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HH0-580 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist Virtualization solutions implimentation student |

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Exam Code: HH0-580 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist Virtualization solutions implimentation student November 2023 by team

HH0-580 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist Virtualization solutions implimentation

Test Detail:
The Hitachi HH0-580 (Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist - Virtualization Solutions Implementation) certification exam is designed to validate the knowledge and skills of individuals in implementing virtualization solutions using Hitachi Data Systems technology. Here is a detailed overview of the HH0-580 certification, including the number of questions and time, course outline, exam objectives, and exam syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The HH0-580 certification exam typically consists of approximately 60 to 70 multiple-choice questions. The exact number of questions may vary, but the exam is designed to thoroughly evaluate the candidate's understanding of virtualization solutions implementation. The duration of the exam is usually around 90 minutes.

Course Outline:
The HH0-580 certification course covers a comprehensive range of courses related to virtualization solutions implementation using Hitachi Data Systems technology. The specific course outline may include the following components:

1. Introduction to Virtualization:
- Overview of virtualization concepts and benefits
- Introduction to Hitachi Data Systems virtualization solutions
- Virtualization architectures and deployment models

2. Hitachi Virtual Storage Platform (VSP) Family:
- Overview of Hitachi VSP storage systems
- Installation and configuration of VSP systems
- Virtualization concepts and features of VSP

3. Hitachi Unified Compute Platform (UCP):
- Introduction to Hitachi UCP solution
- Installation and configuration of UCP components
- Virtualization integration with UCP

4. Hitachi Data Center Infrastructure Solutions:
- Overview of Hitachi Data Center Infrastructure solutions
- Data center virtualization and consolidation techniques
- Integration of virtualization solutions with Hitachi Data Center Infrastructure

5. Hitachi Automation Director:
- Introduction to Hitachi Automation Director
- Configuration and management of virtualization workflows
- Automation of virtualization tasks and processes

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the HH0-580 certification exam are to assess the candidate's knowledge and practical skills in implementing virtualization solutions using Hitachi Data Systems technology. The specific objectives include:

- Understanding virtualization concepts and their application in data storage and compute environments.
- Demonstrating proficiency in installing, configuring, and managing Hitachi Virtual Storage Platform (VSP) systems.
- Integrating virtualization solutions with Hitachi Unified Compute Platform (UCP) components.
- Designing and implementing virtualization solutions within Hitachi Data Center Infrastructure.
- Utilizing Hitachi Automation Director for automating virtualization workflows and tasks.

Exam Syllabus:
The HH0-580 exam syllabus outlines the specific courses and subtopics that will be covered in the exam. The syllabus may include:

- Introduction to virtualization
- Hitachi Virtual Storage Platform (VSP) installation and configuration
- VSP virtualization concepts and features
- Hitachi Unified Compute Platform (UCP) overview and integration
- Hitachi Data Center Infrastructure solutions for virtualization
- Data center virtualization and consolidation techniques
- Hitachi Automation Director configuration and management
Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist Virtualization solutions implimentation
Hitachi Virtualization student

Other Hitachi exams

HH0-210 HDS Certified Implementer - Enterprise
HH0-220 HDS Certified Implmenter-Modular
HH0-530 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist Compute Platform
HH0-560 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist - Content Platform
HH0-580 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist Virtualization solutions implimentation
HH0-350 HDS Certified Specialist - NAS Architect
HCE-5710 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Expert - Replication solutions implementation
HCE-5420 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist - Content Platform
HQT-4210 Hitachi Data Systems Certified Professional - NAS installation HAT

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Hitachi Data Systems Certified Specialist (R) Virtualization
solutions implimentation
Question: 94
Which two statements regarding Hitachi Universal Volume Manager are correct?
(Choose two.)
A. It enables access to externally attached storage systems.
B. It supports only one emulation type.
C. It physically moves data from external to internal storage systems.
D. It simplifies storage tier management across multiple storage systems.
Answer: A, D
Question: 95
A customer has the Hitachi Device Manager CLI installed on their laptop to manage
their Hitachi VSP. What needs to be configured in the file
on the laptop?
A. the IP Command Device of the VSP
B. an FC Command Device from the VSP
C. the Device Manager server IP address
D. the IP address of the SVP
Answer: C
Question: 96
A customer has a data warehouse comprising six 500GB LUNs. They run extensive
reports that only use a fraction of the database. Currently, the storage administrators
have to move the hot LUN from external to internal storage when they receive reports
of slow performance and this requires reserving 3TB of space in each tier to handle I/O
peaks. They would like HDS to provide a solution that efficiently uses storage, migrates
only active content based on sustained I/O without storage administrator intervention
and no external servers. Which combination of Hitachi Program Products would you
A. Volume Migrator and Hitachi Tiered Storage Manager
B. Universal Volume Manager and Hitachi Tiered Storage Manager
C. Datamover and Hitachi Dynamic Provisioning
D. Universal Volume Manager and Hitachi Dynamic Tiering
Answer: D
Question: 97
In the Hitachi Command Suite, which two operations can Logical Groups be used for?
(Choose two.)
A. to group mainframe volumes
B. to group hosts and volumes
C. to manage VMware datastores
D. to manage LUN paths
Answer: B, D
Question: 98
A customer needs to migrate 10 LDEVs from an old storage array to a new Hitachi
Dynamic Provisioning pool on a new storage array. Both storage arrays are virtualized
behind a Hitachi VSP. They would like to use Hitachi Tiered Storage Manager to do
the migration and have created a storage tier based on the new HDP pool and will use
this as the migration target. Which statement is true regarding the target HDP V-VOLs?
A. They need to be pre-created with the same size as the source LDEVs.
B. The storage administrator will be prompted to create them.
C. They will be created automatically when the task is started.
D. They need to be pre-created larger than the source LDEVs.
Answer: C
Question: 99
You must configure a Universal Volume Manager (UVM) Mapping Policy for external
storage on a Hitachi VSP using the Storage Navigator GUI. Which two fields can be
defined in the Edit Policies window? (Choose two.)
A. Base Emulation Type
B. Inflow Control
C. LDEV Range Starting Address
D. Load Balancing attribute
Answer: A, B
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Hitachi Virtualization student - BingNews Search results Hitachi Virtualization student - BingNews Hitachi microscope program encouraging students to plug STEM skills shortage

