H12-311 HCIA-WLAN (Huawei Certified ICT Associate-WLAN) Braindumps | http://babelouedstory.com/
Sat, 04 Jun 2022 19:59:00 -0500text/htmlhttps://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/colosseum/qanda/ 29 Common Job Interview Questions and How to Answer Them No result found, try new keyword!There's only one thing standing between you and the job that you want: your answers to common interview questions. When you know how to answer interview questions in a way that impresses the ... Wed, 18 Sep 2013 01:04:00 -0500 text/html https://money.usnews.com/money/careers/interviewing/articles/know-these-interview-questions-and-how-to-answer-them Asking Questions and Finding Answers

Lesson Plan

This lesson can be used as a pre-lesson for the Who, When, What, Where, Why, and How? lesson plan.

Do your first graders like reading fiction? Then this lesson about asking questions and finding answers about their favorite fictional characters will be a hit. In this fiction comprehension lesson plan, students will take on the persona of a book character as they plan and conduct interviews with one another. First, they will take note of the different characters, settings, events, and details in a specific story. Then, they’ll write up detailed questions that set the stage for a thought-provoking discussion.



Students will be able to ask and answer questions about key details in a written text.


Students will be able to ask and answer questions with grade level-words using written supports.


(10 minutes)

  • Display the read-aloud text and ask students to imagine what the story might be about.
  • Explain that today you will be reading aloud this story, and students should be thinking about key details about each of the characters and what makes them special.
  • Read aloud the text, pausing as you read to create a list of characters and key details about those character on chart paper or the whiteboard.

Fri, 31 Aug 2018 00:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.education.com/lesson-plan/el-support-lesson-asking-questions-and-finding-answers/
Question your answers.

These days, our culture rewards strong opinions and quick-draw conclusions. In a time when every side seems convinced it has the answers, The Atlantic and HBO are partnering on a series of short films that challenge our certainties.

Civil discourse ultimately depends on a recognition that none of us has a complete understanding of the world—and that we’re at our best when we engage with arguments that confront our deepest beliefs. This is how we, as a society, move toward a better and shared future.

We invite you to #QuestionYourAnswers with us.

Mon, 18 Mar 2019 10:11:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.theatlantic.com/questionanswers/
Home equity questions to have the answers to
It's important to know what to look for when considering any financial product. Andrey Popov/Getty Images

Your home equity can be a great source of funding for a wide variety of costs. By tapping into this equity by using a home equity loan or home equity line of credit (HELOC), you can finance everything from emergencies to retirement costs — often at rates much lower than other products.

But, as with any financial product, it's important to know what to look for. That's why we've outlined some important questions to ask yourself when evaluating your home equity options.

Check out today's home equity rates to see how much you could borrow.

Home equity questions to have the answers to

To get the most from your home equity, be sure to ask yourself these questions.

How much equity do you have?

How much equity you can borrow depends on how much you currently have. You can calculate your home equity by subtracting your outstanding mortgage balance from the current value of your home.

Let's say, for instance, that your original mortgage balance was $250,000. You've made $100,000 in payments, so the balance is now $150,000. Meanwhile, your home's value has gone up to $300,000. That means your home equity is $150,000 (or $300,000 minus $150,000).

You can typically borrow up to 85% of your home equity. So, in this case, you might be able to borrow up to $127,500.

If you don't need funds immediately, you may be better served by waiting until you've paid off more of your mortgage, home prices are higher or both. This will increase your home equity and, therefore, how much you can borrow.

Compare home equity options online now to find the one that's best for you.

Why do you need the funds?

While you can use a home equity loan or HELOC for any purposes, you may qualify for a tax deduction if you use it for IRS-approved home repairs and improvements.

"Interest on home equity loans and lines of credit are deductible only if the borrowed funds are used to buy, build, or substantially Excellerate the taxpayer's home that secures the loan," the IRS says. "The loan must be secured by the taxpayer's main home or second home (qualified residence), and meet other requirements."

So, if you're using a home equity loan or HELOC to make home repairs or improvements, be sure to save not only your loan paperwork but also any documentation proving how you used the funds. And consult a tax professional if you're not sure whether your planned improvements will qualify for a deduction.

When do you need the funds?

Considering when you need to access funds can help you determine whether you should get a home equity loan or HELOC.

A home equity loan is better when you need a large sum of money right now, such as to pay medical costs or consolidate debt. You'll begin paying the loan back immediately, incurring interest on the full amount of the loan. However, you'll enjoy fixed payments, which can make budgeting easier and protect you if interest rates rise.

A HELOC is better when you want ongoing access to money as needed, such as to pay for a child's college education costs. You'll have a variable interest rate, but you'll only pay interest on the amount you borrow, not the total credit line. Plus, you'll only begin repaying once the draw period ends (draw periods typically last five to 10 years).

View current home equity rates here!

The bottom line

Both home equity lines and HELOCs can be smart ways to pay for expenses using the value you've already built in your home. By asking yourself the above questions, you can determine which is better for you and make the most of your funds. Once you know the answers, take a look at our picks for the best home equity loans and HELOCs.

Wed, 31 May 2023 04:23:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.cbsnews.com/news/home-equity-questions-to-have-the-answers-to/
XMPT: Question and Answer No result found, try new keyword!This blog aims to answer common questions about the VanEck CEF Muni Income ETF (XMPT), an ETF that seeks to replicate the S-Network Municipal Bond Closed-End Fund Index, offering investors ... Sat, 20 May 2023 07:58:00 -0500 text/html https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/xmpt%3A-question-and-answer 30 Memorial Day Trivia Questions and Answers

Memorial Day is a holiday to honor troops who have given the ultimate sacrifice. Often confused or conflated with Veterans Day or Armed Forces Day, Memorial Day is not just to commemorate those fallen in combat, but is also considered the unofficial kickoff to summer. There is much more to Memorial Day than barbecues and American flags. These Memorial Day trivia questions and answers to see how much you and your loved ones know about the solemn holiday and the true meaning and history behind it.

Related: From Activities to Crafts, 39 Patriotic Activities to Celebrate Memorial Day With Kids

Question: What city is known as the birthplace of Memorial Day?
Answer: Waterloo, New York

Question: Memorial Day was originally known as what?
Answer: Decoration Day

Question: Memorial Day was first recognized on what date?
Answer: May 30, 1868

Question: When was Memorial Day named as such by the federal government?
Answer: 1971

Question: What act moved Memorial Day from May 30 to the last Monday in May each year?
Answer: The Uniform Monday Holiday Act

Related: 32 Memorial Day Picnic Salads You Can Whip Up Faster Than You Can Light the Grill

Question: When did Memorial Day move from May 30 to the last Monday in May?
Answer: 1971

Question: Arlington National Cemetery used to be a plantation belonging to whom?
Answer: Robert E. Lee (Bonus points if you said it originally belonged to George Washington's step-grandson, George Washington Parke Custis).

Question: Who spoke at the first Memorial Day ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery?
Answer: Ohio Congressman James A. Garfield

Question: When was the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery established?
Answer: Nov. 11, 1921

Question: What poem inspired the tradition of wearing and planting poppy blossoms for Memorial Day?
Answer: "In Flanders Fields" by John McCrae, M.D.

Related: 50 Patriotic Memorial Day Quotes That Honor Our Nation’s Veterans

Question: "In Flanders Fields" was inspired by a battle in which war?
Answer: World War I (Bonus points if you also named the battle: the Second Battle of Ypres)

Question: Confederate Memorial Day is recognized in which states?
Answer: It's an official state holiday in Alabama, Mississippi and South Carolina. It's commemorated in Kentucky, Florida, North Carolina, Tennessee and Texas. It's formerly recognized in Missouri, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana and Virginia.

Question: The National Moment of Remembrance takes place at what time each Memorial Day?
Answer: 3 p.m. local time

Question: Which president signed the National Moment of Remembrance Act?
Answer: President Bill Clinton

Question: Memorial Day initially only honored the fallen from which war?
Answer: The American Civil War

Related: When Is Memorial Day 2023, and What’s the Real Meaning of Memorial Day?

Question: Who is credited with creating Memorial Day?
Answer: General John A. Logan

Question: How should American flags mark Memorial Day?
Answer: At half-staff from sunrise until noon, then at full staff until sundown

Question: When was "Taps" written?
Answer: 1862 (Bonus points if you also said who wrote it: General Daniel Butterfield).

Question: Memorial Day is held in May for what reason?
Answer: So flowers will be in bloom to decorate soldiers' graves

Question: How many participants decorated graves for the first Memorial Day at Arlington National Cemetery?
Answer: 5,000

Related: From Activities to Crafts, 40 Patriotic Ways to Celebrate Memorial Day With Kids

Question: How many fallen soldiers were honored at the first Memorial Day at Arlington National Cemetery?
Answer: 20,000

Question: One of the very first ceremonies to honor fallen Union Civil War soldiers was held on May 1, 1865, by whom in what city?
Answer: 10,000 mostly freed slaves and white missionaries, along with members of the 54th Massachusetts and other Black Union regiments, in Charleston, South Carolina

Question: Which senator and World War II veteran fought to return Memorial Day to May 30 until his death in 2012?
Answer: Senator Daniel Inouye

Question: Which historical monument was dedicated on Memorial Day in 1922?
Answer: The Lincoln Memorial

Question: The ancient Greeks marked one of the earliest displays of honoring fallen soldiers in which war?
Answer: The Peloponnesian War

Related: 50 Memorial Day Quotes on Sacrifice, Gratitude and Patriotism

Question: How many total Americans died in the Civil War?
Answer: About 620,000

Question: About how many people visit Arlington National Cemetery each year?
Answer: More than three million

Question: When there was a shortage of natural poppies in 1924, which city was the first to manufacture artificial poppies?
Answer: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Question: The annual biker rally in Washington, D.C. each Memorial Day is called what?
Answer: The Rolling Thunder Run

Question: The Rolling Thunder Run is aimed at raising awareness of what?
Answer: The POW-MIA (prisoners of war and soldiers missing in action) issue

Next, find out how to help veterans, soldiers and their families.


Mon, 29 May 2023 00:28:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/30-memorial-day-trivia-questions-121723024.html
A Question and Answer Guide to Astronomy

Abbott, B. P., et al., 2016, Observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger, Physical Review Letters, 116, 061102–1.

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Batygin, K. and Brown, M. E., 2016, Evidence for a distant giant planet in the solar system, The Astronomical Journal, 151, 22.

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Bell, E. A., Boehnke, P., Harrison, M. T., and Mao, W. L., 2015, Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112, 14518.

Berger, A. and Loutre, M. F., 2002, Climate: an exceptionally long interglacial ahead?, Science, 297, 1287.

Bernstein, M., 2006, Prebiotic materials form on and off the early Earth, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 361, 1689.

Bidle, K. D., Lee, S., Marchant, D. R., and Falkowski, P. G., 2007, Fossil genes and microbes in the oldest ice on Earth, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 13455.

Brohan, P., et al., 2006, Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: a new dataset from 1850, Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, 1.

Butikov, E. I., 2002, A dynamical picture of the oceanic tides, American Journal of Physics, 70, 1001.

Caputi, K. I., et al., 2015, Spitzer bright, UltraVISTA faint sources in cosmos: the contribution to the overall population of massive galaxies at z = 3–7, The Astrophysical Journal, 810, 73.

Christian, C. A., 2015, Citizen science with Hubble Space Telescope data, Computing in Science and Engineering, 17, 12: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MCSE.2015.42.

Dercourt, J., 2003, Le temps de la Terre, une aventure scientifique, Discours à l’Académiedes Sciences.

Diehl, R., et al., 2006, Radioactive Al-26 and massive stars in the Galaxy, Nature, 439, 45.

