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ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing
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ISEB Intermediate Certificate in(R) Software Testing
Answer: A
Question: 34
You have designed test cases to provide 100% statement and 100% decision coverage for
the following fragment of code.
If width > length then Biggest_dimension = wifth Else
Biggest_dimenstion = length
The Following has been added to the bottom of the code fragment above.
Print “biggest dimension is “ & biggest_dimension
Print “width:” & width
Print “Length:” & length
How many more test cases are required?
A. One more test case will be required for 100 % decision coverage.
B. Two more test cases will be required for 100 % statement coverage, one of which will
be used to provide 100%
decision coverage.
C. None, existing test cases can be used.
D. One more test case will be required for 100% statement coverage.
Answer: C
Question: 35
Which activity in the fundamental test process creates test suites for efficient test
A. Implementation and execution.
B. Planning and control.
C. Analysis and design.
D. Test closure.
Answer: A
Question: 36
Which type of test design techniques does the following statement best describe? A
procedure to derive test cases based on the specification of a component.
A. Black Box Techniques.
B. White Box Techniques.
C. Glass Box Techniques.
D. Experience Based Techniques.
Answer: A
Question: 37
Some tools are geared more for developer use. For the 5 tools listed, which statement
BEST details those for developers.
A. i, iii. and iv. are more for developers.
B. ii. and iv. are more for developers.
C. ii, iii. and iv. are more for developers.
D. ii. and iii. are more for developers.
Answer: B
Question: 38
A thermometer measures temperature in whole degrees only. If the temperature falls
below 18 degrees, the heating is switched off. It is switched on again when the
temperature reaches 21 degrees. What are the best values in degrees to cover all
equivalence partitions?
A. 15, 19 and 25.
B. 17, 18, and 19.
C. 18, 20 and 22.
D. 16, 26, and 32.
Answer: A
Question: 39
What is beta testing?
A. Testing performed by potential customers at the developers location
B. Testing performed by potential customers at their own locations.
C. Testing performed by product developers at the customer’s location.
D. Testing performed by product developers at their own locations.
Answer: B
Question: 40
What determines the level of risk?
A. The cost of dealing with an adverse event if it occurs.
B. The probability that an adverse event will occur.
C. The amount of testing planned before release of a system.
D. The likelihood of an adverse event and the impact of the event.
Answer: D
Question: 41
Given the following state transition diagram
Which of the following series of state transitions contains an INVALID transition which
may indicate a fault in the system design?
A. Login Browse Basket Checkout Basket Checkout Pay Logout.
B. Login Browse Basket Checkout Pay Logout.
C. Login Browse Basket Checkout Basket Logout.
D. Login Browse Basket Browse Basket Checkout Pay Logout.
Answer: C
Question: 42
Which of the following is a MAJOR task of test implementation and execution?
A. Measuring and analysing results.
B. Reporting discrepancies as incidents.
C. Identifying test conditions or test requirements.
D. Assessing if more tests are needed.
Answer: B
Question: 43
Which of the following is MOST characteristic of specification based (black-box)
A. Test cases can be easily automated.
B. Test cases are independent of each other.
C. Test cases are derived systematically from models of the system .
D. Test cases are derived systematically from the delivered code.
Answer: C
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ISEB Intermediate history - BingNews Search results ISEB Intermediate history - BingNews Our History

C-SPAN is a public service.

We are a non-profit created in 1979 by a then-new industry called cable television, and today we remain true to our founding principles, providing gavel-to-gavel coverage of the workings of the U.S. Congress, both the House and Senate, all without editing, commentary or analysis.

Over the years, we've grown to be so much more – on TV, online, on radio, through podcasts and on social platforms (YouTube, Twitter, Facebook and Instagram). We supplement live coverage of the Capitol with ideologically balanced programming concerning all manner of public policy and politics. In so doing, we promote open and transparent dialogue between the public and their elected and appointed officials – and those campaigning for office.

Underpinning this impartial, balanced coverage is the fact that no government or taxpayer dollars support C-SPAN, as we continue to be funded as a public service from your cable or satellite provider.

