IEEE, an organization dedicated to advancing innovation and technological excellence for the benefit of humanity, is the world's largest technical professional society. It is designed to serve professionals involved in all aspects of the electrical, electronic, and computing fields and related areas of science and technology that underlie modern civilization.
IEEE's roots go back to 1884 when electricity began to become a major influence in society. There was one major established electrical industry, the telegraph, which since the 1840s had come to connect the world with a data communications system faster than the speed of transportation. The telephone and electric power and light industries had just gotten underway.
New HUAWEI nova 9 smartphone – the Trendy Flagship and Camera King – makes it easier than ever to take professional grade pictures thanks to its advanced camera setup. With the HUAWEI nova 9 users do not need any experience as a photographer to be able to capture a beautiful scene during a holiday, an evening out with friends and family or even something that catches your eye during a walk. The HUAWEI nova 9 gives users the tools they need to take stunning images even in low light conditions without the need for a complicated or expensive camera.
Capture everything with the Ultra Vision AI Quad Camera Setup
The secret to a great camera is how much light it can capture and with the HUAWIE nova 9’s Ultra Vision AI Quad Camera Setup you get so much more. The 50MP Ultra Vision Main Camera features a RYYB color filter array which includes a 1/1.56-inch sensor - the largest sensor ever fitted to a HUAWEI nova series phone. In fact, it collects 40% more light than standard RGGB sensors, which enables users to capture superb photos and videos even in low light conditions. The camera also makes sure the brighter parts of an image are not over exposed while the dark areas are clear and packed with detail.
In addition to that there is an 8MP Ultra Wide Angle Camera, a 2MP Depth Camera and a 4cm Macro Camera. The upgraded hardware combines with HUAWIE nova 9’s flagship-class algorithms to supply users the ability to take high clarity images across scenarios including city night photos, panoramas, portraits with bokeh effects or close-ups.
XD Fusion Engine takes the guess work out of capturing great photographs
The HUAWEI nova 9 features an XD Fusion Engine that works with the main camera’s large sensor to take high quality images rich in detail. This innovative technology inherits the photography algorithms from Huawei’s flagship smartphones. XD Fusion Engine supports a dynamic range that works in both bright and dark scenes. Low light photographs are crisp with minimal image noise thanks to the large sensor. The RYYB sensor and XD Fusion Engine work together to deliver a SuperSensing high-definition photography experience while AI Shutter technology, supports AI Snapshot for capturing outstanding images quickly.
Get the perfect selfie with the 32MP front camera
As for selfies and vlogging needs, the HUAWEI nova 9 has a 32MP selfie camera that is capable of recording selfie videos in 4K clarity. With the HUAWEI nova 9 you can easily switch between front and rear cameras continuously whilst recording to produce a single video featuring both footage in one go. Alternatively, you can use Dual-View Video to show both front and rear perspectives simultaneously, or to put a zoomed shot and wide shot together, both taken on the rear camera, in one frame. Again, this switching of camera occurs seamlessly, allowing you to create unique videos by just pressing the record button. With the Petal Clip app, users can easily choose from a variety of video templates and themes before posting their vlogs or other videos to social media in no time. Moreover, complicated editing processes have been streamlined thanks to Video Search and One-Click Video Creation.
To showcase these stunning features, Huawei collaborated with local talents to showcase what the HUAWEI nova 9 can do, and one of these talents was the Saudi photographer Abdulaziz Alsaghir. With the HUAWEI nova 9 camera, Alsaghir was able to deliver his art and shared his best three images that expressed different emotions to him and in which he wanted the world to experience.
He took his first photo at night in the traditional village of Rijal, the village that represents his history and roots. Thanks to HUAWEI nova 9’s superior RYYB sensor with its high light polarization of 40%, he stated that he was able to capture all of the fine details including the buildings, people, history and the scene that reflects the tenderness and calmness of his village at night.
His second photo was taken with the Ultra Wide Angle Camera feature of the HUAWEI nova 9 phone as the lens have the ability to cover a large area of the scene and an excellent dynamic range between bright and shadow areas; he chose the location of the Al Habla Park, one of the natural parks in which the Asir region abounds, and where the name of this place originates from the ropes that were used by the villagers to climb the cliff whose steep terrain appears in the picture.