Dohrn-van Rossum, G., 1996, History of the Hour Clocks and Modern Temporal Orders, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Douglas, B. C., Kearney, M. S., and Leatherman, S. P., 2001, Sea Level Rise: History and Consequences, New York: Academic Press.

Espenak, F. and Meeus, J., 2006, Five millennium canon of solar eclipses: –1999 to +3000, NASA Technical Publication, TP-2006-214141.

England, P., Molnar, P., and Richter, F., 2007, John Perry’s neglected critique of Kelvin’s age for the Earth: a missed opportunity in geodynamics, GSA Today, 17, 4.

Frebel, A., et al., 2007, Discovery of HE 1523–0901, a strongly r-process enhanced metal-poor star with detected uranium, The Astrophysical Journal, 660, L117.

Glazebrook, K., et al., 2004, The Gemini Deep Deep Survey: III. The abundance of massive galaxies 3–6 billion years after the Big Bang, Nature, 430, 181.

Goldsmith, D. and Owen, T., 2002, The Search for Life in the Universe, Sausalito, CA: University Science Books.

Grealy, A., Macken, A., Allentoft, M., et al., 2016. An assessment of ancient DNA preservation in Holocene–Pleistocene fossil bone excavated from the world heritage Naracoorte Caves, South Australia, Journal of Quaternary Science, 31, 33–45.

Gribbin, J. R. and Plageman, S. H., 1976, Jupiter Effect: The Planets as Triggers of Devastating Earthquakes, London: Random House.

Hawking, S., 2001, The Universe in a Nutshell, New York: Bantam.

Hoyt, D. V. and Schatten, K. H., 1998, Group sunspot numbers: a new solar activity reconstruction, Part I, Solar Physics, 179, 189; Part 2, 181, 491.

Hubble, E., 1947, The 200 inch telescope and some problems it may solve, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 59, 349.

Imbrie, J. and Imbrie, J. Z., 1980, Modeling the climatic response to orbital variations, Science, 207, 943.

Johnson, A. P., et al., 2008, The Miller volcanic spark discharge experiment, Science, 322, 404.

Kopp, R. E., et al., 2016, Temperature-driven global sea-level variability in the Common Era, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 10, 1073.

Kring, D. A. and Durda, D. D., 2002, Trajectories and distribution of material ejected from the Chicxulub impact crater: implications for post-impact wildfires, Journal Geophysical Research, 107, 6–1.

Lachièze-Rey, M. and Luminet, J.-P., 1998, Figures du ciel, Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 286.

Lu, E. T. and Love, S. G., 2005, Gravitational tractor for towing asteroids, Nature, 438, 177.

Navarro-González, R., et al., 2003, Mars-like soils in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and the dry limit of microbial life, Science, 302, 1018.

Planck Collaboration, 2015, Planck 2015 results. XIII. Cosmological parameters, arXiv:1502.01589. Bibcode:2015arXiv150201589P.

Racine, R., 2004, The historical growth of telescope aperture, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 116, 77.

Reber, G., 1944, Cosmic static, The Astrophysical Journal, 100, 279.

Schaefer, B. E., 1988, The astrophysics of suntanning, Sky & Telescope (June issue), 596.

Schopf, J. W., 2006, Fossil evidence of archaean life, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 361, 869.

Schrödinger, E., 1944, What is Life?, reprinted Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Smith, I. B., et al., 2016, An ice age recorded in the polar deposits of Mars, Science, 352, 1075.

Sobral, D., et al., 2015, Evidence for Pop III-like stellar populations in the most luminous Ly α emitters at the epoch of reionization: spectroscopic confirmation, The Astrophysical Journal, 808, 139.

Trehub, A., 1991, The Cognitive Brain, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

van Dishoeck, E. F., et al., 2014, Water: from clouds to planets, in Protostars and Planets VI, Beuther, Henrik, Klessen, Ralf S., Dullemond, Cornelis P., and Henning, Thomas (eds.), Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 835.

Vreeland, R. H., et al., 2000, Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal, Nature, 407, 897.

Ward, P. D. and Brownlee, D., 2000, Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe, New York: Copernicus Books.

Wright, E. L., 2006, A cosmology calculator for the World Wide Web, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 118, 1711.

Fri, 10 Nov 2017 01:19:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/question-and-answer-guide-to-astronomy/DE2A6E3A0FA39B42B7DCAE7321BFA226
Questions & Answers

Question: How do you know how much the monoliths at Stonehenge weigh? ~Jane

Answer: We know how much the monoliths weigh as we can calculate to their overall volume, including the bit that's underground, and we know what the density of sarsen, or bluestone, is. Also, some of them have actually been lifted by train while being reset not that long ago, which is also a good guide.

Question: It's one thing to drag a ten ton stone over three step middle planks. Was anyone making nice new planks 4,000 years ago? Probably a lot harder to drag a stone on rough cut timbers from ~Brad

Answer: People at this time were capable of quite fine timber work and we have evidence of this from preserved prehistoric trackways in peat bogs. So, yes, they would have been able to make smooth planks.

Question: Why was Stonehenge built? I've heard that on either the longest or shortest day of the year, the sun rises or sets just at the entrance. Why did they build it like this? ~Scott

Answer: The structure of Stonehenge is actually laid out on the line of the midsummer sun rise and the midsummer sunset, the longest and the shortest days of the year, and it seems likely that Stonehenge was built to mark these two events, which would have been enabled people to chart the changing seasons.

Question: Without the use of the wheel, the builders must have used sledges, log rollers, and many people, right?

Answer: Yes, and our experiments show that it seems more likely that some form of sledge would have been used to transport stones as log rollers are very prone to getting bogged down, particularly in softish ground.

Question: How far has the procession of the equinox moved the position of the summer solstice on the horizon since the time Stonehenge was built? ~Raymond

Answer: It has moved slightly, but not significantly enough to alter the fact that we can tell that it is this alignment that Stonehenge incorporates within its structure.

Question: On the Stonehenge raising, they used a weighted tip to tilt the main riser stone into the hole. Why not just have the stone dragged up an Earth ramp with wood rails to a pivot point of wood (timber) and just burn the timber? The loss of the support will drop the stone or is the angle too great for the raising? I can't see the stone (re: concrete) angle stone under the pivot point being used. ~Don

Answer: Burning a timber structure would, I suspect, cause a loss of control of the stone and also the heat generated would actually damage the sarsen. It's possible that any one of the stones which we now see built into the structure could have been used as that pivot stone before being erected. There are some that have a suitable cross section.

Question: Using the techniques from the show, how long did it take to build the entire structure? ~Jerry

Answer: To build the whole of Stonehenge will obviously depend on how many people you can use for the task. What we suggested was that, given a great concentration of effort, is the sarsen structures, the biggest bits of Stonehenge, could have been built within a period of three years. We suspect that probably it took longer.

Question: How do you know when it was built? ~Scott

Answer: The evidence for when Stonehenge was built comes from radio carbon dates which have been obtained largely from fragments of the antler picks used to dig the holes for the stones and the ditch.

Question: What kind of language or dialect did this ancient community speak? ~Jeff

Answer: Unfortunately, archaeology cannot supply us any idea of the language that the builders of Stonehenge spoke.

Question: Why didn't they use pullleys to lift the monolith? ~Rich

Answer: Basically because it appears that the wheel had not been invented at that time and a pulley is a sort of wheel. If they did have pulleys, there is absolutely no evidence in the archaeological record.

Question: The ropes that you used, were they purchased or did you make them? ~Kenny

Answer: We purchased the ropes that we used. They were modern hemp ropes which we were obliged to use to comply with health and safety regulations. We would have liked to have made lime bark ropes to carry out the whole experiment, but this was impossible.

Question: I saw from the show that the ancients of the time had gold. Did they have any other metals? ~Robert

Answer: At the time when Stonehenge was started, no metal was used in the British Isles, but then copper, bronze, and gold were used, came into use.

Question: Where did you get stone slabs that big? ~Mike

Answer: We weren't able to get stone slabs that big. The ones we moved were replicas made of concrete. The places where both sarsens and bluestones come from are both now protected sites and it's not possible to extract stone from them.

Question: Where are the stones you have erected in this experiment now? Will they be left on this site? It appears they are a bit heavy to move. I hope to visit Stonehenge in July, hence these questions. ~David

Answer: The new trill is no longer on the site where it was erected. It rapidly became a place of New Age pilgrimage, and the farmer insisted on it being taken down the stones are currently in store.

Question: Is there an estimated population size at the time of construction that would have helped move the monoliths easier without the use of such elaborate devices that you used? ~Pat

Answer: Calculating the population which this time is very difficult because we have no clear indications of where people were living and how many settlements there were around. We felt that just using larger and larger numbers of people was not the answer, and that the builders of Stonehenge probably thought up a scheme which used less people in a safer and more controlled way.

Question: What was the closest known settlement to Stonehenge at the time of its construction, not including the area where the workers may have stayed? ~William

Answer: There are indications of settlement within a mile or so of Stonehenge, but the remains of settlements of this period are very difficult to find, in great contrast to the massive structures that that these people built.

Question: A thought occurs to me as I sit and think of the Indian burial mounds in my area: Wouldn't something like that have been useful in making the ramp for the piece on top? How old is the idea of mortice and tenon? Also, are there any writings on the stones at all? ~Patty

Answer: We know that people at this time were capable of constructing very large Earth mounds and so could quite easily have built a ramp to drag the stone up. Mortice and tenon joints, we have examples of these preserved from wet sites in this country that date back to at least a thousand years before Stonehenge, and there are no writings as such on the stones unless you count more modern graffiti, but there are carvings of daggers and axes that appear to date to the time of Stonehenge's building.

Question: I saw from the program that people were used to pull the ropes. Is it possible that beasts of burden were used for the heavy pulling? ~Sondra

Answer: It is possible that oxen were used to assist with the pulling and we would have liked to have carried out some experiments. Unfortunately, oxen, unless they have worked together before, are remarkably uncooperative beasts, and we were unable to get a team together. But this is possible.

Question: What type of marks, if any, were left on the monoliths as evidence of how they were moved? ~Keegan

Answer: There are no marks on the monoliths that provide evidence of how they were moved.

Question: In a book I read, it said that they probably put burning branches on a place they wanted to cut, then poured cold water on, cracking it. Is this what your experiment showed that they did? ~Scott

Answer: We didn't really go into the shaping of the stones, but fire is one way of breaking and shaping a stone like sarsen. It obviously carries risks, and having quarried a 40-ton block, it would be unfortunate to crack it in the wrong place. My feeling is that most of the shaping is done by pounding the surface of the stone with mauls ranging in size from footballs to small grapefruit.

Question: To move the stones, could the ancients have lashed enough logs to the stone to form a cylinder, loop ropes around the complete assembly, and pull on the upper loops to roll the stones to their site? ~Dave

Answer: This was one of the ideas that mark and I discussed and then rejected when we were thinking about how we could move the stone. It would certainly work, but could be potentially very dangerous when trying to control a 40-ton garden roller going downhill.

Question: Who owns the property on which Stonehenge is located? ~David

Answer: The land on which Stonehenge lies is owned and administered by English heritage. Effectively it's owned by the English people.

Question: Most religious practices in those days involved some sort of ritualistic or genuine animal sacrifice. Is there any evidence of such at Stonehenge? ~Botkin

Answer: I don't think we can be certain that most religious practices at this time involved sacrifice and there is no direct evidence of this from Stonehenge.

Question: How did they carve out the holes in the top piece and how did they make the stone pins that fit inside? ~Mark

Answer: Both of these elements of the mortice and tenon joint could only have been made by pounding away the surface of the stone. Obviously, to make the pin, all of the stone around this would need to have been removed, leaving the pin standing proud.

