H12-223 book - HCNP-R&S-IENP(Improving Enterprise Network Performance) Updated: 2023
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Exam Code: H12-223 HCNP-R&S-IENP(Improving Enterprise Network Performance) book November 2023 by Killexams.com team|
H12-223 HCNP-R&S-IENP(Improving Enterprise Network Performance)
Exam Title : HCNP-R&S-IENP (Huawei Certified Network Professional-Improving Enterprise Network Performance)
Exam Code: H12-223
Duration: 90 mins
Pass score: 600/1000
Exam Type: Prometric
HCNP-R&S-IENP is a five day course explaining the essential knowledge behind enhancing the Enterprise Network Performance. Various modules endeavour to deliver the absolute network security concepts with attack defence and configurations, VRRP principles and the configuration for high availability. QoS is one of the vital modules of the course describing its implementation on Huawei high-end routers.
On completion of this program, the participants will be able to:
Describe the basic principle of network security
List the features of USG
Describe IP QoS end-to-end process
List High Availability technology
The HCNP-R&S-IENP exam covers advanced network technologies, including network security, HA, and IP QoS. HCNP-R&S certification validates the knowledge and skills required to construct and manage small and medium-sized networks. With HCNP-R&S certification, you demonstrate a comprehensive and thorough understanding of small and medium-sized networks, including general network technologies, and the ability to design small and medium-sized networks independently and implement the designs using Huawei routing and switching devices.
With engineers who are HCNP-R&S certified, enterprises are able to construct complete small and medium-sized networks and integrate voice, wireless, cloud, security, and storage technologies into their networks in order to support a variety of applications while providing enhanced security, availability, and reliability.
|HCNP-R&S-IENP(Improving Enterprise Network Performance)|
Huawei HCNP-R&S-IENP(Improving book
Other Huawei examsH12-721 HCNP-Security-CISN (Huawei Certified Network Professional - Constructing Infrastructure of Security Network)
H12-221 Huawei Certified Network Professional-Implementing Enterprise Routing Network
H13-622 HCNP-Storage-HCNP-CBDS (Huawei Certified Network Professional- Constructing Big Data Solution
H12-211 Huawei Network Technology and Device (HCNA-HNTD)
H12-261 HCIE-R&S (Written) (Expert -Routing & Switching) 2023
H12-222 HCNP-R&S-IESN (Implementing Enterprise Routing & Switching)
H12-223 HCNP-R&S-IENP(Improving Enterprise Network Performance)
H12-311 HCIA-WLAN (Huawei Certified ICT Associate-WLAN)
H12-711 HCNA-Security-CBSN(Constructing Basic Security Network)
H13-511 HCNA-Cloud-BCCP (Building Cloud Computing Platform)
H13-611 HCNA-Storage-BSSN(Building the Structure of Storage Network)
H13-612 HCNA - Storage (HCNA-Storage-BSSN) V3.0
H13-629 HCIE-Storage (Written) (Internetwork Expert-Storage)
H31-211 Huawei Certified Network Associate - HCDA (Carrier IP)
H31-523 HCIE-Cloud Data Center Operations (Written)
H11-861-ENU HCNP-VC(Huawei Certified Network Professional Video Conference)
H12-111_V2.5-ENU HCIA-IoT V2.5
H12-311-ENU Huawei Certified Network Professional Wireless Local Area
H12-322_V1.0-ENU HCIP-WLAN-POEW V1.0
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HCNP-R&S-IENP(Improving Enterprise Network Performance)
If the number of checked goods is different from the number of goods on the packing
list, you can unpack and inspect goods and then contact the vendor to handle the
Which of the following work is not prepared before the migration?
A. Hardware test
B. Software test
Which of the following statements regarding Huawei network optimization service
(NOS) is false?
A. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a technique to check and analyze the software and
hardware life cycles of devices on the live network. With LCA, specific measures are
taken for products that will reach the end of sales, production, software update, or
technical support, preventing life cycle-caused operation risks.
B. Software assessment & recommendation is a technique to assess and analyze all
software platforms used by Party A in the service period. Based on the assessment
result, this service can recommend a proper software version to prevent issues caused by
C. Configuration assessment & optimization is a technique to develop and periodically
maintain device configuration profiles based on customer requirements. Based on the
periodic software assessment & recommendation result, this service applies related
software features to command lines in the recommended target version, implementing
refined configuration management.
D. Network health check enables Huawei technology experts to review the rationality,
security, and scalability of the network architecture based on industry-leading optimal
experience, and to provide improvement suggestions based on the assessment result.
After finding that the OSPF configuration on a router is incorrect, you logged in to the
router to check the OSPF configuration. Then you found that the association between
OSPF and BFD was also incorrect. Therefore, you changed the OSPF and BFD
configuration. Which of the following troubleshooting methods is used in this process?
B. Configuration comparison
Which of the following operations should be performed preferentially for Telnet login
A. Check whether the client can ping the server.
B. Check whether the number of login users reaches the upper limit.
C. Check whether an ACL is configured in the VTY user interface view.
D. Check whether the access protocol is correctly configured in the VTY user interface
Assume that you received a phone call at your office seat. An employee said he/she
could not access the Internet on the PC and needed your technical support. Then you ran
the ping command on his/her PC and ran the tracert command to check where packet
loss occurred. Which of the following troubleshooting methods is used in this process?
