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Certified Information Privacy Professional/Europe (CIPP/E)
IAPP Professional/Europe study tips
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This is a guide on how to avoid pickpocketing in Europe.

Unfortunately, pickpocketing in Europe is a real problem.  We’ve been very lucky that we’ve visited Europe several times at this point and never had an issue.  But we know the struggle with petty theft is real.  And if you’ve ever been a victim of pickpocketing in Europe then you know how serious it can be.

In this article we will cover:

  • Things you need to know about pickpocketing in Europe [including how to avoid pickpockets in Europe]
  • Pickpocketing in Italy [especially pickpocketing in Rome]
  • Pickpocketing in Spain [especially pickpocketing in Barcelona]
  • PIcpocketing in France [especially pickpocketing in Paris]

Generally speaking, Europe is a very safe place to visit. We felt completely comfortable exploring places like Barcelona with kids. But that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t exercise caution there. Pickpocketing in Europe is a very common crime and tourists are more often than not targeted. That’s because they’re often less savvy than locals and are almost guaranteed to have valuables on them.

Items that are often targeted by pickpockets in Europe are:

  • Cash
  • Jewelry
  • Important documents like passports
  • Electronics like cell phones
  • Entire wallets, purses, and bags

But you can avoid pickpockets in Europe! Let’s discuss how.

How to Avoid Pickpockets in Europe [No Matter the Country]

Luckily, even with the high risk of pickpocketing in Europe, there are some very easy steps you can take to protect your valuables. Here are tips on how to avoid pickpockets in Europe:

Invest In An Anti-Theft Bag

Please don’t store your valuables in your pockets.  No matter how deep they may be, pockets are still easy targets.  It is, after all, literally called pickpocketing.

Instead, invest in a quality anti-theft bag with secure zippers to keep your stuff safe.  I’ve collected quite a few anti-theft bags over the years [you can see all my favorite travel bags and purses here].  This is the number one way to avoid pickpockets in Europe.

If you’re looking for the best backpack for Europe or the best purse for Europe, look no further! Here are my top picks:

Best Backpack for Europe

Travelon is without a doubt my favorite brand for pickpocketing in Europe. Their bags are portable, have great features, and are reliable. 

Best Travel Purses For Europe

You want a bag with secured zippers [make sure you use them], anti-slash straps, and RFID protection to avoid pickpockets in Europe.  Opt for a crossbody over a shoulder bag so that it isn’t as easily snatched off your shoulder.

Zippers are Your Friends

If you opt to use a regular handbag, you can still avoid pickpockets in Europe.  Just make sure it has a zipper closure.  Bonus points if it zips closed and then has a flap that goes over it. 

Be sure your handbag is zipped at all times and check the zipper periodically.  Avoid handbags with a velcro closure or ones that are completely open at the top.

Be Aware of Certain Areas

Be cautious everywhere but there are certain areas where you’re more likely to run into a pickpocket than others.  The most common places where pickpockets seem to gather are:

  • The metro
  • Popular tourist attractions [including popular transit streets like La Rambla in Barcelona]
  • Train stations
  • Markets and malls
  • Beaches

Also, please note that pickpockets don’t wear a name tag saying “Hi, I’m here to rob you.”  Meaning, they aren’t always easily identifiable.  Lots of times they are women and children, someone that looks like a tourist, a group of teenagers, someone that appears to be in distress, etc.

Don’t Be Afraid to Look Silly

If a scenario feels a little sketchy — or even if it doesn’t — don’t worry about looking silly.  Just protect your stuff!

  • Clutch your bag to your chest in a crowded area.
  • Wear your backpack on your chest instead of your back.
  • Wear your coat over your handbag.
  • Sit on your suitcase instead of having it next to you.
  • Use yourself and your friends to form a body barricade around your suitcases with you guys on the perimeter and your personal items on the inside.
  • Keep your purse on your lap when seated — even in a restaurant or bar and even if they have hooks nearby to hang them.

Always Keep An Eye On Your Belongings – No Matter What

This one might sound obvious but you’d be surprised how tricky it can be to avoid pickpockets in Europe that use distractions.  If a stranger stops you to speak to you, ignore them and check your surroundings.  This is often a ploy to distract you from someone behind you accessing your personal items. 

And yes, this applies to strangers that are men, women, or even children!  Unfortunately, pickpockets in Europe come in all shapes, sizes, and forms.  Please don’t set your items down or take your eyes off them.

Hide Your Money and other Valuables

To my fellow ample-bosomed ladies, your bra is more than just a crumb catcher.  If you’re looking to avoid pickpockets in Europe, use it to your advantage.  Your bra is a wonderful place to hide our Euros until you need them. 

For the gentlemen [and the ladies who can’t/don’t want to use their undergarments], invest in a money belt to wear under your clothes.  Keep all of your essentials items like your passport, extra money, credit cards, etc. there.

Keep It Moving

Try not to stand still in a busy area for too long.  Pickpockets use the hustle and bustle of a busy area to brush past you and take your things.  Pause, take your picture, and move on!  If you need to stop for a few minutes, find a seat and keep your bag in your lap.  You can also lean against a wall with your bag between your body and the wall.

Pickpocketing in Italy

Italy is an absolutely beautiful country to visit [you can see all our posts about Italy here]. But its reputation with tourists has been tarnished a bit by the problem of pickpocketing in Italy. It’s one of the top concerns most visitors have to contend with when planning their trip.

Major cities like Rome, Naples, and Florence are considered the top cities for pickpocketing in Italy.

Pickpocketing in Rome

When looking at cities for pickpocketing in Italy, nothing stands out as much as the pickpocketing in Rome. The city is notorious for having numerous pickpockets that move quickly and discreetely. In fact, Rome is consistently named as one of the worst cities in the world for pickpockets.

To avoid pickpockets in Italy and pickpocketing in Rome, here are more general tips:

  • Don’t take pictures with costumed solicitors. [Yes, sorry, that includes the gladiators that may be outside the Colosseum or near the Trevi Fountain]
  • Don’t stop to sign any petitions. They’re often ploys to distract you while someone rifles through your bag.
  • Keep your bag attached to you in some way, shape, or form. Do not sit it in your lap, on a chair, off a table, etc.
  • Do not sit your cell phone on the table while eating. Pickpockets in Italy will often come by your table to offer you something [like a rose] or ask a question then swipe your phone
  • Ignore anyone that asks you to hold something – including children. It’s often a scam to coerce money from you and/or rob you.
  • Count your change if you purchase something using cash. Clerks will often short change you. It’s not pickpocketing in the general sense but theft is theft.
My experience with pickpocketing in Rome

One night in Rome, I was wearing my favorite Travelon anti-theft backpack when I felt a slight tug behind me. I turned around to a gentleman standing way too close. He looked me square in the face and said “That’s a really nice backpack you have,” scoffed, and walked away. I’m fairly certain he had tried to access my bag and the zippers stopped him.

