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Exam Code: IELTS Practice test 2023 by team
International English Language Test - General/Academic - Reading/Writing Q&As - Speaking/Listening Scenarios - No Audios
IELTS Speaking/Listening information source
Killexams : IELTS Speaking/Listening information source - BingNews Search results Killexams : IELTS Speaking/Listening information source - BingNews Killexams : Speaking and listening: Types of listening

Eral: My name is Eral, I'm a residential support worker.

listening would be relevant for me because the work I do and the nature of my job I could find myself being in court I.e for not listening or writing something which is not correct or as it was told.

Narrator - Narrator: Good morning Indistinct.

For tomorrow night and for how many person is it going to be?

For two people, just a moment please.

Receptionist: When it is about the check-in, of course you have to listen to the guest's surname and then you have to double check.

For example, like how many nights you are staying with us?

Male in light coloured shirt: There are different types of listening.

There's listening for pleasure, like we've got customers over here listening to the units.

There's listening for information, if the customer asks you a question and they want the answer to the question or instructions.

And then there's listening in conversations like you do if you're having a chat with a member of staff.

Male in light coloured shirt: Have you sold any this week so far?

Worker: I think about three PPG's.

Tue, 20 Dec 2022 04:57:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : IELTS Test: What International Students Should Know No result found, try new keyword!The test is two hours and 45 minutes long with assessments on listening (30 minutes), memorizing (60 minutes), writing (60 minutes) and speaking ... on information from the official IELTS website ... Fri, 02 Oct 2020 02:23:00 -0500 text/html Killexams : Listening And Speaking: The Leader's Paradox

Picture a well-known exceptional leader. We often think of these leaders within the context of them talking; perhaps giving an inspiring speech that rallies the troops, facilitating a discussion, or providing clear direction. However, Zenger Folkman's research has found that leaders with a preference for listening are rated as significantly more effective than those who spend the majority of their time holding forth.

Although most tend to picture senior leaders as talking rather than listening, my colleague Joe Folkman and I also found that leaders at a higher organizational level preferred listening more than supervisors lower down in the hierarchy. The graph below shows the percentage of leaders with a preference for listening.

Our Research

We recently analyzed the self-assessment results from 577 leaders on their preference for talking versus listening. We identified 104 leaders with a strong preference for talking and compared their results to 135 leaders who preferred listening.

We also collected effectiveness ratings on these leaders, using evaluations from managers, peers, direct reports, and others. On average, leaders were rated by 13 different raters. We measured leadership effectiveness on 16 differentiating competencies and examined the average rating from all rater groups.

We found that leaders with a strong self-preference for listening were rated as significantly more effective on 13 of the 16 competencies. The graph below shows the results for the two groups. All of these data were highly significant.

The Listening Advantage

The data is extremely compelling, showing that a preference for listening (and listening before talking) is directly tied to a leader’s effectiveness. Steven R. Covey, in his book The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, expressed this principle in his advice to “seek first to understand, then to be understood.” Few doubted the wisdom of this advice; our results provide clear and metric evidence of the power of effective listening.

As we talk to leaders about how to be an effective listener, we frequently find that people know the typical tips and advice for listening better. The question then becomes, “If you know how to listen, why aren’t you doing it better?”

The short answer is, leaders don’t actually know how to effectively listen. To that end, here are a few tips we’ve compiled on ways to be better listeners.

7 Ways to Become a More Effective Listener

  1. When you have something important you want to say, wait for the optimum time. Having a good thought is important; injecting it at exactly the right moment can be important as well.
  2. Ask good questions. Good listening is much more than remaining silent while the other person talks. It requires asking good questions and showing genuine interest in people’s responses as well.
  3. Be a trampoline, not a sponge. Good listening goes beyond being able to repeat exactly what another person says; it also requires providing a new perspective. You are adding energy to the conversation. Become a trampoline by propelling the energy forward.
  4. Ask for feedback from others. The best listeners provide feedback to other people that includes interest, excitement, reactions, disagreements, and suggestions. Because the best conversations are not one-way, the ultimate dialog happens when both parties gain new information and perspective. The highest form of this principle comes from asking for feedback from the other person.
  5. Be curious. At the heart of good listening is the genuine interest that one person has in someone else’s ideas and story.
  6. Be aware of what your face is saying. Everyone has likely had another person read the wrong conclusions into an email or memo. The miscommunication is often cleared up by picking up the phone or, even better, by conversing with someone face-to-face. 80% of communication comes from the tone of voice, body language, and facial expressions that transmit all elements of the communication in whole.
  7. Trust that listening intently, prior to fully stating your position, will get you more than talking.

No matter your place in the organizational hierarchy, the message is clear: effective listening skills will propel your success.