Question: Could it be that the large stones were moved not on tracks, as such, but on streams or slusways for irrigation/flood control systems? ~David

Answer: Water transport would obviously be an ideal method for these large stones, but unfortunately, there are no convenient river which run between the source of the stones and Stonehenge. The route crosses high and undulating chalk downland, so this method could not have been used.

Question: Have you considered using a series of sliding fulcrums where each end of the 40-ton stone is pulled in turn, and in effect walking it balanced in the middle? I have done this with large 18th century logs for a log house with only one helper. ~Willard

Answer: Although the walking method of moving large weights can be used and was used to move some of the Easter island statues, we felt that stones of 40 tons could not be moved in this way over relatively soft ground with any degree of safety.

Question: Might the weather conditions have been different enough 4,500 years ago to use snow and ice to reduce the friction of dragging and also to build ramps? ~Ken

Answer: The weather conditions at the time that Stonehenge was built were not dissimilar from those that we find today. Ice or snow would be a great way of sliding the stones, although it would make pulling for the pullers a lot more difficult, but could not be relied upon.

Question: Were the workers forced labor, or was it perceived as a community goal with benefit for all? Who was doing the farming during the construction? ~Joan

Answer: It seems unlikely that Stonehenge was built by forced labor. We have no evidence of this in society at that time. I feel that the people probably gave their labor willingly in the construction of a monument that had significance for a great many. Obviously, there would need to be sufficient people still left to carry out the farming, although the building work could be a seasonal activity, perhaps carried out at times in the agricultural cycle when not everyone was needed to work in the fields or look after animals.

Question: If, as is estimated on the show, it took up to three weeks just to carve out the bowl for the tenon for the lintel, how long may it have taken to shape the stones themselves? How much work did they put into the shaping of the stones? After all this time, it's fairly rough-looking. ~Joe

Answer: The shaping of the stones was obviously a very laborious process. As far as how long each stone took, we obviously can't tell from their finished form how much stone had to be removed to achieve this shape. Some of them do look quite rough, whereas others are very finely finished, and we suspect that they simply chose the optimum shape as the stone came out the ground, and then shaped it as much as they possibly could.

Question: Any sense of the role women may have played in the creation of Stonehenge? ~Bob

Answer: Personally, I'm sure that the building of Stonehenge was a truly communal task in which everyone participated, whether young or old, man or woman. It's interesting to note that the depiction of the building of Stonehenge which English Heritage had on display until quite recently showed only men involved in its construction.

Question: Since there were previous wooden structures at the site, why do you think that particular spot is so special throughout time? ~Heidi

Answer: The reason why that particular spot was first chosen for the construction of a simple earthen circle and some burials is uncertain, and why that simple circle then became the focus of such an extraordinary building is equally something that archaeology can't explain. Archaeology can't get into the minds of the builders.

Question: I believe when the holes were dug, the dirt was put in a large mound in front of where two of the upright stones were to be placed. The stones were then raised to upright with a mound of Earth acting as a stop support and later as an incline to facilitate moving the lintels in place. ~Gayle

Answer: The holes that the stones were set into certainly wouldn't have provided enough soil to construct a stop or a ramp for erection of the uprights. What is obvious is that if a ramp was used, then large quantities of soil and chalk would have had to have been brought on to site and later removed. This is why I still personally feel that the use of the timber crib was more likely for raising the lintels.

Question: I am trying to figure out how the original Stonehenge could be raised by using your methods, since you required a couple hundred yards of empty space on one side of the stone and enough space to lay the stone flat in the other direction. In the pictures, these stones appear to be very close together. By the way, great job and very interesting. ~Trudi

Answer: The stones in the center of Stonehenge are set quite close together, and the requirements of space certainly seem to suggest the order in which certain elements of the building were erected. The sarsen trilithons in the center clearly had to go up before the outer sarsen circle. But Mark thinks that his methods would work, and that there was enough space to carry out in the way that he suggested.

Question: Living in rocky New England, my mother-in-law and I had to use ingenuity to move a huge underground stone in order to plant a straight row of border hemlocks on our property. I would not say we were muscular types, but my elderly neighbor showed us how to dig a small hole next to the boulder, toss in stones, dig some more, toss in a few more stones, until we actually made the bolder pop out of the ground. Might the stone age builders are used stones as leverage instead of ramps to set the Stonehenge stones upright? ~Dorothy

Answer: The difference here seems to be between moving something out of a hole in the ground and raising something up above the ground, but basically, the principle is the same: You are presumably levering your stone up onto its bed of small stones, and I think you are suggesting dragging our stone up a ramp made of small stones. Chalk was certainly easier for them to get hold of to construct a ramp in this area.

Question: Do you know if they've sunk deeper into the ground since they were first placed and erected? ~Adam

Answer: Chalk is actually quite firm bedrock and it's unlikely that they have sunk further into the ground since they were first directed. What has happened is that the surface of the chalk has lowered the solution perhaps by as much as half a meter and so less of the stone is actually set into the ground than when they were first erected.

Question: What is the purpose of a calendar that only accurately forecasts two days of the year? ~Shea

Answer: It all depends how significant these two days are, and if they are times in the year which mark significant turning points at which people can gather and celebrate, then that calendar has a lot of purpose. My feeling is still that the midwinter solstice, which is pretty close to our Christmas, was the most significant of these turning points.

Question: It was mentioned that the monoliths stand 20 or 30 feet above ground. How deep below ground level are they buried? ~Dory

Answer: The depth below ground varies quite significantly. The one that fell over and broke a couple of hundred years ago was not buried as deeply as many of the others. Anything up to about 10 feet of stone is still buried under the ones that we know, but some have never been investigated.

Question: You mentioned the use of a timber crib, since the U-shaped circle of stones in the center were after the ring. The earth ramp is limited by the area inside the outside ring, right? ~Dawn

Answer: We can't be exactly sure of the order in which the sarsen horseshoe and the outer sarsen circle were built, but common sense suggests that the inner horseshoe was built before that complete outer ring; otherwise, getting those big stones into the middle and erecting them would have been very difficult.

Question: Why did one of the largest monoliths fall over? Was it an earthquake? ~Mark

Answer: No. It was probably due to the fact that it wasn't set as deeply into the ground as many of the other stones and there is evidence that the people have been digging at the base of that stone possibly looking for treasure.

Question: Do these rock structures have any connection with the menhirs? ~Joe

Answer: There are part of the same megalithic tradition—in other words, a tradition of building using large stones of which the menhirs and alignments in Brittany are a part—and they're all constructed at roughly the same time.

Question: Considering the accuracy with which the monoliths were placed, what tools were found, not for building, but for measuring distance from the angles necessary for the use of such elaborate principles of physics to construct the trililthon? ~Brian

Answer: No measuring or surveying tools have been found from this period, but as they would presumably have been made of wood, it's not surprising that we haven't found any.

Question: I was wondering if there was any truth to the statement made by someone about the circumference of Stonehenge. I heard the circle would fit exactly inside one of the Great pyramids in Egypt, with each of the walls touching the circumference of stonehenge. Could there be some possible link between these two great mysteries? ~Alfred

Answer: I'm afraid that I don't know whether Stonehenge would fit inside one of the Great Pyramids but if it would them I'm sure that it is co-incidence. There doesn't seem to be anything else to link tie two great sites.

Question: When I visited Stonehenge in 1987 I was told that the current monument was the 6th or 7th on the site and that it had never been a place of habitation, except during the various constructions and a few religious caretakers. It is still a windy hill top without a large settlement in sight. Is this this current thinking? And, if so, what do we know of the people who built Stonehenge that they would take so much trouble in a place away from where the bulk of them lived, hunted, farmed, etc.? ~Mary

Answer: Stonehenge has a long sequence of construction and modification and I suppose that you could say that there have been several separate monuments on the same spot, starting with a simple earth circle and ending up with the elaborate stone structures that we see in ruins today. People appear never to have lived at Stonehenge itself, in the same way that people don't live in most churches. The evidence that we do have suggests that there were settlements in the vicinity at the time Stonehenge was built and used but not close by. There appears to have been a sacred area surrounding it, defined by cemeteries of burial mounds, within which people were presumably not allowed to live or farm. Just beyond this prehistoric life carried on just the same as everywhere else. The reason that Stonehenge seems so isolated today is that all the medieval villages which are the villages of today lie in the river valleys to east and west. For centuries Stonehenge has been surrounded by pasture and now arable land.

Question: I think that instead of erecting the two bigger stones and then putting the third on top, that perhaps the protrusions in the two larger stones were used to help hold the third stone on. I realize that it would take more than just these protusions but it seems to me that it might be easier to erect all three vertically at once. Perhaps incorporating your ramp to help raise all three stones. This is just a suggestion. Great show and great work. ~Mark

Answer: You are not the first one to suggest erecting the whole trilithon at one go. Personally I wouldn't like to try 90 tonnes (plus all the timber you would need to hold the whole thing together) even with the mortice and tenon joints holding the lintel roughly in place. Thanks for your comments about the show.

Question: Very little was said about the numerological (dimensional) aspects of the site. any ideas why there were the number of stones there were in the circleor why the stones were set at the specific height they were? do they align with any constellations or particular stars or is it purely a solar tool? ~Dave

Answer: We were really concentrating on the construction aspects with a bit about the site and its context thrown in. You would need a whole series of programmes to look at aspects like the geometry, astronomy etc. I personally am not a great fan of the complex astronomy idea but try looking at a book called 'Stonehenge; Science and Society' published last year which has a good article about astronomy. Basically, as far as I'm concerned, Stonehenge is a big seasonal calendar (and a wonderful place).

Question: Besides the greased rails that may have been used to move the stones, is there any evidence that the builders slid stones down hills (perhaps after a rainstorm) to take advantage of the natural terrain to ease the transport? ~Kevin

Answer: No evidence at all I'm afraid. There appears to be no trace of any route or construction but I'm sure that the builders would have used anything to make their job easier.

Question: Is it possible that the purpose of stonehenge was a sort of gateway to the heavens, what these early thought of as the transcendental realm? It seemed to me that the clustering of the grave sites around stonehenge might supply a clue to this. ~Jack

Answer: Possible but the one thing that archaeology won't do is supply us access to the minds of the people that built Stonehenge.

Question: 1. Why use the animal-fat-based greased "cold" - why not keep pots of it heated for continual application as needed?

Answer: I'm not sure that this would supply you much of an advantage, it might make the fat too thin.

Question: Another question addressed ice/snow - but why not dig a shallow ditch to pour water in during sub-freezing yet non- snow times - stone slides on this frozen railway, but lack of snow outside it, gives traction for stone-moving team.

Answer: Possible but given unpredictable weather this could severely restrict the time that was available for stone moving.

Question: For hoisting stones, consider tripod lift structure, not just A-frame. No pulley; just run ropes over vertex. Alternately add notched post as third leg to A-frame - can rest vertex of A-frame in each notch for incremental lifts. ~Ria and Brooks

Answer: Mark and I think that a 40 tonne straight lift would have been impossible. The sort of ropes that we assume were available probably would not have been able to cope with this.

Question: I know that on the summer solstice, the sun rises directly above the heel stone, the one in the opening of the circle. If one were to draw an imaginary straight line from the center of Stonehenge and through the heel stone, is it possible that this line would intersect with the Bosporous ("Cow crossing") or Heliopolis ("Sun city") in Egypt? ~Richard

Answer: No

Question: What do you think of water being used to move the stones into position. I created a mock experiment. I discovered that a circle of wood timbers supported by the mounding of earth around them, for reinforcement and ramp, would provide the perfect arena to maneuver the stones into exact positions. The most man power needed would have been in pulling and pushing the stones up the ramp, as you demonstrated in your show, and then sliding them down into the water. Ropes secured around the stones would allow workers to move into place with much less man power than expected! I think this theory has merit. This method could be accomplished without the wheel pulley's or hundreds of men. Perhaps they even made a ravine filled with water to move the large stones using beasts of burden over (below) ground to their destination? This theory has merit. I'm interested in your thoughts. ~Brian

Answer: I'm not sure exactly what you are suggesting and can't see the advantage of having the stones in water (they would sink - or have I missed the point). There is a problem too as Stonehenge lies on chalk which is probably the most porous sort of bedrock that you can find. There is no evidence of a water channel (canal) to transport the stones in and there would be a problem here too as the route that the stones would have to take is over very undulating terrain.