C-SPAN began with only four employees: Brian Lamb, Jana Dabrowski Fay, Don Houle and Brian Lockman. Those four transmitted the first television feed from the U.S. House of Representatives to C-SPAN viewers on March 19, 1979, the first day the House allowed television coverage of its floor debates. That televised congressional session began with a one-minute speech by then-Congressman Al Gore and reached just 3 million American cable and satellite homes.

For C-SPAN founder Brian Lamb and the nascent network's cable system affiliates that provide its funding, the televised House feed was only the beginning. C-SPAN added what became its signature call-in programs the following year to provide a direct conduit between the American public and the nation's political leaders. That direct viewer-to-leader dialogue and discussion of current events continues each day on Washington Journal.

In 1982, the network expanded from eight to 16, and then 24 hours, enabling it to add a wider variety of public affairs programming to viewers while maintaining its commitment to carry the proceedings of the U.S. House, live and gavel-to-gavel.

In 1986, the U.S. Senate voted to televise its debates, and C-SPAN launched a second channel, C-SPAN2, to provide unfiltered, gavel-to-gavel access to that body.

When the House and Senate are in session, C-SPAN commits to covering both bodies live and in their entirety. This is a voluntary commitment; there is no contract with Congress to carry its proceedings.

In 2001, C-SPAN3 was launched to provide access to additional public affairs events, particularly live coverage of key congressional hearings.

On weekends, ever since 1998, C-SPAN2 becomes Book TV, which covers non-fiction book and author events; and C-SPAN3 becomes American History TV, created in 2011, to offer historical lectures, oral histories and special history series.

C-SPAN also extensively covers the president and the executive branch, including regular coverage of the daily White House and Department of State briefings. Coverage of the Supreme Court has been more challenging. Beginning in 1988, with a letter to then-Chief Justice William Rehnquist, C-SPAN has consistently called for the Supreme Court to allow cameras to cover its approximately 75 hours of annual oral arguments. To date, the court has refused this request. The network has televised more than 100 oral arguments before federal courts, which do allow cameras, as well as many state supreme courts.

In 1993, C-SPAN created the C-SPAN Bus, a 45-foot interactive learning center to travel across the nation visiting schools and community events in partnership with C-SPAN's cable providers. Bus visitors engage with C-SPAN representatives and interactive tools to learn about our unique public affairs programming and online resources. Most recently, we rolled out the C-SPAN 'Cities Tour,' which explores the American story through weeklong visits to U.S. communities to record local history and authors.

In 1997, we added C-SPAN Radio, available in the Washington, D.C., area and via a mobile app.

In 2010, C-SPAN launched the Video Library. All C-SPAN content, since 1987, is archived on our website and is free for public use – now with nearly a quarter million hours of primary source video and growing every day.

Our deep multi-platform presence – television, audio, social platforms and our website – makes C-SPAN the go-to resource for political journalists, Capitol Hill staff, members of Congress and the interested public. In the current media marketplace, there's no other place quite like C-SPAN, and perhaps none more trusted. C-SPAN’s highly motivated viewers know they are getting a unique product, one with a special place in the news media.

C-SPAN is the recipient of dozens of national awards and citations, including three George Foster Peabody Awards: one for institutional excellence in 1993, one in the historical documentary category for its 1999 American Presidents series, and one in 2011 for the C-SPAN online Video Library.

Forty years ago, C-SPAN first put the U.S. House of Representatives on television, opening a window for viewers to get an unfiltered view of government. While Washington may have changed, we haven't. Our unblinking eye on Congress and public debate continues. The window is still open, giving the world a front-row-seat to democracy – allowing you to make up your own mind.

Fri, 07 Apr 2023 11:08:00 -0500 en-us text/html
Welcome to History

Native American peoples inhabited and visited the landscape encompassed within Wyoming for centuries prior to the founding of the University of Wyoming (UW) in 1887 and we would like to acknowledge the Arapaho, Cheyenne, Crow, Lakota, Shoshone, and Ute, on whose land we stand today.

