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ISSEP Information Systems Security Engineering Professional basics |

ISSEP basics - Information Systems Security Engineering Professional Updated: 2024

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Exam Code: ISSEP Information Systems Security Engineering Professional basics January 2024 by team

ISSEP Information Systems Security Engineering Professional

Length of exam : 3 hours

Number of questions : 150

Question format : Multiple choice

Passing grade : 700 out of 1000 points

Exam availability : English

Testing center : Pearson VUE Testing Center

The Information Systems Security Engineering Professional (ISSEP) is a CISSP who specializes in the practical application of systems engineering principles and processes to develop secure systems. An ISSEP analyzes organizational needs, defines security requirements, designs security architectures, develops secure designs, implements system security, and supports system security assessment and authorization for government and industry.

The broad spectrum of subjects included in the ISSEP Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) ensure its relevancy across all disciplines in the field of security engineering. Successful candidates are competent in the following

5 domains:

• Security Engineering Principles

• Risk Management

• Security Planning, Design, and Implementation

• Secure Operations, Maintenance, and Disposal

• Systems Engineering Technical Management

Domains Weight

1. Security Engineering Principles 22%

2. Risk Management 24%

3. Security Planning, Design, and Implementation 22%

4. Secure Operations, Maintenance, and Disposal 21%

5. Systems Engineering Technical Management 11%

Total: 100%

Domain 1:

Security Engineering Principles

1.1 General Security Principles

1.2 Security Risk Management Principles

1.3 System Resilience Principles

1.4 Vulnerability Management Principles

» Align security risk management with enterprise risk management

» Integrate risk management throughout the lifecycle

» Identify organizational security authority

» Identify elements of a system security policy

» Understand trust concepts and hierarchies

» Determine boundaries governed by security


» Specify complete mediation

» Determine least common mechanism

» Understand open design concepts

» Analyze psychological acceptability/usability

» Understand the importance of consistent measurement

» Apply resilience methods to address threats

» Understand concepts of layered security

» Specify fail-safe defaults

» Avoid single points of failure

» Incorporate least privilege concepts

» Understand economy of mechanism

» Understand separation of privilege/duties concepts

» Understand security best practices applicable to the context

Domain 2:

Risk Management

2.1 Risk Management Process

2.2 Operational Risk Management

» Confirm operational risk appetite

» Identify remediation needs and other system changes

» Propose remediation for unaccepted security risks

» Assess proposed remediation or change activities

» Participate in implementation of the remediation or change

» Perform verification and validation activities relative to the requirements impacted

» Update risk assessment documentation to account for the impact of the remediation or change

» Establish risk context

» Identify system security risks

» Perform risk analysis

» Perform risk evaluation

» Recommend risk treatment options

Domain 3:
Security Planning, Design, and Implementation

3.1 Stakeholder Requirements Definition

3.2 Requirements Analysis

3.3 System Security Architecture and Design

3.4 Implementation, Integration, and Deployment of Systems or System Modifications

3.5 Verification and Validation of Systems or System Modifications

Domain 3:

Security Planning, Design, and Implementation

» Define security roles and responsibilities

» Understand stakeholders mission/business and operational environment

» Identify security-relevant constraints and assumptions

» Identify and assess threats to assets

» Determine protection needs

» Document stakeholder requirements

» Analyze stakeholder requirements

» Develop system security context

» Identify security functions within the security concept of operations

» Develop system security requirements baseline

» Analyze and define security constraints

» Analyze system security requirements for completeness, adequacy, conflicts, and inconsistencies

» Perform functional analysis and allocation

» Maintain mutual traceability between specified design and system requirements

» Define system security design components

» Perform trade-off studies for system components

» Assess information protection effectiveness

Domain 4:

