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Exam Code: MB-920 Practice test 2022 by team
Microsoft Dynamics 365 Fundamentals Finance and Operations Apps (ERP)
Microsoft Fundamentals test format
Killexams : Microsoft Fundamentals test format - BingNews Search results Killexams : Microsoft Fundamentals test format - BingNews Killexams : Entry-level cybersecurity certifications
  • Global cybersecurity spending is expected to reach trillions through 2025. This makes the cybersecurity industry a great space in which to pursue jobs.
  • Entry-level cybersecurity certifications from Microsoft, ISACA, CompTIA, GIAC and (ISC)2 can help you prove your prowess to potential employers.
  • You can use study guides, flashcards and practice tests to prepare for your exam. Registering for your test may cost several hundred dollars. 
  • This article is for anyone interested in entry-level cybersecurity jobs.

Looking for a career change? There’s no better time to consider a career in cybersecurity. U.S. businesses and government agencies are spending billions of dollars annually to protect their data and assets from malicious attacks. In fact, according to the 2022 Official Cybercrime Report by Cybersecurity Ventures, global cybersecurity spending will total $1.75 trillion between 2021 and 2025.

With the demand for qualified security professionals soaring, certification is a logical way to verify your skills and knowledge and get your resume noticed. We’ll highlight five certifications to help launch your cybersecurity career and offer test preparation tips.

Entry-level cybersecurity certifications

The following cybersecurity certifications are excellent ways to firm up your skill set and bolster your resume for hiring managers seeking to attract and retain the best employees.

1. Microsoft Certified: Security, Compliance, and Identity Fundamentals

The Microsoft Certified: Security, Compliance, and Identity Fundamentals certification is one of the most “entry-level” certifications we’re highlighting. Aimed at students, business users and IT professionals, this cert recognizes knowledge of numerous cybersecurity topics, including general Microsoft 365 and Azure. It also recognizes general IT knowledge or work experience and familiarity with cloud and networking computing concepts. To achieve certification, you must pass a single exam, which costs $99.

To Strengthen your chances of achieving this certification, Microsoft recommends using its self-paced Microsoft Learn content. Microsoft also suggests attending instruction events, taking practice exams and shadowing people who work in security, compliance, and identity management. 

Did you know?Did you know?: Microsoft certifications include numerous options for network engineers, security engineers and security operations analysts.

2. ISACA Cybersecurity Fundamentals

Folks in the security industry know ISACA for such long-running certificates as its Certified Information Security Manager (CISM), Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) and similar certifications – all of which grant intermediate to advanced credentials. They’re designed for IT professionals who want to help prevent and avoid network security threats and vulnerabilities.

The Cybersecurity Fundamentals certificate is designed to fill the entry-level niche. This certificate covers four cybersecurity-related domains: 

  • Threat landscape
  • Information security fundamentals
  • Securing access
  • Security operations and response

The single test costs $150 for ISACA members and $199 for nonmembers. The certificate doesn’t expire or require periodic recertification.

3. CompTIA Security+

Perhaps the most well-known entry-level security certification is the CompTIA Security+, which covers a wide array of security and information assurance topics, including:

  • Network security
  • Threats and vulnerabilities
  • Access controls
  • Cryptography
  • Risk management principles
  • Application, host and data security 

The certification meets U.S. Department of Defense Directive 8570.01-M requirements – an essential item for anyone looking to work in IT security for the federal government – and complies with the Federal Information Security Management Act.

CompTIA recommends that candidates have two years of relevant experience and achieve the Network+ credential before taking the Security+ exam. At $392, this test lands roughly midway between the least and most expensive compared to other entry-level certifications. The Security+ certificate leads to such jobs as security administrator, systems administrator and network engineer, among others.

TipTip: CompTIA is known for its vendor-neutral certification program. In general, CompTIA certifications are grouped according to skill set and focus on real-world skills all IT professionals need.

4. GIAC Information Security Fundamentals (GISF)

GIAC gears the GISF certification toward system administrators, managers and information security officers who need a solid overview of computer networks, security policies, incident response and cryptographic principles. 

The GISF test is considered to be more challenging than the CompTIA Security+ exam. GIAC certification exams in general require test takers to apply knowledge and problem-solving skills, so hands-on experience gained through training or on-the-job experience is recommended.

The GISF test costs $949. Although GIAC includes two practice exams in the certification-attempt package, this test price is exceptionally high.

After achieving the GISF, consider pursuing the GIAC Security Essentials (GSEC), an intermediate-level certification that takes a big step beyond foundational information security concepts.

TipTip: Check out our picks for the best business continuity and disaster recovery certifications to help you learn to recover systems after a disaster.

5. (ISC)2 Systems Security Certified Practitioner (SSCP)

The (ISC)2 Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) is probably the most recognizable and popular security certification today. But (ISC)2 offers several other security-related certifications, with the ANSI-accredited SSCP filling the entry-level slot. 

The SSCP prepares you for such jobs as security analyst, network security engineer and security administrator, which typically start at the junior level if you don’t already have technical or engineering-related information technology experience.

To achieve the SSCP, you must pass a single test that includes questions that span seven common body of knowledge (CBK) domains:

  • Access Controls
  • Security Operations and Administration
  • Risk Identification, Monitoring and Analysis
  • Incident Response and Recovery
  • Cryptography
  • Network and Communications Security
  • Systems and Application Security

To ensure that you have sufficient hands-on security knowledge before taking the exam, (ISC)2 recommends that you attend training courses or conference workshops, participate in webinars, and read white papers and books.

The test costs $2,490, and (ISC)2 offers a variety of study resources for purchase on its website.

Did you know?Did you know?: Many additional niche cybersecurity certifications can help you advance your IT career. For example, you can also achieve big data certifications, digital forensics certifications, computer hardware certifications and networking certifications.

Preparing for your exams

Regardless of which certification is the best fit for you, be prepared to devote ample self-study time to the effort. Many test takers prefer to use a top-rated study guide along with some practice tests and flashcards when preparing for a certification exam. 

