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Exam Code: MS-101 Practice exam 2022 by Killexams.com team
MS-101 Microsoft 365 Mobility and Security

Implement modern device services (30-35%)
Implement Mobile Device Management (MDM)
• plan for MDM
• configure MDM integration with Azure AD
• set an MDM authority
• set device enrollment limit for users

Manage device compliance
• plan for device Compliance
• design Conditional Access Policies
• create Conditional Access Policies
• configure device compliance policy
• manage Conditional Access Policies

Plan for devices and apps
• create and configure Microsoft Store for Business
• plan app deployment
• plan device co-management
• plan device monitoring
• plan for device profiles
• plan for Mobile Application Management
• plan mobile device security

Plan Windows 10 deployment
• plan for Windows as a Service (WaaS)
• plan the appropriate Windows 10 Enterprise deployment method
• analyze upgrade readiness for Windows 10
• evaluate and deploy additional Windows 10 Enterprise security features

Implement Microsoft 365 security and threat management (30-35%)
Implement Cloud App Security (CAS)
• configure Cloud App Security (CAS)
• configure Cloud App Security (CAS) policies
• configure Connected apps
• design Cloud App Security (CAS) Solution
• manage Cloud App Security (CAS) alerts
• upload cloud app security (CAS) traffic logs

Implement threat management
• plan a threat management solution
• design Azure Advanced Threat Protection (ATP) implementation
• design Microsoft 365 ATP Policies
• configure Azure ATP
• configure Microsoft 365 ATP Policies
• monitor Advanced Threat Analytics (ATA) incidents

Implement Windows Defender Advanced Threat Protection (ATP)
• plan Windows Defender ATP Solution
• configure preferences
• implement Windows Defender ATP Policies
• enable and configure security features of Windows 10 Enterprise

Manage security reports and alerts
• manage service assurance dashboard
• manage tracing and reporting on Azure AD Identity Protection
• configure and manage Microsoft 365 security alerts
• configure and manage Azure Identity Protection dashboard and alerts

Manage Microsoft 365 governance and compliance (35-40%)
Configure Data Loss Prevention (DLP)
• configure DLP Policies
• design data retention policies in Microsoft 365
• manage DLP exceptions
• monitor DLP policy matches
• manage DLP policy matches

Implement Azure Information Protection (AIP)
• plan AIP solution
• plan for deployment On-Prem rights management Connector
• plan for Windows information Protection (WIP) implementation
• plan for classification labeling
• configure Information Rights Management (IRM) for Workloads
• configure Super User
• deploy AIP Clients
• implement Azure Information Protection policies
• implement AIP tenant key

Manage data governance
• configure information retention
• plan for Microsoft 365 backup
• plan for restoring deleted content
• plan information Retention Policies

Manage auditing
• configure audit log retention
• configure audit policy
• monitor Unified Audit Logs

Manage eDiscovery
• search content by using Security and Compliance Center
• plan for in-place and legal hold
• configure eDiscovery and create cases

Microsoft 365 Mobility and Security
Microsoft Microsoft Practice Test
Killexams : Microsoft Microsoft practice exam - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/MS-101 Search results Killexams : Microsoft Microsoft practice exam - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/MS-101 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Microsoft Killexams : History of Microsoft: Timeline and Facts No result found, try new keyword!Under this practice, Microsoft required any company wanting ... that's provided clear-cut buying opportunities on every test of support." ... Sat, 15 Aug 2020 11:56:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.thestreet.com/technology/history-of-microsoft-15073246 Killexams : Microsoft tests new Office feature for Android devices Microsoft, in an attempt to further bridge the gap between Android and Windows devices, has started testing a new feature for its Office tools. The Redmond giant has rolled out a new feature for Office Insiders which will enable users to add pictures from their Android phone to the web versions of Word and Powerpoint. The company has updated its official blog post to announce the new feature which will work only for Microsoft 365 subscribers. This feature is currently restricted to Office Insiders and will be available only on the web versions of the productivity tools. Microsoft is expected to roll out this feature for more users in the upcoming days.
This feature will help users to insert pictures into a Word document or a Powerpoint presentation directly from their Android device. Microsoft's "Link to Windows" app which is available on multiple Android phones will power the new feature. This Microsoft app also comes pre-installed on some Samsung phones and the Surface Duo foldable devices.
How will this feature work
At first, Microsoft 365 subscribers will have to connect their Android device through the Link to Windows app for this feature to work. After the Android device has been linked with a QR code, users will find a new option called “Mobile Device” while trying to insert an image in Word or Powerpoint.
By selecting this option, users will be able to browse through the gallery of their Android device and can directly add an image to the web versions of Word or Powerpoint.
Link to Windows app
Microsoft’s “Link to Windows” app on Android also powers the Phone Link feature that helps Windows 10 and 11 users to access the apps that are present on their phones. Users with linked devices can access their phone’s apps, calls, messages, notifications and some quick settings directly from their PCs.
This might be the first time Microsoft is expanding the Link to Windows app beyond the Phone Link functionality with this new Office feature. The company also recently revealed that the Phone Link feature will soon be able to access Android mobile hotspots on Samsung devices. The hotspot feature is also expected to arrive for the Surface Duo devices in the upcoming days.
Wed, 02 Nov 2022 05:23:00 -0500 en text/html https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/gadgets-news/microsoft-tests-new-office-feature-for-android-devices/articleshow/95256438.cms
Killexams : How Microsoft computer scientists and researchers are working to ‘solve‘ cancer

