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LFCS Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator syllabus | http://babelouedstory.com/
LFCS syllabus - Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator Updated: 2023
LFCS Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator
The Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS) certification is ideal for candidates early in their Linux system administration or open source career. The test consists of performance-based items that simulate on-the-job tasks and scenarios faced by sysadmins in the real world. Obtaining certification allows individuals to validate their skills to prospective employers, which is particularly valuable if you have little on-the-job experience.
Domains & Competencies
The Linux Foundation worked with industry experts and the Linux kernel community to identify the core domains and the critical skills, knowledge and competencies applicable to each certification. Performance-based exams were then developed based on the competencies that were identified.
- Essential Commands – 25%
- Operation of Running Systems – 20%
- User and Group Management – 10%
- Networking – 12%
- Service Configuration – 20%
- Storage Management – 13%
Essential Commands – 25%
- Log into local & remote graphical and text mode consoles
- Search for files
- Evaluate and compare the basic file system features and options
- Compare and manipulate file content
- Use input-output redirection (e.g. >, >>, |, 2>)
- Analyze text using basic regular expressions
- Archive, backup, compress, unpack, and uncompress files
- Create, delete, copy, and move files and directories
- Create and manage hard and soft links
- List, set, and change standard file permissions
- Read, and use system documentation
- Manage access to the root account
Operation of Running Systems – 20%
- Boot, reboot, and shut down a system safely
- Boot or change system into different operating modes
- Install, configure and troubleshoot bootloaders
- Diagnose and manage processes
- Locate and analyze system log files
- Schedule tasks to run at a set date and time
- Verify completion of scheduled jobs
- Update software to provide required functionality and security
- Verify the integrity and availability of resources
- Verify the integrity and availability of key processes
- Change kernel runtime parameters, persistent and non-persistent
- Use scripting to automate system maintenance tasks
- Manage the startup process and services (In Services Configuration)
- List and identify SELinux/AppArmor file and process contexts
- Manage Software
- Identify the component of a Linux distribution that a file belongs to
User and Group Management – 10%
- Create, delete, and modify local user accounts
- Create, delete, and modify local groups and group memberships
- Manage system-wide environment profiles
- Manage template user environment
- Configure user resource limits
- Manage user privileges
- Configure PAM
Networking – 12%
- Configure networking and hostname resolution statically or dynamically
- Configure network services to start automatically at boot
- Implement packet filtering
- Start, stop, and check the status of network services
- Statically route IP traffic
- Synchronize time using other network peers
Service Configuration – 20%
- Configure a caching DNS server
- Maintain a DNS zone
- Configure email aliases
- Configure SSH servers and clients
- Restrict access to the HTTP proxy server
- Configure an IMAP and IMAPS service
- Query and modify the behavior of system services at various operating modes
- Configure an HTTP server
- Configure HTTP server log files
- Configure a database server
- Restrict access to a web page
- Manage and configure containers
- Manage and configure Virtual Machines
Storage Management – 13%
- List, create, delete, and modify physical storage partitions
- Manage and configure LVM storage
- Create and configure encrypted storage
- Configure systems to mount file systems at or during boot
- Configure and manage swap space
- Create and manage RAID devices
- Configure systems to mount file systems on demand
- Create, manage and diagnose advanced file system permissions
- Setup user and group disk quotas for filesystems
- Create and configure file systems
Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator Linux-Foundation Administrator syllabus
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Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator
Given a file called birthdays containing lines like:
YYYY-MM-DD Name -
Which command would you use to output the lines belonging to all people listed whose birthday is in May or June?
A. grep '' birthdays
B. grep 05?6? birthdays
C. grep '[0-9]*-0-' birthdays
D. grep 06 birthdays | grep 05 Answer: C
The script, script.sh, consists of the following lines:
echo $2 $1
Which output will appear if the command, ./script.sh test1 test2, is entered?
A. test1 test2
B. test2 test1
C. script.sh test2
D. script.sh test1
E. test1 script.sh Answer: B
Which approach will provide a listing of the contents in a tar archive?
A. Use the tar command with -t.
B. Use the grep command.
C. Use the find command.
D. Use the zless command.
E. Use the zlist command. Answer: A
Which character starts a comment line in a shell script file?
D. / Answer: C
What is the output of the following command sequence?
for token in a b c; do
echo -n "$token ";
B. a b c
C. "a " "b " "c "
D. token token token
E. abc Answer: B
What is the correct command to extract the contents of the archive file download.bz2?
A. unpack download.bz2
B. unzip2 download.bz2
C. bunzip2 download.bz2
D. unzip download.bz2
E. uncompress download.bz2 Answer: C
Which command chain will count the number of regular files with the name of foo.txt within /home?