Long committed to the history of the American West, the History Department at UW is uniquely positioned to situate this field in a global context. Drawing on expertise ranging from Europe, East and Central Asia, Africa, and the Americas, we strive to explore historical questions with thematic as well as comparative approaches. Our goal is to give students a truly global perspective on history.


 At the most basic level, history teaches how to assess evidence, to access conflicting interpretations, to arrive at convincing arguments, and to speak and write about these arguments to a wide variety of audiences. These skills make history one of the foremost majors that graduate and professional schools and employers seek when they admit graduate students or hire employees. Viewed from a practical perspective, a history degree provides lifelong skills that are in demand in fields ranging from teaching and law to government and business administration. History is a very useful degree.

History is a foundational discipline that blends the methodologies and perspective of the humanities and social sciences in order to engage with the history of human culture on a global scale. UW's History degree program emphasizes interdisciplinary teaching and research and provides course work, research experiences, and internships on both American and international topics. The History program offers a Bachelor of Arts degree major and minor, and a Master of Arts degree.


Who hasn’t heard someone say, “I just love history?” Maybe that person is you? History is a vibrant and fascinating study of people, events, and institutions in the past and, for many people, that’s reason enough to earn a history degree. But there are larger and more practical reasons to choose history as your major. Here are a few of those reasons that historian Peter Stearns complied for the American Historical Association:

  • History Helps Us Understand People and Societies
  • History Helps Us Understand Change
  • History Helps Us Understand How the Society We Live in Came to Be
  • History Provides Identity
  • Studying History Is Essential for Good Citizenship

In addition to the historical content obtained in your coursework, a degree in History also provides excellent training in rigorous analysis and research skills, and the oral and written skills necessary to achieve success in any top-flight professional career. Typical career paths for History graduates include work in museums and archives, national security agencies (the FBI, CIA, and NSA all love to recruit History B.A. students), and the Department of State. The History major is also excellent preparation for various professional schools, such as law and medicine, as well as post-graduate work in the humanities and social sciences.  We pride ourselves on placing our graduates in highly competitive careers and post-graduate masters and doctoral programs.


Bachelor's Degree (B.A.)

The History Department Faculty has identified the specific objectives of its undergraduate curriculum. The following are the learning outcomes that each History major should learn. We are continuously and actively assessing our program to ensure that these learning outcomes are being met.

1. Students shall be able to demonstrate critical thinking skills by analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating historical information from multiple sources.

2. Students will develop the ability to distinguish between different culturally historical perspectives.

3. Students will produce well researched written work that engages with both primary sources and the secondary literature.

4. Students will develop an informed familiarity with multiple cultures.

5. Students will employ a full range of historical techniques and methods.

6. Students will develop an ability to convey verbally their historical knowledge.

7. Students will demonstrate their understanding of historical cause and effect along with their knowledge of the general chronology of human experience.

8. Students will develop an understanding of the concepts of historical theary and/or conceptual frameworks and be able to use these in their own studies. 


Graduate Degrees (M.A. and M.A.T.)

The History Department offers two distinct graduate programs. Any field of study offered by the Department can be accommodated within either degree program.

The M.A. degree is designed to prepare the student for employment opportunities and PhD-level work. This degree program is also suitable for students interested in careers as community college instructors as well as for lifelong learners who seek formal advanced education.


Students who graduate with an M.A. in History will be able to:

1. Demonstrate an understanding of the theories and methodologies of the discipline of History.

2. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the historiography of their field of specialization.

3. Demonstrate some understanding of comparative and/or thematic methods, approaches, and theories.

4. Conduct original research based on primary sources and construct an argument based on that research.

5. Write graduate-level expository prose and orally present their ideas at an advanced level.


The M.A.T. degree is designed to enhance the teaching of history and related disciplines by secondary and middle school teachers. This is a non-thesis degree, designed to provide breadth of preparation rather than specialization. Applicants are expected to have already completed their certification and pedagogy courses.