t Microsoft’s research labs around the world, computer scientists, programmers, engineers and other experts are trying to crack some of the computer industry’s toughest problems, from system design and security to quantum computing and data visualization.

A subset of those scientists, engineers and programmers have a different goal: They’re trying to use computer science to solve one of the most complex and deadly challenges humans face: Cancer.

And, for the most part, they are doing so with algorithms and computers instead of test tubes and beakers.

“We are trying to change the way research is done on a daily basis in biology,” said Jasmin Fisher, a biologist by training who works in the programming principles and tools group in Microsoft’s Cambridge, U.K., lab.

One team of researchers is using machine learning and natural language processing to help the world’s leading oncologists figure out the most effective, individualized cancer treatment for their patients, by providing an intuitive way to sort through all the research data available.

Another is pairing machine learning with computer vision to provide radiologists a more detailed understanding of how their patients’ tumors are progressing.

Yet another group of researchers has created powerful algorithms that help scientists understand how cancers develop and what treatments will work best to fight them.

And another team is working on moonshot efforts that could one day allow scientists to program cells to fight diseases, including cancer.

Two core computer science approaches

Although the individual projects vary widely, Microsoft’s overarching philosophy toward solving cancer focuses on two basic approaches, said Jeannette M. Wing, Microsoft’s corporate vice president in charge of the company’s basic research labs.

One approach is rooted in the idea that cancer and other biological processes are information processing systems. Using that approach the tools that are used to model and reason about computational processes – such as programming languages, compilers and model checkers – are used to model and reason about biological processes.

The other approach is more data-driven. It’s based on the idea that researchers can apply techniques such as machine learning to the plethora of biological data that has suddenly become available, and use those sophisticated analysis tools to better understand and treat cancer.

Both approaches share some common ground – including the core philosophy that success depends on both biologists and computer scientists bringing their expertise to the problem.

“The collaboration between biologists and computer scientists is actually key to making this work,” Wing said.

Wing said Microsoft has good reason to make broad, bold investments in using computer science to tackle cancer. For one, it’s in keeping with the company’s core mission.

“If you talk about empowering every person and organization to achieve more, this is step one in that journey,” she said.

Beyond that, she said, Microsoft’s extensive investment in cloud computing is a natural fit for a field that needs plenty of computing power to solve big problems.

Longer term, she said, it makes sense for Microsoft to invest in ways it can provide tools to customers no matter what computing platform they choose – even if, one day, that platform is a living cell.

“If the computers of the future are not going to be made just in silicon but might be made in living matter, it behooves us to make sure we understand what it means to program on those computers,” she said.

Organizing knowledge to find better treatment

The research teams’ efforts also come amid major breakthroughs in understanding the role genetics plays in both getting and treating cancer. That, in turn, is spurring an even stronger focus on treating each cancer case in a personalized way, sometimes called precision medicine.

“We’re in a revolution with respect to cancer treatment,” said David Heckerman, a distinguished scientist and senior director of the genomics group at Microsoft. “Even 10 years ago people thought that you treat the tissue: You have brain cancer, you get brain cancer treatment. You have lung cancer, you get lung cancer treatment. Now, we know it’s just as, if not more, important to treat the genomics of the cancer, e.g. which genes have gone bad in the genome.”

That research has been helped along by exact advances in the ability to more easily and affordably map the human genome and other genetic material. That’s giving scientists a wealth of information for understanding cancer and developing more personalized and effective treatments – but the sheer amount of data also presents plenty of challenges.