I bought it to deter a thief. But to impress one too? Made this backpack a worthy investment!

Check it out >

Pickpocketing in Spain

Spain is one of my favorite countries in Europe. The language, the food, the architecture – all of it is absolutely beautiful [check out our visits to Spain here]. But the wonder of the country doesn’t negate that pickpocketing in Spain is a problem. In fact, pickpoketing in Spain has gotten so bad, that one of its cities is infamous for it.

Major cities like Barcelona and Madrid are considered the top cities for pickpocketing in Spain.

Pickpocketing in Barcelona

Pickpocketing in Barcelona is so common that the city is often regarded as the pickpocket capital of the world. Local law enforcement has made a genuine effort to try to clean up these crimes and have seen improvement but it is definitely still a travel concern.

To avoid pickpockets in Spain and pickpocketing in Barcelona, here are more general tips:

  • Don’t drop your guard for fellow tourists. It’s a common pickpocketing tactic in Barcelona to pose as a fellow tourist waiting in a long line.
  • Don’t assume you’re safe inside a tourist attraction. Places that are crowded and/or narrow [like the towers at La Sagrada Familia], are notorious for pickpockets in Barcelona.
  • Please don’t leave your items unattended on the beaches of Barcelona. It’s prime targeted area for pickpockets in Barcelona.
  • Keep your bag attached to you in some way, shape, or form. Do not sit it in your lap, on a chair, off a table, etc.
  • Pickpockets in Barcelona often come equipped with props – things to hand or sell you, costumes [to appear as personnel or police officers], etc.

Pickpocketing in France

The tactics used for pickpocketing in France are some of the most strategic in Europe. Pickpockets in France are able to blend in, be delicate of hand, and be manipulative. Of all the pickpocketing in Europe, France is one of the most concerning.

The most common cities for pickpocketing in France are Paris, Strasbourg, and Nice.

Pickpocketing in Paris

Pickpocketing in Paris is special. Not because of how fantastical the city is or because it is the city of love. It is because the pickpockets in Paris are some of the most stealthy, advanced theives in the world. That’s a personal opinion but one I stand by strongly. Even the most seasoned of travelers can easily fall victim to pickpocketing in Paris.

It’s a wonderful city to visit [you can check out our Paris adventures here] but caution is required to fully enjoy the city!

To avoid pickpockets in France and pickpocketing in Paris, here are more general tips:

  • Be wary of fellow tourists. It’s a common pickpocketing in Paris scam to pose as a fellow tourist to hopefully catch someone with their guard down.
  • Be especially careful at and near the Eiffel Tower. Larger bags are often targeted here because they usually contain cameras.
  • Skip buying a souvenir from street vendors. They’re often pricier than a shop anyway but they could also use their wares to distract and pickpocket you.
  • Don’t stop to sign any petitions. They’re often ploys to distract you while someone rifles through your bag.
  • Be aware that pickpocketing in Paris is very often done by women of all ages. Use caution.
  • Don’t assume you’re safe when you’re in the car. Motorcyclists will often grab phones through open windows [check out my experience with pickpockets in Paris below]
My experience with pickpocketing in Paris

I’ve actually narrowly missed pickpocketing in Paris not once but twice. Once, while using my phone in the backseat of an Uber, a motorcyclists pulled up and tried to grab my phone from my hands through the open window. The driver of the car warned me in just enough time to move [and put my window up]. Another time, after exiting the metro, my purse flap was lifted with the zipper exposed. Luckily, I was using one of my favorite anti-theft crossbody purses and they didn’t get through the zipper. Whew – mon dieu!

Check it out >

What are your best tips for how to avoid pickpockets in Europe?

Mon, 21 Nov 2022 11:18:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/travel/tips/7-tips-on-how-to-avoid-pickpocketing-in-europe/ar-AA14ojsp
Killexams : Quick Tips to Study for the Bar Exam

Tuesday, November 1, 2022

You’re nearly there. After years of work earning your JD, you’ve earned a seat to take the bar exam. Passing this test is the final obstacle before you become a licensed lawyer.

With so much at stake, the bar exam may seem formidable. But as with any test, following a few simple principles can see you through. Develop a study schedule — and stick to it. Understand what the exam is testing for and use your resources. 

Seems more doable already, right?

Follow these quick tips to study (better) for the bar exam.

What Is the Bar Exam?  

The bar exam assesses your knowledge of legal principles, reasoning, and many other skills and competencies crucial to working as a lawyer. By passing the bar exam, you gain membership to the state bar and licensure to practice law in your state. 

You must be admitted to the bar in every state where you want to practice. So, if you live in New York, you need to pass the bar exam as defined by the New York State Bar Association. 

Each state has its own standards and requirements for the bar exam. Increasingly, states are adopting the Uniform Bar Exam (UBE), which includes three unique tests you’ll take over two days: 

  • Multistate Bar Examination (MBE): You’ll respond to 200 multiple-choice questions over a six-hour test period. The questions assess your legal reasoning and ability to identify fact patterns, among other competencies.

  • Multistate Essay Examination (MEE): By responding to six, 30-minute essay questions about real-life legal issues, you’ll convey your writing communication skills.

  • Multistate Performance Test (MPT): This is not a knowledge test. Instead, you’ll apply your skills as a new lawyer through this test based on real-life scenarios. 

How to Study for the Bar Exam 

We get it: It’s a lot of testing. 

But you finished law school. That’s a major feat. So, you already likely have all the habits and skills to study and pass one more test. Review these tips to stay organized with your test prep.  

Create a Study Schedule 

As with any test, establishing a routine to study and practice will pay off. Incorporate your bar review course into your calendar, and let your friends and family know that you’ll need some space for study hours. Build in committed study days and times — as well as time off to decompress and let your practice sink in.

Top test takers often recommend studying strategically. That means identifying your weak areas and intentionally practicing to build those skills.  

Plus, keep yourself — and your brain — in good functioning condition as you study. You might feel tempted to cram all night in the weeks leading up to the exam but get enough rest. Study in manageable sessions. Eat well, too, so you’re prepared to think clearly. 