A. ls -lR /home | grep foo.txt | wc -l
B. find /home -type f -name foo.txt | wc -l
C. find /home -name foo.txt -count
D. find /home -name foo.txt | wc -l
E. grep -R foo.txt /home | wc -l Answer: B
Which of the following command sequences overwrites the file foobar.txt?
A. echo "QUIDQUIDAGIS" >> foobar.txt
B. echo "QUIDQUIDAGIS" < foobar.txt
C. echo "QUIDQUIDAGIS" > foobar.txt
D. echo "QUIDQUIDAGIS" | foobar.txt Answer: C
Which of the following commands redirects the output of cmd to the file foo.txt, in which an existing file is
A. cmd || foo.txt
B. cmd | foo.txt
C. cmd && foo.txt
D. cmd >> foo.txt
E. cmd > foo.txt Answer: E
What does the exit status 0 indicate about a process?
A. The process ended without any problems.
B. The process was terminated by the user.
C. The process couldn't finish correctly.
D. The process waited for an input but got none.
E. The process finished in time. Answer: A
Which of the following commands will output all of the lines with the name Fred in upper or lower case but not the
word red from the file data_file? (Choose two)
A. grep -v fred data_file
B. grep '[f]red' data_file
C. egrep fred data_file
D. grep '[Ff]red' data_file
E. grep -i fred data_file Answer: DE
The output of the program date should be saved in the variable actdat. What is the correct statement?
B. set actdat='date'
C. date | actdat
D. date > $actdat
E. actdat=date Answer: A
What two character sequence is present at the beginning of an interpreted script? (Please specify the TWO correct
characters only) Answer: #!
How can the current directory and its subdirectories be searched for the file named MyFile.xml?
A. find . -name MyFile.xml
B. grep MyFile.xml | find
C. grep -r MyFile.xml .
D. less MyFile.xml
E. search Myfile.xml ./ Answer: A
Which of the following commands will set the variable text to olaf is home? (Choose two)
A. text=olaf\ is\ home
B. text=$olaf is home
C. $text='olaf is home'
D. text=='olaf is home'
E. text="olaf is home" Answer: AE
Which of the following commands will create an archive file, named backup.tar, containing all the files from the
A. tar /home backup.tar
B. tar -cf /home backup.tar
C. tar -xf /home backup.tar
D. tar -xf backup.tar /home
E. tar -cf backup.tar /home Answer: E
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Wed, 12 Jul 2023 02:00:00 -0500Steven Parkerentext/htmlhttps://www.neowin.net/news/mastering-linux-system-administration--30-value-free-download/Online Linux Administrator Course
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Fri, 06 Oct 2017 03:33:00 -0500text/htmlhttps://www.siliconindia.com/online_courses/linux_administrator-cid-19.htmlBest Linux Certifications
More than 20 years after Linus Torvalds developed Linux, the operating system remains a force in the computing industry. While Linux is not widely used on desktops, it is extraordinarily strong on the web server side, where it enjoys a market share of 48 percent, according to W3 Techs.
Information technology (IT) professionals invest considerable time learning about server computing for everything from installation, configuration, maintenance and virtualization to application support and security. This also means that many IT professionals are working with and around Linux operating systems daily, often alongside Windows and various UNIX OS brands as well.
The results of a job search we conducted on several popular job posting sites show which Linux certifications employers are looking for when hiring new employees. While results vary from day to day (and job board to job board), this table reflects those Linux-related certifications that employers were seeking in the United States.
Job Board Survey Results (in alphabetical order, by certification)
Oracle Linux OCP
RHCA (Red Hat)
RHCE (Red Hat)
RHCSA (Red Hat)
We found that for nearly every certification category listed above, the number of national jobs postings mentioning that certification has increased or held steady since we surveyed the same job sites a year ago. Linux system administrators and engineers can expect average earnings in the low $90s and upward, depending on the job role. Glassdoor reports earnings for Linux system administrators averaging $94,000, Linux system engineers around $132,000 and senior Linux system engineers at an average range of $144,000 to $232,000
Best Linux Certifications
The best of the Linux certifications vie for considerable mindshare among IT professionals and present an interesting mix of distribution- or brand-agnostic credentials alongside some pretty formidable vendor-specific credentials. There are multiple well-elaborated certification ladders available to those interested in learning, using and mastering the Linux operating system environment and all the many bells and whistles it supports.
The following are our top picks for Linux certifications to pursue.
Linux+ (CompTIA XK0-005)
CompTIA exercises extraordinary certification clout at the entry level in many IT niches. This nonprofit has shown itself as willing to team up with more focused IT organizations, associations and consortia to combine their own market reach and visibility with niche smarts and subject matter expertise on loan from various partners.