If your learning style leans more toward formal, instructor-led training, factor the costs and required time into your plans. Although training costs vary by certification, they typically run from $400 to over $5,000, depending on whether you choose online, virtual classroom or in-classroom delivery.

Cybersecurity certifications can help you navigate your career path

Entry-level certifications are an excellent way to begin, Strengthen or ​​navigate your career path as an IT professional. Pursuing and achieving IT certifications helps you demonstrate a willingness to learn while developing the in-demand career skills your employers – and future employers – want.

Max Freedman contributed to the reporting and writing in this article.

Tue, 15 Nov 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Microsoft & LinkedIn Launch Programme To Help 10 Million People Learn Digital Skills

Microsoft and LinkedIn have launched a programme to help 10 million people learn digital skills needed for the most in-demand jobs in the digital economy. 

Microsoft and LinkedIn announced the next step in the Skills for Jobs programme, providing free access to 350 courses and six new Career Essentials Certificates for six of the most in-demand jobs in the digital economy. Microsoft and LinkedIn will also be offering 50,000 LinkedIn Learning scholarships to help people get ahead in their skilling journey.

By 2025, Microsoft will help train and certify 10 million people with skills for in demand jobs. This launch builds on the Global Skills Initiative, which helped 80 million jobseekers around the world access digital skilling resources.

Locally, the Global Skills initiative has helped over 680 000 people gain access to digital skills with more than 30 000 learning paths completed since July 2020, including 460 professional Microsoft certifications obtained. Certifications included Azure Fundamentals, Microsoft Azure Administrator Associate, Power BI Analyst Associate, Microsoft Azure Developer Associate, and Fundamentals.

Popular Microsoft Learn learning paths completed included Get Started with Artificial Intelligence, Create Powerapps, Create Use Analytics Reports, M365 Manage Team Collaboration, and Power Platform Fundamentals, while popular LinkedIn Learning courses were Project Manager, Sales Development, Customer Service, Critical Soft Skills, and Data Analyst. 

Using data from LinkedIn and the Burning Glass Institute, Microsoft analysed job listings to determine six of the roles in greatest demand: Administrative Professional, Project Manager, Business Analyst, Systems Administrator, Software Developer or Data Analyst. The new courses and certificates will be offered in seven languages, English, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Simplified Chinese, and Japanese. This expansion builds on Microsoft's commitment to supporting inclusive economic opportunity so learners around the world have equitable access to the skills, technology, and opportunity needed to succeed in a digitising economy.

"A declining economy and a high unemployment rate remain key challenges in our country. Digital skills are now more important than ever as almost every job requires some level of digital competence. The new courses and certificates aim to empower unemployed South Africans by providing them with the relevant digital skills to secure in-demand jobs in the digital economy," says Lillian Barnard, CEO of Microsoft South Africa.

The new Career Essentials Certificates are designed to help learners bridge the gap from basic digital literacy to more advanced technical skills training and gain certifications that will be valuable to securing employment. Once a learning pathway is completed, learners will receive a LinkedIn badge to denote their certificate and indicate fluency in the skillset to employers.

 All courses are available on LinkedIn at In addition, Microsoft-developed courses are also available on Microsoft Community Training (MCT) and in downloadable format for use on other Learning Management Systems (LMS) for nonprofit partners.

Mon, 05 Dec 2022 00:19:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Best Database Certifications for 2022
  • Database technology is crucial in multiple applications and computing tasks, and certifications help demonstrate job readiness and core competencies. 
  • Before pursuing a database platform certification, you should have a solid background in relational database management systems and the SQL language. 
  • Valuable certifications are typically tied to specific technology companies and their platforms, such as IBM, Microsoft, Oracle and SAP.
  • This article is for IT professionals considering database certifications to further their careers. 

While database platforms have come and gone through the decades, database technology is still critical for multiple applications and computing tasks. IT professionals often seek database certifications to demonstrate their knowledge and expertise as they navigate their career paths and pursue professional growth. 

While database certifications may not be as bleeding edge as Google cloud certifications, cybersecurity certifications, storage certifications or digital forensics certifications, database professionals at all levels possess in-demand career skills — and a plethora of database-related jobs are waiting to be filled.

We’ll look at some of the most in-demand certifications for database administrators, database developers and anyone else who works with databases.

What to know about database roles and certifications

To get a better grasp of available database certifications, it’s helpful to group these certs around job responsibilities. This reflects the maturity of database technology and its integration into most aspects of commercial, scientific and academic computing. As you read about the various database certification programs, keep these job roles in mind: 

  • Database administrator (DBA). A DBA is responsible for installing, configuring and maintaining a database management system (DBMS). The job is often tied to a specific platform, such as Oracle, MySQL, DB2 or SQL Server.
  • Database developer. A database developer works with generic and proprietary application programming interfaces (APIs) to build applications that interact with a DBMS. Like DBA roles, database developer positions are also often platform-specific.
  • Database designer or database architect. A database designer or architect researches data requirements for specific applications or users and designs database structures and application capabilities to match.
  • Data analyst or data scientist. A data analyst or scientist is responsible for analyzing data from multiple disparate sources to discover previously hidden insights, determine the meaning behind data, and make business-specific recommendations.
  • Data mining or business intelligence (BI) specialist. A data mining or BI specialist focuses on dissecting, analyzing and reporting important data streams, such as customer, supply chain and transaction data and histories.
  • Data warehousing specialist. A data warehousing specialist assembles and analyzes data from multiple operational systems (such as orders, transactions, supply chain information and customer data) to establish data history, analyze trends, generate reports and forecasts, and support general ad hoc queries. 