Wed, 16 Aug 2017 16:08:00 -0500 Jack Zenger en text/html
Killexams : 33 Powerful Phrases That Show Active Listening

Brush up on your listening skills with these phrases to help others feel heard.

One of the best traits you can have is being an active listener. How do you do this? “Give your focused attention and block out distractions,” says Jennifer Thomas, Ph.D. a psychologist and author of When Sorry Isn't Enough (co-written with Gary Chapman). She says when you're doing something else—answering the phone, looking at your texts or glancing at the TV—you are essentially telling them, “Hey I'm not really here with you. You're not that important.”

We talked to experts on the best active listening phrases and body language to use to show people you are really interested in what they have to say.

Use body language and specific phrases

Keischa Pruden, LCMHCS, LCAS, CCS, owner and therapist of Pruden Counseling Concepts has the following recommendations to show active listening.

1. Please tell me more.

This sentence lets the other person know that not only are you listening to them, you want to know more information on the subject at hand.

2. Go on.

This sentence lets the other person know you are aware of the pause in the conversation and you want them to proceed.

3. I'm listening.

Sometimes people are hesitant to start or continue a conversation. This sentence invites them to start talking or continue talking.

4. Lean in/lean forward towards the other person

This body language alerts the other person you are invested in what they're saying. It’s a positive affirmation that you care.

5. Maintain eye contact

If culturally appropriate, maintaining eye contact is body language that lets the other person know you are following the conversation and ready to respond.

Related: 24 Podcasts Every Woman Should Be Listening To 

Go a step further with supportive listening

Rolf Bax, Chief Human Resources Officer at, a resume-builder and career insight company says that most people need to use active-listening skills in work settings in order to forge strong working relationships with their team members and colleagues.

6. Paraphrase without parroting

One of the foundational elements of active listening is showing your conversation partner that you have either fully absorbed their message and understand what they are saying or are looking for clarification. Paraphrasing using different language signals to your partner that you were engaged with what they were saying and asking for confirmation by using follow-up questions like "Is that correct?" or "Do I have that right?" shows you are earnest in your desire to understand.

7. Describe the person's feelings

Regardless of what emotions your conversation partner's statements convey, statements that accurately describe their feelings back to them indicate empathy, which builds trust. If someone is describing an interpersonal problem with a spouse or friend where there has been miscommunication or misinterpretation that has caused conflict, phrases such as '"It can be so frustrating when people we care about misinterpret us" show that you are actively listening, analyzing and trying to find common ground with what is being said to you.

Related: Can You Have Too Much Empathy?

Consider these active listening responses

Sander Tamm, CEO and founder of E-Student notes that while there are many effective non-verbal expressions, there are key responses that indicate you’re listening.

8. Please give me more details.

This makes the talker express more or try to process what they're saying. It encourages both introspection and expression. You’re showing you’re being a mindful listener.

9. So what I'm getting from you is.

This kind of repeats what the other person just said (much like parroting, mentioned previously). You can also rephrase their statement and tell it back to them, which actively assures the other person that you are carefully listening to them.

10. Let me see if I got that correctly.

This clearly demonstrates listening but also shows the recipient that you are interested in whatever they're saying.

Related: 12 Things You Should Never Say to Your Partner 

Direct questions

Lachlan Brown, the founder and editor of Hack Spirit, a company that focuses on providing practical and accessible relationship, career and life advice, suggests these phrases to demonstrate active listening.

11.  Yes I especially agree with [fill in the blank].

This signals that you’re actively listening.

12. Can you tell me a bit more about what you mean when you say [blank]?

Be specific here.

13. Where did you discover that?

This is important because it is getting to the source of the conversation.

14. How do you feel about that?

This is especially good if you’re talking to your teenage children who may be frustrated.

15. What led you to that conclusion?

This is a good way to continue the flow of the conversation.

16. I can't ever know exactly what that was like, but I can really feel how much it affected you.

This active listening response helps show that you empathize with the speaker.

17. These are the main points I've heard you make so far.

Repeating back key points ensure you’re both in agreement on where the conversation is heading.

18. I see it differently, but I'm curious to know more about what you mean by your last statement.

This is a good way to disagree in a meaningful, productive way.

19. I just want to make sure we're on the same page...

Even if you think you’re on the same page, it’s good to reiterate that.

20. Could you clarify?

Asking for clarification is always a good way to show that you’re giving your full attention and thinking critically about what the speaker says.

21. Are there other parts of that which you'd like me to know about?

This allows the speaker to continue the conversation more in-depth.

22. I'm pretty sure I've heard about that issue, could you explain a bit more?

You’re empowering the speaker to explain her views.

23. Is there another related issue regarding that?

If you don’t understand what they are saying, this is a good way to get more information.