Secure Operations, Maintenance, and Disposal

4.1 Secure Operations

4.2 Secure Maintenance

4.3 Secure Disposal

» Document and maintain secure operations strategy

» Maintain and monitor continuous monitoring processes

» Support the incident response process

» Develop and direct secure maintenance strategy

» Participate in system remediation and change management processes

» Perform scheduled security reviews

» Develop and direct secure disposal strategy

» Verify proper security protections are in place during the decommissioning and disposal processes

» Document all actions and results of the disposal process

Domain 5:

Systems Engineering Technical Management

5.1 Acquisition Process

5.2 System Development Methodologies

5.3 Technical Management Processes

» Prepare security requirements for acquisitions

» Participate in vendor selection

» Participate in supply chain risk management

» Participate in contractual documentation development to verify security inclusion

» Perform acquisition acceptance verification and validation

» Integrate security tasks and activities into system development methodologies

» Verify security requirements are met throughout the process

» Identify opportunities for automation of security processes

» Perform project planning processes

» Perform project assessment and control processes

» Perform decision management processes

» Perform risk management processes

» Perform configuration management processes

» Perform information management processes

» Perform measurement processes

» Perform quality assurance processes
Information Systems Security Engineering Professional
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HCISPP HealthCare Information Security and Privacy Practitioner is the number one choice amongst IT professionals, especially the ones who are looking to climb up the hierarchy ranges faster of their respective corporations. Our ISSEP braindumps contains real exam questions and practice test. It is absolutely valid ISSEP dumps questions that we provide you to memorize and pass the exam.
Information Systems Security Engineering(R) Professional
Question: 441
Which of the following is the most secure method of authentication?
A. Smart card
B. Anonymous
C. Username and password
D. Biometrics
Answer: D
Question: 442
Which of the following are the phases of the Certification and Accreditation (C&A)
process? Each correct answer represents a complete solution. Choose two.
A. Detection
B. Continuous Monitoring
C. Initiation
D. Auditing
Answer: B, C
Question: 443
Which of the following cryptographic algorithm uses public key and private key to
encrypt or decrypt data ?
A. Asymmetric
B. Hashing
C. Numeric
D. Symmetric
Answer: A
Question: 444
Sonya, a user, reports that she works in an electrically unstable environment where
brownouts are a regular occurrence. Which of the following will you tell her to use to
protect her computer?
B. Multimeter
D. CMOS battery
Answer: A
Question: 445
Your company is covered under a liability insurance policy, which provides various
liability coverage for information security risks, including any physical damage of
assets, hacking attacks, etc. Which of the following risk management techniques is your
company using?
A. Risk acceptance
B. Risk avoidance
C. Risk transfer
D. Risk mitigation
Answer: C
Question: 446
Della works as a security manager for SoftTech Inc. She is training some of the newly
recruited personnel in the field of security management. She is giving a tutorial on DRP.
She explains that the major goal of a disaster recovery plan is to provide an organized
way to make decisions if a disruptive event occurs and asks for the other objectives of
the DRP. If you are among some of the newly recruited personnel in SoftTech Inc, what
will be your answer for her question? Each correct answer represents a part of the
solution. Choose three.
A. guarantee the reliability of standby systems through testing and simulation.
B. Protect an organization from major computer services failure.
C. Minimize the risk to the organization from delays in providing services.
D. Maximize the decision-making required by personnel during a disaster.
Answer: A, B, C
Question: 447
You work as a Network Consultant. A company named Tech Perfect Inc. hires you for
security reasons. The manager of the company tells you to establish connectivity
between clients and servers of the network which prevents eavesdropping and tampering
of data on the Internet. Which of the following will you configure on the network to
perform the given task?
B. IPsec
Answer: D
Question: 448
The security controls that are implemented to manage physical security are divided in
various groups. Which of the following services are offered by the administrative
physical security control group? Each correct answer represents a part of the solution.
Choose all that apply.
A. Construction and selection
B. Site management
C. Awareness training
D. Access control
E. Intrusion detection
F. Personnel control
Answer: A, B, C, F
Question: 449
Jasmine is creating a presentation. She wants to ensure the integrity and authenticity of
the presentation. Which of the following will she use to accomplish the task?
A. Mark as final
B. Digital Signature
C. Restrict Permission
D. Encrypt Document
Answer: B
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ISC2 Professional basics - BingNews Search results ISC2 Professional basics - BingNews How to Become a Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)

As all facets of society rely more on technology, information security has become paramount. With information readily available online, businesses must do everything possible to prevent data breaches and cyberattacks while safeguarding critical systems and data. 