CompTIA’s Linux+ is aimed at early career system administrators aiming to increase their abilities to support Linux environments. CompTIA also recently introduced its latest version of the exam, XK0-005, which became the only version of the certification available after XK0-004 retired in January 2023. The new certification test focuses on the evolving nature of Linux, looking at syllabus such as how Linux powers the cloud. syllabus also include looking at infrastructure as code, Linux containers and how Linux is used in newer, cutting-edge technologies.
CompTIA provides a wide range of other certifications, which can complement Linux+. These certifications include infrastructure-related certifications covering cloud and server technologies.
Linux+ is good for three years, during which time holders can renew the certification by earning 50 continual education credits or by earning approved, high certifications that renew Linux+ automatically as well.
CompTIA Linux+ Facts & Figures
Prerequisites & Required Courses
Recommended: 12 months hands-on experience working with Linux servers; CompTIA A+ and CompTIA Network+ are also recommended
Number of Exams
One: XK0-005; maximum of 90 multiple choice questions over 90 minutes
CompTIA maintains a list of training materials and additional study options, including links to study guides, test crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, CertMaster and more; additional third-party reference and review materials can be found on Amazon
LPI (Linux Professional Institute) Certifications
The Linux Professional Institute (LPI) started up in October 1999, almost one decade after Linus Torvalds began his pioneering efforts on the Linux kernel. Since then, LPI has become one of the leading certification providers on Linux syllabus and technologies.
Given the organization’s distribution-agnostic approach to Linux, it offers excellent coverage of a platform that’s available in many forms and flavors in today’s marketplace.
The LPI Certification (LPIC) program is available in three distinct levels:
LPIC-1: A junior-level Linux certification with no prerequisites. Candidates must pass two exams that cover basic Linux skills, including installing and configuring Linux on a workstation, working at the command line, performing basic maintenance tasks and making LAN or internet connections.
LPIC-2: An advanced-level Linux certification that requires an active LPIC-1 certification. Candidates must pass two exams that cover significant Linux skills and topics. The first test covers the kernel, system startup, file system and devices, advanced storage administration, network configuration, system maintenance and capacity planning. The second test covers web services, file sharing, network client management, email services, system security and troubleshooting and domain name servers.
LPIC-3: At the senior level, LPI certifications split into three different paths, each of which requires an active LPIC-2 and passing any single test in the 300 Valid test IDs currently include 300: Mixed Environment, 303: Security, 305: Virtualization and Containerization and 306: High Availability and Storage Clusters. The Mixed Environment test covers Samba (domain integration, user and group management, name services, share configuration and so forth), plus OpenLDAP and working with Linux and Windows clients. The Security test covers network, operations and application security, as well as cryptography and access controls. High availability cluster storage and management, along with virtualization, are covered in the Virtualization and Storage Clusters test and differing aspects of virtualization and virtual machine deployment are covered in Virtualization and Containerization.
In addition to the LPIC-1, 2 and 3 credentials, LPI also offers an entry-level credential, the Linux Essentials Professional Development Certificate (PDC). Linux Essentials focuses on foundational skills, such as creating and running simple scripts, restoring compressed backups and archives, working with the command line, Linux operating system basics, FOSS and users/groups and file permissions for public and private directories. Linux Essentials is a great way to get started while gaining the skills and knowledge needed for the more challenging LPIC credentials.
LPI also offers the LPIC-OT DevOps Tools Engineer certification, which recognizes the effective use of tools for collaboration during system and software development. There are no prerequisites, and the single test lasts for 90 minutes and has 60 questions.
LPIC credentials are worthwhile for IT pros whose chosen Linux distributions do not warrant their own certification programs and those seeking broad, vendor- and distribution-neutral coverage of Linux topics, tools and technologies. They are popular among IT pros and in demand among IT employers.
The LPIC and Linux+ exams are great ways to demonstrate broad knowledge of the Linux system without having to specialize in a specific Linux distribution. This is a good pathway for either professions starting off in Linux or those who wish to maintain a wider knowledge base.
LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 Facts & Figures
Oracle Linux OCP
When Oracle bought Sun Microsystems in 2010, it acquired a rich and deep UNIX tradition. Oracle started phasing out Solaris almost immediately after finalizing the Sun acquisition.
Today, Oracle offers associate- and professional-level certifications based on Linux rather than harking back to any kind of UNIX roots. These certifications retain enough of their Sun roots, however, so that courses are not mandatory prerequisites to taking the exams for the two Oracle Linux certifications currently available.
As with other vendor-specific Linux certifications, Oracle’s are most appealing to those who work with or around that distribution or wish to work for employers who use those distributions.
OCP Facts & Figures
Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Linux 8 System Administrator
Oracle offers online and in-class training for its credentials with hit-or-miss coverage for them on the aftermarket; start with Amazon searches — check test IDs 1Z0-106
Red Hat RHCSA, RHCE and RHCA
If there’s one major star in the vendor-specific Linux certification firmament, it’s got to be Red Hat. The company has a major market presence and a serious duration as a commercial provider of Linux platforms and technologies.