24. I can especially relate to your story about [blank].

Show your empathy by sharing personal experiences from your own life.

25. Please continue, I'm following what you're saying.

Often speakers feel like they don’t want to say too much. This encourages them to continue on with the same conversation.

27. Silence and nodding to indicate your openness to the other person to continue

Even if you’re not sure what to say, nodding your head is a good way to show you care.

Related: It's Been a Tough Year—Here Are 125 Ways to Show Moral Support for the People You Care About 

Reassuring responses

Angila Liam, a psychologist from the EzCare Medical Clinic who diagnoses and treats a variety of psychological issues across different age groups, suggests the following active listening responses .

28. Really?

This response shows that you are not just listening but getting excited with the news as well.

29. Why don’t you try to [blank].

Here you can give different solutions and suggest ways to overcome the problems.

30. Do you mean to say [blank].

If you think you’re not getting the idea right, ask for it. Explain what you think it is and let the person correct you. It will give them a sense that you are actively listening and trying to understand their situation.

31. How would you like things to turn out?

Ask for their perspective and expectations for the future. This way the person will let it all out and feel better because their opinion is important enough that you’re asking for it.

32. I’m glad [blank].

Tell them you’re happy for them. Make sure they feel better about the situation if it’s something positive.

33. I’m sorry you have to face that, you can always count on me.

If the situation is not perfect, assure them that you will be standing beside them and they are not alone in this.

Next up: 20 Ways to be a Better Listener


Mon, 06 Feb 2023 03:42:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : English language requirements for postgraduates

If you want to study at the University of Sheffield, you must be able to show that your English is good enough for you to successfully complete your course.

This webpage lists the English language tests and other qualifications we accept. We also accept some first degrees taught in English. We consider these qualifications alongside other evidence of English language ability included in your application, for example in the supporting statement. We will base our decision on the English language qualification you were awarded most recently.

If your qualification is not included in the lists below, or if you need further information, please contact the Admissions Service.

If you need help to Boost your English, our English Language Teaching Centre offers a range of pre-sessional courses.

If you have recently been awarded a first degree or postgraduate diploma taught in English in a majority native English speaking country, you will not normally need to provide other evidence of English language ability. You should have been awarded your degree/diploma within five years of the start date of your Sheffield course.

If you have recently been awarded a first degree or postgraduate diploma taught in English in a non-majority native English speaking country, you will still need to present one of the tests or qualifications listed below. However, if you were awarded your degree/diploma within 12 months of the start date of your Sheffield course, we will exempt you from the time limits listed below. You should also provide an official letter from your university that confirms you were taught in English.

Successfully completing an appropriate pre-sessional English language course offered by the University's English Language Teaching Centre (ELTC) meets our English language requirements. The pre-sessional course should be completed no more than two years before the start date of the degree course.

Successfully completing a Pre-Masters at the University of Sheffield International College meets our English language requirements. The Pre-Masters should be completed no more than two years before the start date of the degree course.

Tests measure English language ability at a single point in time. If you are presenting one of the tests listed in this section, it should have been completed no more than two years before the start date of your Sheffield course.

For most of these tests, different courses require different levels of achievement. For postgraduate taught courses, the IELTS requirements are published in each course listing. The IELTS requirements for research degrees are published on our PhD webpages.

English language tests
Test Standard Good Advanced Proficiency

International English Language Testing Service (IELTS)*

Overall score of 6.5 with a minimum of 6.0 in each component Overall score of 7.0 with a minimum of 6.5 in each component Overall score of 7.5 with a minimum of 7.0 in each component Overall score of 8.0 with a minimum of 7.5 in each component
Cambridge C1 Advanced Overall score of 176 with a minimum of 169 in each component Overall score of 185 with a minimum of 176 in each component Overall score of 191 with a minimum of 185 in each component Overall score of 200 with a minimum of 191 in each component
Cambridge C2 Proficiency Overall score of 176 with a minimum of 169 in each component Overall score of 185 with a minimum of 176 in each component Overall score of 191 with a minimum of 185 in each component Overall score of 200 with a minimum of 191 in each component
LanguageCert International ESOL SELT C1 (Listening, Reading, Writing, Speaking)** 33/50 in each component 33/50 in each component 33/50 in each component 33/50 in each component
NCUK English Language Test Overall score of 6.5 with a minimum of 6.0 in each component Overall score of 7.0 with a minimum of 6.5 in each component Overall score of 7.5 with a minimum of 7.0 in each component Overall score of 8.0 with a minimum of 7.5 in each component
NCUK International Foundation Year: English for Academic Purposes module Overall EAP score of B with a minimum of C in each component Overall EAP score of A with a minimum of B in each component Overall EAP score of A* with a minimum of A in each component Not accepted
Occupational English Test (OET)*** 300 or above in each component 350 or above in each component 400 or above in each component 450 or above in each component
Pearson Test of English Academic (PTE Academic, PTE Academic UKVI, or PTE Academic Online) Overall score of 61 with a minimum of 56 in each component Overall score of 67 with a minimum of 61 in each component Overall score of 72 with a minimum of 67 in each component Overall score of 76 with a minimum of 72 in each component

Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) internet-based test (iBT), internet-based test (iBT) Home Edition, or internet-based test (iBT) Paper Edition****

Overall score of 88 with a minimum of 19 in Listening, 20 in Reading, 22 in Speaking and 19 in Writing Overall score of 95 with a minimum of 21 in Listening, 22 in Reading, 23 in Speaking and 22 in Writing Overall score of 103 with a minimum of 22 in Listening, 24 in Reading, 25 in Speaking and 24 in Writing Overall score of 110 with a minimum of 24 in Listening, 26 in Reading, 27 in Speaking and 26 in Writing
Trinity Integrated Skills in English (ISE) III Grade of Pass or above in each component Grade of Merit or above in each component Grade of Distinction in each component Grade of Distinction in each component
Trinity Integrated Skills in English (ISE) IV Grade of Pass or above in each component Grade of Pass or above in each component Grade of Pass or above in each component Grade of Pass or above in each component

* We accept the IELTS Academic (paper-based or on computer), IELTS for UKVI Academic (paper-based or on computer), IELTS Online and IELTS Indicator (taken from 1 July 2020) versions of the test. We do not accept IELTS Life Skills or IELTS General Training.
** We require the SELT version of the LanguageCert tests
*** The OET is only accepted for entry to courses offered by the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health
**** We do not accept the TOEFL paper-based test (discontinued April 2021), or MyBest scores

If the IELTS requirements for your course are not included in this table:

  • You can check what you need to achieve in the Cambridge C1 Advanced, Cambridge C2 Proficiency, Pearson and TOEFL on our ELTC webpages
  • The NCUK English Language Test requirements are the same as for IELTS
  • The LanguageCert, NCUK and Trinity requirements are the same for all courses

We also accept a wide range of English language qualifications that include a formal programme of study.

The levels of achievement we normally require are detailed below. A few courses do not accept certain qualifications, or ask for higher levels of achievement. Where this is the case, it will be made clear in the course information.

If you were awarded one of these qualifications more than five years before the start date of your Sheffield course, we may ask you to complete a new English language qualification. Please include with your application any evidence you have of ongoing use of English.

If your certificates or transcripts are in a language other than English, we may ask you to supply official, authenticated translations.

International qualifications
Qualification Level
International Baccalaureate (IB) Standard or Higher Level English Language Syllabus A Grade 4 or above
International Baccalaureate (IB) Standard or Higher Level English Language Syllabus B Grade 5 or above
International Baccalaureate (IB) Standard or Higher Level English Language and Literature combined Grade 5 or above
International Baccalaureate (IB) Standard or Higher Level English Literature Grade 5 or above
International Baccalaureate (IB) Middle Years Programme English Language and Literature Grade 4 or above
European Baccalaureate (EB) English 7.5 or 75%, or above
UK qualifications
Qualification Level
GCSE English Language Grade 4/C or above
A Level or AS Level English Language Grade C or above
A Level or AS Level English Language and Literature combined Grade B or above
AQA Level 2 Certificate (IGCSE) in English Language Grade 4/C or above
CIE IGCSE English as a First Language (Syllabus 0500) Grade 4/C or above, with Grade 2 in Speaking and Listening
CIE IGCSE English as a First Language (Syllabus 0522) Grade 4/C or above
CIE IGCSE English as a First Language (Syllabus 0627) Grade 4/C or above, with Merit in Speaking and Listening
CIE IGCSE English as a First Language (Syllabus 0990) Grade 4/C or above, with Merit in Speaking and Listening
CIE IGCSE English as a Second Language (Syllabus 0510) Grade 6/B or above, with Grade 2 in Oral and Aural
CIE IGCSE English as a Second Language (Syllabus 0993) Grade 6/B or above, with Grade 2 in Oral and Aural
CIE IGCSE English as a Second Language (Syllabus 0511) Grade 6/B or above
CIE IGCSE English as a Second Language (Syllabus 0991) Grade 6/B or above
Edexcel IGCSE English Language A Grade 4/C, or above, including Speaking and Listening
Edexcel IGCSE English as a Second Language Grade 6/B, or above, including Speaking and Listening
Oxford AQA IGCSE English as a Second Language (Syllabus 9280) Grade 6/B or above
SQA Intermediate 2 English or National 5 English Grade B or above
SQA Higher or Advanced Higher English Grade C or above
Scottish Higher, English for Speakers of Other Languages (Syllabus C222) Grade B or above
European qualifications
Qualification Level
Austrian Reifeprüfung/Matura Grade 2 (Gut) or above in Written and Oral components
Belgium Certificat d'Enseignement Secondaire / Diploma van hoger Secundair Onderwij / Abschlusszeugnis der Oberstufe des Sekundarunterrichts Grade 15 out of 20 or 70%, or above
Cypriot Apolytirion (Upper Secondary School Leaving Certificate), English 19/20 or 91%, or above
Czech Maturitni Zkousce / Maturita Grade 3 or above
Danish Bevis for Studentereksamen (STX) Grade 7 or above in Written and Oral components
French Baccalauréat l'Option Internationale, English Grade 12 or above
French Baccalauréat Général, English LV1 or A Grade 14 or above
German Abitur, English Grade 12 or above
Irish Leaving Certificate, English Grade H4/O4 or above
Maltese Matriculation Certificate, English Grade C or above
Netherlands VWO, English Grade 7 or above
Norwegian Vitnemål for videregående opplæring, English Grade 4 or above
Romanian Diploma de Bacalaureat, English Grade B2 or above overall, with B2 or above in each component
Swedish Fullstandigt fran Gymnasieskolan, English Grade C or above
Swiss Certificat de Maturité / Maturitätszeugnis / Maturitätsausweis / Attestato di Maturità Grade 4.5 or above
Qualifications from the rest of the world
Qualification Level