With so much at risk, businesses need qualified people to manage their information systems. CISSP certification indicates professional excellence, assuring hiring managers that candidates have the in-demand career skills necessary to manage IT security.

We’ll explore what it takes to become a CISSP when navigating your career path in the IT industry.

What is a CISSP?

CISSP stands for Certified Information Systems Security Professional. It’s a globally recognized certification offered by the International System Security Certification Consortium, also known as (ISC)². CISSP is considered one of the best infosec and cybersecurity certifications around. 

Individuals seek CISSP certification to answer the call for experienced, highly capable IT professionals who can effectively manage an enterprise’s cybersecurity by applying IT security-related concepts and theories.

After passing the certification exam (which usually takes around six hours), CISSPs can take on various job titles, including the following: 

  • Security Manager
  • Security Analyst
  • Chief Information Security Officer

No matter the job title, a CISSP always focuses on upholding a top-notch IT security system.

Earning the best IT certifications, including CISSP certification, is an excellent career advancement asset that validates your skills and knowledge.

How much does a CISSP make?

There are relatively few CISSPs in the industry, so those who pass the certification exam and meet the requirements are well-compensated.

Reports differ regarding how much CISSPs earn. For example, the Global Knowledge 2020 IT Skills and Salary Report said CISSPs are the third-highest earners in the IT industry worldwide while ranking fifth in the North America Region.

An (ISC)² Cybersecurity Workforce study shows that the global average security manager’s salary is $92,639. Below are the figures for different regions based on the latest available information.


Average salary (in U.S. dollars)





Europe, Middle East, and Africa


Latin America


North America


On the other hand, according to the Certification Magazine-Salary Survey 75 report, average salaries are as follows:


Average salary (in U.S. dollars)



United States


The average global salaries from (ISC)² and CertMag differ; CertMag’s values combined U.S. and non-U.S. salaries. Additionally, while CertMag’s values were based on a study of only 55 respondents, (ISC)²’s statistics are derived from an industry-wide study and may be more representative of actual averages.

A CISSP certification is an excellent springboard into an information security career and a path toward helping to prevent network security threats and vulnerabilities via unified threat management.

What experience do you need to become a CISSP?

Despite the increasing demand for CISSPs, the (ISC)² imposes strict qualifications to ensure that only the most capable and experienced professionals earn the title. The industry is lucrative, but the requirements CISSPs must fulfill are extensive.

First, CISSP applicants must have at least five years of valid working experience relevant to the IT security field. The (ISC)² requires that work experience falls under the eight domains of the (ISC)² CISSP CBK:

  • Domain 1. Security and Risk Management
  • Domain 2. Asset Security
  • Domain 3. Security Architecture and Engineering
  • Domain 4. Communication and Network Security
  • Domain 5. Identity and Access Management (IAM)
  • Domain 6. Security Assessment and Testing
  • Domain 7. Security Operations
  • Domain 8. Software Development Security

Additionally, to satisfy these domains, the (ISC)² requires experience in any of the following positions:

  • Chief Information Security Officer
  • Chief Information Officer
  • Director of Security
  • IT Director/Manager
  • Security Systems Engineer
  • Security Analyst
  • Security Manager
  • Security Auditor
  • Security Architect
  • Security Consultant
  • Network Architect

Work experience can come from full-time employment, part-time employment, or an internship. (Requirements may vary depending on your employment terms.)