Summer Forensic Class at California Northstate University. Students used the SEM to analyse evidence in mock crime scenes and through critical thinking extrapolated a version of what likely happened in the “crime scene”©Mario Cuellar, Hitachi High-Technologies America

At James Enoch’s High School in California, students gather around a sleek machine sitting on a desk. Presently, an image appears on the computer screen next to the instrument. It is a grain of sand magnified up to 120,000 times, with a resolution of 10-15 nanometres (10-6 mm), prepared by the students for the scanning electron microscope just minutes before.

Exclamations of wonder surge through the small group.

Dr Dave Menshaw, lead teacher and career technical education specialist at James Enoch’s High says the hands-on experience with the microscope is a sure-fire way to get the students excited about science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers.

“We use the scanning electron microscope to engage students from a variety of middle and elementary schools in science with an emphasis on lower income or special needs students.

“On numerous occasions, we have seen the lights come on in children who were less engaged than they would have been. Elementary school students enjoy the freedom of learning to use the device at their own pace, get to bring and prepare samples, then make images that we either email to them or print.”

Such enthusiasm will be necessary if just the USA alone is to meet its STEM needs in the immediate future.

STEM education advocate, the Smithsonian Science Education Center, estimates that more than 2.4 million STEM jobs remained unfilled in America in 2018. It says an astonishing 78% of American high school graduates failed to meet benchmark readiness for one or more college courses in mathematics, science, reading, or English.

Meanwhile, the US Department of Commerce says STEM occupations in America have grown by 24.4% over the past decade compared with only 4% for non-STEM occupations. STEM degree holders receive higher incomes, even in non-STEM careers.

Aiming to address some of this shortfall, Hitachi High Technologies America launched the Inspire STEM Educational Outreach Program in 2007. The program provides schools and educational organizations with access to advanced scientific technologies, improving science education and literacy, not just in America, but also globally.

“The program is centered on our miniaturized scanning electron microscopes that are portable, compact, plug into regular room outlets and are easy to operate,” explains Robert Gordon, a senior executive for Hitachi High Technologies America, who is directing the program’s development. “The microscope operation and sample preparation techniques are provided to each educator, and they actually operate the microscope with their students.”

Unlike optical microscopes that use light to magnify an object, scanning electron microscopes use a beam of high-energy electrons to scan the surface of objects, and are capable of magnifying an object up to 100,000 times, revealing details down to the nanoscale level.

The program is providing students of all ages, from grade-schoolers to graduate students, with active learning experiences that teach them about electron microscopy and its applications. Educators also have access to instructional modules, called Learning Lab, that provide lesson plans, teaching tools, and videos.

“The students are able to explore the mysteries of the nanoworld while also learning about microscopy and nanoscience,” says Gordon.

Hitachi works in partnership with organizations like The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (Now the NNCI - National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure) and Change the Equation (Now endorsed by Change the Equation to STEMworks and WestEd), funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and companies like IBM and the Boeing Corporation.

Dr Nancy Healy, Associate Director for Education at Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia, America

“With Hitachi’s assistance we have educated thousands of teachers about scanning electron microscopes and their use in science and engineering. In turn, those teachers have reached thousands of students.

“Being able to see objects at higher magnifications has always been a wow factor with students, teachers, and the general public. The resources from Hitachi’s website allows us to provide a wider range of materials suitable for students, and we plan to use them in our outreach program and also continue to direct K-12 teachers and students to the these resources.”

Dr James Perkins, Physics Teacher and Head of Science at Queen Elizabeth’s Grammar School, Kent, United Kingdom

“Working with the program has been an exciting journey, and anything that captures the pupils’ imaginations and allows them to experience the excitement of real science, not the dry regular science lessons, is worth doing. I have seen pathway changes for students, just in the last year I have senior students shifting to science or engineering choices at university rather than less technical or less ambitious subjects.

“There is no doubt that programs like Hitachi's represent the best of extra curricular science activities that we can provide for the students.”

Dr Ben Dubin-Thaler, Founder and Executive Director of Biobus, New York, America

“Hitachi's electron microscopes have been a crucial element of our programs, adding greatly to the ‘wow’ factor for our mobile labs and allowing students the chance to do research out of reach to most graduate students.

“Students have been able to answer novel scientific questions with the three Hitachi scanning electron microscopes, making images of the digestive system of worms and understanding the microbiome of fresh water organisms living in New York City.