Cambridge Assessment International Education GCE O Level, English

For example:

  • Brunei O Level subject 1120
  • Malaysian O Level subject 1119
  • Mauritius O Level subject 1125/1126
  • Singapore O Level subject 1128
  • For other countries, O Level subject 1123
Grade C or above
Bahamas General Certificate of Secondary Education (BGCSE), English Grade C or above
Botswana General Certificate of Secondary Education, English  Grade C or above
Cameroon GCE O Level, English Grade C or above
Canada High/Secondary School Diploma, English (completed within Canada within the Anglophone system) Requirements vary depending on board. For more information please contact the Admissions Service.
HKDSE English Language Grade 4 or above overall, with Grade 4 or above in each component
Indian Standard XII, English Language (certain examination boards) 70% or above
Kenyan Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE), English

Grade B or above

Please note that we do not accept Grade B- in the KCSE English

Namibian Senior Secondary Certificate (NSSC), Higher English Grade C or above
Singapore Integrated Programme (IP) Students should go on to complete A Level or IB qualifications (in any subject taught in English)
South African National Senior Certificate (SANSC) Grade 4 or above
Tanzanian Certificate of Secondary Education / Advanced Certificate of Secondary Education (awarded by the National Examinations Council of Tanzania), English Language Grade C or above
Ugandan Certificate of Education (UCE) Grade 6 or above
United States High School Diploma, Grade 12 English (completed within the United States) Grade C or above
WAEC West African Senior School Certificate (WASSCE), English Grade C or above
West Indies Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate, English A Grade III (3) or above
Zambian General Certificate of Education, English Grade 6/C or above

You should still have completed an English language qualification or degree taught in English as listed above, but we may exempt you from our usual time limit requirements if you have at least 12 months of exact employment in a role that involves regular communication in English. This employment should either be ongoing, or have been completed no more than six months before the Sheffield course start date. You should include with your application an official letter from your current/most exact employer that confirms 1) your English language proficiency, in listening, reading, speaking and writing, 2) the dates of your employment and 3) how you use English in your role.

Applicants to courses in the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health: You should still have completed an English language qualification or degree taught in English as listed above, but we will exempt you from our usual time limit requirements if you include with your application 1) evidence that you are currently registered with the General Medical Council (GMC), General Dental Council (GDC), Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), or Medical Council of Ireland (MCI) and 2) a letter from your employer confirming your continued English language proficiency, in listening, reading, speaking and writing.

Some of the English language qualifications we do not accept are listed below. We are also not normally able to accept the English language modules studied as part of a degree course.

Qualifications not accepted

Anglia Examinations in English
Cambridge First Certificate in English (FCE)
Cambridge Preliminary English Test (PET)
City and Guilds (I)ESOL
Duolingo English Test
Key English Test (KET)
London Chamber of Commerce: English for Business
Malaysian Certificate of Educational English Language
Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency
Nigerian National Examinations Council qualification (NECO)
Oxford International Business English Certificate
Oxford Test of English
Pitman English for Business Communications
Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC)
Trinity Integrated Skills in English (ISE) II

Tue, 18 Aug 2020 15:55:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Compare and Contrast Information From Different Sources

Use this graphic organizer to help students compare and contrast information from different sources of their choosing while researching a relevant topic. Guiding questions help students closely examine each source for credibility and reliability, and reflection questions on the second page get students to dig deeper into similarities and differences between types of sources. This worksheet provides essential practice evaluating sources for research, an important part of a middle school literacy curriculum.