Red Hat offers a typical administrator, engineer, architect certification ladder. Unlike many other such programs, however, it offers highly regarded and valued credentials at each rung, along with demanding and hands-on oriented exams and an excellent training curriculum to match. All exams for the following Red Hat certifications are performance-based and last two hours or longer.
The giveaway for Red Hat certifications is that all come with acronyms that start with RH, as follows:
Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA): This foundation certification vets essential skills in handling files, working at the command line and using system documentation, along with managing systems (boot up, identifying processes, start/stop virtual machines and controlling services), configuring storage partitions and logical volumes and more.
Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE): This cornerstone certification is designed to test and validate the skills and knowledge necessary to work as a senior-level Linux system administrator. The test focuses on testing and developing skills necessary for managing systems in a DevOps environment. syllabus include automation, management and support of multisystem environments and experience integrating Ansible Automation with other Red Hat technologies.
Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA): Red Hat’s pinnacle certification offers two paths to certification, depending on which prerequisite advanced Red Hat certification credentials you have already completed: Red Hat Certified Enterprise Microservices Developers (RHCEMDs) and Red Hat Certified Cloud-native Developer (RHCCDs) can earn an RHCA in Enterprise Applications and Red Hat Certified Engineers (RHCEs) can earn an RHCA in Infrastructure.
In general, the five additional exams that must be passed to achieve the RCHA in either Infrastructure or Enterprise Applications are specific to each area of specialization, though a few of the tests can be used to satisfy the five test requirements in both RHCA tracks.
A number of previously available certification exams have been discontinued for new RHCA candidates and renewals, though those exams can still be applied to the RHCA certification if you’ve already passed them. Find out more about discontinued exams that can be counted toward the RHCA credential on the RHCA page under the Candidate Guidance tab.
Because Red Hat Linux is widely used in the business world, the RHCA certification is an excellent choice for those interested in a more platform-focused path into the Linux world. Of course, for those who already work with or around Red Hat, it is a natural certification choice as well.
Red Hat is a trusted partner for more than 90 percent of organizations in the Fortune 500, making it a strong choice for Linux professionals looking to specialize in a specific Linux distribution.
RHCSA, RHCE and RHCA Facts & Figures
Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA)
Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)
Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA)
Prerequisites & Required Courses
RHCSA: No prerequisites
Windows system administrators: Runnin Containers with Red Hat Technical Overview (RH065), Red Hat System Administration I (RH124) and II (RH134)
Linux/Unix Administrators, RHCSA Rapid Track Course with test (RH200)
RHCE: RHCSA credential
Same as for RHCSA, plus
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Automation with Ansible (RH294)
RHCE-certified (Infrastructure track) — Candidates currently holding an RHCE certification must pass five additional exams from the Infrastructure track below
RHCEMD/RHCCD-certified (Enterprise Applications track) — Candidates currently holding an RHCJD or an RHCEMD certification must pass five additional exams from the Enterprise Applications track below
Number of Exams
RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) exam
RHCE: One exam, EX294 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) exam
RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you have already completed an RHCE certification (for the RHCA Infrastructure track) or an RHCEMD/RHCCD (for the RHCA Enterprise Applications track):
An RHCE must pass at least five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure, while also keeping the associated certifications current:
Red Hat skills assessments and other materials can be located on the training page. Red Hat Training includes multiple training options (online, classroom, self-paced, virtual, video and more). Red Hat Learning Subscription includes all online courses in one package; prices vary by geography, candidates can expect to pay $6,000 for a Basic Subscription and $7,000 for a Standard Subscription; study guides are on Amazon
Another certification to consider: The Linux Foundation
Outside the top four Linux credentials and programs covered in this article, The Linux Foundation certifications may be worthy of your time and attention.
The Linux Foundation, a membership-based organization, promotes the development of the Linux kernel through collaboration, conferences and education. The organization’s small but respected certification program includes the Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS).
Many industry experts, including Steven J. Vaughn-Nichols, a long-time user and expert on Linux and Unix operating systems, say that certifications can be an important ingredient in a job candidate’s qualifications. But interviewers should also pay close attention to how many Linux systems candidates have set up, managed or used to get a sense of the scale and scope of their experience.
In other words, when you see a web hosting service advertising for Linux jobs, they’re not looking for people who’ve installed and used Linux at home or in a small business setting; they’re looking for professionals who’ve set up and managed Linux in a highly distributed and virtualized data center environment, with lots of complex networking and services coming into the mix.