Students who graduate with an M.A.T. in History will be able to:

1. Demonstrate the significance of historical Topics with reference to broader historical context, historiographic trends, or contemporary relevance.

2. Construct original historical arguments using a blend of primary and secondary source material.

3. Demonstrate a superior quality of writing both in terms of mechanics and in developing an argument effectively.

4. Convey a broad understanding of historical material suitable for teaching.

Thu, 10 Aug 2023 03:19:00 -0500 en text/html
The History of SNHU

Founded in 1932, Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) began as a two-room business school above a nondescript storefront in downtown Manchester, NH. Originally named the New Hampshire Accounting and Secretarial School, the tiny enterprise enrolled fewer than 10 day students and 35 evening students in bookkeeping, accounting, and secretarial courses. 

The school’s founder, Harry Alfred Benjamin “H.A.B.” Shapiro, started the program to teach bookkeepers the underlying theory behind the tasks they performed day in and day out. Shapiro believed passionately in the value of knowing the “why” of accounting and not just the “how.” 

Establishing a Flexible Format

When the school first opened its doors, it offered one-year courses that qualified graduates for entry-level positions as secretaries, bookkeepers, and junior accountants. Students with higher aspirations could take a second year. 

The program appealed to both traditional college-aged students and working adults. Students could begin coursework on any Monday of the year, in a day or night class, and would advance to a higher-level course only after mastering a subject. The flexible format was well received, because it opened up educational opportunities to students unable to attend traditional day classes. Students also appreciated learning from college-educated faculty with workplace experience, a rarity in higher education at the time.  

Expanding Access for Service Members

In 1941, after the United States entered World War II, the school shifted its focus to supporting the needs of service members. The first program for active-duty personnel taught military clerical skills to 25 servicemen stationed at the Manchester Air Base (now the Manchester-Boston Regional Airport). The servicemen took typing, business English, and business math courses in downtown Manchester during the day, resuming their military studies on base in the evenings. 

The school also began accepting disabled veterans in federal and state vocational training programs and participating in bond drives to raise money for the war effort. In the 1960s, the school expanded educational opportunity to military personnel by offering innovative 8-week courses on military bases across New England and Puerto Rico. 

A Period of Growth and Change

Growth was minimal but meaningful into the early 1960s, until the college earned its accreditation and degree-granting authority under its new name: New Hampshire College of Accounting and Commerce. The name was later shortened to New Hampshire College, after the school became a nonprofit institution. 

Then, in just eight years, from 1961 to 1969, enrollment catapulted from 96 day students to 920. 

The college rented as much space as possible in its downtown Manchester location, but by 1971 it had outgrown the space. That year, to accommodate the spike in the student population, New Hampshire College resettled in its current location, a 300-acre campus on Manchester’s Merrimack River. 

On Campus, Online, On a Roll

At its new campus location, New Hampshire College continued to expand its academic offerings throughout the 1980s and 1990s, adding bachelor’s and master’s programs to meet emerging workforce needs. 

The mid-1990s saw a period of rapid growth. In 1995, New Hampshire College launched its Internet-based distance learning program (now known as “SNHU Online”). In 1997, the institution unveiled a one-of-a-kind three-year bachelor’s degree in business administration. In 1998, it launched its first doctoral program. 

The distance learning program featured many benefits of modern online education, including 24-hour access to course materials and use of online bulletin boards for discussion. The program expanded rapidly, with 8,000 enrollments in 23 time zones within just six years. By 2002, members of the U.S. Armed Forces made up 40% of online enrollees. 

In the midst of it all, a wave of campus expansion began. The college added several facilities to the community, including academic centers, office space, and residence halls. The campus expansion and program development led to a significant moment in the institution’s history when New Hampshire College became Southern New Hampshire University in 2001. By then, the school was offering a broad range of academic disciplines and degree programs, as well as the services and facilities needed to support a diverse student and alumni population. 