Question: If they used one A-Frame could they have linked two or three of them, and reduced the effort more? ~Doug

Answer: Possible, but I suppose there comes a time when the construction of more and more A frames is more trouble than rounding up a few more volunteers. It's a good thought though.

Question: Is it possible that Stonehenge was created as a place of healing for those with nasty contagious diseases? That might explain who paid for the work (the wealthy who had taken ill). It might also explain the burial mounds (quarantine areas) and way the burial mounds were ranked with the wealthiest men being closest to Stonehenge. The fact that at least some of the gold artefacts were not stolen from the barrows might indicate that people were afraid to go near these places Also doesn't it seem possible that the fellow that used the ramp to cap the trilithon got it right. If you were going to excavate enough earth to place a 40-ton stone would you not want to utilize the product of your labor to make a ramp? This would also enable these people to raise and cap the trilathon in one day. Maybe during an elaborate ceremony to celebrate the work. ~Brad

Answer: Lots of things are possible with Stonehenge but I haven't heard the idea of the wealthy and infirm funding it before. I'm not sure about your ideas concerning quarantine. Regarding the ramp, the volume of chalk that you would get from the stonehole is comparatively tiny compared to that which would be needed to construct a ramp (maximum of eight cubic meters compared with at least 100 cubic meters). How would this enable the people to raise and cap the trilithon in one day? I am quite sure that however it was done there must have been a celebration when they finally completed the building work.

Question: I noticed several questions about using pulleys. I, too, thought of this idea, and considering how simple it is to make a wheel, I am wondering why you think the wheel hadn't been invented. Also, considering that wood would not last these thousands of years, why would you expect to find any archaeological evidence of pulleys? I think you are underestimating the intelligence of these ancient engineers. Also, do you have any _real_ engineers working with you? I doubt you, as archaeologists, have nearly the mechanical know-how or ingenuity of even the least intelligent ancient engineer. ~Daniel

Answer: As archaeologists we have to take the absence of evidence seriously. There have been enough excavations of waterlogged sites with artefacts of all types surviving (but no wheels) to lead us to believe that the people that built Stonehenge were not using the wheel. Of course we don't underestimate the intelligence of the ancient engineers. You seem to have overlooked the fact that Mark Whitby, who played a central role in the experiment that was part of the NOVA program, is a "real" engineer. I am sorry that you have such a low opinion of archaeologists; maybe we don't have the accumulated skills of an ancient engineer (even one of the least intelligent ones) but we do have a genuine love of the past and a healthy respect for its inhabitants.

Question: You've probably answered the concepts of "counterweights" a million times, or even the compulsion for it. With buckets, ropes, logs, ramps, sand and/or rocks - progressively increased sizes of rocks - could these wonders have been built by just a few folks? Is there a technically disqualifying aspect of this concept or simply a, "why SHOULD they use counterweights"? ~Lee

Answer: Theoretically it would be possible to move large weights by using a small weight to help move a larger one, etcetera, but I think the idea of Stonehenge being the work of a small group of people is unlikely. You certainly couldn't move the big stones in this way.

Question: I was wondering if it would be possible if they could have built a hill over the entire area. Then simply dig a hole or possibly used forms before the dirt was hauled in. In this manner the large stones could be set in place in much the same way as shown on May 5. I would have to see a Geothermal map of this area to be able to tell if there were any large holes dug that would suggest this. ~Randy

Answer: Theoretically possible, but unlikely. The volume of chalk and soil required would be huge and there are no signs of any quarries in the vicinity of Stonehenge which could have provided this material,

Question: Could there be any link between Stonehenge and other large stone works elsewhere on earth, such as the pyramids? As there is no reliable written history, could the "giants from Africa" be Egyptians, or another race, and isn't it funny that they all came from relatively the same time period?.....the workmanship is a little different, but still, the tactics used to move large pieces of stone seem to be the same, at least in modern re-creations............. ~Jay

Answer: Although it is tempting to see similarities between Stonehenge and other large stone structures, the only ones which have a real link are the great alignments and other megalithic structures in Brittany. The idea of the architecture of Stonehenge coming from the Mediterranean area (or even from further afield) effectively died when radiocarbon dates became available and showed that Stonehenge was older than all the civilisations that were supposed to have influenced its design and construction.

Question: You mentioned that Stonehenge was erected 4500 years ago. How many 1000s of years ago did human first habitate in this area (U.K.)? I always thought the Mediterannean (Egyptian) area was one of the first locations for human inhabitants. Am I correct when I say that was about 2000 BC? ~Scott

Answer: There has been human (or initially hominid) occupation of what was to become the British Isles since about 500,000 BP. After this various ice ages meant that there were no people around for long periods. Further south in Europe and beyond they didn't have to contend with ice so there has been habitation for even longer. There isn't the time to go into this in detail but, suffice it to say that people had been around in the areas that I have mentioned for a very long time by 2000BC.

Question: I visited Stonehenge when I was eight. I do not remember the dimensions. But, is it possible that all three pieces of a trilithon could be raised together? Perhaps tied together and lashed to a wooden frame, then raised? I believe this would be labour intensive, but more simplistic in engineering it. Has anyone tried? ~Bill

Answer: No one has tried to raise the three components of a trilithon together. The whole thing would weigh about 90 tons, not counting the timbers that you would need to hold it together for the lift. It certainly couldn't be done for the Great Trilithon as we know that the two uprights are of unequal length which would make this method impossible.

Question: I have heard a brief mention of a way that someone could lift a mega ton stone. By finding the Zero gravity spot on these stones single individuals could lift massive tones with ease. Have you heard of such an explanation? Is there any proof that this could be possible? ~Jim

Answer: I'm not sure what the zero gravity spot is but it seems to be against all the laws of physics.

Question: In the Stonehenge project, what if the hole that was dug for the vertical stones was "c" shaped so that the stone would slide in, then use its own momentum to stand itself erect? Is this possible? Thanks for your input. ~John

Answer: I don't think that the stone would stand itself erect in the base of a "c" shaped hole. You would have to balance it there before packing it firmly in place and I think that it would be potentially much more unstable than if it was in a hole with one vertical and one ramped side.

Question: The show was very interesting. However, the people in the show forgot about the one resource that the people back then had. That was time and lots of it. The construction of Stonehenge may have taken many many years, not the short period of time that the show seemed to be portraying. The stone age people also undoubtably used many many more people than the show did. They may have also used captured enemies to do the work also. The cap piece could have been "walked" up the ramp by pulling on one set of ropes at a time, effectivly doubling the manpower. Did the stone age people know about the block and tackle or even an early form of it? Overall, though, a very educational and wonderful show. Please keep up the great work. ~Clifford

Answer: We are quite aware that people had a lot of time and we did not intend to imply that Stonehenge was built in a short period of time. What we showed was that it could have been built in a shorter time than many people estimate. I disagree that they undoubtedly used many more people than we did. As numbers grow then the ability to co-ordinate effort lessens.. Prof Atkinson suggested that over 1000 people were needed for some of the tasks, but such an army of labourers would have been well nigh impossible to manage. I disagree about "captured enemies" - there is no evidence for slavery in the British Neolithic/Bronze Age. We have no evidence for block and tackle (the wheel was not used until much later). Sorry to disagree with so many of your points. Thanks for your comments about the show.

Question: Would it not make sense to only roughly cut the stones at the location in a cylindrical form and roll them to the final assembly point, where the final square cutting would be performed? Do the dimensions of the uprights + the dimensions of the topping stones add to a cylindrical shape? The tracks seem to be way too much capital and human investment for the task at hand. Does the quarry have evidence to show the stones were cut square at the site? Another method would be to build wooden craddles shaped like wheels for either end (actually best if placed at 1/3 and 2/3's of the length) of the stone, using the stone as the connecting axle. Clearly from the shape of the final building and the burial mounds the concept of the circle, and hence the wheel, was probably well understood. Enjoyed the program but agreed with the analysis that the solutions were over engineered. ~Jon

Answer: The sarsen stones at the place where they originate are found largely as flat slabs (sarsen is a sedimentary rock). It is therefore unlikely that any of cylindrical form would be found which could be rolled as you suggest. Regarding the quarry - the stones are not cut out of solid rock, they exist as detached slabs of rock embedded in redeposited chalk. Why do the tracks seem too much capital and labour investment for the task? You would only need to make a short length of track which could be taken up and relaid in front of the sledge and stone. If it makes the task easier then it would be well worth it (there are earlier sophisticated and well constructed Neolithic wooden trackways in peat bogs in nearby Somerset). Despite the circular henges and barrows there is no evidence of the wheel at this time. Glad you enjoyed the show.

Question: Could you have tipped the large stone to vertical by men pushing the top with timbers and driving wedges or filling with stones behind? Also, were the pits dug that deep? Wouldn't a considerable amount of silt layers have accumulated over the thousands of years? ~Bruce

Answer: I think it would be difficult to generate enough force to tip the stone by pushing with timbers as you suggest. Wedges would help but filling in with stones behind can cause problems if they trickle round the sides and front and hinder moving the stone to upright. The pits were dug that deep, the stones put in and then the remainder of the hole packed tight with stones and chalk. No room for silt to accumulate.

Question: During the NOVA program, raising Stonehenge, the question of the methods used to erect the stones was bandied about, in particular how the lintels were raised. Simply put has any stratagraphic analysis of the soils around Stonehenge been done with an eye to spoils piles removed from putative dirt ramps? Could these piles be detected to this day by virtue of the disturbed strata and presumably undisturbed soils in the area of the monument? ~Don

Answer: The soils over the chalk are very thin in the vicinity of Stonehenge and there is no sign of the spoil from an earthen ramp. There is also the question of where the chalk etc would have come from in the first place. You may gather that I am not a fan of the ramp idea and prefer the timber crib method.

Question: I had thought that the stones in Stonehenge were of a sort that came from Wales? Sorry to make your Herculean effort sound trivial but perhaps boats were used to bring to a spot even further than yours? Also how does one use bronze tools to cut rock? Thank You for you foray in History. ~JTB

Answer: It's the smaller stones, the so called "bluestones" that come from further afield, from the Preseli mountains in Wales to be precise. It is suggested that they came part of the way by water. This can't be the way that the larger Sarsens were transported, as there aren't any convenient rivers that run from the place where they are found to Stonehenge. You can't use bronze tools to cut rock, except very soft ones like chalk. You certainly can't cut sarsen with bronze—even iron makes little impression.

Question: I think the idea of the A-Frame lever was very good. Why not use another mechanical advantage for transporting the stones, namely a pulley? Rope is affixed to a post in the ground, run around a post attached to the stone, then pulled upon by the pullers. 2X advantage! ~Dave

Answer: We didn't use a pulley because there is no evidence for pulleys, or for any other type of wheel, from this period in prehistory.

Question: What was the average life span of the stonehenge builders? ~Scott

Answer: We have no firm evidence about the average life span of people at this time. Many people have the idea that life was "nasty, brutish and short" but human bone certified may have been routinely underestimating the age of people at death and there is no reason why you couldn't survive at least into your 50's if not beyond. It might seem simpler but the forces required to raise this would be huge. We know how much the monoliths weigh as we can calculate their overall volume (including the pit that is underground) and we know the density of sarsen (or bluestone). Also, some of them have actually been lifted by crane while being re-set which is also a good guide.