As you study, keep in mind that every state jurisdiction has its own requirements for the bar exam. Be sure to review those specifics before you dive into the material; see the state-by-state breakdown from the National Conference of Bar Examiners (NCBE)

Understand the Test’s Core Competencies 

Break down the test and understand what it’s asking of you. Knowing what to expect from the test and the core competencies it’s testing for can increase your confidence. 

For the MBE, you’ll have 25 questions from each of these seven subject areas: Criminal Law and Procedure, Civil Procedure, Constitutional Law, Torts, Evidence, Real Property, and Contracts. 

Get Your Study Materials

You don’t have to try to pass the bar exam in a vacuum. And you probably shouldn’t. 

It’s best to understand your resources — free or paid. The American Bar Association (ABA) says that your chances of passing the exam are likely higher by enrolling in a commercial bar review course. 

From bar review courses to private coaching, from podcasts to books, there’s a world of materials available for new lawyers to equip themselves with the tools to pass the bar exam.

After the Bar Exam  

Congratulations: You’re a licensed lawyer. 

Now the real work begins on how you want to define your career path. Maybe you’ll start out as an associate at an established law firm. You may choose to stay with the firm long-term and look to become a partner or branch out on your own to start a solo practice

If you’re thinking of going solo, you may want to start thinking about the business fundamentals and operational must-haves involved in running a small firm. Thankfully, however, more resources are available than ever to help you with your practice management needs. 

But with a JD and your new license, you can take your law career in many directions or practice areas.

From personal injury law to family law, from corporate counsel to litigation, you have plenty of options. And as the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) shows, career prospects for lawyers are expected to keep growing faster than the average job growth. 

The good news: The future after the bar exam is bright.

Mon, 31 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.natlawreview.com/article/quick-tips-to-study-bar-exam
Killexams : European MRI study provides experimental evidence indicating our brains are quantum

We’ve long suspected the human brain is a quantum computer but we’ve never had any real evidence to back this theory up. That is, until now.

A pair of researchers from Trinity College in Dublin and the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw recently published what may turn out to be landmark research in the quest to understand the human brain, consciousness, and the physical nature of the universe itself.

The team’s paper, titled “Experimental indications of non-classical brain functions,” details an experimental MRI paradigm in which it appeared test subjects’ brains were entangled with their hearts.

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Entanglement refers to a quantum state where two objects remain connected even when separated by distance. It sounds complicated but, essentially, it’s like throwing two coins into the air and knowing that no matter what, as long as the coins remain entangled, they’ll always land on the same side as one another.  

In the quantum realm, this manifests when two or more discrete objects (such as photons) become entangled in such a way that any relevant measurements scientists perform on one will hold true for the others.

According to the scientists, this type of entanglement may actually be present between our brains and hearts. To come to this experimental conclusion, they modified an MRI machine by applying what was essentially a filter blocking out most of the signals it would normally receive. Then, they tuned it to pick up on a specific proton’s spin in test subjects’ “brain water.” In doing so, the researchers were able to infer certain other signals derived from their heartbeats that shouldn’t be detectable by an MRI machine.

Essentially, what they found can’t be easily explained through classical physics. And, thus, it appears as though they found evidence for quantum entanglement based on the connection between the brain’s activity and the expected heartbeat signal.

The researchers state that the signals they derived were dependent on “conscious awareness,” thus they conclude that they “may have witnessed entanglement mediated by consciousness-related brain functions.”

In other words: consciousness may emerge as a feature of quantum entanglement. This isn’t a controversial view, but to the best of our knowledge no science team has ever experimentally demonstrated quantum phenomena in the human brain.

It bears mention that this team hasn’t done so either. What they’ve done, according to the researchers themselves, is shown experimental evidence for non-classical activity. This research is, potentially, an argument against classical consciousness. That doesn’t exactly mean it’s an argument for quantum consciousness.

In fact, according to an article by Salon’s Troy Farah, the researchers themselves were driven to ask whether quantum mechanics itself was an incomplete view of the universe. Is there something more?

The human body may be an inauspicious place to plumb for answers to the greatest outstanding mysteries in both quantum and classical physics, but this research manages to draw a correlation between our inability to understand consciousness via classical means and our inability to entirely reconcile gravity with quantum mechanics.

This could lead to further novel uses for MRI machines, a greater understanding of how the brain regulates the body, and perhaps even a rudimentary ground-truth understanding of how consciousness emerges.

As a side note, it stands to reason that this could have incredible implications for the emergent field of artificial intelligence, especially as it relates to the development of an artificial general intelligence (AGI), something which would be considered a human-level intelligence.

It’s possible that such an agent could exist and operate without any form of real awareness or sentience, but a significant number of leading AI researchers and developers believe that artificial consciousness will emerge from machine learning via what we can only describe as brute force classical computing.

If consciousness is actually a feature of brain/body quantum entanglement, then those AI experts could be waiting until the end of time for a mind to emerge from their algorithms. Furthermore, we may be locked out of machine consciousness until such a time as we’ve perfected bio-organic robotics.

This is, of course, all just wild speculation based on the experimental discovery of what could potentially be non-classical brain activity. But the fact of the matter is that we’re just beginning to scratch the surface when it comes to both consciousness and quantum mechanics.

Sun, 04 Dec 2022 15:07:00 -0600 en text/html https://thenextweb.com/news/european-mri-study-provides-experimental-evidence-indicating-the-human-brain-quantum
Killexams : The 10 Best Tips and Examples for Your Professional Headshot

From social media profile pictures to business cards for the job hunt to the search for love, good headshots are becoming less of an option and more of a necessity in today’s world.  As a professional photographer, when you get the call that someone needs a great headshot, you’ll need to be prepared to capture them just as they desire.  So, let’s go through some headshot photography examples and talk about the ten best headshot tips for what makes them winners!

Common Headshot Questions

1 – Does a headshot show only a face?

A headshot is a closeup of the face but includes more than just a disembodied head.  A headshot usually covers the person’s face, upper body, shoulders, and sometimes hands or arms.  Depending on the style of the headshot, the creative definition can even include a full-body shot.  But for today, we’ll focus on what makes a classic headshot.

2 – Isn’t a headshot the same thing as a portrait?

They are similar, but the most significant distinction making a headshot different is that its entire purpose is to show the details of the subject’s face and to grab attention.  Portrait photography is about making someone look beautiful and presentable in a lovely setting, where a headshot is designed to draw attention to one’s unique presence and look.  A headshot focuses on the face and, specifically, the eyes.

Tip #1 – Decide What Kind of Headshot Style You’re Shooting

Before you begin your headshot session, talk to your client and be sure you know what kind of headshot they need.  Put your client at ease by talking to her in person or by phone before the big date.  This real human contact will help break down some tension before the big day of the photo shoot and make her feel more comfortable when she’s in front of the camera.