  • Full-time employment. For full-time employees aiming to become CISSPs, work experience only qualifies as full time if you’ve worked a minimum of 35 hours per week for four weeks, accrued monthly.
  • Part-time working experience. If your work hours fell between 20-34 hours weekly, your experience will qualify as part-time. Your experience will be computed as follows:
    • Every 1,040 hours of part-time work rendered are equivalent to half a year’s worth of full-time experience.
  • Every 2,080 hours of part-time work will be equivalent to one year of full-time work experience.
  • Internships. If your only relevant experience involves an internship program, the (ISC)² will accept it if you have certification from the organization that validates your internship. The consortium will accept qualified paid and unpaid internships as working experience.
  • Other work experience options. According to the (ISC)², you can also satisfy a year’s worth of necessary experience if you:
    • Hold a four-year college degree (or regional equivalent).
    • Have an advanced degree in information security from the U.S. National Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education (CAE/IAE).
    • Have any other approved credentials as outlined by the (ISC)².

The CISSP certification is considered an evergreen IT certification; it demonstrates excellent longevity, desirability, popularity, and compensation.

What does the CISSP exam entail?

Work experience is only part of what you need to become a CISSP. To be certified, you’ll also need to prepare for and pass the CISSP exam, which costs $699 and requires a minimum score of 700 out of 1,000 points.

Besides passing the certification exam, you must also undergo an endorsement process to become a CISSP. You can do this by subscribing to the (ISC)² Code of Ethics. The endorsement form must be completed within nine months after passing the exam to fully certify your status as a CISSP.

What are other paths toward achieving the CISSP title?

Not everyone meets CISSP certification requirements – in fact, very few do. However, there are ways to bypass or fast-track your way into the industry. 

1. Become an (ISC)² Associate to help meet CISSP requirements.

One of the biggest challenges to becoming a CISSP is acquiring the relevant qualifying experience. However, you can remedy your lack of experience by applying for a job as an (ISC)² Associate.

Becoming an (ISC)² Associate helps you fast-track your cybersecurity career. Additionally, because you’ll work closely with the consortium, you can learn more about the industry and grow as a cybersecurity expert.

2. Get CompTIA certifications to help your cybersecurity career.

You can also jump-start your cybersecurity career by looking into certifications offered by CompTIA. CompTIA helps IT professionals acquire specific certifications to fortify their credentials. Some certifications you can apply for include the entry-level A+, Security+, and Network+ certifications. 

Entry-level cybersecurity certifications can help jump-start your cybersecurity career by verifying your skills and knowledge and getting your resume noticed.

3. SSCP certification can help you meet CISSP requirements.

Another way to meet the required CISSP qualifications if you have relevant but insufficient work experience is to work on your credential as a Systems Security Certified Professional or SSCP, also under the (ISC)².

Following this path will help you prepare for CISSP certification. It’s like a walk-through toward fulfilling your primary goal with the added perk of gaining an extensive understanding and mastery of the job ahead of time.

Should you pursue a career as a CISSP?

Becoming a CISSP is challenging, and the necessary qualifications require extensive time and effort. However, compared to almost any other employment type – even in the IT sector – CISSP certification is profitable and affords many opportunities. 

If you have what it takes to become a CISSP – drive, credentials, time, and money – and feel confident, you should consider taking the exam. The CISSP job market has high demand across all industries and organizations. Aside from its considerable earning opportunities, you can become an indispensable asset for any company because of your IT security expertise.

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Agile Scrum Basics for Professionals Course Details

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Agile Scrum Basics for Professionals is a seven-hour non-credit course designed for leaders and practitioners across a variety of industries to learn how the Agile Scrum methodology and framework can streamline your projects. Scrum is a highly collaborative method that can improve the development, management and delivery of complex projects. This course is the perfect place to start for agile project management beginners and those looking to start a path toward certification.