“Every day for both our mobile labs, more than 300 students get the chance to use an electron microscope and see the powerful, inspiring images they can create with it. Over the past five years, thousands of New Yorkers have used these microscopes and have been inspired by the power of science to explore the hidden microscopic world all around us.”

Find more: STEM Educational Outreach Program


This advertisement feature is produced by Nature Research Custom Media for Hitachi High-Technologies. The advertiser retains responsibility for content. About this content.

Sat, 13 May 2023 10:51:00 -0500 en text/html
application virtualization

Application virtualization refers to several techniques that make running applications protected, flexible and easy to manage.

Modern operating systems keep programs isolated from each other. If one program crashes, the remaining programs generally keep running. However, bugs in the operating system or apps can cause the entire system to come to a screeching halt or, at the least, impede ongoing operations, which is why virtualization became desirable. Following are several application virtualization methods. See virtualization, network virtualization and storage virtualization.

Terminals to a Central Computer

The oldest network architecture, all applications and data are stored in a centralized mainframe or server cluster. The user's PC functions like an input/output terminal to the central machine. See thin client.

Application Streaming

Rather than installing all applications in every user's machine, applications are delivered to each user as needed. This enables apps to be updated centrally and also provides a way to measure each person's actual usage. See application streaming.

Write Once, Run Everywhere

An interpreted programming language enables the same program to run on different hardware, with Java being the major example (see Java Virtual Machine). The applications are said to be "virtualized" because they run on any platform that has a runtime engine for that language.

Dynamic Application Assignment

This approach treats servers in the datacenter as a pool of operating system resources and assigns those resources to applications based on demand in real time. The pioneer in this area is Data Synapse Inc. (see FabricServer). The applications are said to be "virtualized" because they can run in any server.

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 21:06:00 -0600 en text/html
Best private student loans for fall 2023
Private student loans can help you bridge the gaps when your federal financial aid falls short of your total college expenses. joan corominas/Getty Images

The 2023 academic year is upon us, and while many college students have already commenced their classes, some may still be searching for the funds needed to cover the current or upcoming academic terms. For many students, the costs of college encompass not only tuition but also expenses for books, transportation, and housing – all of which can accumulate swiftly.

If you're seeking ways to finance your education during these academic terms, a good starting point is to explore the various grants, scholarships, and federal student loans available to you. Federal student loans often prove to be the optimal choice when borrowing money for your educational pursuits due to their unique borrower benefits.

However, when you've exhausted these options, you might find it necessary to turn to private loans to bridge any financial gaps. Private student loans may not offer the same safeguards as federal loans, but they can still be a viable option when it comes to covering some or all of your educational expenses. Additionally, private student loans offer their own advantages, such as higher loan limits, flexible terms, and quick approval processes – making them a wise choice in certain circumstances. To assist you in your pursuit, here are the top private student loans available for the 2023 academic year.

Start exploring your student loan options here now to see what you're eligible to receive.

Best private student loans for fall 2023

Here are some of the best private student loans currently available, broken down into six categories:

Best overall: College Ave

College Ave gets our nod for the best private student loan because this lender check all the boxes. They provide loan amounts that vary from as low as $1,000 to the total cost of your entire school-certified expenses like tuition, fees and housing. Student loans rates are competitive, at 4.59% to 16.99% for fixed undergraduate loans and 4.59% to 14.49% for fixed-rate graduate loans. Variable rate loans range from 5.49% to 16.99% for undergraduate loans and 5.49% to 14.49% for graduate loans.

With an undergraduate or graduate student loan from College Ave, you have numerous in-school repayment options, including paying interest-only or a flat $25 monthly. Keep in mind, while in-school payments aren't mandatory, your loans will still accumulate interest during that time. By making even small payments while in school, you can manage the accruing interest and prevent your loan balance from growing excessively.

Repayment terms are for five, eight, 10 or 15 years. When choosing a repayment term, remember that shorter-term loans generally come with higher monthly payments than longer-term loans.

Learn more here.

Best for low rates: Earnest

Earnest provides low interest rates with an APR of 4.45% if you use a cosigner and 5.74% if you don't. These rates include Earnest's 0.25% auto-pay discount. This private student loan lender offers four repayment options during school: interest-only payments, full principal and interest payments, $25 monthly payments or payment deferral.

Unlike many lenders, Earnest offers several payment options, including repayment terms for five, seven, 10, 12 or 15 years. If you can afford a higher payment, it may make sense to pay off your loan with a shorter-term loan to save money on interest. Also, the minimum loan amount is only $1,000, so if you have a minimal financial gap to cover after federal financial aid, you don't need to incur more debt with a larger loan. And if you need more money, Earnest loans can cover up to 100% of school-certified costs of attendance.

Learn more now.

Best for parents: Sallie Mae

Sallie Mae is one of the largest and most well-known student loan servicers in the United States. The government sponsored the organization since its beginnings in 1972 before Sallie Mae transitioned into a private company in 2014.

Sallie Mae offers a Smart Option Student Loan, which it touts as a student loan with a cosigner. Your cosigner can be a parent, spouse, relative or any adult. Students can choose fixed or variable annual percentage rates (APRs) starting at 4.50% and 6.37%, respectively, which includes a 0.25% automatic payment discount. According to Sallie Mae, the process, from application to disbursement, takes around 10 business days or less.

Check Sallie Mae student loan rates here.