Thu, 26 May 2022 04:54:00 -0500 text/html https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/stonehenge/qanda/
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Thu, 26 Feb 2015 14:13:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.purdue.edu/registrar/faculty/grading/grade-faq.html

H12-311 Braindumps - HCIA-WLAN (Huawei Certified ICT Associate-WLAN) Updated: 2023

Simply memorize these H12-311 braindumps Questions
Exam Code: H12-311 HCIA-WLAN (Huawei Certified ICT Associate-WLAN) Braindumps June 2023 by Killexams.com team

H12-311 HCIA-WLAN (Huawei Certified ICT Associate-WLAN)

EXAM CODE : H12-311

Exam Contents
HCIA-WLAN V3.0 covers basic WLAN knowledge, including basic WLAN knowledge, WLAN frequency band, IEEE 802.11 protocol, 802.11 MAC architecture, 802.11 physical layer technology, WLAN networking, CAPWAP basic principles, and data forwarding. Wi-Fi 6 technology, WLAN product introduction, AP initial configuration, WLAN online configuration, and WLAN access authentication. WLAN O&M and troubleshooting, antenna technology, and WLAN project deployment.

- WLAN Overview
- WLAN Technology Basics
- WLAN Networking Model
- Introduction to Wi-Fi 6 Technologies and Products
- Working Principles of WLAN
- WLAN access authentication
- WLAN Access Configuration
- WLAN Troubleshooting
- WLAN Antenna Technology
- WLAN Deployment Overview

Topics covered in the questions
- WLAN Overview
- WLAN Development History
- WLAN Standard Organization
- WLAN Technology Basics
- Introduction to RF Basics
- WLAN Frequency Bands
- 802.11 physical layer technology
- 802.11 MAC Architecture
- 802.11 Media Access
- WLAN Networking Model
- WLAN Networking Overview
- Layer 2 and Layer 3 networking
- WLAN Service Traffic Forwarding Mode
- Mainstream WLAN Solutions
- Introduction to Wi-Fi 6 Technologies and Products
- Introduction to Huawei WLAN Products
- Application of Huawei WLAN Products
- Power Supply Modes of Huawei WLAN Products
- Working Principles of WLAN
- CAPWAP tunnel
- WLAN Packet Description
- AP Go-online Process
- STA go-online process
- User roaming
- WLAN Configuration
- VRP Introduction to AC Initial Configuration
- Introduction to Huawei VRP
- Basic AC Attribute Configuration
- Upgrading the AC and AP Software
- Fat and Fit AP Switchover
- WLAN access authentication
- WLAN Access Authentication Overview
- WEP/WPA2/WPA3 authentication
- Portal authentication
- 802.1x authentication
- MAC address authentication
- WLAN Access Configuration
- Configuration Process and Modules
- AP Online Configuration
- WLAN Service Configuration
- Simple WLAN Optimization Configuration
- WLAN Troubleshooting
- WLAN Troubleshooting
- WLAN Troubleshooting Overview
- WLAN Troubleshooting Process
- WLAN Fault Diagnosis Commands and Troubleshooting Tools
- Common WLAN Faults and Troubleshooting
- WLAN project deployment
- WLAN Antenna Technology
- Antenna Type
- Antenna parameters
- Antenna selection
- WLAN Deployment Overview
- WLAN Network Planning Process
- WLAN Construction Requirement Analysis
- Wireless site survey
- Indoor settled installation
- Indoor distribution
- Outdoor settled installation
HCIA-WLAN (Huawei Certified ICT Associate-WLAN)
Huawei Associate-WLAN) Questions and Answers

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H11-861-ENU HCNP-VC(Huawei Certified Network Professional Video Conference)
H12-111_V2.5-ENU HCIA-IoT V2.5
H12-311-ENU Huawei Certified Network Professional Wireless Local Area
H12-322_V1.0-ENU HCIP-WLAN-POEW V1.0

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HCIA-WLAN (Huawei Certified ICT Associate-WLAN)
Question: 140
How many channels can be most divided into by 4 GHz frequency band()?
A. 14
B. 13
C. 11
D. 3
Answer: A
Question: 141
In 20m Mode, how many subcarriers of 802.11a can be used to transfer data()?
A. 48
B. 52
C. 54
D. 56
Answer: A
Question: 142
Which protocol can support both 2.4 GHz frequency band and 5 GHz frequency band()?
A. 802.11a
B. 802.11b
C. 802.11g
D. 802.11n
Answer: D
Question: 143
Radio frequency mainly use spread spectrum technology, which of the following technology is belong to spread
spectrum technology?
(Select 2 Answers)
Answer: A B
Question: 144
In the frame of 802.11, when Network employs WDS Model to Excellerate the signal, what are the values of To DS and
From Ds()?
A. 0,0
B. 0,1
C. 1,0
D. 1,1
Answer: A
Question: 145
What kind of technology belongs to Wireless MAN in the folllowing()?
A. 2G/3G
C. Bluetooth
Answer: B
Question: 146
How many channels do China support in 2.4 GHz frequency band()?
A. 11
B. 13
C. 3
D. 5
Answer: B
Question: 147
WDS technique improves the flexibility and convenience of the whole network structure, but can only support the
working mode of point to point ?
A. True
B. False
Answer: B
Question: 148
How much bandwidth each 802.11 g frequency band channel()?
A. 25 MHz
B. 20 MHz
C. 50 MHz
D. 22 MHz
Answer: B
Question: 149
Because the maximum support rate of 802.11a is the same as 802.11g, so the protocol of 802.11a is backwards
compatible with 802.11g protocol.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B
Question: 150
In the following options which frequency band range belong to China supported 5 GHZ frequency band()?
A. 5.15~5.25GHz
B. 5.25~5.35GHz
C. 5.725~5.825GHz
D. 5.725~5.850GHz
Answer: D
Question: 151
If AP Client which connect the same SSID want to surf from one AP to another AP, so the overlapping area between
two AP signal()?
A. 50%
B. Don’t need to overlap
C. 100%
D. 10%-15%
Answer: D
Question: 152
In WLAN, AP has been working in half duplex ?
A. True
B. False
Answer: A
Question: 153
One company want to deploy WLAN, and this company purchase a batch of wireless AP that support 802.11n , when
WLAN deployed, can only support 802.11n wireless client can connect to the WLAN.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B
Question: 154
What are the WALN standard which the the transmission rate can reach more than 54 MBPS()?
(Select 3 Answers)
A. 802.11a
B. 802.11b
C. 802.11g
D. 802.11n
Answer: A C D
Question: 155
There are three frame types of 802.11 ,respectively() ?
(Select 3 Answers)
A. Data Frame
B. Control Frame
C. Business Frame
D. management frames
Answer: A B D
Question: 156
In the WLAN, ACK frame belongs to what type of frame()?
A. management frames
B. Control Frame
C. Data Frame
D. empty data frame
Answer: B
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Questions & Answers

Live Event Q & As | Additional Q & As | List of Questions

Live Event

Question for Goldman: How many people lived in Rome when the Colosseum was active as an arena? ~Angie

Answer: Estimates vary, but the most reliable sources, based on the number of houses and apartments and the size of the town covering the 7 hills of Rome supply a figure of about a million toward the end of the first century when the Colosseum was built, increasing in the second century to possibly a million and a half. That means that with 45,000 to 50,000 in the audience, it was 1/20 of the population that could attend at one time; tickets (pieces of broken pottery giving gate entrance and assigned seat area) must have been highly sought after, with people lining up for tickets as they do today for a world series game.

Question for Goldman: How many people did it take to build the Colosseum, and how many bricks or stones did it take? ~Amanda

Answer: I'm sure that the construction crews involved thousands of slaves to lift and transport the materials. I'm sure that thousands of skilled and semi-skilled workers were involved in handling the construction materials. If one adds the slaves that were working in the quarries to cut the stones, one gets at least 20,000 to 30,000 people involved. How many bricks or stones went into building the Colosseum? I have no way of making that estimate. It's something I have never counted as far as stones, but I would say that from the quarries at Tivoli, which is about 20 miles from Rome where the travertine was quarried, there were 240,000 cartloads of stones brought just for the exterior facade alone. And if you consider that on every cartload there must have been 30 to 40 stones, maybe 50 stones, you get some idea if you multiply that out of just for the exterior facade.

Question for Goldman: Many box seats on several levels contain matching sidewall joist holes approximately 4-by-4 at about 7 and 12 feet above floor levels. Guides say no wood was used and these do not represent flooring requiring crotching or lying. Could this possibly be true? ~Martin

Answer: There was no wood used in the seating area of the Colosseum. It was all a matter of concrete barrel vaulting to hold the marble seating that was installed. Each seat was called a locus, and one was assigned a particular locus in a particular section in a particular deck, all according to rank and class. And as far as I know, no wood was involved in the construction of the seats.

Question for Goldman: Was the status of sailors enhanced because of their role in covering the Colosseum? ~Jack

Answer: Sailors were young men, sometimes even young boys, impressed into the Roman navy from any and all the countries that Rome conquered around the Mediterranean world, and as far away as Britain. They served for 15-30 years before gaining their "diploma", which gave them freedom from slavery; they became free citizens, and their children were born then as free citizens and could rise in society to become part of the class of knights. Those sent to Rome to work the awning must have been considered very privileged to see the "big city" and all its attractions. They handled huge awnings of cloth equivalent to the size of sails on the "present" day tall ships", and that must have been a great honor. But the ones who came for the mock naval games called the naumachiae, must have considered them a kind of Disney-land reconstruction of ships, and tragically the naval war games fought on them were fought to the death.

Question for Roberts: Were the Roman sailors as skilled as others who lived during that time period? ~Andrew

Answer: Any sailor, Roman or otherwise, has skills at least comparable with any other highly trained worker but these tend to be a total mystery to landsmen. This has always set the sailor apart from other men. His skill comes in two categories. Technically he is master of the equipment which he uses, that is the ship and all of the gear. From experience gained over long hard years he knows how to make sound decisions on when to use that gear and how to handle his ship, even in serious life-threatening situations. This is the part which mystifies landsmen but is a common bond between sailors. Roman sailors made possible the rigging of large awnings over amphitheaters since they represented the only large body of skilled workers remotely capable of envisaging the problems that needed to be over-come.

Question for Roberts: Which of the methods used in the NOVA program did you favor? ~Mark

Answer: Though I prepared rigging methods for both systems, the one proposed initially by Prof. Rainer Graefe of Innsbruck University, Austria, had my support. It was the only system for which there is substantial evidence about the masts and furling method used. The evidence is found in the contemporary iconography of Roman sailing ships showing masts, yards, sails, and rigging. Such a system also would have made use of the valuable skills of those who sailed them.

Question for Goldman: Were there any other stadiums in antiquity that used awnings? ~Peter

Answer: Oh, yes. Every public amphitheater or stadium where people would have to sit out in the sun was tented with some kind of awnings. This was a pampered audience, and in the entire Mediterranean, people did not want to sit out in the hot sun. So there is evidence for awnings in most theaters, in almost all of the amphitheaters, and even in the stadium.

Question: Did the Romans borrow construction techniques for the Colosseum from even more ancient cultures? ~Elaine

Answer: Well, I think all technology builds on what was known previously. One doesn't go out and begin to say, "I'm going to do a building the size of the Colosseum," and have it come like Athena out of Zeus's head, full-blown. The arch had to be invented before the arched entrances could be designed. Certainly all of technology that had preceded it—the building of columns, the whole idea of brick work to face concrete—all of that had been done before the Colosseum was built.