Cost: $199

In this Agile & Scrum course you learn:

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  • How adopting Agile approaches can increase business value
  • The core practices and philosophies behind this way of working

This course is designed for:

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  • Project managers in a diverse range of industries
  • Senior leadership
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Basic Professional Training Course on Nuclear Safety

​​The Basic Professional Training Course on Nuclear Safety (BPTC) is intended to provide a broad overview of all the safety concepts and their application to nuclear power plants and research reactors design and operation.

Its nature and scope are primarily oriented to junior professionals recently involved in nuclear safety-related activities. It is also appropriate for highly specialized professionals who lack a broader view of nuclear safety. The Course is made up of 22 modules and is designed to run six to nine weeks. This textbook is the instruction source for course lecturers and provides background material for participants.

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It's been called the most dangerous eight seconds in sports.

In bull riding, that's how long athletes strive to stay on the bucking animal. It may seem short, but on a bull as big as 2,000 pounds, it can feel much longer.

The sport has a rich and often violent history, reminiscent of a bygone era when cowboys sought to tame the Wild West.

But it’s not a uniquely American sport: Bull riding has its roots in Mexico and is popular in Brazil, Australia and Canada, too.

Here are some of the basics of bull riding.


Riders grip a rope with one hand and raise the other. If they touch the bull or themselves with their free hand, they get no points. If they let go and fall off before eight seconds, they get no points.

A panel of judges ranks the ride, scoring bull and rider. Each can earn up to 50 points.

There's been one perfect score: Wade Leslie and bull Wolfman Skoal, in 1991 at a Professional Rodeo Cowboy Association event in Washington.


In 1600s Mexico, rodeo-like charreadas were staged as competition within festive, cultural events. Riders stayed on the bull until it stopped bucking.

Similar events became popular in the mid-1800s in the southern U.S.

In 1936, at the Boston Garden Rodeo, a group of cowboys staged a strike and formed the Cowboys' Turtle Association, seeking uniform rules and judging, as well as fair prize money, according to the Pro Rodeo Hall of Fame.

That group later became the Rodeo Cowboys Association, then morphed into the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association, a nonprofit organization that sanctions rodeos across the U.S., Canada and Mexico.

PRCA events include bronc riding, tie-down roping, team roping, steer wrestling, bull riding, steer roping, barrel racing, breakaway roping and bareback riding.


The top bull riding league in the world is Professional Bull Riders. Founded in 1992 by a group of riders seeking to increase the sport's profile, PBR sanctions events in the U.S., Canada, Australia and Brazil. More than 500 riders are members.

Globally, the best riders reach PBR's top level, the Unleash the Beast tour, which gets its name from sponsor Monster beverages. The season runs from November to May.

At 18, riders are eligible for membership and can compete in PBR Touring Pro Division and Pendleton Whisky Velocity Tour events. From there, riders earn points to qualify for Unleash the Beast.


PBR's team competition was launched in 2022, with eight teams on the Camping World Team Series: The Austin Gamblers, Kansas City Outlaws, Texas Rattlers, Carolina Cowboys, Arizona Ridge Riders, Missouri Thunder, Florida Freedom and Nashville Stampede.

They compete in an 11-event season, running opposite Unleash The Beast. The team competition runs in conjunction with the Challenger Series for individual riders, also launched in 2022.

The Austin Gamblers have won regular season titles the last two years. The Texas Rattlers won the 2023 team championship event in Las Vegas.

The inaugural teams competition is featured in a documentary series, “The Ride.”

A standalone competition, the Challenger Series, was launched last year, giving riders unaffiliated with teams the chance to compete.


The 2023 PBR World Championship winner and Rookie of the Year was Brazilian Rafael Jose de Brito — the first rider to win both honors the same season.

PBR says he earned more than $1.5 million for the season and nearly $1.4 million for the championship and World Finals.

Justin McBride, now a commentator for televised Unleash The Beast tour events, is considered one of the top riders in PBR history. He won world titles in 2005 and 2007, and had 74 career 90-point rides. He was the first rider to reach $5 million in earnings on the tour.