Best for no fees: Discover

More than just a credit card company, Discover also provides private student loans with several perks, including no application, origination or late fees. Discover's no-fee student loans combine with lower interest rates and cash rewards for good grades to lower the costs of borrowing for students.

Discover's student loan APRs are as low as 6.12% for variable-rate loans and 5.29% for fixed-rate loans. They allow you to borrow up to 100% of school-certified costs, such as tuition, housing and books, minus any financial aid you receive. The company's minimum borrowing amount is only $1,000 and it only offers a single repayment term of 15 years.

Learn more here.

Best for students with bad credit: Ascent

Many students have poor credit scores because they lack an established credit history. That's one reason why most private student loan companies require a cosigner to offset the lender's perceived risk. Ascent is bucking that trend by offering non-cosigned loans to undergraduate, graduate, DACA and international students.

For example, students without established credit can apply for the Non-Cosigned Outcomes-Based loan without a cosigner, and your eligibility is based on your school, program, major, GPA and other criteria. And if your credit history is shorter than two years, you don't need to meet any minimum income requirements.

Learn more here.

Best for students with good credit: SoFi

You'll likely need good credit to qualify for a private student loan with SoFi. While SoFi doesn't publish minimum credit score requirements on its website, it does evaluate your credit history and debts when reviewing your application.

If you have decent credit, SoFi's student loans offer a wide array of benefits, including flexible repayment options, no fees and career services. With the autopay discount applied, the APRs for fixed-rate loans start as low as 4.49%, while the APRs for variable-rate loans begin at 5.16%.

The bottom line

As with any loan, aim to borrow only as much as you need since paying interest on money you don't need is never wise. When comparing private student loans, understand that getting a low-interest rate is essential, but rates aren't your only consideration. Weighing several key factors, such as the borrowing amount, interest rates and repayment terms and fees, can help you identify the loan that best suits your unique financial situation.

Tue, 31 Oct 2023 04:02:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Student Organizations

With more than 300 student organizations to choose from, focused on everything from arts and culture to politics and socioeconomics to civics, service, and social justice, you'll have opportunities to connect to a wide variety of students, develop leadership skills, and make a difference on campus and beyond.

Fri, 06 Oct 2023 00:36:00 -0500 en text/html
Student Loans

An education loan, more commonly known as a student loan, is an amount of money borrowed from a federal or private lender to pay for a higher education. This sum can be used to cover the cost of tuition, textbooks, other school supplies, and basic living expenses so that a student may focus on earning their degree. Generally speaking, federal student loans offer lower interest rates than their private counterparts.

Wed, 22 Feb 2017 19:18:00 -0600 en text/html
International Students

Purdue has one of the most diverse student populations in the country with students from over 125 different countries, and we’d love to have you become a Boilermaker.

For information about the admissions process and financial documentation required to attend Purdue as an international student, check out the Office of International Students and Scholars website. 

Although need-based financial aid isn’t typically available to students who do not meet financial aid citizenship requirements, merit-based financial aid may be available for both undergraduate and graduate students from private sources, visit eduPass for more information. 

Loans may also be available to both undergraduate and graduate students who have a U.S. citizen co-signer. These loan amounts are limited to the estimated cost of attendance minus what your resources are; in other words, you can only receive enough aid to cover the estimated cost of attendance. The Division of Financial Aid determines eligibility for the  private loan programs  by certifying the application submitted through the private lenders. 

Financial Aid Citizenship Requirements 

To be eligible for federal, state of Indiana, and Purdue need-based aid eligibility, a student must be a U.S. citizen or “eligible” non-citizen. 

For a non-citizen to be eligible for financial aid consideration, the student must possess a valid Alien Registration Card I-551 or I-151, be classified as a conditional permanent resident with a valid I-151C Registration Card, or have a passport or I-94 (Arrival/Departure Record) showing one of the following designations: 

  • Refugee 
  • Asylum granted 
  • Indefinite parole and/or Humanitarian Parole 
  • Cuban-Haitian Entrant 

If you have any questions concerning your citizenship status, you should contact the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.

Tue, 19 Jul 2022 09:33:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Student Life Mon, 17 Aug 2020 13:27:00 -0500 en-US text/html Student loan debt: Averages and other statistics in 2023

The cost of college has more than doubled over the past four decades — and student loan borrowing has risen along with it. The student loan debt balance in the U.S. has increased by 66% over the past decade, and it now totals more than $1.77 trillion, according to the Federal Reserve

Here’s a closer look at student loan debt statistics in the U.S. today, broken down by age, race, gender and other demographics. 

Total student loan debt statistics

As of the first quarter of 2023, student loan debt in the U.S. stands at a total of over $1.77 trillion. More than 92% of this is federal student loan debt while the remaining amount is owed on private student loans, according to Federal Student Aid (an office of the Department of Education). 

In the 2020-2021 academic year, 54% of bachelor’s degree students who attended public and private four-year schools graduated with student loans, according to the College Board. These students left school with an average balance of $29,100 in education debt.

Average federal student loan debt

The majority of student loan debt in the U.S. is made up of federal student loans. The total federal loan portfolio is more than $1.6 trillion. This is spread amongst nearly 44 million borrowers, according to Federal Student Aid. 

Here’s how much borrowers owe by federal student loan type:

Average private student loan debt

As of the third quarter of 2022, only 7.22% of the total national student loan debt comes from private student loans, according to Enterval Analytics. These loans are issued by private institutions like banks, credit unions and online lenders. 