In 2013, SNHU expanded access to higher education with the launch of College for America (CfA). Made possible with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Lumina Foundation, CfA leveraged SNHU partnerships to introduce competency-based education (CBE) to students for whom education is not a guarantee.  

Our CBE pathways were further expanded with the launch of the Global Education Movement (GEM) in 2017. GEM became the first large-scale online learning initiative for refugees, partnering with in-country organizations to deliver high-quality, low-cost education tailored to meet the needs of displaced learners. 

Campus construction continued over the years, with the campus expanding from a handful of buildings in 1971 to more than 40. Today, with over 180,000 students and 250 programs, available online and on campus, SNHU is widely recognized as one of the nation’s most innovative organizations and fastest-growing universities. 

Sun, 23 Jul 2023 07:12:00 -0500 en text/html
Department of History

Saint Louis University Department of History

From double majors to doctorates, the Department of History at Saint Louis University teaches students the values and skills of the liberal arts to prepare them for whatever career they choose.

Our undergraduates have a desparate talent for science, technology, math and languages, but they also want to graduate with a deep cultural context about the global world. Our talented graduate students are committed to becoming experts in their areas, whether in the United States., Africa, Asia, the Middle East or Europe. Our medieval history program is one of the most successful Ph.D. programs nationally. All our students work with a team of distinguished faculty, whose research intersects with some of the most interesting Topics in the news: from religious identity to immigration.

At every level, our students leave with skills that open doors to employment. There are Saint Louis University History graduates in the public and private sectors — from Google to the Pentagon.

History Degree Programs

Facts & Figures


total undergraduate enrollment


student-faculty ratio


average high school GPA

Fri, 27 Oct 2023 02:16:00 -0500 en text/html
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Wed, 04 Oct 2023 11:28:00 -0500 en text/html
Explore History & Culture

The Smithsonian not only explores U.S. history and culture to better understand what it means to be an American, but also examines, explains, and protects cultural heritage in the U.S. and around the world. Our collections and subject experts illuminate the past and present to help discover, preserve, and disseminate knowledge that secures our shared future as a nation and a global community.

Explore and discover featured content or search for your specific interest.
Mon, 20 Feb 2023 06:07:00 -0600 en text/html
A Forgotten Chapter of Abortion History Repeats Itself

Much of the country no doubt watched in amazement last week as a woman with a doomed pregnancy was forced to flee her home state, Texas, to get the abortion her doctors deemed necessary to protect her future ability to bear children. Could this really be happening in the United States in 2023?

But then, should anyone who has followed the accurate dystopian course of abortion in America have been surprised? After all, on the other side of the half-century during which abortion was a constitutional right, something eerily similar had happened in an episode that shocked the country when abortion was a subject not discussed in polite society.

It was 1962, and Sherri Chessen Finkbine, a 29-year-old mother of four and host of a popular children’s television program in Phoenix, was pregnant again. Suffering from morning sickness, she tried some pills, marketed in Europe as a sleeping aid, that her husband had brought back from a trip to London. Only after having taken multiple doses did she read about an outbreak in Europe of devastating birth defects in babies born to women who had used a drug called thalidomide. Her doctor confirmed that thalidomide was what she had taken.

The doctor recommended a “therapeutic” abortion and arranged for one to be performed quietly at a Phoenix hospital. Ms. Chessen — the media called her by her husband’s last name, Finkbine, but she had always preferred Chessen — felt obliged to warn other women who might unknowingly be facing the same situation. She talked to The Arizona Republic’s medical editor, who granted her anonymity. But her name became known, and in part because of her prominence — she was Miss Sherri of the popular “Romper Room” — the story exploded. The hospital declined to go ahead with the scheduled procedure and, with abortion illegal in every state, there was no place in the country she could go.

She and her husband, a public-school teacher, went to Sweden for the abortion. By that time, she was 13 weeks pregnant. When they got back to Phoenix, she lost her job, and her husband was suspended from his teaching post.