A. Configuration comparison
C. Service traffic path check
Which of the following cabling modes are commonly used in a data center? (Multiple
Answer: A, C
Ethernet supports broadcast. Once a network loop occurs, this simple broadcast
mechanism will cause catastrophic consequences. Which of the following symptoms
may be caused by a loop? (Multiple Choice)
A. Users cannot log in to the device remotely.
B. The display interface command output shows a large number of broadcast packets
received on an interface.
C. The CPU usage exceeds 70%.
D. A lot of ICMP packets are lost in ping tests.
Answer: A, B, C, D
Which of the following statements regarding network maintenance are true? (Multiple
A. Routine maintenance belongs to the routine work plan.
B. Routine maintenance belongs to the Boost phase of Plan, Design, Implement,
C. Routine maintenance is driven by events.
D. Handling of some issues in troubleshooting can be incorporated into routine
Answer: A, D
During the migration test, which of the following indicates that the test is completed?
A. The network is running properly.
B. Tested network services are running properly.
C. Tested upper-layer application services are running properly on the network.
D. Command outputs are correct.
In the current Internet access market, carriers are promoting fiber to the home (FTTH).
Which of the following technologies is mainly used by FTTH?
To reduce the device overhead, perform network monitoring at the network ingress,
server interfaces, and key links.
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Huawei is certainly no stranger to wearable innovation.
After a decade of research and development in the wearable space, and with major sports and health science facilities already operating in Xi’An and Songshan Lakes (Dongguan), the company’s new Health Lab in Helsinki (Finland) is the latest hub to push forward health and fitness tracking.
Featuring state-of-the-art technology and testing equipment, many of the latest innovations being brought to trackers and smartwatches like the Huawei Watch GT 4 are developed within the Finland lab.
The road to wearable tech breakthroughs isn’t confined here, either. By partnering with leading academic institutions from across the world - those working on cardiovascular disease studies and accessibility modes for those in wheelchairs - Huawei is expanding its reach to further help the future of health and fitness technology.
Below, we’ll be taking a deep dive into the finer points of the Helsinki Health Lab, as well as detailing exactly how the work there is changing the industry.
The hub of wearable innovation
Huawei’s in-house scientific research team is at the heart of the operation in its Helsinki Health Lab, with six scientific doctors and 20 experts covering the fields of physiology, software testing and engineering, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. The diversity of the team is key - and deliberate - allowing a wide range of complex issues to be more easily solved within the group.
And when conducting their study, it’s not just Olympic athletes from the Finland national team who are the focus. In order to cater to an extensive range of users, Huawei’s research also learns from beginners and novice athletes in its core testing areas - running, swimming, skiing, and cycling.
But how does the team gather data that’s accurate enough? Well, that magic is saved for Huawei’s five R&D testing stations - ones that are used to simulate over 20 different sports modes and replicate real-world conditions.
The counter-current pool, for example, has flow rate, water temperature, and water quality that’s able to be easily controlled by researchers, with swimmers’ maximum oxygen intake and cardiorespiratory endurance measured through a K5 wearable metabolic mask.
This precision allows Huawei’s researchers to glean the most accurate insights from test subjects, with the ‘endless’ nature of the pool also eliminating the issue of interrupted data caused by a swimmer’s need to turn in a traditional pool.
Measuring the performance of runners is also a major focus at the Helsinki lab. With its plantar pressure assessment system, a 3D model of the user’s foot pressure can be visualised and analysed during both running and walking, allowing for insights into posture, injury prevention, and furthering research into rehabilitation.
With its Multi-functional treadmill, Huawei is also able to replicate conditions in the mountains, hills, or plains - even able to pull in GPX data from GPS devices - all while the participant’s caloric expenditure and physical performance are all measured and contrasted. Using this bit of equipment, the company has even employed bicycles, skateboards and wheelchairs in certain experiments.
Skiing is also a big element of the research in Helsinki. Huawei has developed a simulator with adjustable speed, incline and interactive routes and poles, with the skier’s speed, position, forces, carving angles and other data all pulled in through the built-in sensors and cameras.
From the testing lab to your wrist
Naturally, one of Huawei’s core goals with its continued investment in the kind of wearable research and development being carried out in Helsinki is to help bolster the tracking performance of its smartwatches and trackers - and the fruits of this labor are already evident in products like the HUAWEI WATCH GT 4.
One example is the company’s TruSports™ scientific fitness system, which uses seven major indicators from running - maximum oxygen uptake, calorie burn, aerobic and anaerobic training pressure, training load, recovery time, performance prediction and real-time performance tracking - to deliver an accurate and comprehensive insight into fitness levels.
Now a core part of the Huawei tracking experience, TruSport not only helps quantify the ability of a particular runner, but is also able to analyse performance training data to provide suggestions and plans. All this, of course, while the rest of Huawei’s sports modes - recently expanding to include football, basketball, and e-sports - continue to broaden thanks to the research in Helsinki.
Huawei’s researchers are also furthering the accuracy of VO2 Max estimates from the wrist, with the company investing in partnerships with European universities and institutions to help match the quality of professional equipment. In Helsinki, the HUAWEI WATCH GT 4 is used to evaluate human cardiopulmonary capacity (maximum oxygen volume), allowing all sports to be analysed more scientifically.