For additional value, check out the accompanying Evaluating Sources for Research lesson plan.

View aligned standards
Fri, 04 Dec 2020 23:40:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : The Importance of Information Sources at the Workplace

Lainie Petersen writes about business, real estate and personal finance, drawing on 25 years experience in publishing and education. Petersen's work appears in Money Crashers, Selling to the Masses, and in Walmart News Now, a blog for Walmart suppliers. She holds a master's degree in library science from Dominican University.

Wed, 18 Jul 2018 17:18:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : The Limits of Listening

Ninety percent of new ventures fail (Patel, 2015). The top reason is that founders spend time and money producing products/services that are not wanted.

The easy explanation is entrepreneurial narrow-vision. The bouba/kiki effect suggests a more complex reason: Potential customers know what they want but they cannot articulate it. The dilemma is reflected in Henry Ford’s classic statement: “If I had asked my customers what they wanted, they would have said, ‘a faster horse.’”

The bouba/kiki effect has implications for all leaders.

Stakeholder Voice Is a Starting Point.

Ellen DiResta is the founder of Pearl Partners of Boston, Massachusetts. She works with clients to help them launch new ventures. DiResta argues that companies tend to overfocus on product features and underfocus on customer experiences. Voice of the customer research is one source of information. But it is only one source. DiResta states this caution applies to external and internal customers.

In 1929, Gestalt psychologist Wolfgang Kohler asked subjects to draw the sounds “kiki” and “bouba.” Most could not comply. This may be because participants were being asked to use their cerebral cortex. On the other hand, when presented with two visual images, most subjects could easily identify one figure as kiki and the other as bouba. This is because the visual sense was dominant. People can also easily differentiate kiki and bouba in taste and color (Shukla, 2016).

Asking stakeholders to verbally express their values is only starting point. Use the information to develop prototypes and not final products. Be willing to adapt your model based on stakeholder experiences.

An Example

A client of DiResta’s asked potential customers what they wanted in the equipment the client's company was making. Customers were engaged in developing cell and gene therapy. Customers verbally stated they wanted equipment that would help simplify their work.

A prototype was introduced allowing customers to produce results with fewer steps. But after experiencing the product, participants were not delighted. As the procedures got easier, customer apprehension about missing important information increased.

In other words, the simple process they verbally articulated was not what they had wanted. This is the bouba/kiki paradox.

The Leader as Advocate

Leadership coach and board member John Ela sees examples of bouba/kiki "everywhere.” For him the classic example is Ford Motor Company’s Edsel:

“… a heavily researched concept car that failed in the market. It did have many of the features the market said it wanted. It turned Ford into a laughing stock.” (Ela, 2023

The challenge for leaders is to become customer advocates. Customers can be external or internal. Focus on understanding the experience from multiple sensory perspectives. Build prototypes and be willing to adapt with stakeholders' experience.

Ela suggests that the failure of stakeholders to positively respond to your market research should not be labeled “failure.” Call it “bouba/kiki.”

Another bouba/kiki example is Amazon's Alexa. The original concept was to get customers to buy more by allowing voice commands—make ordering simple. Customers found that their mobile devices provide visual clarity, something Alexa does not do. Instead of increasing purchasing options for customers, Alexa tends to be used for rudimentary tasks like checking on the weather or turning music on.

Bouba/kiki warns leaders to avoid falling in love with your products/services. Be wary of what your stakeholders tell you while respecting their comments. Be sensitive that many have limited verbal ability to articulate their real needs.

Wed, 01 Feb 2023 04:40:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : Want a good IELTS band score? Here are a few tips to excel in this exam

 The spurt in the number of people travelling abroad for higher education or permanent residency in exact years is a casual subject of discussion nowadays. With these talks come the term 'IELTS' or International English Language Testing System. Here is a peek into the features and relevance of this exam, along with a few tips on bagging a good band score.

It's all about testing your efficiency in English!

The exam, which consists of four sections — Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening — is all about testing one's competence in using English language, ahead of studying, working or settling in an overseas English-speaking country. While the memorizing section includes comprehensive passages, Speaking part entails a general interview of the candidate; asking to tell about oneself, general courses and a cue-card topic. In the Listening module, candidates will have to listen to comprehensive passages and write down the answers in the sheet within the allotted time slot. The Writing part includes writing an essay and a letter/comparison of a graph or pie chart.