These database job roles highlight two critical issues to consider if you want to be a database professional:

  1. You need a solid general background. First, a background in relational database management systems, including an understanding of Structured Query Language (SQL), is a fundamental prerequisite for database professionals of all stripes. 
  2. There’s a focus on proprietary technologies. Second, although various efforts to standardize database technology exist, much of the whiz-bang capability that databases and database applications deliver comes from proprietary, vendor-specific technologies. Serious, heavy-duty database skills and knowledge are tied to specific platforms, including various Oracle products (such as the open-source MySQL environment and Oracle itself,) Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2. Most of these certifications relate directly to those enormously popular platforms. 

Did you know?Did you know? NoSQL databases — called “not only SQL” or “non-relational” databases — are increasingly used in big data applications associated with some of the best big data certifications for data scientists, data mining and warehousing, and business intelligence.

Best database certifications

Here are details on our five best database certification picks for 2022.

1. IBM Certified Database Administrator — DB2 12

IBM is one of the leaders in the worldwide database market by any objective measure. The company’s database portfolio includes industry-standard DB2, as well as the following:

  • IBM Compose
  • Information Management System (IMS)
  • Informix
  • Cloudant
  • IBM Open Platform with Apache Hadoop

IBM also has a long-standing and well-populated IT certification program that has been around for more than 30 years and encompasses hundreds of individual credentials. 

After redesigning its certification programs and categories, IBM now has a primary data-centric certification category called IBM Data and AI. It includes a range of database credentials: 

  • Database Associate
  • Database Administrator
  • System Administrator
  • Application Developer 

IBM’s is a big and complex certification space, but one where particular platform allegiances are likely to guide readers toward the handful of items most relevant to their interests and needs. 

Database professionals who support DB2 (or aspire to) on IBM’s z/OS should check out the IBM Associate Certified DBA — Db2 12 certification. It’s an entry-level test that addresses routine planning, working with SQL and XML, security, operations, data concurrency, application design, and concepts around database objects.

This certification requires candidates to pass one exam. Pre-exam training and familiarity with concepts, or hands-on experience, are recommended but not required. 

IBM Certified Database Administrator — DB2 facts and figures

Certification name

IBM Certified Database Administrator — Db2 12 (z/OS)

Prerequisites and required courses

None required; recommended courses are available.

Number of exams

One: C1000-122: Db2 12 for z/OS DBA Fundamentals (63 questions, 90 minutes)

Cost per exam

$200 (or local currency equivalent) per exam. Sign up for exams at Pearson VUE.


Self-study materials

The certification page includes self-study materials, including a study guide and a learning path. 

Did you know? IBM’s certification offerings are among the best system administrator certifications IT professionals can achieve.

2. Microsoft Azure

Microsoft Azure offers a broad range of tools and add-ons for business intelligence. Azure is a cloud computing platform for application management and Microsoft-managed data centers. Microsoft certifications include various Azure offerings based on job role and experience level.

Microsoft’s certification program is role-centric, centered on the skills you need to succeed in specific technology jobs. Because Azure has such a broad scope, Azure certifications span multiple job roles. However, specific certifications exist for the following positions:

  • Data Analysts
  • Data Engineers
  • Data Scientists
  • Database Administrators 

There are also certifications for learners at different experience levels. 

For those looking to take their Azure knowledge to the next level, the Microsoft Certified: Azure Data Fundamentals certification is the perfect place to start. This certification is for beginner database administrators interested in using Azure and mastering data in the cloud. It offers foundational knowledge of core concepts while reinforcing concepts for later use in other Azure role-based certifications, such as those listed below: 

  • Azure Database Administrator Associate
  • Azure Data Engineer Associate
  • Data Analyst Associate 

Azure Data Fundamentals certification facts and figures

Certification name

Microsoft Certified: Azure Data Fundamentals

Prerequisites and required courses 

This certification does not have any prerequisites. However, for absolute beginners, Microsoft offers an Azure Fundamentals certification. 

Number of exams

One exam, DP-900, which is administered via Pearson VUE or Certiport.

Cost per exam

The test costs $99 in the United States, though the cost changes based on where it is proctored. 


Self-study materials

Microsoft offers one of the world’s largest and best-known IT certification programs, so the test is well supported with books, study guides, study groups, practice tests and other materials. Microsoft also offers a free online learning path.

3. Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator 

Oracle runs its certifications under the auspices of Oracle University. The Oracle Database Certifications page lists separate tracks depending on job role and product. MySQL is perhaps the leading open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). Since acquiring Sun Microsystems in 2010 (which had previously acquired MySQL AB), Oracle has rolled out a paid version of MySQL and developed certifications to support the product. 

If you’re interested in pursuing an Oracle MySQL certification, you can choose between MySQL Database Administration and MySQL Developer. 

The Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator (OCP) credential recognizes professionals who can accomplish the following tasks:

  • Install, optimize and monitor MySQL Server.
  • Configure replication.
  • Apply security.
  • Schedule and validate database backups. 

The certification requires candidates to pass a single test (the same test can be taken to upgrade a prior certification). Oracle recommends training and on-the-job experience before taking the exam.

Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator facts and figures

Did you know? According to Oracle, approximately 1.8 million Oracle Certified professionals globally hold certifications to advance their networking careers and professions to validate their IT expertise. 

4. Oracle Database SQL Certified Associate Certification

For individuals interested in working in the Oracle environment who have the necessary experience to become a database administrator, Oracle’s Database SQL Certified Associate Certification is another top Oracle certification and an excellent starting point. This test encompasses an understanding of fundamental SQL concepts that individuals must grasp for database projects. 

By earning the certification, individuals demonstrate that they have a range of knowledge in core SQL concepts:

  • Familiarity with queries, data modeling, and normalization
  • Strong base understanding of the underlying SQL language
  • An ability to create and manipulate Oracle Database tables 

This certification also requires candidates to pass a single exam. While Oracle does not specify any prerequisites, the company does state candidates should have familiarity working with the command line. 

Oracle Database SQL Certified Associate Certification facts and figures

5. SAP HANA: SAP Certified Technology Associate — SAP HANA 2.0 SPS05

SAP SE has an extensive portfolio of business applications and analytics software, including cloud infrastructure, applications and storage. The SAP HANA platform’s foundation is an enterprise-grade relational database management system that can be run as an appliance on-premises or in the cloud. The cloud platform lets customers build and run applications and services based on SAP HANA. 