Students borrowed about $13 billion in private student loans during the 2021-2022 academic year. Of these students, 10% who earned a bachelor’s degree from a public four-year school graduated with $32,100 in private student loan debt. Another 13% who attended four-year private schools graduated with $42,800 in private loans. 

Unlike most federal student loans, private student loans generally have strict credit and income requirements. Because of this, most private loan borrowers apply with a co-signer. During the 2022-2023 academic year, nearly 91% of private undergraduate loans and 66% of private graduate loans had a co-signer, according to Enterval Analytics. 

The crisis of student loan debt in the U.S. 

Total student debt in the U.S. has nearly tripled in the past 15 years, from more than $619 billion in quarter one of 2008 to more than $1.77 trillion in quarter one of 2023, according to the Federal Reserve. 

With this debt rising as average wages have fallen, many borrowers struggle to repay their student loans and are unable to pursue other life goals, such as buying a home or starting a family. Delinquencies and defaults on student loans are also more common compared to other types of debt.

Additionally, as of 2021, 40.4 million student loan borrowers left school without completing a degree, according to the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. This means that many borrowers don’t enjoy the higher earnings that a college education can bring. 

Average student loan debt by year

While there’s little data available regarding average private student loan debt per year, more than 92% of all student debt is made up of federal loans. Here’s how the average federal student loan debt increased between 1995 and 2017, based on the most accurate data from the Congressional Budget Office. 

Who has student loan debt?

The amount of student loan debt borrowers owe varies based on a variety of factors. Here’s a snapshot of the average student loan debt by state, age and gender as well as by race and ethnicity: 

Average student loan debt by state

Average student loan debt ranged from $18,344 in Utah up to $39,928 in New Hampshire for the graduating class of 2020, according to the latest data from The Institute for College Access and Success. 

Here’s the average student loan debt for college graduates by state:

Average student loan debt by age

Here’s how federal student debt loads compare by age group in 2023, according to Federal Student Aid data: 

Average student loan debt by gender

The burden of student loan debt doesn’t fall equally between men and women. In general, women borrow more for their education, and they hold nearly two-thirds of the total student loan debt in the U.S., according to the American Association of University Women (AAUW). 

On average, women who earn their bachelor’s degree owe $2,700 more than men upon graduation, and they take about two years longer to pay it off. This is partly due to the gender pay gap, the unemployment crisis facing accurate graduates and the growing cost of education, according to the AAUW.

Here’s how student loan debt compares between genders, further broken down by race and ethnicity:

Average student loan debt by race and ethnicity

Young adult women and Black adults are more likely to carry student loan debt compared to young adult men and young white adults, respectively, according to the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. The gender wage gap and gender discrimination as well as both the racial wage gap and racial discrimination faced by Black adults play into these amounts of debt.

Here’s the average amount owed in federal student loans four years after completing a bachelor’s degree in the 2015-2016 academic year, broken down by race and ethnicity:

Average student loan debt expected for a high school graduate

In 2023, borrowers have an average of $37,338 in federal student loan debt and $54,921 in private student loan debt, according to the Education Data Initiative. For 2023 high school graduates, these averages could increase if tuition costs continue to rise at both public and private colleges.

How long does it take to repay student loans?

The amount of time it takes to repay student loans depends on the type of loans you have and your repayment plan. According to a survey of 61,000 individuals by, student loan borrowers take an average of more than 20 years to pay off their education debt. 

If you have federal student loans, you’ll generally be placed on the standard 10-year repayment plan. However, you can switch to a different repayment plan that could extend your term. For example, you’ll have 20 or 25 years to repay your loans under an income-driven repayment (IDR) plan, after which the remainder of your balance will be forgiven. You could also opt to consolidate your federal loans, which can extend your term by up to 30 years. 

You’ll typically have five to 25 years to repay private student loans, depending on the lender. Note that private student loans don’t offer the repayment options that federal loans do — the only way to change your term on a private student loan is to refinance

Regardless of whether you have federal or private loans, you might be able to pay off your balance faster by making extra payments. You could also consider pursuing federal student loan forgiveness to have some or all of your federal balance canceled.

How many student loans are forgiven?

There are a variety of options for receiving federal loan forgiveness, including the Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) program, Teacher Loan Forgiveness program and Perkins Loan cancellation. 

As of March 2023, there have been 3,139,959 PSLF applications processed, according to the Federal Student Aid. In May 2023, the Department of Education announced that more than 615,000 borrowers have had a total of $42 billion forgiven through the program. This was a result of the changes made by the Biden-Harris Administration that made it easier to qualify for this forgiveness.

How many student loans are in default?

A student loan is considered delinquent the day after a payment is missed. Here’s how many are in default, according to the type of loan:

Federal student loans

A federal student loan will generally enter default after payments have been missed for 270 days, depending on the type of loan. However, due to the Covid-19 pandemic, federal student interest accrual and loan payments were paused in March 2020. Eligible loans already in default also received various relief measures, such as halting interest accrual and wage garnishments. 

Here’s how many federal loans were in default in the five years before this administrative forbearance, according to Federal Student Aid:

Private student loans

Private student loans usually enter default after 90 days, depending on the lender. As of the third quarter of 2022, 3% of private loans were 30 to 89 days past due, and 1.58% were 90 or more days past due, according to Enterval Analytics.