In today’s online world, headshots are becoming more and more necessary for all aspects of real life.  Perhaps your client needs something for a dating profile.  Maybe they want a professional shot for their LinkedIn account.  Or they might participate in local theater or tv and need a model-style headshot.  Here’s a quick rundown of the most common reasons for headshot photoshoots.

1 – Corporate Headshots / Business Headshots

A headshot of a modern business professional is a clean, formal shot with a plain white background.  Lighting must be spot-on, with just the right catchlights in the eye to draw in the viewer.  Some clients prefer a dark look with a grey or black background.  These darker neutral colors can supply the corporate headshot a warmer feel.  If your client plans to use their headshot on a business directory or a company website, their employer may request a specific background.

Keep the background consistent if you photograph a series of professionals for a business.  If you use white for one, then it is white for all!  The same is true for facial expressions in corporate clients’ headshots.  Uniformity is a good thing.  Every company has its own culture, so perhaps more subtle expressions are best if it’s a serious business.  If the company thrives on a great time and a buoyant atmosphere, great smiles and a sense of fun may be most important.  Be sure to do your homework before the shoot!

Small business owners may request that their headshots include something that ties them to their branding.  Some brands have a specific color scheme, which you can reflect in the client’s clothing or accessories.  Or, if your small business client has a particular niche, such as crafting or cooking, consider adding an element such as a glue gun, spatula, or oven mitts to their headshot.  Creativity can be so much fun in this genre!  Remember that in whatever way your client shows her personality, your job is to capture those eyes in focus and looking directly into the camera’s lens.

a young man pumps a muscle while holding a stack of books and the words © Provided by Veronica Bareman a young man pumps a muscle while holding a stack of books and the words

2 – Actor Headshots

An actor headshot is critical to an actor’s portfolio.  A casting director will use great headshots to help narrow down the right person for a role on stage or film.  Actors usually need a full-body shot, an action shot, and a three-quarter body shot in addition to their headshot.  The headshot is commonly thought of as the most important of the collection.  Be sure to capture an appropriate facial expression for this shot.  Comic?  Goofy expression.  Temptress?  Sultry expression.  Serious?  Serious expression.  You get the idea.

A dark and moody headshot of a man with the words © Provided by Veronica Bareman A dark and moody headshot of a man with the words

3 – Model Headshots

Model headshots are more about the subject’s face and figure.  Keep the editing to a minimum, and use a light touch with makeup.  A client looking for a model headshot will likely work with a makeup artist before arriving at the shoot, so be sure and discuss this makeup request in advance.

4 – Dating Headshots

I love taking profile photos for dating websites, especially since I met my husband online in the early 2000s when online dating was brand new.  Think of “You’ve Got Mail” when we all had dial-up service.  But I digress.

The dating headshot requires that you highlight personality more than any other headshot category.  You don’t want a serious expression if your client is a bundle of laughs.  Dating headshots have quite a bit of leeway for backgrounds as well.

Creativity is welcome here.  If your client is a runner, take those headshots with them in running gear.  If they are a Diet Coke lover, feature a can of their favorite beverage in their shot.  As with all headshots, dating shots are meant to draw attention to the subject, so have fun!

Tip #2 – The Headshot Wardrobe

As you can see by the descriptions of the types of headshots above, wardrobe can vary according to what kind of image you’re capturing.  However, some rules work for any headshot.  Of course, remember that rules are made to be broken, so break them when necessary, especially for the creative client!

1 – Clothing Counts

Because most headshots feature a bit of the subject’s shoulders and neckline, have them choose a classic neckline.  Professional shots steer clear of cleavage.  Neutral, solid colors are always best, as anything with a crazy pattern can be a distraction from the subject’s face.  Avoid logos and brand names unless you are intentionally using those to highlight a brand.  Of course, it’s always a good idea for your client to bring a couple of different outfits, or at least shirts or tops, to change their look.

Now is a great time to talk about jewelry.  Keep in mind the type of headshot you’re shooting.  Professional headshots and corporate shots work best with classic, understated jewelry, and watches.  Creative and more personal headshots have a bit more leeway in this area.  However, the idea of the headshot is to draw attention to your client’s best features in their face, so large and over-the-top jewelry can easily be a distraction.  Just like with clothing colors, know when to break this rule.

woman in a striped shirt smiles and the words © Provided by Veronica Bareman woman in a striped shirt smiles and the words

2 – Wrangle the Wrinkles

The last thing you want to deal with in your editing is a wrinkled outfit.  Any professional headshot requires that your subject appear put-together and professional, so remind your client to steam or iron their clothing before arriving.  If they wear a jacket or add something to their outfit, let them know it’s okay to hang that in the car and carry it in.  Wrinkles are a no-no, and riding in the car in nice clothes is the best way to get rumpled and wrinkled.

Tip #3 – Equipment and the Headshot Background

All headshots focus on your subject’s best features, so it’s critical to have their face stand out from the background.  As discussed above, a white or plain grey background is a simple solution.  However, some headshots work best outdoors or in a more natural setting. 

When you shoot in these conditions, you want to focus on a solid separation between the subject and the background.  In simple terms, you want your subject’s face to be sharp and in focus, while the background is soft and a bit blurry.  This blurry effect is known as bokeh.

Although it is tempting to line up your subject right in front of their background, don’t do it!  supply yourself plenty of space between you and your client and between them and the background.  Space is your friend when it comes to bokeh.

a woman with a hand on her cheek and the words © Provided by Veronica Bareman a woman with a hand on her cheek and the words

Choosing a lens

If you have a 70-200 lens, bring it out for this shoot!  Tempting though that nifty fifty is so you can be close to your client; the 70-200 is a high-quality lens that will supply you the best result.  If that’s not possible, an 85mm lens will also work nicely.  Remember to open your aperture (small #) to get the best compression.  I like to shoot at f/4 for portraits.  This wide aperture will keep the entire face and hair focused while allowing for the best bokeh behind the subject.

Avoid shooting with a wide lens as this will distort your subject’s face and not in a good way.  Check out this quick 10-second video that shows how focal length can change the appearance of your subject’s face.

No matter what lens you use, know that the most critical features of great headshots are a sharp focus on the eyes and the correct expression.  So if you have a kit or 50mm lens, you’ll be fine now.  All the same rules apply.

Choosing camera settings

Always set your camera in burst mode when shooting headshots.  You will have many duplicates, but you can quickly cull those out before editing.  But if you are having natural interactions with your client, you’ll want to capture all of the expressions quickly and choose a couple of favorites.