Ms. Chessen’s trauma 61 years ago was even more jarring than Kate Cox’s was this month, because a subject largely hidden from public view was suddenly national news. I still remember, as a 15-year-old, being mesmerized by Life magazine’s extended account that covered not only Ms. Chessen’s experience but the abortion issue itself; included in the coverage were wrenching photographs of surviving “thalidomide babies” missing arms or legs or both.

Her story brought the once forbidden syllabu into the country’s living rooms in the most sympathetic light imaginable. “Her wholesome image clashed so dramatically with the public’s concept of abortion — the lawless choice of wayward women — that her decision to go through with the procedure sparked a heated national debate,” Jennifer Vanderbes writes in a new book, “Wonder Drug: The Secret History of Thalidomide in America and Its Hidden Victims.”

Although Ms. Chessen received plenty of hate mail, along with condemnation by the Vatican, a Gallup poll found that a majority of Americans thought she had made the right decision. It’s possible to see the episode as a spark that helped ignite the abortion reform movement that culminated in Roe v. Wade 11 years later. “Here is a need for common sense,” The Tulsa Tribune wrote in an editorial.

I first got in touch with Ms. Chessen in 2009, when Reva Siegel, a law professor at Yale, and I were compiling material for a documentary history of how abortion was discussed and debated before the 1973 decision. In an archive at the Schlesinger Library at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, I found the text of a talk Ms. Chessen gave in 1966 about her experience.

“We tried so desperately to do what was right, yet thousands of people sought to judge for us,” she said in her talk.

Holding the document in my hands, I felt a sense of wonder that such a thing could have happened in my lifetime and relief that it would never happen to another woman. I found a phone number and called Ms. Chessen to get permission to reprint the talk. We included the text in our book, “Before Roe v. Wade.”

Sherri Chessen is now 91 years old. After her abortion, she went on to have two more children, including a daughter named Kristin Atwell Ford, an award-winning filmmaker who is making a documentary about her mother. In later years, Ms. Chessen wrote and published children’s books. She lives on her own in Southern California. When I called her the other day, it was as if she had been waiting to be asked how she felt about the replay of the long-ago chapter of her long life.

“I’m losing my patience!” she exclaimed. “I have a newfound fire that wants to clobber all those idiots. When will they ever learn?”

Is “never” the inevitable answer? When I talk to student groups and others about the history of abortion, I’m no longer surprised to find how few have ever heard of Sherri Chessen and her flight to Sweden. That is unfortunate, because her story provides essential context for understanding what Texas — its politicians and its judges — did to Kate Cox this month. Those of us who are old enough to remember Sherri Chessen’s story, and who assumed it could never happen again, have now seen it happen, on our watch. If her experience lit a spark in 1962, Kate Cox’s experience should ignite a fire in 2024.

Thu, 21 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Discover the History of Latkes During Hanukkah

Tori Avey is the food blogger behind the popular blog, “The Shiksa in the Kitchen.” A culinary anthropologist and convert to Judaism, her blog explores the history of Jewish cuisine and other historical culinary topics. Tori authors “The History Kitchen” blog for PBS Food, and was previously featured in our Kitchen Careers interview series.

Cheese Latkes
Tori shares her recipe for cheese latkes below.

Did you know that in addition to fried foods, dairy foods are also traditionally associated with Hanukkah? The custom of eating dairy foods for Hanukkah dates back to the Middle Ages, when the Book of Judith played an important role in the Hanukkah narrative. Judith was a celebrated Jewish heroine who saved her village from an invading Assyrian army. A beautiful widow, she plied the Assyrian army’s general Holofernes with wine and salty cheese. When the general passed out drunk, Judith beheaded him with his own sword. The Israelites launched a surprise attack on the leaderless Assyrian army and emerged victorious. In Judith’s honor, we eat dairy foods during Hanukkah.

Meet Tori Avey, The Shiksa in the Kitchen
Meet Tori Avey, The Shiksa in the Kitchen
Though the Book of Judith is not considered a part of the official Jewish religious canon, the association between the Book of Judith and Hanukkah grew stronger during the Middle Ages. The Judith story predates the Maccabean Revolt; some scholars believe it is a reference to the real military events leading up to the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah. Whatever the case may be, this is one of my favorite Jewish stories, right up there with Queen Esther and the story of Purim. It’s got every element — a brave and beautiful heroine, an evil villain, wine, and cheese. What’s not to love?