For his the third image, Alsaghir wanted to reflect innocence and beauty, so he took images of a kitten that he saved and adopted; using the HUAWEI nova 9 lens, he was able to reveal how inspiring and captivating kittens could be.
Huawei also collaborated with other photographers globally, whom shared stunning images that they captured, and wanted us to experience the world as people don’t usually see it, at night time. They were able to shoot a variety of city scenes using the HUAWEI nova 9’s Night Mode feature that includes a multi-frame noise reduction and a 4-in-1 Light Fusion Technology that makes night photography easier than ever. Thanks to the nova 9 lens, the images turned out to be very vibrant and calm, showcasing the aesthetic of scenes during the late hours.
1869-1939 | 1940-1959 | 1960-1979 | 1980-1999 | 2000-present
Rutgers and Princeton played a college soccer football game, the first ever, November 6. The game used modified London Football Association rules. During the next seven years, rugby gained favor with the major eastern schools over soccer, and modern football began to develop from rugby.
At the Massasoit convention, the first rules for American football were written. Walter Camp, who would become known as the father of American football, first became involved with the game.
In an era in which football was a major attraction of local athletic clubs, an intense competition between two Pittsburgh-area clubs, the Allegheny Athletic Association (AAA) and the Pittsburgh Athletic Club (PAC), led to the making of the first professional football player. Former Yale All-America guard William (Pudge) Heffelfinger was paid $500 by the AAA to play in a game against the PAC, becoming the first person to be paid to play football, November 12. The AAA won the game 4-0 when Heffelfinger picked up a PAC fumble and ran 35 yards for a touchdown.
The Pittsburgh Athletic Club signed one of its players, probably halfback Grant Dibert, to the first known pro football contract, which covered all of the PAC's games for the year.
John Brallier became the first football player to openly turn pro, accepting $10 and expenses to play for the Latrobe YMCA against the Jeannette Athletic Club.
The Allegheny Athletic Association team fielded the first completely professional team for its abbreviated two-game season.
The Latrobe Athletic Association football team went entirely professional, becoming the first team to play a full season with only professionals.
A touchdown was changed from four points to five.
Chris O'Brien formed a neighborhood team, which played under the name the Morgan Athletic Club, on the south side of Chicago. The team later became known as the Normals, then the Racine (for a street in Chicago) Cardinals, the Chicago Cardinals, the St. Louis Cardinals, the Phoenix Cardinals, and, in 1994, the Arizona Cardinals. The team remains the oldest continuing operation in pro football.
William C. Temple took over the team payments for the Duquesne Country and Athletic Club, becoming the first known individual club owner.
Baseball's Philadelphia Athletics, managed by Connie Mack, and the Philadelphia Phillies formed professional football teams, joining the Pittsburgh Stars in the first attempt at a pro football league, named the National Football League. The Athletics won the first night football game ever played, 39-0 over Kanaweola AC at Elmira, New York, November 21.
All three teams claimed the pro championship for the year, but the league president, Dave Berry, named the Stars the champions. Pitcher Rube Waddell was with the Athletics, and pitcher Christy Mathewson a fullback for Pittsburgh.
The first World Series of pro football, actually a five-team tournament, was played among a team made up of players from both the Athletics and the Phillies, but simply named New York; the New York Knickerbockers; the Syracuse AC; the Warlow AC; and the Orange (New Jersey) AC at New York's original Madison Square Garden. New York and Syracuse played the first indoor football game before 3,000, December 28. Syracuse, with Glen (Pop) Warner at guard, won 6-0 and went on to win the tournament.
The Franklin (Pa.) Athletic Club won the second and last World Series of pro football over the Oreos AC of Asbury Park, New Jersey; the Watertown Red and Blacks; and the Orange AC.
Pro football was popularized in Ohio when the Massillon Tigers, a strong amateur team, hired four Pittsburgh pros to play in the season-ending game against Akron. At the same time, pro football declined in the Pittsburgh area, and the emphasis on the pro game moved west from Pennsylvania to Ohio.