Tip #4 – Eliminate Distractions

I may sound repetitive, but this is essential information, so I’ll keep saying it throughout this article.  Headshots are about the person in the shot and not all the other fluff, so you must eliminate distractions in your image to get the best result.

What are distractions?  Busy or brightly-colored backgrounds, flashy jewelry or accessories, a crooked tie, flyaway hair, nose hair, or broken, chipped nails—details matter.  Be sure the main focus of your image is the subject.  When you look at the final product, be sure that the subject stands out.  Need I say more?  I don’t think so. 

man with a bright white stripe behind him coming straight up from his head and words talking about being aware of distracting elements in headshots © Provided by Veronica Bareman man with a bright white stripe behind him coming straight up from his head and words talking about being aware of distracting elements in headshots

Tip #5 – Its All About the Details

When you’re shooting, pay close attention to your client’s accessories and clothing details.  Be sure their tie or jewelry is straight, rings and watches are turned to the front if hands are in the photo, and there are no stray hairs.  Have a mirror on hand so your client can do a final check of their hair and face before you begin.

Since we’re talking details, let’s talk hands.  I like to remind my clients that their hands may show in the photos.  I gently remind them that appropriate polish and clean and tidy fingernails are important to look clean, polished, and professional.  When in doubt, a French manicure is lovely for women, and clean, clipped nails are best for men.

Finally, expression can make a substantial difference in your final images.  Study up on posing, and don’t be afraid to direct your client to make slight adjustments to their position, a tilt of the chin, or a slight head turn.  These small details can take a headshot from “fine” to “fantastic.” It’s okay to take your time and get the details correct.  Your client will appreciate the attention to detail.  Let them know in advance that this isn’t a fast shoot so that they block out enough time.

Tip #6 – Headshot Poses

I’ve heard this question many times.  Should a headshot be taken with my subject standing or sitting?  The answer is simple.  Either work!  What I recommend is to take some of each.  Practice some posing techniques on yourself to see what feels most comfortable.  Comfort is the most critical factor in deciding how to capture your subject.

1 – Benefits of Sitting Poses

When a client sits, have a stool or backless chair available.  After all, the photo’s subject is not the chair but the person.  A small table or posing stool with an armrest can make an excellent place to rest hands or elbows.

Sitting helps keep your client in one place and gives them less opportunity to move around too much.  Sitting also offers a better chance to get a casual hand near the face pose.  You can also have them place their hands in their lap or on their thighs, so they are less thinking about what to do with their hands.

If your client is very tall, sitting can help get their face closer to the eye level of your camera.

2 – Benefits of Standing Poses

Standing poses often promote better posture.  I often see a client sit and immediately relax their shoulders.  Relaxed is good, but slouching is not so good.

Standing can often show up as a more powerful pose and allows quick adjustments to angle and position.

In the end, it’s hard to tell the difference between standing and sitting when a final image includes the head and shoulders.  So go for comfort and what works best for each individual.

Tip #7 – Lighting

Good lighting is critical to achieving the best headshot.  If you are a natural light photographer, then good news!  Natural lighting works great for headshots.  You can bring a simple backdrop (LINK) right outside with you if you are going for a traditional look and want to avoid outdoor scenery.

A woman with bright blue eyes poses with beautiful lighting on her face and words © Provided by Veronica Bareman A woman with bright blue eyes poses with beautiful lighting on her face and words

If outdoor scenery is the right choice for your client, you’ve got it made.  Studio lighting can be tricky, but you’ll be good to go once you get the basics down.  I love to use this one-light setup in my studio. 

A few tips to remember when you’re shooting:

  • Good catchlights in the eyes are critical.  Eyes without catchlights are dull and almost creepy.  Be sure to notice when you’re shooting how the catchlights look.
  • Avoid heavy shadows.  If you’re shooting outdoors, look for open shade.  If none is available, bring along an assistant who can hold up a screen and create your own.
  • Use a reflector like this one to be sure plenty of light makes it to the face.  A well-lit subject can make or break a good headshot!
pink background with woman pointing at the words © Provided by Veronica Bareman pink background with woman pointing at the words

Tip #8 – Set the Tone at the Shoot

Photo shoots should be enjoyable for both photographer and the client.  You can set the tone from your first conversation and carry that through the shoot.  You are professional, so be sure to ask the correct questions ahead so you’re both ready on the day of the shoot. 

Talk to your client as you photograph them.  Show a personal interest in them as you’re shooting.  Ask them about their job, their family, or their hobbies.  A relaxed facial expression will be much more natural than a forced smile, so spending a minute in conversation will help them feel more comfortable.

As you’re shooting, comment on the shots you’re getting, and supply them plenty of compliments, both when they arrive and as you’re shooting.  As they listen to your instruction, let them know they’re doing a great job.  I don’t know about you, but sometimes I am so busy with the back of the camera that I forget how nerve-wracking it is to be in front.

You want your client to look and feel confident in their final shots, and dishing out plenty of attaboys and compliments will go a long way to helping them feel great!

Don’t forget to have fun!

Don’t be afraid to lighten the atmosphere a bit, especially if you have a very nervous subject.  I sometimes prompt my client to make their weirdest face.  Then be ready because the laughter will come, and you’ll get some very relaxed smiles.  I have gotten some of my best shots this way.  Burst mode is the easiest way to capture changing expressions quickly.

Pink background with © Provided by Veronica Bareman Pink background with

Tip #9 – Shoot For A Winning Expression

All this information leads to an essential aspect of headshot photography, expression.  As you’re shooting, remember the end goal of this headshot.  Are you looking for a professional or more relaxed, or creative image?  Keep that in mind when you’re shooting.  Here are a few tips for getting the best expressions:

Have your subject face the camera straight-on for an assertive expression.  This technique is especially effective with men.  If you’d like to have a slightly more slimming effect which most women prefer, have her angle her shoulders around 45 degrees while keeping her facing the camera directly.

If your subject’s hands are in the photo, remember that hands tend to look more masculine and assertive from the back.  A more feminine angle is with fingers gently waterfalled and from the side.

If your client has a strong part in his hair, shoot from the side opposite the part.  A prominent part can draw attention away from the face and make the hair appear thinner.