Choosing the right certification
Choosing the right certification pathway can help boost your overall skills, knowledge and employability. However, it can be difficult to evaluate exactly which certification is best for you. Certification seekers should first consider whether they want a broader certification to demonstrate overall knowledge of Linux, such as from Linux+ or the LPIC exams, or whether they want to demonstrate knowledge of specific types of Linux, such as from Oracle or Red Hat. Once you’ve determined that, it is simply a question of finding the correct certification to match your skill level.
Ed Tittel and Earl Follis contributed to this article.
According to Borchers, the goal of the foundation is to:
Host the infrastructure to support JS Foundation projects;
Enable, through advancement of the JS Foundation’s projects and strategic partnerships, an open and accessible web.”
“We are focused on Node core, but many of our users depend on a lot of third-party packages, and when those packages become big enough, it would be really nice if they had a foundation to go into, something to protect the IP and do all the things that we do for core that make it remain stable,” he said. “Now that JS foundation can really provide that for our users, we don’t have to become a large umbrella organization.”
The JS Foundation and its projects will continue to be community-driven and supported, and it will continue to work with standards bodies such as the W3C, WHATWG and Ecma TC39.
Founding members of the foundation include Bocoup, IBM, Ripple, Samsung, Sauce Labs, Sense Tecnic Systems, SitePen, StackPath, the University of Westminster, and WebsiteSetup.
Monterrey, California: At the Linux Foundation Members Summit, Jonathan Corbet, Linux kernel developer and executive editor of Linux Weekly News, explained where the pain points are for Linux kernel maintainers and why it's getting to be a bit much for all of Linux's cooks.
Indeed, many Linux code maintainers are burning out. Why? There are many reasons. First, though, you need to understand what Linux kernel maintainers actually do.
They're the people who take the code from thousands of developers, check it for errors, make sure there are no regressions, coordinate the code with the patches from other maintainers from further up and down the tree, and finally herd the patches toward the mainline. Oh, and manage backports. That's a lot of work, but it's only the "fun" code part.
Maintainers must also mediate developer disagreements and interact with vendors and users. The latter can range from talking to hardware companies to try to get them to open-source their drivers, and assisting developers on how to build a driver, to helping a user having trouble with his laptop touchpad -- quite possibly because the aforementioned vendor never cooperated when the touchpad driver was first built.
The result? Well, as Darrick Wong, the former maintainer of the XFS file system, put it in his latest resignation note, "I burned out years ago trying to juggle the roles senior developer, reviewer, tester, triager (crappily), release manager, and (at times) manager liaison. … I thought if I could hold on just a bit longer, I could help to maintain the focus on long-term development to Strengthen the experience for users. I was wrong."
Most of my friends work for small companies, nonprofits, and local governments. They report the same problems with overwork, pervasive fear, and anger, and struggle to understand and adapt to new ideas that I observe here. They see the direct connection between their org's lack of revenue and resources. They don't understand why the hell the same happens to me and my workplace proximity associates when we all work for companies that clear hundreds of billions of dollars.
Before diving into this, let me point out that the maintainer burnout problem is not because the Linux Foundation isn't paying for maintainers. The Linux Foundation only has three maintainers: Linus Torvalds, Greg Kroah-Hartman, and Shuah Khan. That's it.
That's because the Linux Foundation is not a programming company. It's an open-source foundation that provides resources for businesses, organizations, and developers to build open-source projects. It's corporations for the most part that hire maintainers.
But, as Corbet mentioned, almost no one -- no one -- pays people to be maintainers. Maintenance is extra work they do on top of their day job. Companies want their programmers to produce new code. They're not interested in paying them to help manage the entire Linux, or any other open-source project, fundamental infrastructure.
Who wouldn't? I stand in awe of maintainers. I'm known as an extremely productive writer -- over 10 thousand articles published and counting -- but I couldn't possibly handle their workload.
But, wait! There's more. While Corbet welcomes the arrival of the Rust language into Linux, it will also add another burden to maintainers. "If you are a kernel maintainer, and you're going to start receiving submissions written in the Rust language, you have to understand the language at a very deep level. … This is a lot to ask a maintainer to learn this new language when they're already busy and overwhelmed with the work that they're doing, so this is gonna be a problem going forward."
Another problem is the increased use of fuzzers. These test programs inject semi-random data into a program/stack to detect bugs. It's a great technique for finding mistakes and potential security holes.
But, recently, people without a clue are using fuzzers to find "bugs." So, Corbet observed, "Fuzzers generate thousands of reports. And even if all of these reports were good, somebody has to go through them or somebody has to understand them all. That task falls on the maintainer Add to this the fact that many of these reports are bad or duplicates and you have a huge waste of time." Worse still, "we have lots of people running fuzzers and cranking out reports without really verifying they found a real problem or helping in any way to solve these problems."
Just what maintainers need, more, and often pointless, work.