While sports tracking is a major focus for Huawei’s Helsinki lab, more general insights such as calorie burn are being worked on extensively, too. With its AI algorithms, the proprietary Stay Fit calorie tracker is able to help users manage daily and weekly goals and understand them.
This technology is all based on the Huawei TruSeen™ 5.5+ heart rate monitoring system, which, thanks to over 20,000 minutes of cross-validation in various regions, is able to boast a greater accuracy in determining expenditure and intake requirements than the industry’s mainstream algorithms.
This calorie estimate is also another element integrated into Huawei’s arsenal of trackers in the form of the Activity Rings, allowing for easily digestible glances into the user’s overall movement.
Partnering to help build the future
While the work of the in-house team and participants is vital in developing the future of smart wearables, Huawei also understands the value of expanding to partner with other established experts.
In many cases, these partnerships and the work at the Helsinki Health Lab are offering first-of-their-kind insight into health issues, as seen through Huawei’s participation in one of the most ambitious cardiovascular health research initiatives in Europe.
Operating on multiple fronts, Huawei is currently partnered with the Polytechnic University of Milan to help further develop ECG technology in cardiovascular disease detection, as well as researching the application of Huawei wearable devices in managing stroke patients and even contributing to research into the early detection of hyperglycaemia.
One of the latest partnerships is with iCARE4CVD - one of the most ambitious research initiatives in the field of AI and cardiovascular health, and part of the EU Innovative Health Program. Specifically, this focuses on assisting patients with cardiovascular disease by using AI algorithms and Huawei wearable devices to help deliver better screening and management.
Huawei also believes that accessibility is equally important to the future of smart wearables, which is why the company is also using the Health Lab to drive research into sports and health indicators in those with disabilities.
This involves not only improving inclusivity and addressing the lack of sports modes in the smart wearable market, but also conducting research into the exercise needs of those in wheelchairs. Customized research into new solutions for the likes of sedentary reminders and activity rings is also paramount to this goal.
In the future, Huawei plans to seek out research cooperation, too, both with disabled user subjects and European universities to help achieve this.
With this continued level of commitment to research and development, as well as the goal to tackle the industry’s pressing health questions through partnerships, it’s clear that Huawei is at the forefront of wearable innovation - and that the Helsinki Health Lab is at the core of this ambition.
Speaking to reporters on the sidelines of the event, Alaa Elshimy, executive director and first vice president of Huawei Enterprise for the Middle East and Central Asia region, stressed that these services aim to accelerate digital transformation in various government, economic, and industrial sectors.
Huawei's leadership in smart AI-based solutions, cloud solutions, 5G, and 5.5G technologies results from the company's early investment in research and development, with an annual expenditure that amounted to $23bn last year only, which equals 25% of the company's total income.
Elshimy stressed that the primary goal of such investment is to provide future technologies by harnessing the potential of rapidly growing (AI) artificial intelligence, especially when combined with other advanced technologies such as cloud computing and fast wired and wireless communication networks.
This is achieved in collaboration with local and regional partners and developers to build a comprehensive system of solutions for various business scenarios in different sectors and specialised industries, including banking, government services, transportation, energy, healthcare, and others. These smart applications based on artificial intelligence aim to provide a competitive edge in digital transformation.
He said that Huawei has been working with over 9mn developers worldwide and approximately 40,000 partners in the development of smart solutions in various industries.
Elshimy pointed out that Huawei operates with an ambitious sustainability strategy, having already saved 50mn tonnes of CO2 in the past 10 years through green products and solutions designed to reduce traditional energy consumption and replace it with clean energy.
This aligns with the United Nations' sustainable development goals with the ultimate target of achieving zero CO2 energy consumption. He also talked about the opportunities available through Huawei's new business unit, "Huawei Digital Power," which focuses on smart green energy to contribute to achieving carbon neutrality and environment - friendly solutions.
Huawei has maintained partnerships with over 440 universities and colleges across the region. Besides Huawei has given related training to over 120,000 technical talents across the region and certified 37,000 of them in total.
Aloysius Cheang, chief cyber security officer, Huawei Middle East & Central Asia, stressed Huawei's focus on cybersecurity and the protection of the information of the users of its platforms, pouring huge investments in this area to enhance user experience.
"Huawei has developed an end-to-end secure supply chain using its own comprehensive security assurance systems, which cover people, processes, and technology," he added.
Huawei and TÜV Rheinland have released a white paper on optimizer safety, sharing conclusions from field testing conducted in order to verify the safety features of Huawei’s own optimizer.
The paper details how adopting the new “optimizer + two-stage inverter” architecture delivers additional safety features, such as module-optimization, enabling PV modules to independently generate energy; module-monitoring, enabling real-time intelligent O&M; and module-rapid shutdown, preventing electric shocks.
As optimizers deliver greater and faster ROI compared to traditional PV solutions, those solutions equipped with Module-Level Power Electronics (MLPE) are gaining popularity. In fact, statistics recently released by IHS predict a significant increase in both global shipments (77GW by 2027 vs 8.2GW in 2021) and optimizer market penetration (up to 30% by 2027 compared to 7.47% in 2021).
Along with this market growth comes the necessity to adopt comprehensive measures to reach the highest safety standards to safeguard both individuals and property. Huawei’s innovative architecture helps address these challenges by offering features such as rapid shutdown technology combined with intelligent arc fault detection.