How to take control of student loan debt

If you’re one of the nearly 44 million Americans with student loans, here are some strategies that might help you better manage your loans: 

Pursue federal student loan forgiveness

Several forgiveness programs are available for federal student loan borrowers. For example, if you work full time for a government or nonprofit organization for at least 10 years and make 120 qualifying payments, you might qualify for PSLF. Or if you’re a highly-qualified teacher, you could have $5,000 or $17,500 forgiven (depending on what you teach) after working full time for five consecutive years at a low-income school.

Many states also offer student loan repayment assistance programs to qualifying professionals. To qualify for one of these programs, you’ll typically have to work in a particular career field (such as in healthcare or law) and agree to serve in a certain area for a specified amount of time.

Sign up for an income-driven repayment plan

Most federal student loan borrowers are eligible for at least one of the four IDR plans, which can help to make payments more affordable. 

“If you are experiencing long-term financial difficulty, such as you have a job but it doesn’t pay enough to make student loan repayment affordable, and you have no prospects for increasing income, [sign up for] an income-driven repayment plan or extended repayment plan,” says financial aid expert Mark Kantrowitz. “These repayment plans reduce the monthly payment by stretching out the term of the loan.”

Each of the plans extends your repayment term up to 20 or 25 years (depending on the plan) while adjusting your monthly payments to a percentage of your discretionary income. If you still owe a balance at the end of your term, it will be forgiven.

Here are the four main IDR plans to choose from: 

  • Pay As You Earn (PAYE): Payments are 10% of discretionary income (never more than what you’d pay on a standard 10-year plan) with forgiveness after 20 years.
  • Revised Pay As You Earn (REPAYE): Payments are 10% of discretionary income (no cap on amount) with forgiveness after 20 years for undergraduate loans or 25 years for graduate loans.
  • Income-Based Repayment (IBR): For loans made on or after July 1, 2014, payments are 10% of discretionary income with forgiveness after 20 years. For loans made before July 1, 2014, payments are 15% of discretionary income with forgiveness after 25 years. Payments on this plan are never more than what you’d pay on a standard 10-year plan.
  • Income-Contingent Repayment (ICR): Payments are 20% of discretionary income (or what you’d pay on a 12-year plan with fixed payments) with forgiveness after 25 years.

Keep in mind that while an income-driven plan can make your monthly payments more affordable, it can increase your costs of borrowing over time. This is because extending your repayment term means paying more in interest.

Ask your employer about student loan assistance

An increasing number of employers have begun offering student loan repayment assistance to their employees, such as Google and Starbucks. If you work at one of these companies, be sure to take advantage of this benefit if possible. 

If your employer doesn’t offer student loan assistance, consider meeting with your boss or human resources department to see if it could be implemented. Be prepared to provide evidence for how this type of program works at other companies and how it can benefit both you and the employer. 

Refinance your high-interest loans

Student loan refinancing is the process of paying off one or more of your current loans with a new private loan. Depending on your credit, you might be able to qualify for a lower interest rate, which could save you money on interest and potentially help you pay off your loans faster. You could also opt to extend your repayment term to reduce your payments — though remember that this means you’ll pay more in interest over time.

You can refinance both federal and private loans. However, keep in mind that refinancing federal student loans means forfeiting access to federal repayment plans, forgiveness programs and other borrower protections.

Ascent’s undergraduate and graduate student loans are funded by Bank of Lake Mills or DR Bank, each Member FDIC. Loan products may not be available in certain jurisdictions. Certain restrictions, limitations; and terms and conditions may apply. For Ascent Terms and Conditions please visit: Rates are effective as of 11/1/2023 and reflect an automatic payment discount of either 0.25% (for credit-based loans) OR 1.00% (for undergraduate outcomes-based loans). Automatic Payment Discount is available if the borrower is enrolled in automatic payments from their personal checking account and the amount is successfully withdrawn from the authorized bank account each month. For Ascent rates and repayment examples please visit: 1% Cash Back Graduation Reward subject to terms and conditions. Cosigned Credit-Based Loan student must meet certain minimum credit criteria. The minimum score required is subject to change and may depend on the credit score of your cosigner. Lowest APRs require interest-only payments, the shortest loan term, and a cosigner, and are only available to our most creditworthy applicants and cosigners with the highest average credit scores.

Tue, 31 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html
The best student credit cards of November 2023

A good credit score is essential when making many of the major life decisions you face after graduation, such as renting an apartment or applying for an auto loan. Opening a college student credit card is a smart way to start building credit early while also taking advantage of rewards and special financing offers.

Student cards provide useful benefits for different types of students — from travelers and foodies to commuters. Some cards are lenient with credit history requirements, meaning you may qualify with no credit history at all. You do have to be 18 to apply for a credit card and need to have a steady source of income.

If you're feeling overwhelmed by all the choices, don't stress. We did the research for you. CNBC Select, dug into various cards' perks and drawbacks, to find the best student credit cards based on your spending habits. (See our methodology for more information on how we choose the best cards.)

Best student credit cards

Best for cash back

Discover it® Student Cash Back

On Discover's secure site

  • Rewards

    Earn 5% cash back on everyday purchases at different places you shop each quarter like grocery stores, restaurants, gas stations, and more, up to the quarterly maximum when you activate. Plus, earn unlimited 1% cash back on all other purchases-automatically.