“We’ve reached the point where we are drowning in information. We can measure so much, and because we can, we do,” Fisher said. “How do you take that information and turn that into knowledge? That’s a different story. There’s a huge leap here between information and data, and knowledge and understanding.”

Researchers say that’s an area where computer scientists can best help the biological sciences. Some of the most promising approaches involve using a branch of artificial intelligence called machine learning to automatically do the legwork that can make precision medicine unwieldy.

In a more basic scenario, a machine learning system can do things like identify a cat in a photo based on previous pictures of cats it has seen. In the field of cancer research, these techniques are being deployed to sort and organize millions of pieces of research and medical data.

“These are our fortes, artificial intelligence and machine learning,” said Hoifung Poon, a researcher in Microsoft’s Redmond, Washington, lab who is using a technique called machine studying to help oncologists find the latest information about effective cancer treatments for individual patients.

Another big advantage: cloud computing. Using tools like the Azure cloud computing platform, researchers are able to provide biologists with these kinds of approaches even if the medical experts don’t have their own powerful computers, by hosting the tools in the cloud for anyone to access over the internet.

Microsoft researchers say the company also is well-positioned to lead computing cancer efforts because of its long history as a software company providing a platform other people can build from and expand on.

We’re in a revolution with respect to cancer treatment

- David Heckerman, Microsoft

“If you look at the combination of things that Microsoft does really well, then it makes perfect sense for Microsoft to be in this industry,” said Andrew Phillips, who heads the biological computation research group at Microsoft’s Cambridge, U.K., lab.

In his field specifically, Phillips said researchers benefit from Microsoft’s history as a software innovator.

“We can use methods that we’ve developed for programming computers to program biology, and then unlock even more applications and even better treatments,” he said.

Of course, none of these tools will help fight cancer and save lives unless they are accessible and understandable to biologists, oncologists and other cancer researchers.

Microsoft researchers say they have taken great pains to make their systems easy to use, even for people without any background – or particular interest – in technology and computer science. That includes everything from learning to speak the language of doctors and biologists to designing computer-based tools that mimic the systems people use in their labs.

“We are always talking about building tools that help the doctors,” said Aditya Nori, a senior researcher who specializes in programming languages and machine learning and is working on systems to assess tumor changes.

asmin Fisher doesn’t want to cure cancer. She wants to solve it — and she believes it’s possible in her lifetime.

“I’m not saying that cancer will cease to exist,” said Fisher, a senior researcher in the programming principles and tools group in Microsoft’s Cambridge, U.K., research lab and an associate professor in the biochemistry department at Cambridge University. “But once you manage it – once you know how to control it – it’s a solved problem.”

To do that, Fisher and her team believe you need to use technology to understand cancer – or, more specifically, the biological processes that cause a cell to turn cancerous. Then, once you understand where the problem occurred, you need to figure out how to fix it.

Fisher takes the computational approach to cancer research. She thinks of it like computer scientists think about computer programs. Her goal is to understand the program, or set of instructions, that causes a cell to execute its commands, or behave in a certain way. Once you can build a computer program that describes the healthy behavior of a cell, and compare it to that of a diseased cell, you can figure out a way that the unhealthy behavior can be fixed.

“If you can figure out how to build these programs, and then you can debug them, it’s a solved problem,” she said.

Bio Model Analyzer

That sounds simple enough – but, of course, actually getting there is quite complicated.

One approach Fisher and her team are taking is called Bio Model Analyzer, or BMA for short. It’s a cloud-based tool that allows biologists to model how cells interact and communicate with each other, and the connections they make.

The system creates a computerized model that compares the biological processes of a healthy cell with the abnormal processes that occur when disease strikes. That, in turn, could allow scientists to see the interactions between the millions of genes and proteins in the human body that lead to cancer, and to quickly devise the best, least harmful way to provide personalized treatment for that patient.

Bio Model Analyzer

“I use BMA to understand cancers – understand the process of becoming cancers, understand the communications that are going on,” said Ben Hall, a Royal Society University Research Fellow in Cambridge, U.K., who works with Fisher on the project.

Hall said BMA has many uses, including figuring out how to detect cancer earlier and understanding how better to treat cancer by modeling which medicines will be most effective and at what point the cancer might become resistant to them.

Here’s one way BMA might work: Let’s say a patient has a rare and often fatal form of brain cancer. Using BMA, clinicians could enter all the biological information about that patient into the system. Then, they could use the system to run all sorts of experiments, comparing the cancer patient’s information with that of a healthy patient, for example, or simulating how the patient’s system might respond to various medications.