So, what's the answer? Address the maintainer understaffing problem.
In a world where we have 5 thousand people contributing to the kernel every year, understaffing might seem like a strange thing to complain about. But maintainers are overworked. We're working for companies bringing in hundreds of millions of dollars a year in revenue, but companies that like to hire kernel maintainers don't always like to provide them time to actually be kernel maintainers. They need to be evaluated for their maintainer work.
In short, "let maintainers do maintenance as part of their job, provide them credit for it, because this is not happening and it's what we really need."
Companies need to recognize the value of maintaining not just Linux, but other important open-source projects. Successful development is not all about producing new lines of code. It's about making sure the entire codebase works well as a whole, and that means giving people the time and resources.
It's not just corporations that need to step up. Corbet added that developers need to review patches.
Corbet explained, "If you are submitting patches to the kernel, you should be reviewing patches submitted to the kernel. If all you're doing is suspending code, then you're putting a load on the maintainer side of the equation without doing your part to help them."
So, with more support from both programmers and corporations, the great Linux maintainer burnout can be mediated before it becomes an even bigger problem than it already is.
Wed, 25 Oct 2023 06:16:00 -0500entext/htmlhttps://www.zdnet.com/article/what-linux-kernel-maintainers-do-and-why-they-need-your-help/Linux Foundation releases data on the most widely used open-source application libraries
The Linux Foundation and Harvard’s Lab for Innovation Science have teamed up to educate developers and security professionals on what the most widely used open-source application libraries are.
The report,Census II, is a follow-up to Census I, which was conducted in 2015 to identify the packages in Debian Linux that were most critical to the operation and security of the kernel. According to the Linux Foundation, Census II allows for a more “complete picture of free and open source (FOSS) adoption.”
“Understanding what FOSS packages are the most critical to society allows us to proactively support projects that warrant operations and security support,” said Brian Behlendorf, executive director at Linux Foundation’s Open Source Security Foundation (OpenSSF). “Open source software is the foundation upon which our day-to-day lives run, from our banking institutions to our schools and workplaces. Census II provides the foundational detail we need to support the world’s most critical and valuable infrastructure.”
As a result of the research, the Linux Foundation identified five findings crucial to the future health of open-source software:
A standardized naming schema is needed for components
Package versions often include a number of associated complexities
The most widely used open source software is developed by a handful of contributors
Individual developer account security is becoming more and more important
Legacy software persists in the open source ecosystem
Data explored in the report includes both the top 500 npm packages and top 500 non-npm packages. These are also split into versioned and version-agnostic, and direct and indirect packages.
For example, the top 10 version-agnostic packages available through npm are lodash, react, axios, debug, @babel/core, express, semver, uuid, react-dom, and jquery.
Tue, 01 Mar 2022 10:00:00 -0600en-UStext/htmlhttps://sdtimes.com/os/linux-foundation-releases-data-on-the-most-widely-used-open-source-application-libraries/Linux and Private Cloud Administration on IBM Power SystemsNo result found, try new keyword!This specialization introduces Red Hat Enterprise Linux system administration and private cloud capabilities of IBM Systems. IBM Power servers will be used to demonstrate these concepts.Sat, 06 Nov 2021 18:23:00 -0500https://www.usnews.com/education/skillbuilder/linux-and-private-cloud-administration-on-ibm-power-systems-0_fZQJkImJEeqajAo9_a2lBwLinux Foundation Announces Intent to Form the High Performance Software Foundation
Foundation aims to build, promote, and advance a portable core software stack for high performance computing.
SAN FRANCISCO, Nov. 13, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- Today, the Linux Foundation, the nonprofit organization enabling mass innovation through open source, announced the intention to form the High Performance Software Foundation (HPSF). Through a series of technical projects, HPSF aims to build, promote, and advance a portable software stack for high performance computing (HPC) by increasing adoption, lowering barriers to contribution, and supporting development efforts.
As use of HPC becomes ubiquitous in scientific computing and digital engineering, and AI use cases multiply, more and more data centers deploy GPUs and other compute accelerators. HPSF intends to leverage investments made by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Exascale Computing Project (ECP), the EuroHPC Joint Undertaking, and other international projects in accelerated HPC to exploit the performance of this diversifying set of architectures. As an umbrella project under the Linux Foundation, HPSF intends to provide a neutral space for pivotal projects in the high performance software ecosystem, enabling industry, academia, and government entities to collaborate together on the scientific software stack.
HPSF already benefits from strong support across the HPC landscape, including leading companies and organizations like Amazon Web Services, Argonne National Laboratory, CEA, CIQ, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Intel, Kitware, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NVIDIA, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, and the University of Oregon. Drawing from supporting organizations and members of the community, HPSF will set up a technical advisory committee (TAC) to manage working groups tackling a variety of HPC topics, and will follow a governance model based on the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF).