  • Welcome bonus

    Discover will match all the cash back you've earned at the end of your first year

  • Annual fee

  • Intro APR

    0% for 6 months on purchases

  • Regular APR

  • Balance transfer fee

    3% intro balance transfer fee, up to 5% fee on future balance transfers (see terms)*

  • Foreign transaction fee

  • Credit needed


  • Cash-back program
  • Generous welcome bonus


  • Cash-back categories must be activated each quarter
  • Cash-back program limits earnings: Enroll every quarter to earn 5% cash back in various categories on up to $1,500 in quarterly purchases, then 1%
  • You must be a U.S. citizen and college student to apply for this card

Who's this for? The Discover it® Student Cash Back card is a well-rounded card with no annual fee that offers college students enrolled in a two- or four-year college the chance to build credit while earning rewards. You must be over 18 and a U.S. citizen to apply.

Cardholders can enroll every quarter to earn 5% cash back on rotating categories on up to a $1,500 maximum each quarter (then 1%). All other purchases earn unlimited 1% cash back automatically.

There are no foreign transaction fees, which makes it a good choice for students studying abroad.

Best for groceries and dining

Capital One SavorOne Student Cash Rewards Credit Card

On Capital One's secure site

  • Rewards

    Earn 10% cash back on purchases made through Uber & Uber Eats, plus complimentary Uber One membership statement credits through 11/14/2024, 8% cash back on Capital One Entertainment purchases; unlimited 5% cash back on hotels and rental cars booked through Capital One Travel, Terms Apply; 3% cash back on dining and at grocery stores (excluding superstores like Walmart® and Target®); 3% cash back on popular streaming services and entertainment; 1% cash back on all other purchases

  • Welcome bonus

    Early Spend Bonus: Earn $50 when you spend $100 in the first three months

  • Annual fee

  • Promo APR

  • Regular APR

    19.99% - 29.99% variable APR

  • Balance transfer fee

    $0 at the Transfer APR, 3% of the amount of each transferred balance that posts to your account at a promotional APR that Capital One may offer to you

  • Foreign transaction fee

  • Credit needed


  • Excellent cash back categories on broad spending categories
  • Exclusive access to curated experiences in sports, dining and entertainment
  • Unlimited cash back that doesn't expire for the life of the account
  • Pick the monthly due date that works best for you


Best for travel

Bank of America® Travel Rewards for Students credit card

  • Rewards

    Unlimited 1.5 points for every $1 spent on all purchases

  • Welcome bonus

    25,000 online bonus points after you spend at least $1,000 in purchases in the first 90 days of account opening, which can be redeemed for a $250 statement credit toward qualifying travel and dining purchases

  • Annual fee

  • Intro APR

    0% APR for the first 18 billing cycles on purchases, and for any balance transfers made within the first 60 days of opening your account

  • Regular APR

  • Balance transfer fee

    3% of the amount of each transaction

  • Foreign transaction fee

  • Credit needed


  • No annual fee
  • Points can be redeemed for flexible travel expenses, including flights, hotels, vacation packages, cruises, rental cars or baggage fees
  • No limit or expiration on points
  • Strong welcome bonus of 25,000 points if you spend $1,000 in the first 90 days
  • Intro 0% APR for 18 billing cycles on purchases and balance transfers
  • No fee charged on purchases made outside the U.S.
  • You don’t have to be a U.S. citizen to apply for this card


  • No student-centric benefits or incentives to practice responsible credit behavior
  • Estimated rewards earned after 1 year: $466
  • Estimated rewards earned after 5 years: $1,528

Rewards totals incorporate the points earned from the welcome bonus

Who's this for? The Bank of America® Travel Rewards for Students is a great choice for college students who plan on studying abroad or traveling during breaks. The rewards program is geared toward travel, and cardholders earn 1.5 points per dollar spent on all purchases.

You can redeem rewards as a statement credit to cover the cost of qualifying travel purchases — a simple way to reduce the cost of taking a spring break vacation or buying a plane ticket home. The Bank of America Travel Rewards Student card has no foreign transaction fees, making it an ideal card for students studying abroad.

This card also comes with a longer-than-average special financing offer of no interest for 15 billing cycles (then 17.99% - 27.99% variable APR). Over a year of no interest is a great way for you to pay off new purchases over time, without incurring interest charges.

You must be 18 or older and enrolled in school (college, vocational or trade school) to qualify for this card.

Best for gas stations

Discover it® Student Chrome

On Discover's secure site

  • Rewards

    Earn 2% cash back at Gas Stations and Restaurants on up to $1,000 in combined purchases each quarter. Plus, earn unlimited 1% cash back on all other purchases – automatically.

  • Welcome bonus

    Discover will match all the cash back you've earned at the end of your first year.

  • Annual fee

  • Intro APR

    0% for 6 months on purchases

  • Regular APR

  • Balance transfer fee

    3% intro balance transfer fee, up to 5% fee on future balance transfers (see terms)*

  • Foreign transaction fee

  • Credit needed


  • Cash-back program
  • Generous welcome bonus


  • Cash-back program limits earnings: 2% cash back at gas stations and restaurants on up to $1,000 in combined purchases each quarter, then 1%
  • You must be a U.S. citizen and college student to apply for this card

Who's this for? If you want all the perks of a Discover card but you don't want to deal with activating bonus rewards categories each quarter, you should consider the Discover it® Student Chrome. It has a strong rewards program for college students frequently filling up their gas tank or dining out, with 2% cash back at gas stations and restaurants on up to $1,000 in combined purchases each quarter, then 1%. Plus, earn unlimited 1% cash back on all other purchases automatically.