In the case of a fire-related incident in a PV system, the safety features allow firefighters to carry out safe, fast and efficient interventions.
In similar situations, traditional PV systems would only present a perilous environment, preventing any safe intervention, potentially resulting in a prolonged fire that would cause further damage to the site.
Huawei and TÜV Rheinland conducted field tests on optimizers to verify their safety features. The test results show that, when disconnecting the DC and AC switches, the MPPT inverter voltage drops to zero V, Huawei optimizer in 25s (DC) and 11s(AC), which meet the requirements of the NEC 2020 690.12 standard.
Alongside safety features, this innovative architecture offers the ability to maximize the full potential of PV modules, enabling systems to achieve higher installed capacity in challenging situations such as areas with limited space or with temporary shadow.
Huawei and TÜV have conducted a test comparing PV installed energy capacity both with and without optimizers on the roof of a school. The results demonstrate that the installed capacity has increased by 25.9% after optimizers were used.
In addition, verification was performed in the scenario where mismatchwascaused by old modules. The PV energy yield of the household equipped with optimizers was 3.56% and 2.73% higher than that of the other two households without optimizers.
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Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the oldest cereal grains in the world. It contains carbohydrates, which provide energy to the body, but can raise blood sugar. People typically categorise rice into two types: white or brown.
People have grown the grain for at least 5,000 years. It is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population, and 90% of the world’s rice comes from Asia.
There are thousands of types of rice, but depending on how producers process them, they fit into two groups: white or brown (whole grain).
White rice is the most common type, though brown rice offers more health benefits. Brown rice comes in a variety of shades, including reddish, purplish, or black. It has more fiber, which helps support gut health and reduce inflammation.
Manufacturers make many products from rice, including rice flour, rice syrup, rice bran oil, and rice milk.
This article looks at the nutrition, health benefits, and risks of white and brown rice.
Both white and brown rice contain mainly carbohydrate and some protein, with virtually no fat or sugar.
Cooked rice contains a lot of water, making up almost 70% of its total weight.
White and brown rice have similar calorie, carbohydrate, protein, and fat content. A 100 gram (g) serving of white, short-grain, cooked rice contains the following nutrients:
Rice is primarily composed of carbohydrate, which makes up almost 80% of its total dry weight.
Most of the carbohydrate in rice is starch. Starch is the most common form of carbohydrate in foods.
Starch is made up of long chains of glucose called amylose and amylopectin. Different types of rice have varying amounts of these compounds, which affects the texture of the rice:
These compounds also affect how easily the body can digest the rice.
The body takes longer to digest high-amylose rice because the amylose slows down starch digestion. In contrast, the body digests sticky rice very easily.
While many people find sticky rice more palatable, quick digestion can lead to unhealthful spikes in blood sugar levels, especially in people with diabetes.
The bran contains mainly insoluble fibers, such as hemicellulose, and virtually no soluble fiber.
White and brown rice contain varying amounts of a soluble fiber called resistant starch.
White rice is refined, polished, and stripped of its bran and germ. This increases its cooking quality, shelf life, and tastiness, but significantly reduces its nutritional value. That said, manufacturers usually enrich white rice or replace some vitamins after processing.
Brown rice is an intact whole grain, containing both the bran and the germ, which are the most nutritious parts of the grain. They contain fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.
For this reason, brown rice may contain more fiber and nutrients than white rice. Be sure to compare labels when shopping.
Brown rice is better for people with diabetes. White rice can raise blood sugar, while brown rice has a lower glycemic index and can help with blood sugar control.
Aside from providing energy and basic nutrients, refined white rice does not offer any health benefits. Enriched white rice does contain added B vitamins that are important for health.
On the other hand, regular consumption of brown, or whole grain, rice can have health benefits. Be sure to compare labels when shopping.
Brown rice is a whole grain. Whole grains have a wide range of health benefits.
Brown rice contains several heart healthy components, such as minerals, antioxidants, lignans, and dietary fiber.
Eating high fiber rice as a substitute for white rice may aid weight loss, along with a decrease in cholesterol.
Healthful plant compounds
Brown rice contains several other plant compounds that research has linked with health benefits.
White rice is a poor source of antioxidants and other plant compounds. Pigmented rice, including red-grained varieties such as purple rice, is particularly rich in antioxidants.
The bran of brown rice may be a good source of lignans and ferulic acid:
Vitamins and minerals
The nutrient value of rice depends on the variety and cooking method. The bran and germ contain a high concentration of vitamins and minerals. White rice does not contain bran or germ and lacks these essential dietary nutrients.
Enrichment may add back some vitamins to white rice. Be sure to read labels when shopping, as different brands may add different vitamins.
Rice is a safe food staple. Regularly eating rice may, however, have risks, especially if it accounts for a large proportion of a person’s daily food intake.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a common condition characterized by high blood sugar levels.
According to a 2019 review, white rice may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. This is because it has a high glycemic index score, meaning that it can cause large spikes in blood sugar after a meal. Foods with a high glycemic index may increase the risk of diabetes.
That said, the review concludes that the differences between brown and white rice are inconclusive, and further studies in dietary patterns characterized by rice are needed.
On the other hand, brown rice — like other whole grains that contain fiber — may help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
This difference between white and brown rice may be due to variations in the types and amounts of fibers and their glycemic index scores. It is important to note that consuming too many carbohydrates from any source can raise blood glucose levels, so it is important to control portion size regardless of whether the rice is whole grain or refined.