The HPSF is launching with the following initial open source technical projects:
Spack: the HPC package manager
Kokkos: a performance-portable programming model for writing modern C++ applications in a hardware-agnostic way.
AMReX: a performance-portable software framework designed to accelerate solving partial differential equations on block-structured, adaptively refined meshes.
WarpX: a performance-portable Particle-in-Cell code with advanced algorithms that won the 2022 Gordon Bell Prize
Trilinos: a collection of reusable scientific software libraries, known in particular for linear, non-linear, and transient solvers, as well as optimization and uncertainty quantification.
Apptainer: a container system and image format specifically designed for secure high-performance computing.
VTK-m: a toolkit of scientific visualization algorithms for accelerator architectures.
HPCToolkit: performance measurement and analysis tools for computers ranging from laptops to the world's largest GPU-accelerated supercomputers.
HPSF aims to make life easier for high performance software developers through a number of focused initiatives, including:
Continuous Integration resources tailored for HPC projects
Continuously built, turnkey software stacks
Performance regression testing and benchmarking
HPSF representatives will be attending ACM/IEEE Supercomputing Conference (SC23) on Monday, November 13 for a kickoff presentation at 8:00pm. The presentation will happen at the DOE booth on the show floor during the opening Gala, with words from HPSF founders and supporters. HPSF representatives will also be available to talk to prospective projects and members.
The HPSF welcomes organizations from across the HPC ecosystem to get involved and help drive innovation in open source HPC solutions. To learn more about the HPSF, including how to get involved and join as a member, please visit https://hpsfoundation.github.io.
About The Linux Foundation The Linux Foundation is the world's leading home for collaboration on open source software, hardware, standards, and data. Linux Foundation projects are critical to the world's infrastructure including Linux, Kubernetes, Node.js, ONAP, PyTorch, RISC-V, SPDX, OpenChain, and more. The Linux Foundation focuses on leveraging best practices and addressing the needs of contributors, users, and solution providers to create sustainable models for open collaboration. For more information, please visit us at linuxfoundation.org. The Linux Foundation has registered trademarks and uses trademarks. For a list of trademarks of The Linux Foundation, please see its trademark usage page: www.linuxfoundation.org/trademark-usage. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
Sun, 12 Nov 2023 19:00:00 -0600en-UStext/htmlhttps://finance.yahoo.com/news/linux-foundation-announces-intent-form-140000931.htmlThe Linux Foundation Announces General Availability of Delta Lake 3.0
SAN FRANCISCO, Oct. 19, 2023 — The Linux Foundation is excited to announce the general availability of Delta Lake 3.0, the groundbreaking release of the renowned open-source Delta Lake project.
Developed under the banner of The Linux Foundation, this version of Delta Lake unifies lakehouse storage formats and gives users flexibility and control over their data.
Key Features of Delta Lake 3.0:
Delta Universal Format (UniForm): Companies have long grappled with the decision of which storage format to standardize in their pursuit of creating a seamless data lakehouse. UniForm is an innovative feature that facilitates reading data in the format demanded by the application, ensuring heightened compatibility and a broader ecosystem. With UniForm, the challenges of choosing between Apache Iceberg or Apache Hudi are erased. Delta now effortlessly generates the essential metadata for both, eliminating the need for manual conversions, providing an unmatched layer of flexibility and efficiency.
Delta Kernel: The expansive connector landscape for Delta often poses challenges for developers. Focused on streamlining the process of building Delta connectors, Delta Kernel offers a simplified API, ensuring that developers can harness the full suite of Delta’s offerings without being entangled in its underlying complexities. By masking the intricate details of the Delta protocol specification, developers can concentrate on leveraging the potential of Delta.
Dramatically Faster MERGE and Updates: With Delta 3.0, MERGE now better leverages data skipping, the ability to use the insert-only code path in more cases, and an overall improved execution to achieve up to 2x better performance in various scenarios. DELETE operations are now more than 2x faster. Faster DELETE operations translate to reduced wait times when purging or updating data, enabling more agile data management and processing.
“The Linux Foundation has always championed open source innovation and collaboration,” said Jim Zemlin, Executive Director of the Linux Foundation. “With the release of Delta Lake 3.0, we see a testament to the power of community-driven development in the data world. This milestone represents not just technological advancement with industry-changing features like UniForm and Delta Kernel, but also the potential of open ecosystems to drive change and foster innovation.”
Users worldwide can now leverage Delta Lake 3.0 to streamline their data management processes, optimize performance, and enhance flexibility. Eager to delve deeper into the feature set and discover more about Delta Lake 3.0? Explore the detailed release notes here. For more information on Delta Lake 3.0 and its revolutionary features, read this blog.