Speaking of cheese and all things dairy, today I’m going to share with you a cheese latkes recipe as well as some history of latkes. These mouthwatering latkes are made with ricotta cheese. They have the same flavor as a cheese blintz filling in the form of a fluffy fried pancake. They’re fabulous, and every bit as appropriate for Hanukkah as potato latkes.

Of course we associate potato latkes with Hanukkah, but in reality latkes descends from Italian pancakes that were made with ricotta cheese. The first connection between Hanukkah and pancakes was made by a rabbi in Italy named Rabbi Kalonymus ben Kalonymus (c. 1286-1328). According to The Encyclopedia of Jewish Food by Gil Marks, the Rabbi “included pancakes in a list of dishes to serve at an idealized Purim feast, as well as a poem about Hanukkah. After the Spanish expelled the Jews from Sicily in 1492, the exiles introduced their ricotta cheese pancakes, which were called cassola in Rome, to the Jews of northern Italy. Consequently, cheese pancakes, because they combined the two traditional types of foods–fried and dairy–became a natural Hanukkah dish.”

Potato latkes are a more accurate Ashkenazi invention that gained popularity in Eastern Europe during the mid 1800?s. A series of crop failures in Poland and the Ukraine led to mass planting of potatoes, which were easy and cheap to grow. But before potatoes came on the scene, the latke of choice was cheese.

In honor of Judith and the history of Hanukkah, give these cheese latkes a try. They’re super easy to make and they’ll melt in your mouth. Imagine cheesy blintz filling made into a fluffy little pancake. So creamy and delicious! Use full fat, high quality ricotta for best flavor results — if you’re on a diet, lowfat will work, too. Top them with a little something sweet like honey or agave nectar. Knowing the history behind the latkes will make them taste even better!

Thank you to food blogger Tori Avey of “The Shiksa in the Kitchen” for this guest post. Be sure to check out her recipe for cheese latkes below.

Food blogger Tori Avey of "The Shiksa in the Kitchen" shares the history of latkes in a guest post on PBS Food.


  • 1 cup ricotta cheese
  • Âľ cup flour
  • 3 large eggs
  • 2 tbsp granulated white sugar
  • 1 tsp kosher salt
  • ½ tsp baking powder
  • Nonstick cooking oil spray, for frying


  1. Combine all ingredients except the nonstick oil in a food processor. Process the mixture for about 45 seconds, pausing a couple of times to scrape the sides, until the mixture forms a thick batter.
  2. Spray a skillet with nonstick cooking oil and heat over medium. Use a spoon to scoop up the batter, then pour it onto the hot skillet in the size/shape of silver dollar pancakes. Use 1-2 tablespoons of batter per pancake. Spread the batter out into a thin circle after it hits the skillet.
  3. Fry the latkes for 2-3 minutes on each side until they turn golden brown. Test the first latke for doneness and make sure it’s cooked all the way through; if the latkes are browning faster than they’re cooking, reduce skillet heat. Expect some variation in the shape of the latkes, they won't form a perfect circle. Serve immediately.
  4. These latkes can be eaten plain or topped with a drizzle of honey. Other toppings include jam or preserves, sour cream, maple syrup, yogurt or agave nectar.


Gluten Free Note: You can also make these latkes using a gluten free flour substitute mix. They will take a bit longer to brown, but they’ll still taste great!

Yield: 16-18 latkes

Tue, 08 Aug 2023 11:43:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Black History Month: What is it and why does it matter?

By Adina CampbellCommunity affairs correspondent, BBC News

Celebrations in June 2023 marked the 75th anniversary of the arrival HMT Empire Windrush, which brought migrants from the Caribbean to the UK

October marks Black History Month in the UK.

The event began in the US in the 1920s, and was first celebrated in the UK in 1987.