If your subject wears glasses, have them remove their lenses before the shoot to avoid glare.  If that’s not possible, be aware of the glare while shooting.  You can adjust your lighting slightly or have them tip their chine down a touch to eliminate it.

oilve background with a dark-skinned person in a white shirt with glare showing on the glasses and words about reducing glasses glare in headshots © Provided by Veronica Bareman oilve background with a dark-skinned person in a white shirt with glare showing on the glasses and words about reducing glasses glare in headshots

Tip #10 – Retouch Like a Pro

Once you’ve completed your headshot photo session and have plenty of shots, use Lightroom to cull out the duplicates and instant rejects, including awkward expressions or closed eyes.  You can begin the retouching process when you’ve narrowed down to your favorites.

Retouching is best when done with a light touch.  The effects of your edits should add up to a series of subtle differences giving your subject an overall cleaner, more put-together appearance.  Retouching is NOT airbrushing a face until it looks like porcelain or completely redesigning it by removing every spot or wrinkle.  It is an art and arguably one of the most important factors in achieving a solid headshot.  Here are some things to look out for as you retouch to perfection:

  • Follow the “temp/perm” rule:  If a spot on the face is temporary (like a zit), remove it.  If it’s permanent (like a birthmark), leave it alone.
  • Remove spots or reflections from glasses.
  • Brighten and subtly whiten teeth if necessary.
  • Even skin tone when necessary, smoothing blotchy red areas.
  • Remove any remaining wrinkles from clothing.
  • Eliminate stray or flyaway hairs.
  • Clear up bloodshot or red-rimmed eyes.
  • Lighten or reduce harsh lines and wrinkles, just enough so that they don’t disappear but supply a softer effect.
a beautiful, mature woman poses with the words © Provided by Veronica Bareman a beautiful, mature woman poses with the words

Wrapping It All Up

As a portrait photographer, you will eventually get the call and need to step into your professional headshot photographer boots.  Be ready!  Get plenty of practice and have fun!  Your work has the power to change someone’s life for the better.

I would love to know how I can Excellerate this blog for my readers. Would you mind taking this short anonymous survey to share your thoughts?

If you liked this article, you’ll probably like these, too!

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The post The 10 Best Tips and Examples for Your Professional Headshot appeared first on Veronicajune Photography.

Thu, 03 Nov 2022 01:54:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/wellness/the-10-best-tips-and-examples-for-your-professional-headshot/ar-AA13G7pE
Killexams : Large parts of Europe are warming twice as fast as the planet on average

image: Left and right figures show warming in Europe of the summer half year during the latest four decades, subdivided for clear-sky and all.sky conditions, respectively. view more 

Credit: Paul Glantz/Stockholm University

The warming during the summer months in Europe has been much faster than the global average, shows a new study by researchers at Stockholm University published in the Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres. As a consequence of human emissions of greenhouse gases, the climate across the continent has also become drier, particularly in southern Europe, leading to worse heat waves and an increased risk of fires.

According to the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), warming over land areas occurs significantly faster than over oceans, with 1.6 degrees and 0.9 degrees on average, respectively. It means that the global greenhouse gas emissions budget to stay under a 1.5-degree warming on land has already been used up. Now, the new study shows that the emissions budget to avoid a 2-degree warming over large parts of Europe during the summer half-year (April-September) has also been used up. In fact, measurements reveal that the warming during the summer months in large parts of Europe during the last four decades has already surpassed two degrees.

“Climate change is serious as it leads to, among other things, more frequent heat waves in Europe. These, in turn, increase the risk of fires, such as the devastating fires in southern Europe in the summer of 2022,” says Paul Glantz, Associate Professor at the Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, and main author of the study.
In southern Europe, a clear, so-called, positive feedback caused by global warming is evident, i.e. warming is amplified due to drier soil and decreased evaporation.  Moreover, there has been less cloud coverage over large parts of Europe, probably as a result of less water vapour in the air.

“What we see in southern Europe is in line what IPCC has predicted, which is that an increased human impact on the greenhouse effect would lead to dry areas on Earth becoming even drier,” says Paul Glantz.

Impact of aerosol particles

The study also includes a section about the estimated impact of aerosol particles on the temperature increase. According to Paul Glantz, the rapid warming in, for example, Central and Eastern Europe, is first and foremost a consequence of the human emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. But since emissions of short-lived aerosol particles from, for example, coal-fired power plants have decreased greatly over the past four decades, the combined effect has led to an extreme temperature increase of over two degrees.

“The airborne aerosol particles, before they began to decrease in the early 1980s in Europe, have masked the warming caused by human greenhouse gases by just over one degree on average for the summer half-year. As the aerosols in the atmosphere decreased, the temperature increased rapidly. Human emissions of carbon dioxide are still the biggest threat as they affect the climate for hundreds to thousands of years,” says Paul Glantz.

According to Paul Glantz, this effect provides a harbinger of future warming in areas where aerosol emissions are high, such as in India and China.

Background facts - The greenhouse effect and aerosol effect

Fossil burning leads to the release of both aerosol particles and greenhouse gases. Although their source is common, their effects on climate differ.

About the greenhouse effect
Greenhouse gases are largely unaffected by solar radiation while they absorb infrared radiation efficiently, leading to re-emission towards the Earth's surface. The Earth absorbs both solar radiation and infrared radiation, which leads to the warming of the lower part of the atmosphere in particular.

Time-space: Greenhouse gases are generally long-lived in the atmosphere and this applies above all to carbon dioxide where human emissions affect climate for hundreds to thousands of years. It also means that greenhouse gases spread evenly over the entire planet.

About the aerosol effect
In contrast to greenhouse gases, aerosol particles affect incoming solar radiation, i.e. they scatter part of the sunlight back into space causing a cooling effect. Human emissions of aerosols can enhance this cooling effect.

Time-space: Airborne human aerosol particles have a lifetime of about a week, which means that they mainly cool the climate locally or regionally and in the short term.

According to the Paris Agreement, all parties must commit to drastically reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, but it is also important to decrease concentrations of aerosol particles as well because, in addition to their effects on climate, aerosol particles in polluted air cause approximately eight million premature deaths each year around the world.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

Tue, 22 Nov 2022 00:03:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/972047
Killexams : Europe-wide study on the epigenetics of field pennycress

Small differences in DNA sequence contribute to heritable variations within a species, as do chemical modifications of DNA called epigenetic changes. In order to better understand the significance of such epigenetic changes for the evolution of plants, an international research team led by Professor Oliver Bossdorf from the Institute of Evolution and Ecology at the University of Tübingen investigated a large number of populations of Thlaspi arvense or field pennycress in a Europe-wide study.

The researchers linked DNA sequences and from the places of origin with the epigenetic modifications of this wild plant. According to their results, a large part of the epigenetic variation is mainly determined by the DNA sequence. However, part of the epigenetic variation is strongly related to the climatic conditions of the place from which the plant originated. In agriculture, field pennycress could become important in the future as a winter cover crop and as a source of biofuel. The study has been published in the latest edition of PLoS Genetics.