Eating fiber-rich whole grains instead of refined grains may have significant health benefits, including a reduced risk of diabetes.
Heavy metals can accumulate in the body over time, leading to adverse health effects. These include cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and arsenic.
Many studies have reported excessive amounts of heavy metals in rice from several countries. This a particular concern where rice makes up a significant portion of a person’s diet.
The bran contains a high concentration of heavy metals, which is why brown rice contains more heavy metals than white rice.
Compared to other common food crops grown in polluted areas, rice accumulates higher amounts of mercury and arsenic.
All cereal grains easily take up arsenic, but it seems to collect more in rice compared with wheat and barley.
If possible, people should avoid eating rice grown near heavily polluted industrial or mining areas. This also applies to other food crops, such as vegetables.
Brown rice also contains an antioxidant called phytic acid, or phytate. This is known as an antinutrient because it prevents the body from absorbing essential minerals, such as iron and zinc.
Producers can reduce phytic acid levels by soaking and sprouting the seeds and fermenting the rice before cooking.
Rice is a staple food across the world. White rice is the most common, but brown rice may have more health benefits.
As a good source of several healthy minerals and antioxidants, brown rice may help prevent heart disease.
On the other hand, white rice — especially sticky rice — provides fewer nutrients and may raise the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Be sure to read the nutrition facts panel and compare the nutrient content and purchase enriched versions of rice when available.
Rice and rice products are available for purchase in grocery stores and online.
More than 55% of all undergraduates study abroad in their W&M careers. William & Mary is consistently ranked as one of the top public universities for undergraduate study abroad participation.
At William & Mary, students can participate in a wide range of programs that span the globe, and courses that meet certain requirements can be used to fulfill the COLL 300 requirement while doing so!
You can start your search below. Know when you want to go but not what kind of program? Search by term. Just have a destination in mind and figure you'll find a program that goes there? Search by destination.
Citric acid naturally occurs in citrus fruits. Synthetic versions are produced from a type of mold and are often used as an additive. They can cause adverse reactions in some people.
Citric acid is found naturally in citrus fruits, especially lemons and limes. It’s what gives them their tart, sour taste.
A manufactured form of citric acid is commonly used as an additive in food, cleaning agents, and nutritional supplements.
However, this manufactured form differs from what’s found naturally in citrus fruits.
For this reason, you may wonder whether it’s good or bad for you.
This article explains the differences between natural and manufactured citric acid, and explores its benefits, uses, and safety.
The odorless and colorless compound was produced from lemon juice until the early 1900s when researchers discovered that it could also be made from the black mold Aspergillus niger, which creates citric acid when it feeds on sugar (1, 2).
Because of its acidic, sour-tasting nature, citric acid is predominantly used as a flavoring and preserving agent, especially in soft drinks and candies.
It’s also used to stabilize or preserve medicines and as a disinfectant.
Citrus fruits and their juices are the best natural sources of citric acid (3).
In fact, the word citric originates from the Latin word citrus (2).
Examples of citrus fruits include:
Other fruits also contain citric acid but in lesser amounts. These include:
Beverages or food products that contain these fruits — such as ketchup in the case of tomatoes — also contain citric acid.
While not naturally occurring, citric acid is also a byproduct of cheese, wine, and sourdough bread production.
The citric acid listed in the ingredients of foods and supplements is manufactured — not what’s naturally found in citrus fruits (4).
This is because producing this additive from citrus fruits is too expensive, and the demand far exceeds the supply.
The characteristics of citric acid make it an important additive for a variety of industries.
Food and beverages use an estimated 70% of manufactured citric acid, pharmaceutical and dietary supplements use 20%, and the remaining 10% goes into cleaning agents (4).
Manufactured citric acid is one of the most common food additives in the world.
It’s used to boost acidity, enhance flavor, and preserve ingredients (5).
Sodas, juices, powdered beverages, candies, frozen foods, and some dairy products often contain manufactured citric acid.
It’s also sometimes added to canned fruits and vegetables to protect against botulism, a rare but serious illness caused by the toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum bacterium.
Medicines and dietary supplements
Citric acid is an industrial staple in medicines and dietary supplements.
It’s added to medicines to help stabilize and preserve the active ingredients and used to enhance or mask the taste of chewable and syrup-based medications (6).
Mineral supplements, such as magnesium and calcium, may also contain citric acid (in the form of citrate) to enhance absorption.
Disinfecting and cleaning
Citric acid is commercially sold as a general disinfectant and cleaning agent for removing soap scum, hard water stains, lime, and rust.
It’s viewed as a safer alternative to conventional disinfectant and cleaning products, such as quat and chlorine bleach (1).
Citric acid has many impressive health benefits and functions.
Citrate — a closely related molecule of citric acid — is the first molecule that forms during a process called the citric acid cycle.
Also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) or Krebs cycle, these chemical reactions in your body help transform food into usable energy (11).
Humans and other organisms derive the majority of their energy from this cycle.
Enhances nutrient absorption
Supplemental minerals are available in a variety of forms.
But not all forms are created equal, as your body uses some more effectively.
For example, calcium citrate doesn’t require stomach acid for absorption. It also has fewer side effects — such as gas, bloating, or constipation — than another form called calcium carbonate (15, 16).