It also takes place in Canada, Germany and Ireland.

When is Black History Month and what is it?

In the UK, Black History Month happens every October.

It gives everyone the opportunity to share, celebrate and understand the impact of black heritage and culture.

People from African and Caribbean backgrounds have been a fundamental part of British history for centuries. However, campaigners believe their contribution to society has often been overlooked or distorted.

Greater attention has been paid to the importance of the Windrush generation and the Black Lives Matter movement in accurate years, especially since the 2020 death of unarmed African American man George Floyd.

How did Black History Month start?

The event was the brainchild of Carter G Woodson, known as the father of black history.

Born in Virginia in 1875 to parents who were former slaves, he had limited access to education and job opportunities. But he was able to study at one of the few high schools for black students after saving money earned by working as a coal miner.

Carter G Woodson launched the first Black History Week in 1926

Woodson went on to gain various qualifications, including a PhD in history from Harvard University, and became a professor at Howard University.

Throughout his life, he worked tirelessly to promote black history in schools.

In 1926 he launched the first Black History Week, set in February to coincide with the births of former President Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass. Both men played a significant role in helping to end slavery.

The event was expanded in 1970, and since 1976 every US president has officially designated February as Black History Month.

A separate holiday - "Juneteenth", held on 19 June - commemorates the end of slavery in the US.

How did Black History Month start in the UK?

The first Black History Month in the UK took place in 1987, the 150th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in the Caribbean.

It was arranged by Akyaaba Addai-Sebo, who came to the UK from Ghana as a refugee in 1984. Like Woodson before him, he wanted to challenge racism and celebrate the history of black people.

October was chosen partly because it's traditionally a time when African leaders gather to talk about important issues, and partly because it was at the start of the school year.

How is Black History Month celebrated in the UK?

When Black History Month first began, there was a big focus on black American history. Over time the event has prioritised black British history and key black figures from the UK, such as:

  • Walter Tull, the first black officer to command white troops in the British Army, and one of English football's first black players
  • Malorie Blackman, bestselling author and the first black Children's Laureate
  • Shirley J Thompson, leading composer and conductor
  • Lewis Hamilton, the only black driver in Formula One
Shirley J Thompson composed music for King Charles's coronation

Black History Month is also celebrated in local communities, where museums, care homes and workplaces explore a broad range of topics, from Britain's colonial past to migration and music.

For 2023, people are being encouraged to find out more about the exceptional achievements of black women, especially those who have been forgotten.

There is a national poetry competition, open to primary, secondary, college, and university students across the UK.

The contribution of the Windrush generation is also being celebrated, 75 years after the arrival of passengers on HMT Empire Windrush to the UK.

Other events include:

Is black history taught in schools?

For many children in the UK, October is the only time of the year they will learn about black history.

Wales became the first nation in the UK to introduce mandatory changes to its curriculum in 2022, including lessons about black history, racism and contributions of figures from black, Asian and other ethnic minorities.

Walter Tull played for Tottenham Hotspurs and Northampton Town before he died on the battlefields of World War One

Education is a devolved issue and in England there are no such plans to make changes.

The UK government says black history is an important topic, and that schools have the freedom to teach it within the existing history curriculum, from primary-school age onwards.

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Sat, 28 Oct 2023 08:12:00 -0500 text/html Social Science History
  • ISSN: 0145-5532 (Print), 1527-8034 (Online)
  • Editors: Rebecca Jean Emigh University of California, Los Angeles, USA, and Kris Inwood Guelph University, Canada
  • Editorial board

Social Science History advances the study of the past, publishing peer-reviewed original articles that combine empirical research with theoretical work, undertake comparisons across time and distance, or contribute to the development of quantitative or qualitative methods of analysis. The interdisciplinary research community of social scientists -- historians, sociologists, economists, political scientists, anthropologists, and geographers -- that form the membership of the Social Science History Association and its research networks benefit from the high-quality articles provided by the journal.

Wed, 08 Feb 2023 02:24:00 -0600 en text/html

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