John Crimber, 18, is an Unleash the Beast up-and-comer. The son of Brazilian rider Paulo Crimber, he competed in his first Challenger Series event the day after his birthday and went on to win nine events in 14 tries.

No women have reached the Unleash the Beast level.


Bucking bulls weigh 1,200 to 2,000 pounds. They're bred specifically for competition, with an average lifespan of 15 years. Most start competing at age 3 to 4, with careers of two to four years, according to PBR, though some get up to 10.

Animal rights activists regularly protest at PBR events. They say bulls are subjected to cross-country travel in cramped trailers and to inhumane practices to get them to buck, such as cattle prods and flank straps.

Riders say bulls are treated like elite athletes, with nutritious food and top-flight veterinary care. PBR bans cattle prods in competition.

PBR says on its website that it's “committed to ensuring the health, safety, welfare, and respect of each bovine athlete" and has "a no tolerance policy for any mistreatment of an animal.”


Injuries are common, with estimates of about one every 15 rides. Knee and shoulder injuries are most common. Concussions are also a concern, and PBR started requiring helmets in 2013, though some older athletes accustomed to just hats are grandfathered in.

Deaths are rare but do happen.

In 2021, Amadeu Campos Silva was killed at a PBR event in California; his spur got tangled in a rope and he was caught under the bull. In 2019, Mason Lowe was killed at a Denver PBR event; the bull stomped on his chest and his injuries were fatal despite a protective vest.


This story is part of the AP’s Inclusive Journalism Initiative with The Maynard Institute for Journalism Education and The Ida B. Wells Society for Investigative Reporting.

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The Indian Science Congress meet might not take place this year.

The 109th edition of the event, which was scheduled to begin today, has been called off.

The Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA), the organisers of the event, have appealed to universities across the country to host the event.

But what do we know about the event? Why is the Indian Science Congress not being held this year? What’s the controversy around it?

Let’s take a closer look:

What do we know about the event?

The ISCA has been organising the Indian Science Congress since 1914.

The Prime Minister of India has been inaugurating the annual gathering of scientists since Independence.

As per Indian Express, the meet is the prime minister’s first public event of the year.

The meet did not take place in 2021 and 2022 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Last year, its 108th edition was held from 3 to 7 January in Nagpur.

The 108th edition of the Congress was held in Nagpur from January 3-7, 2023.

Its theme was “Science and Technology for Sustainable Development with Women Empowerment.”

Prime Minister Narendra Modi, addressing the gathering via video-conference last year, paid homage to India’s scientific strength.

“When the spirit of national service gets infused in Science along with passion, results are unprecedented. I am sure, India’s scientific community will ensure a place for our country of which it was always deserving,” Modi said.

Why is it not being held this year?

As per Indian Express, the reason for the event not being held this year is a tiff over money between the ISCA and the Union Ministry of Science and Technology’s Department of Science (DST)

The DST, which is a key funder of the event, contributed Rs 5 crore to the Indian Science Congress in 2023.

However, in September, the DST claimed there were “financial irregularities” and abruptly pulled its backing of the event.

The DST in a notification to all secretaries of scientific departments said, “It has also been decided that DST support from all its resources for the forthcoming ISC event in 2024 will be discontinued.”

The DST also accused the ISCA of making “unilateral decisions.”

In truth, there have been differences between the government and the ISCA over the organisation of the event for years.

The Centre since 2015 has been promoting the India International Science Festival (IISF).

Meanwhile, the ISCA has taken the DST to court and claimed that the government is trying to ‘interfere in its functioning’.

This year’s event was slated to be held at Lucknow University.

However, the university then told the ISCA it would be unable to host the event.

No Indian Science Congress this year Why it has missed its date
The Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA), the organisers of the event, have appealed to universities across the country to host the event.

Lovely Professional University (LPU) then offered to host the event.

As per Indian Express, the DST seemed to be displeased with the ISCA’s selection of the venue – which previously hosted the Congress in 2019.