SAP offers a comprehensive certification program built to support its various platforms and products. We’re featuring the SAP Certified Technology Associate — SAP HANA cert because it aligns closely with other certifications we’ve highlighted and is in high demand among employers, according to job board surveys. 

This certification ensures database professionals can install, manage, monitor, migrate and troubleshoot SAP HANA systems. It covers the following skills:

  • Managing users and authorizations
  • Applying security
  • Ensuring high availability 
  • Effective disaster-recovery techniques 

SAP recommends that certification candidates get hands-on practice through formal training or on-the-job experience before attempting this exam. The SAP Learning Hub is a subscription service that gives certification candidates access to a library of learning materials, including e-learning courses and course handbooks. 

The annual subscription rate for individual users on the Professional certification track is $2,760. This online training program is designed for those who run, support, or implement SAP software solutions. Though this may seem like a steep price for online training, you will likely be able to pass any SAP certification exams you put your mind to by leveraging all the learning resources available to SAP Learning Hub Professional subscribers. 

Typically, SAP certifications achieved on one of the two most accurate SAP solutions are considered current and valid. SAP contacts professionals whose certifications are nearing end-of-life status and provides information on maintaining their credentials.

SAP Certified Technology Associate facts and figures

Certification name

SAP Certified Technology Associate — SAP HANA 2.0 SPS05

Prerequisites and required courses    

None required.

Recommended: Hands-on experience and the following courses: 

  • SAP HANA Installation & Operations SPS12 (HA200) 
  • High Availability and Disaster Tolerance Administration SPS05 (HA201)
  • Monitoring and Performance Tools SPS05 (HA215)
  • Database Migration using DMO SPS05 (HA250)

Number of exams

One exam: SAP Certified Technology Associate — SAP HANA 2.0 SPS05, test code C_HANATEC_17 (80 questions, 180 minutes)

Cost per exam



Self-study materials

The certification web page includes a link to sample questions. SAP HANA trade books and certification guides are available on Amazon. The SAP Help Center offers product documentation and a training and certification FAQs page. The SAP Learning Hub (available on a subscription basis) provides access to online learning content.

Tip: To broaden your skill set, consider pursuing the best sales certifications to better sell and implement various IT solutions, including databases.

Beyond the top 5 database certifications

Additional database certification programs can further the careers of IT professionals who work with database management systems. 

While most colleges with computer science programs offer database tracks at the undergraduate, master and Ph.D. levels, well-known vendor-neutral database certifications exist, including the following: 

  • ICCP certifications. The Institute for the Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP) offers its unique Certified Data Professional and Certified Data Scientist credentials. Learn more about ICCP certifications from the ICCP website.
  • Enterprise DB certifications. EnterpriseDB administers a small but effective certification program with two primary certs: the EDB Certified Associate and the EDB Certified Professional

These are some additional certifications: 

These credentials represent opportunities for database professionals to expand their skill sets — and salaries. However, such niches in the database certification arena are generally only worth pursuing if you already work with these platforms or plan to work for an organization that uses them.

Key takeaway: Pursuing additional database certifications can be helpful for professional development if you already work with these platforms or plan to work with them in the future. 

Job board search results

Before pursuing certifications, consider their popularity with employers to gain a helpful perspective on current database certification demand. Here’s a job board snapshot to supply you an idea of what’s trending.




 LinkedIn Jobs 



IBM Certified Database Administrator — DB2






Azure Data Fundamentals






Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL Database Administrator






Oracle Database SQL Certified Associate Certification












If the sheer number of available database-related positions isn’t enough motivation to pursue a certification, consider average salaries for database administrators. SimplyHired reports $91,949 as the national average in the U.S., ranging from $64,171 to over $131,753. Glassdoor’s reported average is somewhat lower at $84,161, with a top rung for experienced senior DBAs right around $134,000.

Choosing the right certification

Choosing the best IT certifications to enhance your skills and boost your career can be overwhelming, especially as many available certifications are for proprietary technologies. While picking a database certification can feel like locking yourself into a single technology family, it is worth remembering that many database skills are transferable. Additionally, pursuing any certification shows your willingness to learn and demonstrates competence to current and future employers. 

Ultimately, choosing which certification to pursue depends on the technologies you use at work or would like to use at a future employer.

Jeremy Bender contributed to the reporting and writing in this article. 

Mon, 05 Dec 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Fundamentals of Engineering exam

When can I take the FE exam?

To be eligible to take the NCEES Fundamentals of Engineering exam, you must meet the following requirements:

  1. Completed 90 credits
  2. Achieved senior status
  3. Be enrolled in mostly 400-level courses toward your engineering degree
  4. Be enrolled in the ENGR 490 section assigned to your major department
    • Section 1002-Chemical & Materials Science Engr
    • Section 1003-Civil & Environmental Engr
    • Section 1004-Electrical & Biomedical Engr
    • Section 1005-Mechanical Engr
    • Section 1006-Geological Engr
    • Section 1007-Metallurgical & Mining Engr

For seniors ready to take the FE exam, you will still need to register for ENGR 490 the semester you plan on taking the exam. Please be mindful that if you plan on graduating in the semester you take the exam, you will need to take the test no later than prep day to allow for adequate processing time (uploading your test proof). Otherwise, this may delay your diploma.

CSE students are not required to take the FE exam. 

The test will be held at any NCEES-approved testing facility year round at a testing day and time that you choose. Do not wait to sign up for an test date! If you choose to wait to sign up for the test in the middle of or later in the semester, the testing center dates will most likely be FULL! This may cause a delay, or even denial, in receiving your diploma if you are taking the test in your last semester. Yes, it is an expensive test, but isn't it more expensive to have wait an extra semester for your diploma?

How do I sign up for the FE exam?

Register for the exam on the NCEES website.

How do I prepare for the FE exam?