Thus, calcium citrate is a better option for people with less stomach acid, such as older adults.
May protect against kidney stones
Kidney stones are solid masses made of crystals that typically originate in your kidneys.
Citric acid protects against kidney stones by making your urine less favorable for the formation of stones (23).
Kidney stones are often treated with citric acid as potassium citrate. However, consuming foods high in this natural acid — like citrus fruits — can offer similar kidney-stone-preventing benefits (3, 24).
Manufactured citric acid is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (5).
No scientific studies exist investigating the safety of manufactured citric acid when consumed in large amounts for long periods.
Still, there have been reports of sickness and allergic reactions to the additive.
One report found joint pain with swelling and stiffness, muscular and stomach pain, as well as shortness of breath in four people after they consumed foods containing manufactured citric acid (4).
These same symptoms were not observed in people consuming natural forms of the acid, such as lemons and limes.
Researchers acknowledged that they couldn’t prove the manufactured citric acid was responsible for those symptoms but recommended that its use in foods and beverages be further studied.
In either case, the scientists suggested that the symptoms were most likely related to the mold used to produce the citric acid rather than the compound itself.
Citric acid is naturally found in citrus fruits, but synthetic versions, which are produced from a type of mold, are commonly added to foods, medicines, supplements, and cleaning agents.
While mold residues from the manufacturing process may trigger allergies in rare cases, citric acid is generally deemed safe.
For more than two decades, chart-topping R&B singer R. Kelly had faced allegations of sexual abuse.
The accounts went back to the start of his career in the 1990s, with many centring on the predatory pursuit of teenage girls.
In 2022, he was jailed for 30 years after being found guilty of eight counts of sex trafficking and one of racketeering in a New York court.
Months later, he was convicted of child sexual abuse in a second federal trial in Chicago.
The singer - whose real name is Robert Sylvester Kelly - is also due to face sexual misconduct charges Minnesota.
Kelly was himself the victim of child sex abuse, and detailed in his autobiography how he was raped by a female family member when he was eight years old.
Here is a history of the accusations against him.
1994: Marries Aaliyah
Kelly, then aged 27, wed 15-year-old singer Aaliyah at a secret ceremony in Chicago.
Vibe magazine later discovered Aaliyah had lied about her age on the wedding certificate, listing herself as 18. The marriage was annulled in February 1995.
A former tour manager for Kelly testified at his trial that he bribed a government worker in 1994 to obtain a fake ID for Aaliyah - so the singers could marry.
For the rest of her career, Aaliyah dodged questions about the nature of her relationship. "When people ask me, I tell them, 'Hey, don't believe all that mess,'" she told one interviewer. "We're close and people took it the wrong way."
Kelly rarely spoke about Aaliyah after she died in a plane crash in 2001. She is not mentioned in his autobiography, where an author's note explains "certain episodes could not be included for complicated reasons".
In a 2016 interview with GQ magazine, he described their relationship as "best, best, best, best friends", but declined to comment on their marriage, saying: "I will never have that conversation with anyone. Out of respect for Aaliyah, and her mother and father who have asked me not to personally."
1996: Sued for emotional distress
Tiffany Hawkins sued R. Kelly for the "personal injuries and emotional distress" she suffered during a three-year relationship with the star.
In court documents, she said she began having sex with Kelly in 1991, when she was 15 and he was 24, and the relationship ended when she turned 18. According to the Chicago Sun Times, Ms Hawkins sought $10m in damages but accepted a fraction of that amount ($250,000) when the case was settled in 1998.
Kelly's spokeswoman said she had "no knowledge" of the accusations.
2001: Sued by intern
Tracy Sampson sued R. Kelly, accusing him of inducing her "into an indecent sexual relationship" when she was 17.
The woman, a former intern at Epic Records, said she was "treated as his personal sex object and cast aside".
"He often tried to control every aspect of my life including who I would see and where I would go," she said. The case was settled out of court for an undisclosed sum, according to the New York Post.
April/May 2002: Two more court cases
Kelly is sued by Patrice Jones, a Chicago woman who claimed he impregnated her when she was under age, and that she was forced to have an abortion.
Montina Woods also sued Kelly, alleging that he videotaped them having sex without her knowledge. The recording was allegedly circulated on a "sex tape" sold by bootleggers under the title R. Kelly Triple-X.
The singer settled both cases out of court, paying undisclosed sums in return for non-disclosure agreements.
June 2002: Charged over child abuse videos
He is charged with 21 counts of making child sexual abuse videos involving various sexual acts.
Chicago police accused him of taping the acts and enticing a minor to participate in them. All the charges related to one girl, born in September 1984.
His arrest stemmed from a video that was sent anonymously to the Chicago Sun Times earlier in the year. They passed it on to police, who Verified its authenticity with help from FBI forensic experts.
Kelly, who posted $750,000 bail, immediately denied the charges in an interview with MTV and later pleaded not guilty in court.
It took six years for the case to come to trial, during which time Kelly released his wildly successful Trapped In The Closet album and was nominated for an Image Award by the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), prompting widespread criticism.
The jury eventually concluded they could not prove that the girl on the tape was a minor, and Kelly was found not guilty on all counts.
2002-2004: Arrest prompts further charges
Kelly was charged with a further 12 counts of producing child sexual abuse images in Florida, where he was arrested at his holiday home.