Question for Goldman: What made the Romans actually build the Colosseum? ~Martha

Answer: The Flavian Emperor Vespasian conceived the idea and put 4 teams of construction workers onto the job. First of all it was a propaganda ploy to return to the people land that Nero had usurped for the private lake in his private pleasure park on the ground of his Golden House. Vespasian was making the Flavian dynasty (a name like the Windsors in England) much beloved as the ruling house in this concern for the people. Second, it was to show to the entire world the power and might and ability of the Roman workforce—its grandiose size and monumental shape and a symbol of Roman majesty. Third, it put to work an enormous labor force, solving vast unemployment problems. Finally it kept the people happy and entertained. They already got free "bread"; now they got the circuses. It served its purpose well.

Question for Goldman: How did they go about flooding it for mock sea battles? ~Marc

Answer: There has always been a debate about whether the Colosseum itself was ever used for sea battles. I think that after Domician added the substructures, which would be after he came to the throne in A.D. 81, there never could be sea battles in a flooded naumachiae—that's the Greek word for sea warfare. There never could have been, again, the flooding of the Colosseum. But before that substructure was added, the poet Martial says that the amphitheater could change from dry land to the sea very quickly, and we know that there were water courses which run through that valley because there is still water running under San Clemente today, so that very easily the engineers could have induced water into it, and they could have emptied the water by the same channels that took the original lake that was drained in order to install the Colosseum in the first place.

So yes, in the first two years there could have been sea battles there.

Question for Roberts: It seems that either method needs further support beams closer to the stage area. Is there any evidence to support any more beams further down toward the center? ~Gary

Answer: There's no evidence at all within the walls of any amphitheater or the Colosseum for further beams or pillars, and the supports for the masts that are used on the outside edge or on the top of the wall—that is, the holes in the walls there—these must be particularly high to do the job of supporting the horizontal beam which is sticking out on not all of the arena, but much of the arena. As you will have seen, it's not necessary to have full cover over an arena. As long as about two-thirds of the arena is getting some shadow, it's adequate for the people who are watching there. There was no evidence of support within the arena.

Question for Roberts: Why couldn't the suspension system be used, but use the bottom ropes to suspend a series of ropes through the rings on the awning, allowing the awning to retract from the center to the edges? ~Larry

Answer: Yes. I'd thought of this when I was working on the idea in the first place, of using a pulley system attached to the underside of a suspending rope. The big problem with this is that we are using natural fibers, and even with well-organized systems, the natural fiber rope stretches and stretches and stretches, and you are in a situation where you could never get sufficient tension and keep sufficient tension for rope, which is harnessed underneath for moving the sails or the awnings to work decently. The other problem is that you need to pull on the rope to draw a canopy in or out. You need to pull against something solid in order to change the direction of the rope to the sail, if you understand. If the part of the block, the pulley that the rope is going through, is attached to a rope which also gives, you have a situation which is far too flexible for it to work properly. This might have worked if the Romans had had steel wire cable, which they did not, of course. But if you have steel wire cable, you can then set up a very rigid system, and beneath that, you can then run a flexible awning system which you can draw it in and out. That's the reason why we didn't do that eventually.

Question for Roberts: Is it a possibility that the Romans constructed a giant circular piece of cloth that was held taut over the Colosseum like a lid on a jar—no complicated system of ropes? ~Abby

Answer: How do you propose to hold the lid over this? You cannot just float this in the air. You have to have a system which supports it. You also, of course, have to have a system which can close it off, because you get winds which would make the thing blow away over Rome somewhere, perhaps.

It's not a system that can be controlled properly, and if you think of the Colosseum itself in particular, the size of it would be quite enormous and quite beyond controlling in this way. The beauty of the system which we think was in use was that it worked in segments and could be in small pieces, like a ship having six or eight sails on each mast, and is then able to take in each sail in turn as is required. And I think this is the flexibility that was built into the system which we eventually devised, which we think was used.

Question for Goldman: What does the word "Colosseum" mean? ~Greg

Answer: Interestingly enough, the building that we today call the Colosseum was never called the Colosseum in its own time when it was used as an amphitheater. It was called the Flavian Amphitheater. The word "Colosseum" means, as the English etymology would suggest, "very, very large." And the building had next to it a colossal statue of the Emperor Nero over 100 feet high. When the Emperor restored to the people of Rome the land and gave back to them this marvelous gift of the amphitheater, because it stood next to the colossal statue, now with the head of Nero removed and the head of the sun god Apollo put on instead, with rays coming out from the head, the name "colossal" that applied to the statue eventually was applied to the Colosseum. But it wasn't called that until the writer Bede called it that in the eighth century, A.D. Before that, it was always called the Flavian Amphitheater.

Question for Roberts: I think the idea of the booms is a good one, but could they have had a smaller set of awnings covering the important people? ~Rob

Answer: Yes. It was known that people of importance would, in fact, have their own set of canopies set up over their important seats towards the front of the arena. The way it was set up generally would never, in fact, have covered all the arena, and probably the front row except with the sun at various angles all of the time. So those sitting at the front would have had their own canopies; yes, there is evidence for that.

Question for Goldman: The Romans are portrayed as leading lives of excess. Is this accurate? ~Scott

Answer: It is dangerous to generalize about all Romans. There were some who valued the old virtues of hard work and ethical conduct, but yes, during the Empire there was the same materialism that prevails today—people of a leisure class with too much money and time who required constant entertainment. The Colosseum provided that kind of entertainment, repulsive as it seems to us today.

Question for Goldman: Regarding the mast erected to support the sails, is there any evidence to suggest that they might have been metal-banded for increased strength or height? ~Todd

Answer: That's a hard one to answer because we don't have any of the masts that have been preserved. There was iron metal. There was not the kind of steel that we have today. The iron would only have increased the weight of it. It might have made them more capable of holding the weight of the rope and the cloth attached to the rope, but I would not be able to answer that with any surety because no masts have been preserved.

Question for Goldman: My main concern is once the canvas—what was the weight, i.e., ounces per yard?—was in place, whatever method was used, was water drainage/collection and uplift a problem? How was this avoided? ~Howard

Answer: The awnings were not put out on days of wind or rain. These were sunscreen awnings. They were not intended as protection from the rain. They were retractable. We know that from the poets who tell us that when the days of wind came up, the awnings could not be put out, and we have evidence that there was a captain of the crew of sailors who read the winds from telltale signs—just the way one has little strips of cloth on the sheets, the lines of the ships to tell the wind direction—and the strength of the wind. And when there were windy days, the sails were not put out at all. So there was no reason to have to deflect water. They were just not out for that purpose. They were sunscreen awnings, not rain screen awnings. The weight has been estimated at 24 tons at 1 pound per square yard of average-weight cloth.

Question for Roberts: At the beginning of your program, the architect, Chris, had shown us a drawing of the Colosseum as it might have looked if the Romans had put a concrete roof on it using their system of arches. Would it be possible to use the same concept, but instead of using concrete maybe the Romans could have constructed an arched wooden structure and then put canvas over that? ~Nicole

Answer: Well, you have the same problems in that even if you make it out of timber, it's not going to weigh as much, but it's going to weigh a considerable amount. The wooden structure as such would have been enormous. I don't know if wooden arches of that size you would require to laminate timber of that size, and the laminating would be done by fastening through a number of timbers which were shaped to curve. It's a colossal job that's being asked, and I think, frankly, that it would never have been attempted because of the practical difficulties in this. Having then put an arch up, you put a canvas cover over that, which again would be an enormous quantity of cloth. It would flap, it would fray, it would really need to have a means of furling it. I have no idea what system could be used with a permanent wooden framework in place in the shape of an arch. I don't think this is really a line that should be pursued, to be honest.

Question for Goldman: Weren't there structures outside the Colosseum to which block and tackle were thought to be used to raise the sail roof from outside the Colosseum? ~Shawn

Answer: There are 160 bollards—these are large, upright stones at ground level—57 feet out from the Colosseum. They ring the entire Colosseum, and there has always been controversy over whether these were part of a crowd control mechanism or whether they were involved in the raising of the ropes on which the sails would be extended. I always thought that because they are gouged so that some kind of windlass or winding device could have been installed on the surface that faces the Colosseum, this argued for them being involved in the mechanism to raise the ropes, and I really still like that argument even though it has been argued that they are not deeply sunk enough to counterbalance the enormous pull that would be required to make them taut. One of them has been excavated, and it was found that they were not deeply set into the ground. That would argue for them being part of crowd control and not part of raising the awning mechanism, even though I argued for that in my article in "Archaeology" magazine.

Question for Roberts: Could a wooden circle with pulley attachments have been raised by ropes from outside the structure through the tops of the masts, lifting the wooden circle from the center floor to the center near the opening, and then sails pulled along these ropes? Like the spider web theory, the roof would have sloped down and in toward the center. ~Sean

Answer: Yes. This is making the system more rigid, isn't it? If you could invent a wooden circle perhaps about the same band as the area where the activity was taking place, and suspended that, you might then have been able to work a system of drilling can drawing canopies in and out. We come back to the problem, that we are dealing here with natural fiber ropes, and the constant weight of a wooden circle, however light you tried to make it, would in fact have been putting a constant tension on these ropes. Natural fiber ropes, hemp, stretch; they continue to stretch; and you have to keep adjusting them, and you're into a constant battle on this one. And frankly, I don't think a system this requires a great deal of ropes is supported like that is really a good way to go around this.

Question for Roberts: Was the sailcloth back then a similar fabric to the type you used in the experiment? ~Maureen

Answer: Roman sailcloth could be linen or cotton which was lighter. Evidence suggests that it came in rectangular pieces which needed joining, which is why the scams on the ancient sails stand out and in some cases have a patch-work appearance. For the experiment cotton was used. The construction of each awning, due to a misunderstanding by the sailmakers, did not include the typical Roman edge and panel reinforcement specified by me. Both for the strength and for visual effect this was a disappointment.

Question for Goldman: How were the Vestal Virgins chosen? ~Kathy

Answer: There were 18 Vestals at a time: 6 novices chosen as young girls of 10-11 years from the best senatorial families, families without stain in their backgrounds. 6 were the practicing Vestals, and 6 were "retired" and acted as teachers for the novices. Probably the Vestals themselves would have suggested names of novices, but the Pontifax Maximus would have had to make the final decision. The work of the Vestals was to tend the sacred fire of the hearth, symbolic of the home. They also had to prepare sacred ground grain for sacrificial rituals and to function as models of moral behavior, since they had to remain virgins for their 30 years of service. After that time they could marry, but few did. For breaking their vow of devotion to the order, they could be buried alive. They lived in palatial quarters in the Forum behind the round Temple to Vesta where the sacred fire was kept. They had their own box at the Colosseum, and witnessed from their ring-side seats these abhorrent "games", along with the rest of the audience.

Question for Goldman: How long was the Colosseum in use, and why did people stop using it? ~Irene

Answer: The games died out for several reasons. The gladiatorial games, which became abhorrent to Christian conscience, disappeared in the year 404. This was the last time there were gladiatorial games, although the staged animal hunts went on for another 50, 60 years. They really died out from lack of money to keep them going. It was an enormous expense to import animals from Africa. These poor beasts were deadly sick as they were transported across the sea, and then nursed back to health, but deliberately starved before they would go into the amphitheater to fight against each other or against gladiators. Tremendous expense, and the money just gave out. And that's really, I think, why they died out: not so much from Christian conscience as from lack of funds to keep them going.

Question for Goldman: Did you consider the fact that bullfights are scheduled at 5:00 p.m., when there is half sun and half shade? This would support the first theory of sails and beams. ~Rosalma

Answer: Yes, and this does support Rainer's theories because he has done studies on the effect of the cast shadow from the opposite side of the arena. And the bullfights do start late in the afternoon, and the cheap seats are the ones that are still out in the sun, and the expensive seats are the ones that are in the shade, just like they used to be in the ballparks in the United States. The bleachers were in the sun, out of cover, and the people who could afford it sat in the covered part of the stadium.