The ISCA countered that its executive committee does not require permission from the DST to choose the venue.

It added that a DST representative was in attendance during the venue being picked.

However, the LPU had seemingly seen enough and it too pulled out of hosting the event.

The ISCA has now formed a five-member committee to scout for possible venues to host the event.

“The Executive Committee of the Indian Science Congress Association met this evening and decided to put the 109th Congress on hold. We have also decided to post an appeal on our website for universities desparate to host the event,” ISCA president Arvind Saxena told PTI.

Saxena said the ISCA will wait till February to see whether any university was interested in hosting the event.

What are the controversies surrounding the event?

The event has seemingly been a lightning rod for controversies.

A lot of attendees in latest years have made unscientific and downright ridiculous claims.

In 2014, Captain Anand J Bodas, the retired principal of a pilot training facility said the ancient world could be understood through Hindu epics and not modern evidence or research.

Speaking to Mumbai Mirror, Bodas claimed that the aeroplanes existed during the Vedic age.

“In those days aeroplanes were huge in size, and could move left, right, as well as backwards, unlike modern planes which only fly forward,” Bodas claimed.

That same year a NASA scientist submitted a petition asking officials to cancel the Congress due to it “questioning the integrity of the scientific process”.

“We as scientific community should be seriously concerned about the infiltration of pseudo-science in science curricula with backing of influential political parties. Giving a scientific platform for a pseudo-science talk is worse than a systematic attack that has been carried out by politically powerful pseudo-science propagandists in the latest past. If we scientists remain passive, we are betraying not only the science, but also our children,” the petition by Dr Ram Prasad Gandhiraman stated.

In 2015,  a paper presented at the Congress claimed “Indians had developed 20 types of sharp instruments and 101 blunt ones for surgeries, which largely resemble the modern surgical instruments,” as per The Times of India.

Dr Harsh Vardhan, the Union Minister for Science and Technology who attended the event, claimed, “Our scientists discovered the Pythagoras theorem, but we … gave credit to the Greeks. We all know that we knew ‘beejganit’ much before the Arabs, but very selflessly we allowed it to be called Algebra. This is the base the Indian scientific community has maintained.”

“Whether it is related to the solar system, medicine, chemistry or earth science, we have shared all our knowledge very selflessly,” Vardhan added.

While Vardhan did not present any evidence, another speaker offered the same theory.

“In the Sulbha Sutra written in 800 BCE, Baudhayan wrote the geometric formula now famously known as Pythagoras theorem. It was written by Baudhayan 300 years before Pythagoras,” Dr Gauri Mahulikar, head of Sanskrit department at Mumbai University, was quoted as saying by The Hindu.

Another paper also claimed “ancient Indian engineers had adequate knowledge of Indian botany and they effectively used it in their construction.”

That same year, Bodas claimed, “There is a reference of ancient aviation in the Rigveda.”

Bodas said Maharishi Bharadwaj spoke 7,000 years ago of “the existence of aeroplanes which travel from one country to another, from one continent to another and from one planet to another. He mentioned 97 reference books for aviation.”

“History merely notes that the Wright brothers first flew in 1904,” he said.

Bodas also spoke of the “huge” aeroplanes which flew in ancient India.

“The basic structure was of 60 by 60 feet and in some cases, over 200 feet. They were jumbo planes,” he said. “The ancient planes had 40 small engines. Today’s aviation does not know even of flexible exhaust system,” he said.

The ancient Indian radar system was called ‘rooparkanrahasya’. “In this system, the shape of the aeroplane was presented to the observer, instead of the mere blip that is seen on modern radar systems,” he said.

As per India Today, another speaker claimed the cow carries a bacteria within it which allows to turn whatever it eats into pure 24-carat gold.

Scroll quoted a speaker called Kiran Naik as claiming that during the Mahabharata war a chase in one of those Vedic planes from the Earth to the Moon and then to Mars saw a king attacking his rival and breaking his helmet.