Two types of exam

IELTS, which is being conducted in both online as well as paper-based format, is divided into two categories: Academic and General. The first category must be opted by students who are applying for graduation or post-graduation course, doctors and nurses. General IELTS is for people who have applied for permanent residency in any foreign country, which requires the exam's band score.

Required marks

Students need to acquire band scores according to the requirement of the university or college they have applied. Meanwhile, permanent residency applicants require band scores based on their points under Comprehensive Ranking System (according to their age, education and work experience). “Top universities usually keep an overall band score of 7 or more for admissions. Most institutions require minimum 6-6.5 overall band score,” said Biju M, founder and instructor at Casper Academy Of Excellence.

Rules and Tips


- This module has a time-constraint, which is why candidates must keep practising to increase their accuracy as well as speed.

- Since the answer sheets are corrected through an online method, one must be careful to avoid spelling mistakes. For instance, if an answer is 'equipment' and the candidate notes down 'equipments', it would be marked as an error and will lead to the candidate losing a mark.

- Listening to as many as audios, radio programmes, English films or series with subtitles can help candidates in understanding the questions in audio clips.

- Trying to listen to and understand various accents such as British and Australian can also prove helpful for those attempting this exam.


- Fluency and pronunciation are among the major requirements of this module. (Note: Pronunciation does not mean acquiring an accent. It is more about keeping minimal mother tongue influence while speaking in English).

- Avoid repetition of words and use idioms or phrase at least once or twice while speaking.

- Use complex sentences along with simple ones while answering to questions.

- Maintain an eye contact and good sitting posture, though this is not a formal interview.

- Candidates must keep in mind to answer in the same tense of the questions asked.


- The priority of this section is not about memorizing and analysing the entire passage given. It is all about finding the answers to the questions given below the passage.

- Candidates must keep practising previous question papers or sample ones to get a knack on how to answer correctly within the time limit.


- Task response or exact answer to the question or examiners' requirement is a priority for this module.

- Candidates must organise the content and points according to the question and maintain coherence and cohesion throughout their writing.

- The usage of correct sentence structures and tenses is also important.

- Qualified trainers are ideally required to guide a candidate in scoring a better mark in this section.

(Information Courtesy: Reji Ajith, founder and instructor at Drona Institute for IELTS, OET & PTE at Kaloor, Kochi.)

Sun, 05 Feb 2023 00:43:00 -0600 text/html
Killexams : Social media listening: uncovering patients’ needs

Conversations on social media can provide unprecedented insights about what patients genuinely think about treatments. Through social media listening programmes, pharma companies can now identify areas of unmet need and adapt processes to address them. Carina Mikolajczak examines the situation in Germany, and explains the opportunities available both there and beyond.

Most people in Germany use the internet regularly to research health-related topics. But, in addition to finding information, they like to discuss different medications and treatments, as well as giving and receiving advice in online forums and social media platforms. Up to 20% of conversations on social media mention health issues.

The information and opinions shared on the internet are direct, genuine and unprompted, offering access to data that was not previously available. Social media listening enables the pharma industry to tune in to patients’ conversations and learn from the insights – discovering what really impacts patients’ lives, for example.

The Web 2.0 movement changed perception of the internet from being simply a source of information to a bi-, or even multi-directional, exchange of information among users on platforms such as Facebook, forums and blogs. Online communication encompasses courses and interactions ranging from commenting on posts to the sharing of information and articles on social media platforms. Consequently, the amount of data online has increased exponentially in exact years, making social media one of the largest and most diverse sources of information available.

The consumer goods industry has been using this data for years, aggregating single data points to develop consumer behaviour patterns, and incorporating the resulting insights into product development.

However, it is not only consumers who are active online; patients also use social media. According to the German Health Monitor of the federal association of Arzneimittel-Hersteller e.V, almost every internet user searches for information about health-related issues.

About half use forums to discuss diseases, symptoms and treatments. However, there are diverse reasons why patients go online for information. About 75% use the internet to find information to discuss with physicians and pharmacists and to help them understand the recommendations they make. Two-thirds want to know about treatment alternatives.

As the internet offers anonymity, patients are more willing to share experiences and advice with others with the same condition. They talk about their fears and concerns, and share details of the treatments and drugs that help the most. Moreover, they discuss problems with medications and any side effects.

Consequently, there are many ways for the pharma industry to benefit from using social media and its information capabilities, which offers access to genuine opinions, emotions and honest comments. Pharma companies don’t normally have such access to deep insights into patients’ histories and emotions, but examining these findings can help them Boost patient support services and target-group-orientated communication.

How does social media listening work?

Rather than focusing on individual comments or posts, social media listening aggregates large amounts of unstructured data points to identify behavioural patterns and draw well-supported conclusions. In this way, privacy policy and personal rights are not infringed.