That kind of computation would be impossible for a person to do using pen and paper, or even a simpler computer program, because there are so many variables within the millions of molecules, proteins and genes that are working together in the human body. To create the kinds of solutions that Fisher envisions, you need powerful computational models that are capable of building these immensely complex models and running through possible solutions for abnormalities.

The ability to run these types of experiments “in silico” – or using computers – instead of with pen and paper or test tube and beaker also allows the researchers to quickly test many more possibilities. That, in turn, is giving them a better understanding about how cancers develop, evolve and interact with the rest of the body.

“I think it will accelerate research because we are able to test so many more possibilities than we possibly could in the laboratory,” said Jonathan Dry, a principal scientist at the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca whose team collaborated with Fisher’s team.

In the past, Dry said, the sheer difficulty of testing any hypothesis meant that researchers had to focus on their favorite ones, making educated guesses as to what might be most promising. A system such as BMA allows them to try out all sorts of ideas, which makes it more likely they will hit on the correct ones – and less likely they’ll miss the dark horse candidates.

“If we had to go in and experimentally test each hypothesis, it would be nigh on impossible,” Dry said. “These models provide us a sense, really, of all the possibilities.”

Improving and personalizing cancer treatment

Microsoft and AstraZeneca have been using BMA to better understand drug interactions and resistance in patients with a certain type of leukemia. With BMA, the two research teams were able to better understand why various patients responded differently to certain treatments.

Dry said BMA holds huge promise for more personalized approaches to cancer treatment, or precision medicine. The researchers are hoping that a system like BMA could eventually allow researchers and oncologists to look in detail at a person’s cancer case and also run tests that consider other factors that could impact treatment, such as whether the patient has another illness or is taking non-cancer medications that might interact with the cancer drugs.

A more personalized approach

“It really recognizes that every patient is an individual and there can be vast heterogeneity,” Dry said.

A computer science system that makes sense to a biologist

Fisher believes that systems such as BMA have the possibility to revolutionize how cancer is understood, but success is only possible if the biologists feel comfortable using them.

David Benque, a designer who has worked extensively on BMA, said the system was built to be as familiar and understandable to biologists as possible. Benque worked for years to create tools that visually mimic what scientists might use in a lab, using language biologists could understand.

Fisher said it’s imperative that systems like this be “biologist friendly.” Otherwise, she said, the breakthroughs needed to solve cancer just won’t happen.

“Everyone realizes that there is a need for computing in cancer research. It’s one thing to understand that, and it’s another thing to convince a clinician to actually use these tools,” she said.

Killexams : MSS - Program

f you’re a developer creating a new piece of software, chances are you’ll write your code in what computer scientists like to call a principled way: by using a programming language and other formal processes to create a system that follows computing rules.

Neil Dalchau wants to do the same thing for biology. He’s part of a team that is trying to do computing in cells instead of on silicon.

“If you can do computing with biological systems, then you can transfer what we’ve learned in traditional computing into medical or biotechnology applications,” said Dalchau, a scientist in the biological computation research group at Microsoft’s Cambridge, U.K., lab.

The ultimate goal of this computational approach: to program biology like we program computers. That’s a breakthrough that would open all sorts of possibilities for everything from treating diseases to feeding the world with more efficient crops.

“All aspects of our daily lives will be affected,” said Andrew Phillips, who heads the Biological Computation Research Group.

Phillips said one approach is to create a kind of molecular computer that you would put inside a cell to monitor for disease. If the sensor detected a disease, it would actuate a response to fight it.

That’s a stark improvement over many current cancer treatments, which end up destroying healthy cells in the process of fighting the cancerous ones.

Early, but promising, steps

Phillips cautions that computer scientists are still in the very early stages of this research and those kinds of long-term goals remain far off.

“It’s an ultimate application,” he said.

One big and obvious challenge is that biological systems – including our bodies — are much more mysterious than the hardware – computers – we created to run software.

“We built the computer. We know how it works. We didn’t build the cell, and many of its complex internal workings remain a mystery to us. So we need to understand how the cell computes in order to program it,” Phillips said. “We need to develop the methods and software for analyzing and programming cells.”

Take cancer, for example. Sara-Jane Dunn, a scientist who also is working in the biological computation group, said you can think of cancer as a biological program gone wrong – a healthy cell that has a bug that caused it to glitch. And by the same token, she noted, you can think of the immune system as the machinery that has the ability to fix some, but not all, bugs.