The Discover it Student Chrome doesn't charge foreign transaction fees, and new card members get 0% APR for the first six months on new purchases. After the intro period, there's an 18.24% - 27.24% variable APR. We always recommend you pay your balance on time and in full to avoid interest charges.

Best for 0%-APR offer

BankAmericard® for Students credit card

  • Rewards

  • Welcome bonus

  • Annual fee

  • Intro APR

    0% for the first 18 billing cycles on purchases and balance transfers

  • Regular APR

  • Balance transfer fee

    3% of the amount of each transaction.

  • Foreign transaction fee

  • Credit needed


  • No annual fee
  • One of the longest intro periods for a no-fee card


  • 3% foreign transaction fee
  • No rewards program
  • Transfer timeline: Balances must be transferred within 60 days from account opening
  • Estimated total fees and interest on debt repayment: $441

Who's this for? The BankAmericard for Students is ideal for students seeking a special financing offer. Instead of offering ongoing rewards or a welcome bonus, new applicants can take advantage of 0% APR for 21 months (then a variable standard APR of 15.99% - 25.99%).

The introductory APR applies to purchases and balance transfers you make within the first 60 days of account opening. This could be a good option for financing certain purchases or providing some relief for high-interest debt. There is a 3% balance transfer fee for each transaction, which puts a dent in your savings. This card also has no annual fee.

Best for no credit history

Petal® 2 "Cash Back, No Fees" Visa® Credit Card

  • Rewards

    1% cash back on eligible purchases right away and up to 1.5% cash back on eligible purchases after making 12 on-time monthly payments; 2% to 10% cash back at select merchants

  • Welcome bonus

  • Annual fee

  • Intro APR

  • Regular APR

  • Balance transfer fee

  • Foreign transaction fee

  • Credit needed


  • No credit history required (if you do have a credit history, that does factor into the credit decision)
  • No fees whatsoever
  • 1% cash back on eligible purchases right away and up to 1.5% cash back on eligible purchases after making 12 on-time monthly payments; 2% to 10% cash back at select merchants
  • Credit limits range from $300 to $10,000


  • Card isn't for rebuilding credit, but it's good for building credit
  • No special financing offers
  • No welcome bonus
  • Estimated rewards earned after 1 year: $249
  • Estimated rewards earned after 5 years: $1,577


Should college students have credit cards?

It's important for college students to have credit cards as they can help build credit history, raise your credit score and teach you how to manage money. When used responsibly, student credit cards can save you money through the rewards you earn on your purchases. Student credit cards also provide more security through their various built-in protections.

How can a student with no income get a credit card?

A student with no income can get a credit card by applying with a qualified cosigner or by being added as an authorized user under a parent's card. If they are over 21 years of age, students are also able to apply for credit cards using their household income.

Which type of credit card is best for students?

The best type of credit card for students is a card that can earn rewards and help you build credit at the same time. It's even better if you can qualify for a card that earns extra rewards in categories where you spend the most.

Are student cards good for building credit?

Student credit cards can be a good way to build credit because they are easier to qualify for than a typical credit card. But for a student credit card to help your credit, you'll need to pay your balance in full and on time every month.

Are student credit cards hard to get?

Student credit cards are generally easier to qualify for than many of the best credit cards. However, the application may require proof of college enrollment in addition to the standard information required for a credit card application.

Bottom line

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Why trust CNBC Select?

Our methodology

To determine which cards offer the best value for students, CNBC Select analyzed over a dozen of the most popular credit cards available for college students looking to build credit.

We compared each card on a range of features, including: credit limit, rewards program, introductory and standard APR, welcome bonuses and foreign transaction fees, as well as factors such as required credit score and customer reviews when available. We also considered any special student-centric programs that offer incentives or extra rewards.

Because it's unusual for college student cards to have robust rewards programs, we did not analyze how many reward points you can earn in the first year. For students who are looking to build their credit history and develop strong financial skills, it's more important to practice good credit card habits — spending within your means, paying your balance on time and in full — than try to optimize your points balance.

Catch up on CNBC Select's in-depth coverage of credit cardsbanking and money, and follow us on TikTokFacebookInstagram and Twitter to stay up to date.

*For Capital One products listed on this page, some of the above benefits are provided by Visa® or Mastercard® and may vary by product. See the respective Guide to Benefits for details, as terms and exclusions apply

For rates and fees of the Discover it® Student Cash Back, click here.

For rates and fees of the Discover it® Student Chrome, click here.

Information about the Bank of America® Travel Rewards for Students has been collected independently by Select and has not been reviewed or provided by the issuer of the card prior to publication.

Editorial Note: Opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the Select editorial staff’s alone, and have not been reviewed, approved or otherwise endorsed by any third party.

Tue, 31 Oct 2023 16:59:00 -0500 en text/html
Student Loans

Blueprint is an independent publisher and comparison service, not an investment advisor. The information provided is for educational purposes only and we encourage you to seek personalized advice from qualified professionals regarding specific financial decisions. Past performance is not indicative of future results.

Blueprint has an advertiser disclosure policy. The opinions, analyses, reviews or recommendations expressed in this article are those of the Blueprint editorial staff alone. Blueprint adheres to strict editorial integrity standards. The information is accurate as of the publish date, but always check the provider’s website for the most current information.

Thu, 21 Sep 2023 06:33:00 -0500 en-US text/html

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