About The Linux Foundation
Founded in 2000, the Linux Foundation and its projects are supported by more than 2,950 members. The Linux Foundation is the world’s leading home for collaboration on open source software, hardware, standards, and data. Linux Foundation projects are critical to the world’s infrastructure including Linux, Kubernetes, Node.js, ONAP, Hyperledger, RISC-V, and more. The Linux Foundation’s methodology focuses on leveraging best practices and addressing the needs of contributors, users, and solution providers to create sustainable models for open collaboration. For more information, please visit us at linuxfoundation.org.
Source: The Linux Foundation
Wed, 18 Oct 2023 15:00:00 -0500text/htmlhttps://www.datanami.com/this-just-in/the-linux-foundation-announces-general-availability-of-delta-lake-3-0/Linux Foundation, ISC2 and OpenSSF Collaborate to Target Secure Code Development
Collaboration Announced to Expand the Depth and Reach ofCybersecurity Training & Certifications
SAN FRANCISCO, Nov. 2, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- Linux Foundation Training & Certification,ISC2, and Open Source Security Foundation(OpenSSF) today announced a new collaboration to empower the open source cybersecurity community through secure software development, knowledge sharing, education, certification and much more. Together, the three organizations will lead the way to secure software development and lifecycle management for open source code.
Developing new, roles-based learning programs that include courses, certifications and reality-based practice labs. The initial area of focus will be on developing secure microservices.
Providing an authoritative voice on cybersecurity regulations, requirements and best practices, with an emphasis on secure collaborative software development.
Producing relevant research tools for the industry to better identify needs and track the effect of cybersecurity initiatives.
The impact of open source code as it relates to cybersecurity cannot be overlooked. It fuels innovation worldwide and is estimated to be in use at 90 percent of commercial organizations, enabling companies and consumers to thrive in countless ways.
"Despite the accelerating cyber risks, too little attention and too few resources are devoted to cybersecurity," said Clyde Seepersad, SVP, General Manager, Training & Certification, Linux Foundation. "By aligning the resources and objectives of our collective organizations we hope to increase our overall impact on cybersecurity for the betterment of all."
"With organizations and consumers under constant threat, the collaboration between the world's largest open source software foundation and the world's largest cyber security professional association will prove to be a powerful force in securing a safe future for all," said ISC2 CEO Clar Rosso, CC. "Secure open source code is critical, as it is the bedrock of so much innovation around the globe. Together with the Linux Foundation, ISC2 is dedicated to ensuring developers have access to the education and training they need to deliver more secure and resilient solutions."
"Education is one of the best ways to ensure that open source software is secure by construction," said Omkhar Arasaratnam, GM, OpenSSF. "Our partnership with ISC2 will help to Strengthen access to quality security education for everyone."
Why now? First, many organizations, governments, and individuals rely on the tremendous output of these communities to ensure code is secure and trustworthy. Second, the burden of security globally – through regulation and policy – is shifting from consumers to developers. The companies, organizations and individual IT professional contributors who develop solutions using open source code need the necessary security expertise to embed best practices throughout every stage of the software development process.
About the Linux Foundation The Linux Foundation is the world's leading home for collaboration on open source software, hardware, standards, and data. Linux Foundation projects, including Linux, Kubernetes, Node.js, ONAP, PyTorch, RISC-V, SPDX, OpenChain, and more, are critical to the world's infrastructure. The Linux Foundation focuses on leveraging best practices and addressing the needs of contributors, users, and solution providers to create sustainable models for open collaboration. For more information, please visit us at linuxfoundation.org. The Linux Foundation has registered trademarks and uses trademarks. For a list of trademarks of The Linux Foundation, please see its trademark usage page:www.linuxfoundation.org/trademark-usage. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
About ISC2 ISC2 is the world's leading member organization for cybersecurity professionals, driven by our vision of a safe and secure cyber world. Our more than 500,000 members, candidates and associates around the globe are a force for good, safeguarding the way we live. Our award-winning certifications – including cybersecurity's premier certification, the CISSP® – enable professionals to demonstrate their knowledge, skills and abilities at every stage of their careers. ISC2 strengthens the influence, diversity and vitality of the cybersecurity profession through advocacy, expertise and workforce empowerment that accelerates cyber safety and security in an interconnected world. Our charitable foundation,The Center for Cyber Safety and Education, helps create more access to cyber careers and educate those most vulnerable. Learn more and get involved at ISC2.org. Connect with us onX,Facebook andLinkedIn.
About the OpenSSF The Open Source Security Foundation (OpenSSF) is a cross-industry initiative by the Linux Foundation that brings together the industry's most important open source security initiatives and the individuals and companies that support them. The OpenSSF is committed to collaboration and working both upstream and with existing communities to advance open source security for all. For more information, please visit us at openssf.org.