Scientists have learned so much about what causes cancer and what activates the immune system, but Dunn said it’s still early days, and there is still much more work to be done. If her team gets to a point where they understand those systems as well as we understand how to make Microsoft Word run on a PC, they might be able to equip the immune system to mount a powerful response to cancer on its own.

“If we want to be able to program biology, then we actually need to be able to understand what it is biology computes in the first place,” she said. “That is where I think we can have some major impacts.”

Is the ability to program biology like we program computers a moonshot effort? Phillips believes it is an ambitious, long-term goal – but he sees a path to success.

“Like the moonshot, we know that this is technically possible,” he said. “Now it's a matter of making it a reality.”

illions of people worldwide will be diagnosed with cancer this year. For a select few, experts from leading cancer institutions will gather at what are called molecular tumor boards, to review that patient’s individual history and come up with the best, personalized treatment plan based on their cancer diagnosis and genetic makeup.

Hoifung Poon wants to democratize the molecular tumor board, and he’s working with a team of researchers on a tool to do it.

It’s called Project Hanover. It’s a data-driven approach that uses a branch of artificial intelligence called machine learning to automatically do the legwork that makes it so difficult for cancer experts to evaluate every case individually.

“We understand that cancer is often not caused by a single mutation. Instead, it stems from complex interactions of lots of different mutations, which means that you need to pretty much look at everything you know about the genome,” Poon said.

To do that can require sifting through millions of pieces of fragmented information to find all the common ground applicable to this one person and this one cancer case. For a busy oncologist managing many patients, that simply isn’t possible.

That’s why the Microsoft researchers are working on a system that could augment how doctors approach the task today. The system is designed to automatically sort through all that fragmented information to find the most relevant pieces of data – leaving tumor experts with more time to use their expertise to figure out the best treatment plan for patients.

The ultimate goal is to help doctors do all that research, and then to present an Microsoft Azure cloud computing-based tool that lets doctors model what treatments would work best based on the information they have gathered.

“If we can use this knowledge base to present the research results most relevant for each specific patient, then a regular oncologist can take a look and make the best decision,” said Ravi Pandya, a principal software architect at Microsoft who also is working on Project Hanover.

Finding a needle in a haystack with Literome

Project Hanover began with a tool called Literome, a cloud computing-based system that sorts through millions of research papers to look for the genomic research that might be applicable to an individual disease diagnosis.

That’s a task that would be hard for oncologists to do on their own because of sheer volume, and it’s made more complicated by the fact that researchers aren’t always consistent in how they describe their work. That means several research papers focusing on the same genetic information may not have much overlap in language.

“The problem is that people are so creative in figuring out a different way to say the same thing,” Poon said.

To build Literome, Poon and his colleagues used machine learning to develop natural language processing tools that require only a small amount of available knowledge to create a sophisticated model for finding those different descriptions of similar knowledge.

Now, the tool is being expanded to also look at experiments and other sources of information that might be helpful.

Poon’s team also is working with the Knight Cancer Institute at Oregon Health and Science University to help their researchers find better ways to fight a complex and often deadly form of cancer called acute myeloid leukemia.

Brian Druker, the director of the Knight Cancer Institute, said a person with this form of cancer may actually be fighting three or four types of leukemia. That’s made it extremely difficult to figure out the right medicine to use and whether a patient will develop resistance to the treatment.

“It was clear we needed incredibly sophisticated computational efforts to try to digest all the data we were generating and to try to make sense of it,” said Druker, whose previous research led to vastly improved life expectancies for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

Druker thinks of this kind of collaboration as a two-way dialogue: His team of experts can provide the hypotheses that help the computer scientists know what to look for in the data. The computer scientists, in turn, can do the analysis needed to help them prove or disprove their hypotheses.

That can then help them more quickly develop the needed treatments and therapies.

“I’ve always believed that the data is trying to tell us what the answer is, but we need to know how to listen to it,” he said. “That’s where the computation comes in.”

I’ve always believed that the data is trying to tell us what the answer is, but we need to know how to listen to it. That’s where the computation comes in.

– Brian Druker, Knight Cancer Institute

Druker believes we are just at the beginning of understanding how data can help inform cancer research. In addition to genomic data, he said, researchers also should start looking at what he calls the other “omics,” including proteomics, or the study or proteins, and metabolomics, or the study of chemical processes involving metabolites.

“We’re going to have get beyond the genome,” he said. “The genome is telling us a lot, but it’s not telling us everything.”

Poon said they are still in the early stages of the research, but already they see how it could change, and save, lives.