Question for Goldman: The Colosseum is so enormous—is it know how they handled crowd control? ~Victor

Answer: Yes, the network of entrances through 76 numbered arches assured that the peoples of each class, noble or plebian, citizen or non-citizen, would go directly via interior stairways and ramps to their assigned seat, just as in a modern stadium. The arch and area was indicated on a piece of broken pottery giving the proper deck and wedge-shaped section, assuring complete crowd control for entry and seating. Then for exit, these same ramps and stairways would assure a quick and easy egress with no mixture of classes. Outside there would have been a barrier consisting of chains between 160 bollards to keep people out before the opening. There were 80 arches in all, but the ones at the main axes were for the entrances of the gladiators, the emperors and magistrates and Vestal Virgins, and the one next to Ludus Magnus was the gate of death through which the corpses of men and animals were removed. All very well organized.

Question for Roberts: If you got a chance to do this experiment again, would you do it differently? ~Adriana

Answer: The experimental work is on-going though now at Innsbruck University. While there last year and with excellent help from the students on the course, I built to one-fifth scale, three different arrangements for furling the vela. The major future refinement would be a pruning down of the supporting rig and having greater faith in the natural flexibility of the horizontal yard to withstand destructive bending forces. Having performed the calculations on this it is clear that much longer yards could be used in a full-size situation without the need for support other than at the masts. The students also tried to Excellerate on the other system suspended across the amphitheater but despite careful modelling could not get it to work. It would seem to be a blind alley if ancient materials are used.

Question for Roberts: I believe that the Romans used the archways in the Colosseum to string parallel ropes across the top. The fabric would then be attached to the ropes using rings. This design would cover the entire building and would fit all of the descriptions. Could this have been the way? ~Daniel

Answer: Yes. The trouble is, we're working here with a circular building, and you could certainly support ropes from the tops of the arches. All of these ropes would... as they come towards the middle, would be like the radials or the spokes of a wheel, and you'd run into this problem again that, first of all, you have great lengths of rope which stretch constantly. You have panels of cloth which would have to be tapered in order to fit between these radials, these spokes of rope. And you then have a problem that if you try to slide them back, because the inward end of the cloth is narrower than the wall end of the cloth, then you start drawing it back, it's not wide enough, in fact, to slide back along the ropes. The whole thing would start to pull in. This problem has been looked at. Whether we've used arches or whether we'd use masts, we'd run into the same problem, unfortunately, and there is no need, anyway, to cover the whole arena with a canvas because the walls are high and the sun moves around and where just a certain area of the arena is covered, it casts sufficient shadow for the people who are watching there.

Question for Goldman: Is the Colosseum ever used for events now, other than as a tourist attraction? ~Roberto

Answer: Several hundred years ago the popes began the preservation of the Colosseum as a sacred place, there having been so many people killed there, and stations of the cross were planted on a Via Dolorosa built around the edge of the arena inside, with shrines and a little chapel at one end, with a Christian cross in the center. When the Colosseum became a public monument, the Cross was moved to the side podium, the stations of the cross removed, the chapel closed, all the shrubbery, trees, and plants which were growing inside and splitting the walls removed, the solid floor of the arena excavated, and the substructure laid bare, as you see it today. About 10 years ago there was an exhibition of modern technology on a narrow wooden walkway constructed over the long axis of the arena, and the cry of outrage was so loud, even though the show brought in a hundred thousand dollars the first week, that I doubt that such use will ever be repeated. The Pope still celebrates a memorial to the victims in a symbolic march around the exterior each year.

Question for Goldman: Was the Colosseum the original "sports stadium"? Were there other big gathering places? ~Liam

Answer: The Circus Maximus in Rome, a long oval-shaped race-course with a spine down the middle, designed for chariot races, in the valley between the Palatine and the Aventine Hills, probably began with seats cut into the hillside for viewing spectacles of all kinds. When the formal race-course was built with starting gates, permanent stone viewing stands, private boxes for the officials and a more private imperial box high up in the palace area on the Palatine for the royal family, the Circus Maximus could eventually accommodate 250,000 spectators at one sitting, more than 5 times the number that could be accommodated in the Colosseum.

Nero built an enormous Circus next to the Vatican Hill where St. Peter was martyred, and the obelisk from Nero's Circus was eventually moved to where it now stands in the embracing arms of the piazza in front of St. Peters. Domitian, Vespasian's younger son, built a smaller race-course, probably for foot-races, in the area known today as the Piazza Navona in Rome, and the shape of the Piazza echoes the shape of the race-course.

Question for Roberts: There may be a combination of both ideas. Use the booms to suspend the canvas as in the first experiment to supply retractable characteristics, then stretch ropes across to the opposite boom to extend the canvas to the desired distance, depending on the weather, wind, etc., the ropes could be adjusted with the support of the booms for added stability. ~Jamie

Answer: Yes. It would be a nice way of controlling the booms in that position—there's no argument about that—by linking the ends of them with ones opposite with a rope that goes across. So you have the center of a spider's web, I suppose, at the middle, and what we found, the argument that would go against that is that we found that it was very convenient to be able to rotate the booms in towards the walls where the masts were supported in order to be able to work on the booms themselves. Now, that facility wouldn't be possible if we had rope linking across the arena from the ends of each of these booms. It's a facility for maintenance that would be essential, because everything, all the material that was used, would need constant maintenance. It's just like working a ship. With a ship, you are always checking ropes, checking for wear, and you need to be able to get at the stuff. Now the other way we can do it, the way we found to do it, was just swing these booms in until we could reach them, and I think that's probably what was done in antiquity. So I don't really like the idea of linking them across, just in order to try to extend the canvas. We can make the booms more than long enough, because the trees are long enough for this. And you don't have to have very thick wood towards the end of the boom, the inner end of the boom, because it's a good thing there to be thinner, because you're losing weight all the time; it's strong enough for the job. You could have very long booms and have them able to cast more than sufficient shadow over the arena. So I'm not totally happy about joining down the middle. It looks attractive at first glance, I must admit.

Question for Roberts: How complicated was the rigging that you did for the bullring roof compared to rigging that sailors of that time would have done? ~Trevor

Answer: The rigging used in the bullring experiment was based entirely on what is to be seen in the pictorial evidence from the Roman period. What was combined was the rig needed to support the yard, which was suspended like the sprit of a Roman sprit-sail rig, and the awnings furling lines or brails in evidence on the Roman square-sail rig. All gear would have been familiar to any Roman sailor who might have come to haunt us.

Question for Goldman: What type of wood were the masts made of, and where were these trees found? ~Eric

Answer: There are pine trees and there are fir trees in the area around Rome, and I'm sure that these evergreen trees were the ones that were used because they do grow to great heights. And Rainer Graefe has made studies of the height that these trees have grown, and in his book, Velu Erunt, ("There Will Be Sails")—and that's a good title, because that inducement was added on the graffiti "billboards" that were put up announcing that there were going to be gladiatorial games. In his book, "There Will Be Sails," Graefe describes how he studied the heights that trees grow to so that he could figure out how long the booms could be. They were usually conifer trees.

Question for Goldman: Do you think the blood and gore shows that took place in the Colosseum have any parallels to today's extreme sports, or violent talk shows? ~Charlene

Answer: Absolutely! There seems to be an appeal in human nature (something we try to hide under the carpet, but surely there) to the violent aspect of human activity. Look at the number of murder mysteries written and presented in the public media in film and television. One of the statistics in the Newsweek book on the Colosseum says that a young person will have witnessed 27,000 violent deaths on television and in film by the time he or she is an adult. Look at the slowdowns on the opposite side of the expressways when there is an accident. People are fascinated by death, and the ancient Romans had this terrible flaw in their character that they made the killing of captives, criminals, slaves, or anyone who bucked the system, a source of entertainment. Look at the popularity today of the Demolition Derbies, the fights in the hockey games, the wrestling match absurdities.

Question for Goldman: What was the most populated event that took place in the Colosseum? ~Scott

Answer: I would imagine that the climactic event of the day was the gladitorial contest between two popular heroes. By the way, the games went on all day, so this business of the cast shadow in late afternoon does not apply, because the games did begin early in the morning; people stayed the whole day—there were criminals, condemned criminals who were put to death in the morning. There were animals that were brought in, exotic beasts both to be paraded around and then to fight against each other or hunted, caught, and killed. Then there were the gladiatorial games in the afternoon, where teams of men who had been trained in a particular kind of warfare—these had been men who had been captured in war who were then put into training camps to refine their war skills in the particular way in which they fought from the countries they came from or to learn new skills—they were teamed up against each other to fight. And then the climax of the day, and I think the most popular event, would be when the most famous gladiator who fought in one style was pitted against another gladiator who fought in a different style. For instance, there was a style of costuming where the gladiator was completely armored, covered, protected who fought against the almost nude Retarius, the man who fought only with a net and trident. And to have these unequal gladiators fight against each other would have been the climactic event, and these gladiators became so popular, they were like the screen stars—the women swooned over them. The popularity of them extended to the gambling, the betting that was put on on one or the other winning. The popularity made them the idols of the day. They had short, happy lives.

Additional Q & As

Additional questions and replies from Owain Roberts and Norma Goldman will be posted here starting on May 28.

Question for Goldman: Which of the solutions shown in the program to cover the Colosseum is best supported by archaeological evidence? ~Don

Answer: The archaeological evidence from the top of the Colosseum with the extruding corbels with sockets for the masts and the matching holes in the cornice and from coins indicating the masts all around the top show undeniable evidence that the masts to support the robes and the system of awning mechanism did exist. Whether the horizontal timbers to support the "sails" were there, as described by Graefe, is not so documented, and my own opinion is that that system would have been cumbersome, difficult to install, expensive (although for the emperors, nothing was too expensive), and would not have covered the most important members of the audience, the nobles who sat down front, closest to the arena, except when the cast shadow gave shade, as it does today in the modern bull-ring when the sun is lower on the horizon. Greafe's extensive work on all amphitheaters has to be considered with respect, and he is best of all authorities to document the feature on the cast shadow and on the length of timbers from trees. My own theory is that the rope oculus system is more practical, although we did not have time in the film to see the longer sails retracted, as the literary evidence implies, for the poets write about days when the winds are so strong that the "sails cannot be put out." I favor a system of extending the sails on ropes going through rings sewn to the edge of the cloth, just as is done on ships. One of my Italian architect friends in Rome reminds me that in a building in use for over 400 years, there might have been many different versions of the awning changed to suit the times.

Question for Goldman: How long did it take to build the Colosseum and how much did it cost? ~Chloe

Answer: Between seven and eight years in all. It was probably begun about 73-75 A.D. and was almost completed in 79 when Vespasian died, for Vespasian's older son Titus dedicated it in 809 with 100 days of games on one day of which 5000 men and animals were said to have been slaughtered. Titus only ruled two years and Vespasian's second son Domitian is said to have added the bronze shields at the top and the substructures (after which there never could have been mock naval games) for dressing rooms, dens for animals, storage for sets and scenery, elevators and ramps. No one will ever know how much in cash was poured into the project, but it was money well-spent, since it assured the popularity of the ruling family, and the royal treasury had not bottom. Vespasian had a limitless work force, having brought back from the Jewish War an estimated 100,000 slaves, probably put to work in the quarries at Tivoli, for there were 240,000 cartloads of travertine estimated alone for the exterior. There is evidence of skilled work done in stone yards for pieces brought already cut and finished to be installed, as is done today in modern construction projects.