You may access and review the current FE Supplied Reference Manual, the same type you'll be using during the examination, on the NCEES website.

Study sessions are often organized by the student chapters of ASCE and ASME once a semester. Emails will be sent to students enrolled in ENGR 490, and flyers will be posted on the College's Facebook page. There is often a small cost in order to attend each session.

Please contact Sam DiMuzio ( with any questions about review sessions.

Once you've passed the FE exam

Go to the Nevada State Board of Engineering website and apply for Engineer Intern certification. Instructions on how to apply can be found on their website.

Ready to take the early PE exam?

More information about the early PE exam can be found on the Nevada State Board of Engineers website.

Wed, 14 Mar 2018 06:54:00 -0500 en-us text/html
Killexams : Final test Guidelines

Final test Schedule

The matrix is a grid of predetermined test times for those classes that meet at regular block times during the semester. The day and time of the first class meeting during the week determine the date and time for each exam. Courses that meet outside the normal university block scheduling will be scheduled within the time block that best fits the schedule without creating conflicts for students

Exam times are as follows:

  • 8 – 11 a.m.
  • 11:30 a.m. – 2:30 p.m.
  • 3 – 6 p.m.
  • 6:30 - 9:30 p.m.

While test blocks are three hours long, the real length of the test is determined by the instructor.

If examination days are postponed because of weather conditions, the first make-up day is documented on the academic calendar.

Final "Common" Exams

Common Finals will need to be applied to all sections of a course not to individual instructors. For courses that are scheduled within the finals matrix, the timing of the final test will be determined immediately (by the location in the matrix). For courses requesting a common final, scheduling will not be available until late mid semester. Treatment of course conflicts for common finals will follow current set of priorities (courses with large enrollments will be scheduled first).

Common test Finals must be approved by the chair and the dean of the college and submitted to the Registrar's office. A multiple‐section course that has chosen to supply a "common" final test will be assigned to a common test block. Students who are scheduled for two common exams at the same time should check with their instructors to see which test has priority.

Course Examination Policies

Faculty are not required to administer cumulative final examinations and should assess their students as appropriate to their discipline and course content. Faculty who opt to administer final examinations must do so at the time and place specified by the Registrar's Office. Deadlines or due dates for final take-home examinations or final papers may not be earlier than the time that the Registrar's Office has scheduled the final examination for the course in question (although instructors may opt to allow such examinations or papers to be submitted early). Note: If an academic program requires that students take final examinations for accreditation purposes, faculty are expected to adhere to the requirements of their accrediting organization.

For any course with a final test during the test period, no hour-examination (or major paper or project) shall be administered or due during the last five academic days of the semester unless the college dean has allowed an exemption.

Examination Conflicts

In the event that a student has three (or more) finals scheduled on the same test day, the student has the right to ask that a make up test (or exams) be scheduled to reduce the number of exams in a given day to two. Under these circumstances, required courses take priority, so the student should make every effort to arrange the make-up test for a non-required course with the respective instructor. Likewise, in the event that a student has two finals scheduled in the same test period, the required course takes priority; the student should schedule a make-up test for the non required conflicting course with the respective instructor. If for any reason a mutually agreeable solution between the student and the instructor cannot be achieved, the student should see his or her college dean immediately.

Final Exams for Hybrid and Virtual Class Sections

Exams (including final exams) for fully virtual classes should be administered virtually, as that is the modality which students selected. Exceptions to hold on-campus exams require deans' approval.  An email (noting the approval) should be sent by email to: so that the test location may be updated – exceptions are subject to room availability. If approved, faculty must indicate the alternate test format in their course syllabus and accommodate students who are unable to attend in-person exams.

If a class section is hybrid (includes both an in-person meeting and either an online or virtual meeting pattern), then the final test will be assigned as in-person, but the instructor may request the final test to be virtual/online depending on the modes of instruction of the hybrid section. Hybrid courses also include courses that have more than one component with different modes of instruction (i.e., the lecture portion is virtual, but the recitation is in-person) and the instructor may decide whether or not the final test is in-person in this scenario as well. Any requests for final test updates should be sent by email to:

Thu, 26 Feb 2015 17:42:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : How to format Text in Microsoft Forms

In Microsoft Form, you can add bold, italic, underline, color, size, numbers, and bullets to your text using the formatting feature offered by Microsoft Forms to make your text bigger, colorful, and organize.

Can you bold text on Microsoft Forms?

Yes, you can bold your text in Microsoft Forms, and it is very easy. Microsoft offers tools to format your text in your forms such as bold, italic, underline, color, font size, numbers, and bullets. In this tutorial, we will explain the process of formatting the text in your form.

How do I change font size in Forms?

Microsoft Form offers a few font sizes to change the size of your text, such as large, medium, and small, so the users can change the font size of the text in their forms to the font size they want.

To format text in Microsoft Forms, follow the steps below.

  1. Open the form you want to edit in Microsoft Forms
  2. Double-tap or highlight the text in the form.
  3. Select either bold, italic, underline, color, size, numbers, or bullets to your text.
  4. See the result

Open the form you want to format in Microsoft Forms.

On the form, Double-tap the text in the form or highlight the text.

You will see some formatting tools pop up.

To bold the text, click the Bold button (B) or press Ctrl + B on the keyboard.

To add italic to the text, click the Italic button (I) or press Ctrl + I on the keyboard.

To add an underline under the text, click the Underline button (U) or press Ctrl + U on the keyboard.

How to format text in Microsoft Forms

To add colors to the text, click the Font Color button and choose the color you want.

To add a font size to the text, click the Font Size button and select the font size you want, such as Large, Medium, and Small.

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Killexams : Fundamentals for Applications

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Killexams : Microsoft Word Column Format Problems

An information technology journalist since 2002, David Nield writes about the Web, technology, hardware and software. He is an experienced editor, proofreader and copywriter for online publications such as CNET, TechRadar and Gizmodo. Nield holds a Bachelor of Arts in English literature and lives in Manchester, England.

