion. She has zealously shared her expertise with small businesses — including via Forbes Advisor and Fit Small Business — to help them compete for market share. She covers technologies pertaining to payroll and payment processing, online security, customer relationship management, accounting, human resources, marketing, project management, resource planning, customer data management and how small businesses can use process automation, AI and ML to more easily meet their goals. Alana has an MBA from Excelsior University.

Wed, 01 Nov 2023 21:17:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Search MotorTrend Certified Cars No result found, try new keyword!MOTORTREND Certified Vehicles gives you the option to buy a near-new car, at a significantly lower price with new-car piece of mind. All MOTORTREND CERTIFIED VEHICLES come with a comprehensive ... Fri, 12 Feb 2021 18:32:00 -0600 text/html Design Thinking

The world around us is largely shaped by design–the products, services, infrastructures, and systems that form our experience are all designed. At Smith, we question gender, race, ethnicity, power and ability as dynamics that shape who gets to participate in creating the worlds in which we live. Human-made mass now exceeds all living biomass. As makers we challenge obsolescence, explore alternative resources,  and hold a longview when thinking about the impacts of what we make. Within a Women’s Liberal Arts College we critically engage with design and making in order to advance these practices in service of broad social issues.

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