Thlaspi arvense is an annual white-flowering wild plant in the crucifer family, native to much of Europe and Asia. Its common name comes from the round shape of its seed pods, which are reminiscent of coins. For the study, the research team collected seeds from 207 wild pennycress populations throughout Europe and grew the seeds in the laboratory under standard conditions. From samples of these plants, they then analyzed the complete DNA sequences, as well as the "methlyomes," the complete sequence of DNA methylations—important that influence whether and how often certain genes are transcribed.

Potential cash crop

"One can only understand the importance of epigenetics for the evolution and adaptability of plants if one has extensive and high-resolution data on both the genetic and epigenetic variation of many plant origins and their environmental conditions. Until now, such data were only available for a few model plants in plant research, such as the thale cress, Arabidopsis thaliana," says Oliver Bossdorf. He and his team have now, for the first time, carried out such a combination study on a wild plant collected at many natural locations.

"We found a strong geographical variation in the DNA methylations of the genome of field pennycress. A large part of this is directly related to the DNA sequence. However, depending on the genomic context, an important proportion is also determined by the environmental conditions at the plant's place of origin," says Bossdorf. This suggests that epigenetic variations in field pennycress could play a role in its short-term adaptation to climatic conditions.

Field pennycress is currently being developed as the basis for a new biofuel and will likely be used in the future as a cover crop in winter, says Bossdorf. "Our results could therefore also be useful for agriculture, especially for the cultivation of field pennycress under changing climate conditions."

More information: Dario Galanti et al, Genetic and environmental drivers of large-scale epigenetic variation in Thlaspi arvense, PLOS Genetics (2022). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1010452

Citation: Europe-wide study on the epigenetics of field pennycress (2022, November 9) retrieved 9 December 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-11-europe-wide-epigenetics-field-pennycress.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Tue, 08 Nov 2022 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://phys.org/news/2022-11-europe-wide-epigenetics-field-pennycress.html
Killexams : Europe rapidly losing its forest carbon sink, study shows

The European Union is losing its forest carbon sink at an alarming rate, with harvesting for biomass fuel a key driver behind the loss, according to new research released on Monday (7 November).

EU member states have experienced steep declines in their forest and land carbon sinks since 2002, or have lost them altogether, according to research by the Partnership for Policy Integrity (PFPI), a non-profit group.

To achieve climate neutrality by 2050, the EU has set targets for increased CO2 storage in forests, soils and other land carbon sinks. But at the current rates of decline, most EU countries will fail to reach their 2030 land sink targets, the report warns.

In Europe, forests are currently a net carbon sink because they take in more carbon dioxide than they emit. But the capacity of European forests to absorb CO2 has been shrinking over the years and needs to be restored, the European Commission admitted two years ago when it presented its climate target plan for 2030.

Based on official government data submitted to the EU and the United Nations, the PFPI found that the EU lost about a quarter of its annual land sector carbon sink between 2002 and 2020, due in large part to harvesting for energy.

“There is a clear link between biomass harvesting and land sink loss in some member states,” the report said. “Government researchers in Finland presented detailed statistics on energy use of wood and specifically identified roundwood burning as one driver for loss of the sink, while in Estonia, more than half the volume of wood harvested is being used for fuel or pellet production,” it added.

Overall use of solid biomass was 239% higher in 2020 than in 1990, according to the report, with use in the energy sector – heat and power production – increasing by more than 1,000% over that period, according to the official statistics compiled by PFPI.

The PFPI report is being launched on Monday as world leaders gather in Egypt for a UN climate summit where forestry is on the agenda. At the COP27 meeting, leaders will launch the Forests and Climate Leaders’ Partnership, an initiative aimed at scaling up action to protect, conserve and restore the world’s forests.

The European Union positions itself as a global leader in forest protection and tabled a regulation last year to reduce deforestation from the import of commodities such as soy, beef, palm oil or coffee.

However, the EU is not a role model at home, according to the PFPI research, which attributes the decline in land carbon sinks to Europe’s biomass policies, which count forest wood as a zero-carbon fuel under the EU’s renewable energy directive.

Biomass energy consumption more than doubled across the EU since 1990, with most of the increase occurring since 2002, after the EU issued its first directive including biomass as renewable energy, the report found.

According to the European Commission, biomass currently makes up nearly 60% of all renewable energy in the EU – more than wind and solar combined. Demand for biomass is only expected to grow in the coming years, despite there only being so much of it that can be produced sustainably, the Commission’s research department told EURACTIV last month.

In September, the European Parliament backed plans to end subsidies for biomass used in power plants and exclude most primary wood burning from the EU’s renewable energy targets.

But the PFPI said those changes will not affect residential wood burning, which contributes the largest share to renewables in heating. Moreover, EU countries such as Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia, “have revised survey methods for counting residential wood-burning,” the report pointed out, saying this has resulted in “abrupt increases in reported biomass use” in these countries, which allowed them to achieve their renewable energy targets.

For the PFPI, this calls for an urgent rethink of EU biomass policies. “To achieve climate stability will require a much larger amount of carbon storage in forests, which will be impossible unless biomass harvesting is significantly reduced. This is the most important message of this report,” it said.

[Edited by Nathalie Weatherald]

Sun, 06 Nov 2022 22:27:00 -0600 en-GB text/html https://www.euractiv.com/section/climate-environment/news/europe-rapidly-losing-its-forest-carbon-sink-study-shows/
Killexams : Up To 800,000 Chinese-Built Cars Could Be Imported To Europe By 2025

As many has 800,000 cars from China could be sold in Europe by 2025, a new study has found, with the vast majority of them being all-electric.

A PwC study has revealed that much of the increase in global sales of battery electric vehicles can be attributed to China where some 1.5 million BEVs were sold in the third quarter of this year, a massive 94 per cent increase from the third quarter of 2021. EVs are proving so popular in China that in Q3 2022, approximately 73 per cent of all BEVs sold in analyzed markets were sold in China, a huge jump from just over 50 per cent last year.

On the back of huge sales successes in China, these automakers are expected to rapidly expand their presence throughout Europe. PwC notes they could have a 3.8 per cent to 7.9 per cent share of European EV sales in 2030. Of course, not all these EVs will come from Chinese car manufacturers as some 330,000 of the 800,000 Chinese-built EVs will be from Western automakers like Tesla, BMW, and the Renault Group.