“We are at this tantalizing moment where we’ve caught a glimpse of this really promising future, but there is so much work to be done,” he said.

hen radiologists want to get the best, most accurate picture of what is going on inside a patient’s body, they often turn to state-of-the-art equipment that costs millions of dollars and can churn out highly detailed images.

And once they get those images? In many cases, the most high-tech thing they’ll use to read them is a human eye.

“Eyeballing works very well for diagnosing,” said Antonio Criminisi, a machine learning and computer vision expert who heads radiomics research in Microsoft’s Cambridge, U.K., lab. “Expert radiologists can look at an image – say a scan of someone’s brain – and be able to say in two seconds, ‘Yes, there’s a tumor. No, there isn’t a tumor.’”

But when it comes to figuring out if a treatment is working or not, Criminisi said a radiologists’ job gets much more difficult. That’s because the human eye isn’t as good at easily measuring the complex ways in which a modern radiology scan can show whether a tumor may be growing, shrinking or changing shape.

Better technology means more data

A few years ago, Giles Maskell, a radiologist and president of the U.K.’s Royal College of Radiologists, said a typical CT scan might have produced 200 images. Now, that same scan might produce 2,000 images – producing a wealth of data that may not even be perceptible to the human eye.

“The fine detail far exceeds our ability to understand it all and to actually process it into something that is meaningful,” Maskell said.

Put simply, radiologists need technology to help them keep up with the technology.

“We need some help to actually present the data to us in ways that make it easy for us to analyze those huge numbers of images,” Maskell said.

That’s where Criminisi’s team comes in. The team’s data-driven approach is focused on a research project that aims to use computer vision and machine learning to augment the radiologists’ expertise by giving them more detailed and consistent measurements.

The system the researchers are working on could eventually evaluate 3D scans pixel by pixel to tell the radiologist exactly how much the tumor has grown, shrunk or changed shape since the last scan.

It also could provide information about things like tissue density, to provide the radiologist a better sense of whether something is more likely a cyst or a tumor. And it could provide more fine-grained analysis of the health of cells surrounding a tumor.

“Doing all of that by eye is pretty much impossible,” Criminisi said.

The goal is not to replace the radiologists’ expertise but rather to allow them to do their jobs better.

“There’s always going to be a need for human interpretation,” Maskell said. “The computers and the computer science will allow us to make better decisions.”

Allison Linn is a senior writer at Microsoft. Follow her on Twitter.

Photos by Jonathan Banks / © Microsoft

Fri, 02 Dec 2022 19:06:00 -0600 text/html https://news.microsoft.com/stories/computingcancer/
Killexams : Today’s Premium Stories

Hogg Hummock, Sapelo Island, Ga.

Down a single-lane, sand road where yellow county signs warn “dead end” and “no turnaround,” the standoff begins.

As a pickup truck driven by Gullah Geechee activist Reginald Hall backs up the rutted path, a work van comes the other way. Both vehicles stop. Then the van noses within inches of Mr. Hall’s rear bumper.

The van driver honks. Mr. Hall, whose bloodline stretches to when enslaved Black people first disembarked on Sapelo in the beginning of the 19th century, doesn’t budge. Two carpenters in overalls, both white, walk around the truck, stare, and wave their hands in disbelief. No words are spoken.

Eventually, Mr. Hall puts his truck in gear, makes a U-turn, and cuts through a private driveway to get around the van.

The confrontation, says Mr. Hall, shows “how high the tensions are running” as one of America’s last intact settlements of Gullah Geechee struggles to maintain its grip on lands first ceded to them at the end of the Civil War. exact victories in court will help, but for Mr. Hall they are just one step in a long road ahead.

“We are in dogged pursuit of a place that has been preserved by us,” he says.

Along with racial injustices, the clashes here on Sapelo highlight the pitfalls of a “coastal capitalism” that marginalizes the descendants, with their vast experience living in a barrier island climate, in favor of expensive homes and infrastructure set squarely in the path of rising seas and increasingly inclement weather. That disregard for the environment, some descendants say, could be solved by returning the land to its rightful owners. 

“The displacement of communities goes hand in hand with environmental exploitation that [is] damaging to the very coastal ecologies that are attracting people to these places in the first place,” says Andrew Kahrl, author of “The Land Was Ours.” “Conversely, the modes of living with the land that native islanders ... developed over many generations were much more sustainable and in tune with the limits and liabilities of living in a highly fragile, very dynamic environment like a barrier island.”

A shrinking Black footprint

Once home to hundreds of enslaved Africans who tended rice, cotton, and sugar cane, Sapelo Island after the Civil War became a haven for the Gullah Geechee descendants, whose isolation birthed a distinct brogue heard to this day.