Question for Goldman: How did the elevators work that brought animals from the underground passageways? ~Frank

Answer: It was a counterbalancing of weight. If you think of the stage props and how the scenery goes up and down, there are weights on one side that are made heavier by stones or bags of sand, and they were made so heavy that they raise the box, if you imagine the elevator as a box or cage, that would contain the animal on the other side. A simple system of weights and pulleys.

Question for Roberts: One post on top, like on the show—both theories—then another post toward the bottom; wood span between the two posts like a bridge. Canvas is strung between the posts on top, furled to the posts on the bottom, and fastened along the way. This way, the rich are shaded; the poor are, too, but they get a crummy view because of the downward slope of the support posts and fabric. That's okay, though; they're poor. ~Todd

Answer: You're doubling the mass of gear that's required—rope and pulleys and whatever. Back to the design system—"keep it simple." The more gear you put into a system, the more complicated it becomes to handle and also to maintain, and if you can manage a thing like this with a set of gear, why double up to no real advantage? I think, really, that we've seen a much simpler system. If we look at the way vessels were rigged, ships were rigged, boats were rigged, you don't see more equipment aboard than is necessary to handle the genuine sails which they're setting. More complication means more work, more maintenance, and I think probably that isn't a good way to go.

Question for Goldman: If canvas awnings used in your experiments were uncolored, would the Romans, in their lavishness, have dyed these cloths into decorative hues? ~Tod

Answer: Oh, that's a lovely question. A poet talking about a theater maybe 75, 100 years before the Colosseum was built, talks about awnings that were made of purple, red, and yellow, and they dyed the audience underneath in these colors when the light of day shone through them. So we know that it was possible to dye the cloth. We do not think that in the Colosseum itself, which demanded an enormous amount of cloth, that the cloth was dyed. But in Nero's amphitheater, which preceded the Colosseum, we're told about awnings of silk that had the picture of the emperor driving a chariot woven into the silk. Now certainly there would have been color involved in that, and we know that for the emperors, nothing was too expensive.

Question for Goldman: We were in Rome last week looking at the Colosseum. One guide says the place held 83,000 people, and a book I bought at the shop says that counting also the standing spectators, the amphitheater could accommodate about 70,000 people. The place is really huge, so wouldn't it really hold a lot more than 45,000, as you cite? Remember, these people were probably much smaller. ~Koz

Answer: All of the figures that I have accepted supply estimates of 45,000 to 50,000 people. I have to go along with those figures. I doubt that more than that could have been accommodated. I agree the place is huge, but I will accept the figures that the authorities have given me, and I prefer to go with 50,000 as tops.

Question for Goldman: Was the Colosseum considered an architectural wonder at the time, or was it standard, if grand, for that time? ~Athena

Answer: Absolutely it was considered magnificent in its time, and this is the whole message that was to go out to the whole Roman world, that the Romans were capable of building this enormous structure that was perfection itself in architectural design, in planning, in scope, in execution.

Martial, in a whole group of poems that he writes about the spectacle, says that you can talk about your pyramids, you can talk about your hanging gardens of Babylon, but there was nothing in the world to equal the Roman amphitheater. So even in its own time, it had a reputation, and it was imitated in all of the great cities that the Romans built throughout the Mediterranean world, and even as far as up in England and in Germany.

Question for Goldman: What caused the ruin of the colosseum? What was the reason for not rebuilding? ~Travis

Answer: Some of the damage to the building was caused by lightning and fire, but the most significant damage was caused by earthquakes shaking the ground so severely that parts of the upper stories, and eventually the entire south wall fell. The fire and earthquake damage in the first through the sixth centuries A.D. were repaired by the emperors, but when the building was no longer used for gladiatorial events (last ones in A.D. 404) or staged animal hunts (last ones in A.D. 523), there was no reason to repair the damage. And the emperors had little money for such repairs. They needed the money for their bloody wars. When the very severe earthquakes of 847 and 1231 caused the most stones to fall, then the plunder and reuse of the stones for other constructions began. The steps of St. Peter's are made of reused Colosseum stones. The capital had been moved to Constantinople, and Rome was becoming a backwater town.

Question for Goldman: Why should we assume that the Romans used only one method to roof their arenas? Is it not reasonable to assume that they experimented with various methods? ~Nick

Answer: Yes, I agree, that in a building in use for over 400 years, there must have been several methods over the centuries of "tenting" the enormous structure. Covering the audience was the prime concern, and there could have been several revisions in the technology of just how to extend and retract the awnings. They could never have stayed in place, however, for that would have wrecked the top of the building, just as sails on a ship have to be reefed, for the winds at the top of the building are very strong and could wreck the building, along with the sails, on very windy days. There might have been changes in technology that made different plans possible at different times.

Question for Goldman: Is there any evidence to suggest that the Romans knew of and used suspension bridges? (which technology could presumably be adapted to a suspension roof)? ~Nick

Answer: Cris Wise's method for the awning is an adaptation of the suspension bridge idea adapted for use in an awning. For their bridges, however, the Romans used construction methods that were mainly based on stone and concrete pier support sunk into water or land with arches between to support the bridge atop. But David Macaulay shows a support of rope skeleton with an oculus in the center, and I agree with that system. In an earlier version, Macaulay shows a criss-cross of ropes going all the way across, and that also is a possibility (more like the suspension bridge idea of Cris Wise).

Question for Goldman: Were the bodies of humans killed in the arena simply tossed in a mass grave or were there family members who claimed the bodies? ~Eric

Answer: The bodies of men and animals killed in the arena were taken out through the Gate of Death at the east end of the ampitheater. From there the bodies of condemned criminals, slaves, and animals were dumped unceremoniously into a common pit. When the site was excavated at the end of the 19th century, the director said that the excavators could only work a few hours at a time, for the stench was still so strong. During the Empire when the gladiatorial games were at the height of their popularity, sometimes the sons of noble families, the second or third sons who could not inherit wealth or position, entered the arena as gladiators, but there is no documentation as to what happened to them after death. Perhaps the families were ashamed of them and did not claim the bodies. Perhaps the families did come to claim them and bury them in the family tomb. No reference has been found about this interesting subject. In any event, the gladiatorial armor—helmets, swords, greaves, nets, tridents, etc. were all preserved, and these were handed on to subsequent gladiators. Helmets especially were precious, prized objects.

Question for Roberts: Why don't the boom structures show on the few remaining examples (of how it could be done beside the stamping limits)? Is it possible that the same type of boom could be used with all support gear underneath the cloth? Could the cover be deployed via end wheels at the far end of the booms (reducing complexity)? Could the structures on the outside of the Colosseum be knoches (I saw no holes to capture the end of poles)? Are there any indications that adjustable angle support braces running to the seating area 'could' have been used or 'pre-loaded overbuilt structures' like the ones you tried? Funny you made your test structures in a bull ring when rings may hold the possible answer (like on ship masts)? ~Paul

Answer: The drawings at Pompeii show the booms so there is some evidence of booms being used. No, I don't think it's possible for the same boom to be used with all support gear underneath the cloth. The cloth would drag over the tops of the booms. We did use pulleys or blocks at the very end of the booms in order to pull the sails of the covers backwards and forwards so that's already being done. He mentions structures on the outside of the Colosseum, I think Norma Goldman covered that quite well. There doesn't seem to be any structure outside, there are these stones outside the Colosseum but they're too shallowly fixed in the ground, and anyway they're not needed if the masts have all the strains vertically down them, the masts stand up by themselves. He says here he saw no holes to capture the end of the poles. Well, I'm afraid he'll have to look again. All these masts have got a hole at the top edge in some way of the Colosseum wall or the amphitheatre wall and then a support a little lower down rather like having a mast in a boat where the heal of the mast is against the keel in the hole there and the mast then rests against the beam at deck level, it's that sort of arrangement. There aren't any indications for adustable angle supports. There's nothing suggesting extra support for poles within the arenas. I don't understand what Paul means about rings on masts I'm afraid.

Question for Roberts: Wouldn't a net-like fabric reduce weight, allow wind tolerance and provide dappled shade adequate to the need? If the riggers were sailors, as am I, wouldn't they cast a net over the sea of air that would allow its fluid to pass, stow in a small area, dry quickly if wet and bear its own weight without heavy rigging? ~Gordon

Answer: Yeah, sure, except there's no evidence at all in the iconography of using net-like fabric. It would probably work perfectly well. The riggers were sailors and they probably just used what they were told to use, that is large canopies so that was that.

Question for Roberts: Use rope network, but NOT CONVERGING at center; rather use parallel ropes to a central cross-rope over stadium mid-line. Use the parallel ropes upon which to pull the "sails" towards center rope, just as done with the horizontal poles to support them. Sails could be deployed or retracted in a matter of minutes, as wind might dictate. This is suggested by looking at the picture of an early "roof" shown in program. It appeared to me that the supports were parallel, not convergent! What do you think? ~George

Answer: Good question. Roofs over stages were rectangular, that is the stages where people performed in theatres. But you didn't get that sort of arrangement in something like a Colosseum where you had an arena with seating all the way around. Your big problem with any rope system is stretch, it never stops. All the evidence is related to evidence of equal mast spacing to keep these parallel strips evenly spaced across the Colosseum, the masts would need gradually to be further and further apart as you go up towards the end and this doesn't happen, the masts are all evenly spaced. So the parallel strip system is a non-starter I suspect. There is absolutely no evidence towards it, except over stages.

Question for Roberts: Why couldn't the rope structure use a central ring-shaped rope anchored by ropes in V's to the masts. The canopy then could be one solid piece that irises shut by means of a rope through the inner part of the canopy. With this modification to the rope method, you would still have a means of retracting the roof by loosening the iris rope. It also would look much like the renderings you refer to in the story. ~Troy

Answer: Well we did, with Chris Wise's method, put in a central ring, it may not look too clear. And we ran ropes from the masts to the center ring and in fact cause his method was intended to be allowing the canopies to move backwards and forwards along the ropes to be furled and to be hauled out again but we sort of ran out of time and ran out of gear so we weren't able to set that part of it up. However, it is a problem because it's made entirely of rope. Troy suggests here that we could have one complete piece of canvas over there with a hole in the middle and we could draw that out of the edges. Well, the problem there is that if it's one solid piece of canvas, the circumference of the inner hole is a lot less than the circumference of the outer edge of the canvas. And unless it's made of elastic, you can't possibly pull the inner circle back towards the outer circle, it just wouldn't work I'm afraid. It just wouldn't stretch.

Question for Roberts: First, congratulations to all involved for devising two solutions that are both plausible and elegant. Regarding the problem with Chris's design in the wind: large parade banners and advertising banners strung across city streets are perforated with crescent-shaped slices to lessen the effect of the wind. Perhaps the fabric of the Colosseum roof was similarly perforated. Semicircular slits in the canvas would have a minimal (if any) effect on the shade provided, but they would allow the wind to pass through with less lifting effect. ~Michal

Answer: He suggests that perhaps perforated canvases would have worked well. Yes, because the packed canvases were already in segments we were actually getting that effect to relieve the pressure of the wind. Now the big problem here is that again when you've seen it in the film, there was no weight in the material or in the rope. That is there were no booms or pieces of wood so that when the wind got underneath it, it just lifted and flopped up and down. By having the booms in place, you can actually have a great damping effect on each of the canvases.

Question for Roberts: I have an idea. If you wanted to extend the horizontal beams farther. You could put in vertical beams to make the horizontals stronger and be able to extend them farther. ~Daniel

Answer: That is absolutely true and the only problem is that there's never been any discovery of what you might want: that is, a line of circular holes somewhere around the edge of the arena to hold the posts which will support the ends of the boom. I think this system is entirely rope supported and is rigged rather like a ship might have been in which case you wouldn't need vertical posts coming out of the ground further into the arena.

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