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Killexams : How to Keep the Format From Messing Up When You're Using Microsoft Word 2010

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Killexams : FNDX: Why This Smart-Beta ETF Should Beat Both VTV And VOO
ETF Exchange-Traded Funds investment with investor building a portfolio of financial assets on market such as stock, bonds, commodities, currencies. Capital management and finance.


What's the best way to buy diversified value? The default answer is usually Vanguard's Value ETF (VTV), at least judging by assets under management of $153 billion, but you can make a pretty good case that the Schwab Fundamentals U.S. Large Company ETF (NYSEARCA:FNDX) will do better over the next ten years. While the term "value" is not included in its name, it's clear that the "fundamentals" methodology gives this ETF a strong tilt to value. This methodology also explains why FNDX is also likely to outperform both the Vanguard S&P 500 Index ETF (VOO). Why should this be so?

The Schwab FNDX is in effect both a broad large cap index and the value version of that index. The one index ETF it does not compete with is the Growth Index (VUG). It will trail the Growth ETF when tech and other high growth companies are hot, as they have been over most of the last 15 years, but they're very much not hot right now. It's in the midst of a severe correction based on rates, growth and a few operating factors. The growth correction may well be part of a multi-year tilt to value it's entirely possible that over the next few years the Schwab Fundamentals ETF will beat all three cap-weighted index ETFs: VOO, VTV. and VUG. This article will attempt to explain its likely ascendence.

The last decade up until late 2021 was a period of growth dominance, and in the process the growth leaders grew to such size that they came to dominate the performance of the Total S&P 500 Index. This powerful influence was owed in large part to the fact that all three Vanguard ETFs are all based on indexes weighted by market cap. There's an ongoing debate about the relative virtues and defects of market cap weighted indexes and "smart-beta" indexes. It starts with the fact that cap-weighted indexes are shaped by market prices while "smart beta" indexes ignore market prices and base their index weightings on such measures as sales, earnings, book value, cash flow, and dividends (sometimes including buybacks). Jumping over market opinion to underlying economic value is very much a Benjamin Graham value investing approach.

Cap weighted indexes are organized by the total market capitalization of their constituent elements. For the S&P 500 index and its Value and Growth partial indexes, all market indexes are updated at the end of daily trading. Companies which win growing favor in the market thus become more important parts of the index while companies losing favor shrink in importance. The major argument in favor of cap weighted indexes is that they automatically get investors into outstanding growth companies as their operating results and future prospects improve. Ultimately, however, it's the market opinion which causes them to rise. The positive argument is that the market in aggregate is always right because prices represent the "Wisdom of Crowds." It's like guessing how many peas are in a barrel or how much an ox weighs. You and I may be very wrong in our guesstimates, but the guesses of a very large number of people tend to average out to a number that's very close.

This principle of "crowd wisdom" was discovered by Francis Galton in 1906 at a livestock fair while watching 800 people bet on the weight of an ox. While estimates varied wildly, the median and mean estimates were both extraordinarily close to the animal's real weight. This principle works much of the time for many estimating problems. The problem is that from time to time the crowd is very wrong, as when various stock markets became extremely overvalued on crowd enthusiasm. Well known examples include the bubbles in the U.S. market leading up to 1929 and 2000 Crashes as well as the Japanese bubble leading up to Crash starting in 1989. In many cases what begins as the Wisdom of Crowds eventually overshoots and displays the Madness of Crowds.

Cap-weighted indexes have an obvious vulnerability to these bubbles and crashes, and the current bear market led by former tech favorites may be an example of such a correction (so far not a crash). The wisdom of crowds got index investors into growth stocks as they began to emerge and kept investors in them as they grew into dominant companies while the critical faculties of the crowd diminished. The madness of crowds may ultimately tell you that a single tulip bulb is worth tens of thousands of dollars, and who are you to say it isn't. The South Sea Bubble got Isaac Newton in, then out when prices got ridiculous, then back in when the crowd continued to push prices higher.

The Smart Beta Solution

One determined value investor concluded that the solution to the radical overvaluation problem is to use an index grounded in economic fundamentals instead of crowd opinion. In 2002 Rob Arnott founded Research Associates and in 2004 brought out the RAFI Fundamental Index based on sales, profits, book value, free cash flow, and dividends. In this interview with Robert Stowe in 2015 noted the success of the PowerShares Fundamental ETF, now PRF, which had beaten iShares Russell 1000 ETF by .98% annually over its first 10 years, with growth in AUM which he attributed to the fact that investors were frustrated from being "pulled into one bubble after another" by the cap weighted indexes.

Jumping over market opinion to underlying economic value is a very an extension of Benjamin Graham value investing principles to an index. In Graham terms, cap weighting reflects the view of the market as what Graham called a "voting machine." while weighting based on underlying metrics of value corresponded to Graham's characterization of a "weighing machine." At the time Graham wrote his great investment books, Security Analysis and The Intelligent Investor, Graham dealt only with individual stocks as index funds would not appear for another 40 years. The problem this posed by individual stocks was that it was necessary to sell a stock when it reached or exceeded fair value and find another to replace it. The smart beta RAFI index solved this problem by using the ratio of price to a variety of value measures in order to rebalance within the index. Overpriced stocks don't go away, they simply shrink in importance within the index.

The groundwork for creating the RAFI index comes from two articles Arnott published in the early 2000s. The first, coauthored with the legendary Peter Bernstein, argued that even after the 2000 Crash, the risk premium investors assigned to stocks was much too high, producing overblown expected future returns of 12% or more. The Arnott/Bernstein forecast of zero was matched by the real zero return of stocks for the decade of the 2000s. This 2003 article with Clifford Asness argued further that dividends actually correlated to faster growth as managements did not use cash not paid out in dividends to make investments which added to growth. This observation has been borne out by the actions of many of the top tech companies over the last decade which have proved unable to invest surplus free cash flow profitably. This study undoubtedly provided some of insight that makes dividends an important factor in smart beta portfolios.