Social media listening tools have been developed to support this analysis, tailored to the regulatory and compliance requirements of the pharma industry.

The process starts with determining the project scope and relevant business questions the client wants answered. These could include: What courses do patients want to talk about online? Which channels do they use for their communication? Are there any unmet informational needs? Why do patients switch between drugs? What do patients think about a drug/brand? How is ‘Brand A’ perceived compared to its competitors? Why are patients not adherent?

Based on these objectives, relevant keywords are defined and query terms are created. Also at this stage, it is important to determine the timeframe, languages, countries and data sources that are relevant.

As soon as relevant keywords, query terms and the programme code are entered, relevant data points will be extracted using web crawler technology. Depending on the criteria identified, the resulting amounts of data points vary. For example, if Germany is the geographical scope, the German and English languages are included and the timeframe is one year retrospective for type 2 diabetes, the tool extracts about 20,000 data points from current social media platforms.

Since the resulting data is unstructured, the next step is to filter the extracted data points and categorise them. Data mining and machine learning technologies are able to categorise and analyse them according to the pre-defined project focus and business questions. If sentiment analysis around a product or brand is an objective, Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools can sort the data into positive, negative or neutral comments. Although the accuracy of this type of semantic analysis continues to improve, it still requires manual verification.

The final step is a content-related and graphical preparation of the data that will facilitate clear and unambiguous answers to the pre-set questions. Drawing conclusions and developing recommendations for future activities based on the findings is a crucial part of every social media listening project.

How can pharma companies benefit?

Social media listening can be a valuable source of information throughout the entire lifecycle of pharmaceutical products.

During the drug development phase, typical questions include: Which side effects of competitors’ products impact patients’ lives the most? or What is the preferred method of application? Furthermore, companies can gain insight into patients’ evaluations of various product characteristics, and identify if there are any unmet needs in a specific area of treatment. Resulting insights can be implemented in the development process.

Before launching a new drug, social media Listening could provide insight into how competitors’ products are perceived, which advantages and characteristics of the products are important and how competitors use social media.

In the product launch phase, social media listening insights can be used to develop a target group-orientated communication for physicians and patients before a product is launched. Once it has entered the market, monitoring relevant social media Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), such as share of voice or brand sentiment, can provide early and leading market indicators for sales trends. For example, negative sentiment towards a product increases steadily over time. This early indicator could signal subsequent changes to other products and hence predict declining sales. Therefore the relevance of social media KPIs should never be underestimated, but monitored constantly and consistently, not only during the market launch phase.

Pharma companies can also seek technical support for these efforts. Dashboard solutions can offer the advantage of a detailed and real-time overview of current pharma-related KPIs and social media activities, rather than showing just single reports.

During the maturity phase of a product, social media listening can provide insights into the medical care and real-life experiences of patients while using a product. Depending on the results, a recommended action could be to Boost medical care by implementing a patient support programme. Moreover, information can be better tailored to the patients and their treatment.

Throughout the entire lifecycle of a product, every phase and functional division, from Marketing to Brand Management, Medical to Pharmacovigilance and Public Relations, can benefit from the resulting patient insights.

What to consider

Pharma companies looking for help with social media listening projects should work with suppliers experienced in their field who can ensure that internal compliance and legal requirements are met. In particular, identification and reporting of adverse events (AEs) is one of the most important aspects to consider. Ideally, the provider should be able to provide an automated solution that covers identification, qualification and reporting of AEs tailored to company requirements.

Social media remains largely uncharted territory for the pharma industry, with social media listening an undiscovered source of information with obvious advantages over traditional data sources. Social media outperforms traditional channels in time, efficiency, and volume of sources available. Plus, no other source of information or method provides insights as authentic as those found via social media.

Some innovative pharma companies have already used social media listening and actioned projects as a result. Nevertheless, its potential remains largely unexploited, possibly because of uncertainty about being able to meet legal requirements and identify AEs. In addition, many pharma companies do not have strong social media expertise in house.

In summary, social media listening offers an innovative source of information for the pharma industry, revealing insights that were difficult to access previously, especially genuine patients' perspectives. Targeted utilisation of such insights can bring significant competitive advantage. Therefore, pharma companies should embrace social media listening to help them implement further actions appropriately for greater commercial success.

About the Author:

Carina Mikolajczak, a graduate economist, works as a Senior Consultant at QuintilesIMS and is a specialist in social media listening. She advises pharma companies in continental Europe and around the world on the topic.

She joined QuintilesIMS in 2015 and has almost 10 years of professional experience in the pharmaceutical industry.

Read more from QuintilesIMS in this article in the latest edition of Deep Dive: Future Pharma, entitled Healthcare of the future: medtech for better care management

Thu, 27 Jul 2017 21:16:00 -0500 en text/html
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