Descendants processed sugar cane, fished, oystered, and tended hogs. They ran cattle and grew vegetables – a vibrant makeshift economy scattered across a handful of villages with names like Hanging Bull and Timber Landing.

At its peak, Sapelo had over 500 Gullah Geechee residents. Today, Hogg Hummock is the only neighborhood that remains, with a small convenience store, a bar, two Baptist churches, and some short-term rentals. It is set not on the beach, but on a raised hummock on the marsh side of the island. 

A parishioner exits a church service for the 129th anniversary of St. Luke Baptist Church on Sapelo Island, Georgia, on June 9, 2013. At its peak, Sapelo had over 500 Gullah Geechee residents. Today, Hogg Hummock is the only neighborhood that remains, with a small convenience store, a bar, two Baptist churches, and some short-term rentals.

About 30 descendants have persevered and still live here full time, fewer than the white, nondescendant population. (One descendant was Ahmaud Arbery, the Brunswick, Georgia, jogger whose murder by three white men in 2020 sparked nationwide protests.) 

The original, hand-hewn houses are small, sturdy, and easy to repair if a hurricane floods them. But they are ringed by larger, newly built houses – the bulk of which are summer homes for white Southerners, the construction of which largely ignores the environmental realities of life on a barrier island.

The shrinking of the Black footprint on Sapelo is part of a stubborn phenomenon nationwide. In 1910, Black people owned 14 million acres along the Southeast U.S. coast; today, they own a sliver of that, according to Mr. Kahrl. Hogg Hummock represents the last 400 or so acres of historically Black-owned land out of nearly 16,000 acres on Sapelo, the bulk of which was bought by the state from a North Carolina tobacco heir. 

“A big, fat bull’s-eye” 

Even though it is part of the 425-mile-long congressionally designated Gullah Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor, Hogg Hummock remains under siege from largely legal yet corrosive land use practices that disproportionately impact poorer Americans. Issues include deceptive practices, poorly kept deeds, and a legacy of multilayered family ownership.

The loss of Black-owned land is baked into a coastal economy where the main industry is, in fact, “the real estate and the value coming from it,” says Mr. Kahrl, a historian at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. When you factor in ways in which race and poverty make people “more subject to discriminatory forms of taxation,” he says, ordinary real estate calculations wind up putting “a big, fat bull’s-eye on African American landowners.”

This is not unique to Sapelo. A 2020 report from the Federal Reserve Bank found that Black and Hispanic homeowners in the U.S. paid 10% to 13% more in property taxes than white people for homes with comparable public services. And 30 U.S. states, including Georgia, allow tax liens on properties to be sold, a practice that, in Sapelo, has enabled prospectors to pick up descendants’ homes cheaply and then convert them into expensive real estate. Hogg Hummock has seen properties sold for pennies on the dollar. White as well as Black bidders have then turned around and sold that land for profit.

Mr. Hall’s ultimate goal is to prove in the courts that much of the land on Sapelo Island was taken by “deceived means,” whether by exploiting complicated titles or forging signatures. 

This summer saw progress in that pursuit.

Righting past wrongs

In 2015 descendants sued both the state of Georgia and McIntosh County on 14th Amendment equal protection grounds. Five years later, the state agreed to make improvements, including upgrading the ferry and bringing it and its related infrastructure into compliance with the Americans With Disabilities Act. The agreement also guaranteed Hogg Hummock residents a voice in decision-making concerning the island, and required the state to pay $750,000 for the plaintiffs’ damages, legal fees, and civil action costs. 

Then, this summer, a U.S. district court judge oversaw a settlement agreement against McIntosh County, which confirmed that “dramatically rising property tax assessments against Sapelo Island properties in exact years have threatened the viability and survival of [the Hogg Hummock] community,” according to a Georgia Public Broadcasting report. Better emergency fire and medical services, as well as road maintenance, must now be provided. Taxes will be stabilized for three years, and the county must pay $2 million to cover the plaintiffs’ damage claims and legal fees in what the plaintiffs’ lawyer called the first-ever federal lawsuit challenging the government’s treatment of the Gullah Geechee people.

This latest settlement came the same summer as other restorative actions involving Black Americans, suggesting to some a shift in attitudes about the government’s role in the way land is obtained, transferred, and transformed.