“If you don’t believe me, will you believe the National Aeronautics and Space Association (NASA) of the USA? If you search on Google for ‘helmet on Mars’, it will tell you that even NASA has found this helmet on Mars and it will deliver you evidence for it,” Naik was quoted as saying.

Naik also claimed heated sugaoar was used in the plastic surgery to affix Lord Ganesha’s elephant head to his human torso.

Vardhan later defended the papers being presented.

“So if a paper shares the experiences of the past and integrate them with what is happening today and what is our future goal, I think we should not mind that,” Vardhan said.

In 2016, scientist Venkatraman Ramakrishnan had slammed the Congress as a ‘circus’.

The Indian-born Nobel laureate had earlier condemned the Science Congress and said that politics and religious ideologies shouldn’t be mixed with science.

No Indian Science Congress this year Why it has missed its date
Dr Harsh Vardhan had defended the papers being presented at the event.

Speaking to reporters, Ramakrishnan said, “I attended one day (of an earlier Congress) and very little science was discussed. It was a circus. I find that it’s an organisation where very little science is discussed. I will never attend a science congress again in my life.”

Ramakrishnan added, “The idea that Indians had airplanes 2,000 years ago sounds almost essentially impossible to me. I don’t believe it. The point is that if that technology was produced in a method so described that anybody could replicate it, then it becomes science.”

In 2019, Andhra University vice chancellor Prof G Nageswara Rao – a professor of inorganic chemistry – claimed that the Mahabharata’s Kauravas were born out of nearly 1,000-year-old stem cell research and a test tube fertilisation process “that this country had known thousands of years ago”.

Rao also referred to the 24 different types of aircraft that Ravana was supposed to have possessed, and claimed that Sri Lanka — at that time — had airports.

He even challenged Darwinian Theory, claiming that the 10 incarnations of Lord Vishnu were much more advanced in explaining evolution.

“Dashavatara is better than Darwin’s theory because it also plans for what comes after the humans,” he said as per Hindustan Times.

“Gangajal is considered to be very holy and today it has been proven scientifically that irrespective of the impurities of the Gangajal it does not deliver any infection because bacteriophages kill the harmful bacteria,” Rao added.

Another scientist — a Dr KJ Krishnan — claimed that Newton and Einstein had little knowledge of physics and misled the world with their theories.

Krishnan claimed that his own theory of gravitational phenomenon would provide a better understanding of gravitational waves – which he suggested should be renamed “Narendra Modi Waves”.

He  further recommended that gravitational lensing should be known as the “Harsh Vardhan Effect.”

What do experts say?

That the event is a shell of its former self.

A piece in Indian Express noted that the event’s best days are behind it and that it has been tapering off for years.

“Random speakers have used the platform to make outlandish claims and promote pseudoscience, which have drawn ridicule. The papers that are presented or the talks that are delivered, hardly reflect the latest advancements in science,” the piece noted.

“Most of India’s credible scientists now avoid the event. Leading scientific institutions and laboratories have only a token presence, if at all. Most attendees are from colleges and universities with limited scientific credentials. Several top scientists have, in fact, said that the event should be discontinued, or the government should withdraw support to it. There has been talk of reforms for the past couple of decades, but nothing much has changed.”

An op-ed in The Hindu, arguing for a need to consider the event’s relevance, added, “…in the past few years, the ISC’s reputation has been in tatters after it offered itself as a platform for a few members of the scientific community to advance pseudoscientific claims, particularly those that dovetailed to hyper-nationalist narratives in other sphere.”

It noted that while some high-profile scientists who have, since 2014, dubbed the event a circus that hurts the cause of science may not be bothered.

However, it also noted that the event plays host to thousands of school and college students every year and talks by researchers.

“This is not as straightforward as a plea to throw away only the bathwater, not the baby,” the piece concluded.

With inputs from agencies

Tue, 02 Jan 2024 19:48:00 -0600 en text/html
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