In this article with William J Bernstein published in 2019 Arnott pulled together these views arguing that investor expectations that earnings growth could exceed growth in GDP was misplaced. Money saved by not paying dividends was not profitably plowed back into investments which increased growth. In the slow motion crash of tech stocks currently in progress this problem afflicts companies like Meta (META) and Alphabet (GOOG, GOOGL) whose investments of gushing free cash have been described as "science projects." It's worth a look at the methodology which led cap weighted indexes to become so top-heavy in a few tech and new business model companies.

How Capitalization Weighted Indexes Are Constructed

Market cap weighting is straightforward and indisputable. It's all you need for an index like the S&P 500. Just establish market cap by multiplying shares outstanding by that day's closing price, then rank the constituent elements in descending value. You then calculate the percentage each stock represents and tweak the index holdings to match these percentages. Easy peasy, like estimating peas in a barrel. Where it gets a little tougher is deciding what you mean by "growth" and "value." The University of Chicago Center For Research Into Security Prices (CRSP) used by Vanguard has the following criteria for Growth and Value:


  1. Future Long-term Growth in Earnings Per Share
  2. Future Short-term Growth in Earnings Per Share
  3. Three-year Historical Growth in Earnings
  4. Three-year Historical Growth in Sales
  5. Current Investment-to-Assets Ratio
  6. Return on Assets

The estimates for both long- and short-term growth are sourced from I/B/E/S (Institutional Brokers' Estimate System) which derives data from over 18,000 analysts. This, again, is highly dependent upon the wisdom of a crowd - in this case a very specific crowd which is known to make errors from time to time. Many studies have shown that estimates of future sales, earnings, and cash flow tend are often wrong. The above section on smart-beta lays out a few of the reasons. Estimates of future growth thus hang upon conjecture, the very stuff of crowd wisdom, which is right until it's wrong. Perhaps even more important is the complete absence of anything involving price or valuation. It's as if there is never too much to pay for growth.

The Value model below is different in that price and valuation are involved in all five criteria. Note that the terminology reverses common practice. Price-to-Book Value, for example, becomes Book Value To Price, making both comparable to Dividend Yield. Here are the five factors.

  1. Book to Price
  2. Future Earnings to Price (3 years)
  3. Historical Earnings to Price (3 years)
  4. Dividends to Price
  5. Sales to Price

While price is a factor for the Value model, it's important to note that it's used only for classification of stocks for placement in Growth and Value indexes. They play no part in weighting, however, as that is done entirely on the basis of capitalization.

Smart-Beta Weighting

It should not be surprising that the criteria for Fundamental weighting has some similarities to the CRSP criteria for Value. There are only so many ways to measure "economic footprint." The major difference in weighting, where market cap means nothing and weighting in the Fundamental index is driven entirely by rankings assigned on the basis of sales, book value, dividends plus buybacks and free cash flow. Instead of future earnings, a single number is assigned to Profits. Some or all of the above numbers become the raw data for stock weightings. This data is then compared to stock price. The market capitalization has no role at all.

These subtle shifts serve to pull so-called "value" and "growth" into a single large index drawn not from the S&P 500 but from the larger Russell 1000 or an index of large and mid caps. For this reason, FNDX, the Schwab Fundamental U.S. Large Cap Index, can be compared to both the universe of large cap stocks and the large cap value index. It includes all the stocks in the former while the reduction of the influence of growth stocks makes it comparable to a Value index like VTV. It's very similar to the Invesco FTSE RAFI U.S. 1000 ETF (PRF) which holds about a third more stocks, all smaller caps.

The Numbers Provide A Few Revealing Comparisons

Here's a table comparing the important metrics:

Vanguard Value ETF (VTV)

Schwab Fundamental U.S. Large Company Index (FNDX) Invesco FTSE RAFI US 1000 ETF (PRF) Vanguard S&P 500 ETF (VOO) Vanguard Growth ETF (VUG)
Number of stocks 341 719 999 503 249
Median Mkt Ca[ $119.5 $93.4 billion $76.7 $147.0 $222.0
P/E ratio 15.7 13.7 13.6 19.5 27.0
P/B ratio 2.6x 2.3x 2.2x 3.7x 7.1x
Div Yield 2.33% 1.9% 3.12% 1.55% 1,52%
ROE 14.7% 22.3% 32.9%
Earnings growth 12.9% 14.1% 13.9% 19.6% 26.9%
Turnover 8.9% 11.0% 10.0% 2.3% 7.6%
Exp. Ratio .04 .25 .39 .03 .04
AUM 149.3B 9.7B 5.8B 748.1B 126.7B

The numbers which stand out here are P/E, P/B. and earnings growth. The PRF Index ETF in particular is cheaper as measured by P/E and P/B ratios, yet enjoyed faster growth than Vanguard's Value. It also pays a much higher dividend. In all cases this was aided by the fact that it includes more mid-cap and small-cap stocks in its 999 stock portfolio. Small cap stocks, like the 7% covered in the Morningstar Small Cap Index, now trade at a P/E ratio of 12.6 as compared to the 20.2 P/E ratio of large caps while mid caps trade around a 13.5 P/E. While P/E ratios and earnings growth are pulled higher in VOO, and higher yet in VUG (Growth) by the large tech winners, the deep value stocks among small and mid-caps surprisingly pull earnings growth higher than the numbers for large cap value.

The larger number of stocks included in two fundamental index funds also contributes to the higher level of turnover. This a factor in their higher expense ratios, while the much cheaper Vanguard expense ratios are aided by their larger Assets Under Management.

The table below shows relative representation in key market sectors. The important numbers include the fact that HealthCare is almost three times the weight in VTV (Value) as in VUG (Growth), while there's five times as much Tech in (VUG) as in (VTV). Both Fundamental Indexes contain more HealthCare than VUG and more Tech than VTV, reflecting the fact that some HealthCare and Tech companies omitted from the Value and Growth ETFs are included though in smaller size in the Smart-Beta format, which also includes smaller Tech and Health Care companies. The massively larger P/E and P/B ratios of the Growth ETF (VUG) suggest the degree to which positive market opinion, the supposed "Wisdom of Crowds," exceeds fundamental factors. The fundamentalist perspective is that future growth is a matter of conjecture and often not borne out by facts.