These charges came after police seized a camera during the arrest, which allegedly contained images of him having sex with an underage girl.
The charges were dropped when a judge agreed with Kelly's defence team that police lacked sufficient evidence to justify a search.
2017: Allegations of a 'cult'
A long and detailed Buzzfeed report accused R. Kelly of trapping six women in a sex "cult".
The article alleged that Kelly seduced young women when they approached him for help with their music careers, before taking control of their lives - dictating "what they eat, how they dress, when they bathe, when they sleep, and how they engage in sexual encounters that he records".
Kelly also confiscated the women's mobile phones, the report said, barring contact with friends and family.
The allegations came from three former employees and the parents of several women, who said their daughters had all but vanished.
2017-2018: Victims approach the press
Buzzfeed's report prompted further allegations.
Jerhonda Pace broke a non-disclosure agreement to speak about having sex with Kelly while she was underage. Another woman, Kitti Jones, claimed the star starved her, coerced her into sexual encounters with other women and physically abused her. Ms Pace would go on to testify against Kelly in the 2021 trial.
Ms Kitti, along with other members of R. Kelly's inner circle, also spoke to a BBC Three documentary in March 2018. One former friend and collaborator, Lovell Jones, said Kelly asked him to scout out women "that looked young" at parties, and claimed that it was "common knowledge" that the singer preferred young girls.
2018: #MuteRKelly, staff departures and new court case
The #MuteRKelly campaign lobbied record label RCA to sever ties with the singer. They also targeted concert promoters, ticket sellers and streaming services - with Spotify, Apple Music and Pandora all agreeing to demote Kelly's songs from their playlists (a decision that was later reversed).
Around the same time, the star's lawyer, publicist and personal assistant all quit - although attorney Linda Mensch said her departure was "unrelated to any allegations related to Mr Kelly's social life".
Kelly continued to perform live despite protests outside his shows, and was filmed saying the campaign against him was "too late".
"Only God can mute me," he sang defiantly on a song called I Admit. "Am I supposed to go to jail or lose my career because of your opinion?"
Meanwhile, the star was sued by a former partner who said he "intentionally" infected her with a sexually transmitted disease.
2019: New documentary leads to charges
Over the course of six hour-long episodes, Lifetime documentary Surviving R. Kelly presented the most comprehensive look yet at the allegations against the musician.
Two weeks after the programme was broadcast, Kelly was dropped by his record company. Planned concerts in the US and New Zealand were cancelled.
In February, celebrity lawyer Michael Avenatti said he had obtained a video showing Kelly having sex with a 14-year-old girl. Weeks later, Kelly was charged in Chicago with 10 counts of aggravated criminal sexual abuse. He pleaded not guilty and gave a histrionic TV interview.
Prosecutors later filed an additional 11 charges of sexual assault and abuse against a minor aged between 13 and 16.
The charging documents described sex and oral sex with a minor "by the use of force or threat of force". The accuser was thought to be one of the women featured in Surviving R. Kelly, who said she met the singer during a previous trial.
July 2019: Sex Trafficking charges
Kelly was hit with two separate federal indictments in Illinois and Brooklyn.
Combined, the allegations depicted an organised effort from the singer and his associates to recruit and transport underage girls over state lines for illegal sexual purposes, including the production of child sex abuse images, as well as conspiracy to obstruct justice by destroying evidence and bribing or threatening witnesses.
August 2019: Prostitution charges
Prosecutors in Minnesota filed prostitution charges against R. Kelly, meaning he faced criminal cases in three US states.
He was accused of soliciting a teenager who asked him for an autograph in 2001. Kelly allegedly invited the 17-year-old to his hotel room and offered her $200 (£164) to undress and dance with him.
Kelly's lawyer said the charges were "beyond absurd".
August-September 2020: Prison assault
Towards the end of August, Kelly was attacked in his sleep by a fellow inmate in Chicago's Metropolitan Correctional Centre.
His lawyer called for his immediate release, saying "the government cannot ensure his safety". However, the request - along with numerous other attempts to get Kelly released on bail - was denied.
August 2021: Aaliyah relationship confirmed
In the last pre-trial hearing before Kelly's trial, US District Judge Ann M Donnelly made a series of rulings to narrow down what evidence could be shown to jurors.
During the hearing, she asked one of the singer's lawyers whether they denied the star had sexual relations with Aaliyah while she was underage.
According to the Associated Press, Thomas A Farinella "let out a deep sigh and responded, 'No.'"
August-September 2021: Trial and guilty verdict
The trial began on 18 August in New York.
Read more about the trial:
On 27 September, following two days of deliberation, the jury found R. Kelly guilty on all nine counts.
Gloria Allred, a lawyer who represented several victims, told reporters: "I've been practising law for 47 years. During this time, I've pursued many sexual predators who have committed crimes against women and children.
"Of all the predators that I have pursued, Mr Kelly is the worst."
November 2021: Witness intimidation
A man was sentenced to eight years in prison after intimidating a witness before Kelly's New York trial.
In June 2020, Michael Williams set fire to a car belonging to the father of a witness who was due to testify in order to "prevent the victim-witness from continuing to co-operate", according a statement from the attorney's office in New York.
"Williams attempted to use violence and intimidation to divert the course of justice and prevent a victim's voice from being heard," they said.