In Manhattan Beach, California, a parcel of land named Bruce’s Beach was returned to descendants of Charles and Willa Bruce, the Black couple who purchased the land and built a resort there in 1912. The city illegally seized it in 1924, claiming eminent domain. Nearly a century later, the vote by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors to return the property was unanimous. 

Closer to Sapelo, off St. Helena Island, South Carolina, a barrier island named Bay Point Island that had been slated for a global ecotourism resort will remain untouched. Following an outcry led in part by a local Gullah Geechee community, a judge upheld a zoning board’s earlier ruling against the development. The decision on behalf of the Gullah Geechee was in support of the land as well.

The Bay Point decision suggested that “the native communities ... are more in touch with the natural cycle of the system, and they don’t try to change it or manipulate it,” says Jessie White, the south coast director of the Coastal Conservation League, in Beaufort, South Carolina. “They meet it where it is.”

Sapelo Island descendant and land owner Reginald Hall speaks at a news conference outside federal court in Atlanta, Dec. 9, 2015, the year descendants sued both the state of Georgia and McIntosh County on 14th Amendment equal protection grounds. In 2020, the state agreed to make improvements. This summer, the county did as well. 

Marquetta Goodwine, a Gullah Geechee activist and spokesperson, argues that her people know not only how to live in sync with the coastal climate but also how to restore it. Known as Queen Quet, Ms. Goodwine sees Gullah Geechee reclamation of the land and the land’s survival as one in the same. 

Her argument for environmental and wildlife restoration through reclamation finds precedent in the return of Montana’s bison range to the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes in 2020. Other Native American tribes across the Great Plains are also stewarding bison herds and the land they roam. 

For the Gullah Geechee, the focus is on water and fish, not land and bison. “Let’s let the people who have been here for hundreds of years stay and let them live and build the way the ancestors did,” Ms. Goodwine told the Savannah Morning News. “And let’s see if this coast doesn’t restore itself.”

A debate over the town’s name

While descendants are largely unified around lawsuits seeking equity, agreement on how to move forward can be hard to find. Some believe residents should work with the state to maintain Hogg Hummock instead of continuing to sue for what Mr. Hall calls “recovery.” If Sapelo were to be restored to those it was deeded to after the Civil War, the saltwater Gullah Geechee would own land worth billions.

Mr. Hall says ownership would also encourage more Gullah Geechee families to come back to Sapelo, noting that several of his cousins have already returned. Attempts to rebuild the island’s economy include efforts to restart a sugar cane refinery. Tourism, including kayaking and fishing, could be expanded as well.

To many nondescendants, on the other hand, Mr. Hall represents a fundamental problem, with his resistance to the rhythms of island life where, as one white resident says, “a lot of things go under the radar – and that’s how the island folk like it.”

The Gullah Geechee lawsuits are “making us not want to be loving,” says Tony Thaw, a white resident.

A former county commissioner in nearby Glynn County, Mr. Thaw says he “grew up on the river” and has lived on Sapelo Island for years. When a family of descendants decided to sell and move to the mainland, they approached Mr. Thaw, who says he bought their land at a fair price.

But Mr. Thaw isn’t as welcome in Hogg Hummock as he’d like to be. He has requested a burial plot at Behavior Cemetery, the local Black burial ground, but descendants have said no. Mr. Thaw says he may have to request a special dispensation from the state in order to find a final resting place on Sapelo.

To Mr. Hall, that kind of request exemplifies a system of white power where a handshake allows connected newcomers to circumvent laws. Among the laws often sidestepped is the 1,400-square-foot limit to the size of houses, which in turn drives up values and taxes – and litters the land with houses not suited to a barrier island climate. Owners of these oversized homes include a former football coach, a friend of the state’s governor, and a Black nondescendant who owns the largest home on the island. 

Indeed, while descendants point to “white developers” shouldering out the native population, Black residents have also bought tax liens on courthouse steps and turned a profit when selling the land to outsiders building second homes. 

The struggle, to Mr. Hall, is summed up in the debate over names. A white resident paid for a sign that welcomes people to “Hog Hammock.” Descendants say a new sign is coming that spells it the original way: Hogg Hummock.

A similar struggle is playing out in slow motion between a new structure and nature itself. In a corner of Hogg Hummock stands a massive, unfinished house that ran afoul of local zoning laws – violations brought to the county’s attention by descendants. The structure can now barely be glimpsed through the maritime forest reclaiming the land, a hard-to-miss reminder of the economic, cultural, and environmental forces at play as the Gullah Geechee persist in their own reclamation efforts.

Mon, 05 Dec 2022 15:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.csmonitor.com/Daily/2022/20221206
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