Read: Profits Are Nowhere To Be Seen At Most Chinese EV Makers Despite Rising Sales

PwC noted that supply chain issues have badly affected European carmakers and that Chinese brands are looking to make the most of current market conditions.

“Chinese manufacturers, on the other hand, have optimized and developed their products in the domestic market, so that they are now bringing affordable BEV models, innovative technology and novel concepts to Europe,” PwC Germany partner and automotive leader Felix Kuhnert described, per Automotive News Europe.

The study noted that approximately 200,000 vehicles from Chinese brands will be sold in Europe this year, of which 90,000 will be full-electric, 40,000 will be plug-in hybrids, and the rest will have internal combustion engines. If Chinese-built vehicles do flood the European market as expected, Europe could turn into a net importer of cars with an import surplus of more than 221,000 vehicles in 2025.

Mon, 07 Nov 2022 22:40:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.carscoops.com/2022/11/up-to-800000-chinese-built-cars-could-be-imported-to-europe-by-2025/
Killexams : Lytix Biopharma announces expansion of the ATLAS-IT-05 study to Europe

OSLO, Norway, Nov. 14, 2022 /PRNewswire/ --  Lytix Biopharma ("Lytix") (Euronext Growth Oslo: LYTIX), a Norwegian immuno-oncology company, today announces site activation for the ATLAS-IT-05 study in three European countries.

ATLAS-IT-05 is a Phase II combination study evaluating LTX-315 and pembrolizumab in patients with advanced melanoma. The study was initiated at MD Anderson Cancer Center in 2021 and is currently ongoing in the US. The objective of the study is to document whether LTX-315 in combination with pembrolizumab is effective in inducing tumor responses in patients who have failed prior anti PD 1/PD L1 immune checkpoint therapy.

The clinical trial has now been extended to Spain, France and Norway and sites are opened in all three countries. The expansion of the site network will mitigate recruitment challenges, drive enrollment towards completion and extend the clinical impact field for LTX-315. The European branch of the study is performed at highly recognized sites with intratumoral immunotherapy expertise, led by melanoma experts at each site. It will follow the same protocol as in the US. 

The regulatory application in Europe was approved in Q3 2022, and efforts to initiate recruitment of patients is ongoing with the aim to complete enrollment in the study in early 2023.

"We are very pleased to now be able to recruit patients in three European countries that will help us to complete the ongoing ATLAS-IT-05 Phase II study", says CEO and Co-founder of Lytix Biopharma, Øystein Rekdal.


For more information, please contact:

Ole Peter Nordby, ole.peter.nordby@lytixbiopharma.com

View original content:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/lytix-biopharma-announces-expansion-of-the-atlas-it-05-study-to-europe-301676650.html

SOURCE Lytix Biopharma AS

© 2022 Benzinga.com. Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

Sun, 13 Nov 2022 17:33:00 -0600 text/html https://www.benzinga.com/pressreleases/22/11/n29694009/lytix-biopharma-announces-expansion-of-the-atlas-it-05-study-to-europe
Killexams : ASCEND: Thales Alenia Space to lead European feasibility study for data centers in space
ASCEND: Thales Alenia Space to lead European feasibility study for data centers in space

Station Data Center V2

Thales Alenia Space

Thales Alenia Space, the joint company between Thales (67%) and Leonardo (33%), has been chosen by the European Commission to lead the ASCEND (Advanced Space Cloud for European Net zero emission and Data sovereignty) feasibility study for data centers in orbit, as part of Europe’s vast Horizon Europe research program.

Thales Alenia Space, the joint company between Thales (67%) and Leonardo (33%), has been chosen by the European Commission to lead the ASCEND (Advanced Space Cloud for European Net zero emission and Data sovereignty) feasibility study for data centers in orbit, as part of Europe’s vast Horizon Europe research program.

Digital technology’s expanding environmental footprint is becoming a major challenge: the burgeoning need for digitalization means that data centers in Europe and around the world are growing at an exponential pace, which in turn has a critical energy and environmental impact.

A consortium led by Thales Alenia Space has been set up to find an ambitious solution for Europe, namely to install data center stations in orbit, powered by solar power plants generating several hundred megawatts. This project could help meet Europe’s Green Deal goal of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050 and would also be an unprecedented development in the European space and digital ecosystem.

This concept makes direct use of the energy produced in space outside of the earth atmosphere: the only link with the ground would be high-throughput Internet connections based on optical communications, a technique for which Europe has mastered the underlying technologies.

For the ASCEND feasibility study, Thales Alenia Space is leading a consortium of companies with complementary areas of expertise spanning the environment (Carbone 4, VITO), cloud computing (Orange, CloudFerro, Hewlett Packard Enterprise Belgium), launch vehicles (ArianeGroup) and orbital systems (German aerospace center DLR, Airbus Defence and Space and Thales Alenia Space).

The first objective of this study will be to assess if the carbon emissions from the production and launch of these space infrastructures will be significantly lower than the emissions generated by ground-based data centers, therefore contributing to the achievement of global carbon neutrality. The second objective will be to prove that it is possible to develop the required launch solution and to ensure the deployment and operability of these spaceborne data centers using robotic assistance technologies currently being developed in Europe, such as the EROSS IOD demonstrator.

This project is expected to demonstrate to which extent space-based data centers would limit the energy and environmental impact of their ground counterparts, thus allowing major investments within the scope of Europe’s Green Deal, possibly justifying the development of a

more climate-friendly, reusable heavy launch vehicle. Europe could thus regain its leadership in space transport and space logistics, as well as the assembly and operations of large infrastructures in orbit.


Drawing on over 40 years of experience and a unique combination of skills, expertise and cultures, Thales Alenia Space delivers cost- effective solutions for telecommunications, navigation, Earth observation, environmental management, exploration, science and orbital infrastructures. Governments and private industry alike count on Thales Alenia Space to design satellite-based systems that provide anytime, anywhere connections and positioning, monitor our planet, enhance management of its resources, and explore our Solar System and beyond. Thales Alenia Space sees space as a new horizon, helping to build a better, more sustainable life on Earth. A joint venture between Thales (67%) and Leonardo (33%), Thales Alenia Space also teams up with Telespazio to form the parent companies’ Space Alliance, which offers a complete range of services. Thales Alenia Space posted consolidated revenues of approximately 2.15 billion euros in 2021 and has around 8,000 employees in 10 countries with 17 sites in Europe and a plant in the US.

Sun, 13 Nov 2022 10:01:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://spaceref.com/uncategorized/ascend-thales-alenia-space-to-lead-european-feasibility-study-for-data-centers-in-space/
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