June 2022: New York sentencing
Kelly was sentenced to 30 years in prison for using his celebrity status to sexually abuse children and women.
US District Judge Ann Donnelly said the singer had an "indifference to human suffering" and had used sex as a weapon, forcing his victims to do unspeakable things while saddling some with sexually transmitted diseases. "You taught them that love is enslavement and violence," she said.
Some of the women who were abused by the singer described how he had "destroyed so many people's lives" as they addressed him in court before he was sentenced.
Lawyers for Kelly said he would appeal.
August 2022: New federal trial in Chicago
Kelly had a "dark" and "hidden" side that the public rarely saw during his career, prosecutors said at the opening of his second federal trial.
The singer was on trial in his home town, Chicago, for child pornography, obstruction of justice and other charges.
A woman at the heart of the trial testified that the R&B singer had sex with her "hundreds" of times before she turned 18.
The 37-year-old woman, known as Jane, said improper contact with Kelly began when she was just 13.
His lawyers insisted he was not "a monster" and deserves a fair trial.
September 2022: Another guilty verdict
The disgraced star was found guilty of child sexual abuse in his second federal trial.
The jury convicted him on six out of 13 counts, including three of child pornography, after the four-week Chicago case.
He was acquitted of a charge of conspiring to obstruct justice, related to his 2008 child pornography trial.
November 2022: Manager pleads guilty to threatening victim
R. Kelly's former manager was sentenced to 20 months in prison for stalking and harassing one of the singer's victims.
Donnell Russell pleaded guilty in July to using threats and intimidation to silence one of the women Kelly abused.
Using an alias, he published explicit photos of her online in an attempt to stop her testifying against his client.
January 2023: Some charges dropped as 'justice is served'
A Chicago prosecutor said she was dropping sexual abuse and assault charges dating back as far as 1998 against Kelly, who was already facing decades in prison.
Cook County State's Attorney Kim Foxx said her office "will no longer be pursuing these indictments", adding: "Sometimes justice is served even when there is no conviction."
February 2023: 20-year sentence for child sex crimes
A Chicago judge sentences Kelly to 20 years in prison, following the 2022 trial in which a jury found he had enticed minors for sex and produced child sexual imagery.
However, in a victory for the singer's lawyers, the judge said that all but one of those years would be served at the same time as his previous 30-year prison sentence.
The judge said he would have dealt a heftier sentence if the Chicago trial had come first.
“The 360” shows you diverse perspectives on the day’s top stories and debates.
Why there’s debate
We can’t scare teenagers away from drug use
“It’s not as if these kids are unsuspecting and have never seen the consequences of drug use before. … They’ve already got enough fear as it is.” — Kelli Caseman, executive director of Think Kids, to Colorado Public Radio
It’s dangerous to pretend that we can convince teens to never touch drugs
“There’s the reality that people do do drugs that is not accounted for in Just Say No programming. … If all you give to young people are a million different ways that they can say no, how are they gonna have the skills and information to be able to deal when they inevitably say yes to drugs?” — Sasha Simon, drug prevention program designer, to KQED
Police can’t deliver the message to the kids who need to hear it the most
“Students' acceptance of the prevention message depends on their trust in and their perceived credibility of the source. With the disintegration of the public's trust in police, it is hard to argue that they still make ideal prevention messengers.” — Khary Rigg, Newsweek
Antidrug programs are a stopgap. Only society-level change can truly end teen drug abuse
“In the long term, effective addiction prevention requires social change to prevent or at least intervene early in childhood trauma, creating communities conducive to mental health with safe, nurturing schools, stimulating extracurricular activities and access to comprehensive health care. But first, we need to keep young people alive, and that means having uncomfortable, honest conversations.” — Maia Szalavitz, New York Times
Kids in the most vulnerable communities aren’t getting the support they deserve
“Data on school-based drug prevention education programs is somewhat sparse. But available statistics indicate that they’re not reaching students uniformly. … Schools with a higher proportion of white and affluent students received significantly more prevention programs than in schools where Black, Hispanic, or economically disadvantaged students made up a majority of the student body.” — Elizabeth Heubeck, Education Week
Students need practical advice to protect themselves, not buzzy catchphrases
“What we really need to be doing is equipping them with skills and understanding to stay safe. That means understanding that pills and powders are the highest risk. It also means knowing to encourage their friends never to use alone, making sure there’s someone there to call 911 if things go bad. And making sure there’s[anti-overdose drug] naloxone on hand, because opioid overdoses are 100% preventable and reversible if naloxone is on hand quickly.” — Joseph Friedman, a public health researcher at the University of California, to WBUR
Drug education will fail unless it’s entwined with mental health support
“Substance use disorder is one type of mental health problem, and when you have one problem of this type, you are more likely to have other problems in the same area. So educating students about mental health and substance abuse makes a lot of sense. … Good mental health is not possible if a substance use disorder exists, and vice versa.” — Sarah Martin, a child and adolescent psychiatrist, to Texas Tribune
Fentanyl in so dangerous, it makes the old strategies obsolete
“We used to understand drugs as a potential ‘pathway’ to addiction. But now, there is no pathway — it’s a minefield. The risk has changed from eventual death to immediate death. … It’s extremely urgent that young people understand this.” — Ed Ternan, drug awareness advocate, to EdSource
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— Matt Fimon, 2023-24 AFBF YF&R Committee Chair
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