Communication services 3.23% 7.44% 7.39% 7.36% 11.77%
Consumer cyclical 2.38% 8.84% 8.20% 10.59% 18.88%
Consumer defensive 11.34% 9.02% 8.79% 7.38% 2.87%
Energy 8.85% 9.83% 9.95% 5.37% 1.46%
Financial services 20.04% 17.52% 19.16% 13.61% 6.88%
Health care 22.76% 13.98% 14.36% 15.42% 7.92%
Technology 7.83% 14.78% 11.31% 23.60% 41.3%

Three Charts And A Table

Since inception in 2005 the Invesco FTSE RAFI US 1000 ETF (PRF) has trounced Vanguard's Value Index ETF (VTV) as shown in the chart below, and that's before the impact of dividends which are higher for PRF. This first few years were friendly to small cap stocks, but the period following the Great Recession featured large caps. A similar comparison to the Large Cap Growth index (VUG) would show growth winning narrowly on price before dividends. Dividends would Strengthen the performance of the Fundamental index by more than 1% annually and make the two indexes in a dead heat.

Data by YCharts

The Schwab Fundamentals Large US Company Index ETF (FNDX) has only been around since 2013 but here's the chart showing that the Fundamentals Index also trounced the cap weighted Value Index over that period.

Data by YCharts

One might well wonder whether the Smart Beta indexes actually beat a simple equal-weight index. There is a similarity in the fact that both lack the growth behemoths on cap weighted scale. Here's the chart:

Data by YCharts

The chart confirms the fact that Smart Beta beats equal weight. It does so, by the way on all time frames, with the gap widening as time increases. The factors which make the Smart Beta approach beat Equal Weight are apparent after a bit of thought about the implications of the following table:




1. Apple 3.72% 1.ExxonMobil 2.79% 1.AristaNetworks. 52%
2. ExxonMobil 2.78% 2. Berkshire Hathaway 2.46% 2. AT&T .52%
3. Berkshire Hathaway1.99% 3. Apple 1.88% 3. Arista Networks .51%
4. Microsoft 1.92% 4. Chevron 1.80% 4. Cisco Systems .50%
5. JP Morgan 1.85% 5. JP Morgan 1.78% 5. Motorola .49%
6. Chevron 1,75% 6. AT&T 1.68% 6. Comcast A .48%
7.AT&T 1.64% 7. Microsoft 1.60% 7. T-Mobile US .47%
8.Walmart 1.34% 8. Johnson & Johnson 1.26% 8. Ciena Corp .46%
9. Wells Fargo 1.31% 9, Wells Fargo 1.20% 9. Charter Comm ..45%
10. UnitedHealth 1.28% 10. UnitedHealth 1.18% 10. Ubiquiti .44%
Total 19.56% 17.62% 4.85%
723 Holdings 1003 Holdings 999 Holdings

The key numbers are the percentages of the individual stocks and the total percentage of the top 10 stocks. The fact that the top 10 stocks in both Smart Beta indexes contain upwards of 20% of the total index shows that the criteria for selection were very much able to pick companies with outstanding "economic value." While the weight of the top 10 is nothing like their 48% of the Growth Index (VUG), it's not far short of the 27% in the S&P 500 (VOO). The short answer as to why the Fundamentals Indexes beat the equal-weight index is that while they bear some similarity to equal weight, their weightings leave room for overweighing companies which are superior on underlying measures of value.

The majority of the top ten in both Fundamentals ETF are value stocks ranging from Berkshire Hathaway (BRK.A)(BRK.B) and UnitedHealth (UNH) to more out of favor stocks such as two large integrated large-cap oil companies, Exxon Mobil (XOM) and Chevron (CVX). What this communicates to individual investors is that these stocks are undervalued by the cap weighted indexes. Put more precisely, XOM and CVX rank quite a bit higher when ranked by fundamentals than when ranked by the aggregate opinion of the crowd.

Even more intriguing is the fact that Apple (AAPL) and Microsoft (MSFT), which do not appear in Value indexes but are ranked No. 1 and No. 2 in both the Total S&P 500 Index and the Growth Index were also ranked in the top four of both Smart Beta indexes. One effect is that the 3.72%% representation of Apple in the Schwab Index (FNDX) is about seven times its weighting in the equal weight index. The second takeaway is that fundamental weightings go a long way in assessing how much of the high rankings of rapid growth stocks stems from market opinion and how much stems from underlying fundamentals.

For Apple and Microsoft investors that's good news, as the two stocks are ranked high in the factors used by both fundamentals indexes. In short, they rose to the top on concrete results rather than market infatuation. For investors interested in these companies it may further suggest that their position in the Vanguard indexes is grounded in real value as well. Neither AAPL nor MSFT are necessarily cheap buys, but their prices seem closer to a fair value based on results than other growth leaders. Investors in the integrated oils might also take comfort in the knowledge that crowd conjecture seems to be overruling solid fundamentals.


Every method from the comparative metrics to price charts suggests that the two ETFs constructed on fundamentals, FNDX and PRF, are likely to outperform cap weighted indexes for a period of years. They may, in fact, also outperform cap weighted growth which is burdened with growth stock valuations which have not yet come down to earth. They also should continue to outperform equal weight indexes which appear somewhat more similar than they really are.

Both fundamentals indexes have their points. FNDX has performed slightly better than PRF (1-2%) in Vanguard tables of 1, 3, 5, and since origin tables. It also has the lower expense ratio, .25% versus .39% for PRF. PRF might be the choice of some investors because of its larger 3.12% dividend. My choice is FNDX, and it is a Buy.

Thu, 08 Dec 2022 10:19:00 -0600 en text/html
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