A field goal was changed from five points to four.
Ohio had at least seven pro teams, with Massillon winning the Ohio Independent Championship, that is, the pro title. Talk surfaced about forming a state-wide league to end spiraling salaries brought about by constant bidding for players and to write universal rules for the game. The feeble attempt to start the league failed.
Halfback Charles Follis signed a contract with the Shelby (Ohio) AC, making him the first known black pro football player.
The Canton AC, later to become known as the Bulldogs, became a professional team. Massillon again won the Ohio League championship.
The forward pass was legalized. The first authenticated pass completion in a pro game came on October 27, when George (Peggy) Parratt of Massillon threw a completion to Dan (Bullet) Riley in a victory over a combined Benwood-Moundsville team.
Arch-rivals Canton and Massillon, the two best pro teams in America, played twice, with Canton winning the first game but Massillon winning the second and the Ohio League championship. A betting scandal and the financial disaster wrought upon the two clubs by paying huge salaries caused a temporary decline in interest in pro football in the two cities and, somewhat, throughout Ohio.
A field goal dropped from four points to three.
A touchdown was increased from five points to six.
Jack Cusack revived a strong pro team in Canton.
Jim Thorpe, a former football and track star at the Carlisle Indian School (Pa.) and a double gold medal winner at the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm, played for the Pine Village Pros in Indiana.
Massillon again fielded a major team, reviving the old rivalry with Canton. Cusack signed Thorpe to play for Canton for $250 a game.
With Thorpe and former Carlisle teammate Pete Calac starring, Canton went 9-0-1, won the Ohio League championship, and was acclaimed the pro football champion.
Despite an upset by Massillon, Canton again won the Ohio League championship.
Canton again won the Ohio League championship, despite the team having been turned over from Cusack to Ralph Hay. Thorpe and Calac were joined in the backfield by Joe Guyon.
Earl (Curly) Lambeau and George Calhoun organized the Green Bay Packers. Lambeau's employer at the Indian Packing Company provided $500 for equipment and allowed the team to use the company field for practices. The Packers went 10-1.
Pro football was in a state of confusion due to three major problems: dramatically rising salaries; players continually jumping from one team to another following the highest offer; and the use of college players still enrolled in school. A league in which all the members would follow the same rules seemed the answer. An organizational meeting, at which the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, and Dayton Triangles were represented, was held at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio, August 20. This meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference.
A second organizational meeting was held in Canton, September 17. The teams were from four states-Akron, Canton, Cleveland, and Dayton from Ohio; the Hammond Pros and Muncie Flyers from Indiana; the Rochester Jeffersons from New York; and the Rock Island Independents, Decatur Staleys, and Racine Cardinals from Illinois. The name of the league was changed to the American Professional Football Association. Hoping to capitalize on his fame, the members elected Thorpe president; Stanley Cofall of Cleveland was elected vice president. A membership fee of $100 per team was charged to supply an appearance of respectability, but no team ever paid it. Scheduling was left up to the teams, and there were wide variations, both in the overall number of games played and in the number played against APFA member teams.
Four other teams-the Buffalo All-Americans, Chicago Tigers, Columbus Panhandles, and Detroit Heralds-joined the league sometime during the year. On September 26, the first game featuring an APFA team was played at Rock Island's Douglas Park. A crowd of 800 watched the Independents defeat the St. Paul Ideals 48-0. A week later, October 3, the first game matching two APFA teams was held. At Triangle Park, Dayton defeated Columbus 14-0, with Lou Partlow of Dayton scoring the first touchdown in a game between Association teams. The same day, Rock Island defeated Muncie 45-0.
By the beginning of December, most of the teams in the APFA had abandoned their hopes for a championship, and some of them, including the Chicago Tigers and the Detroit Heralds, had finished their seasons, disbanded, and had their franchises canceled by the Association. Four teams-Akron, Buffalo, Canton, and Decatur-still had championship as-pirations, but a series of late-season games among them left Akron as the only undefeated team in the Association. At one of these games, Akron sold tackle Bob Nash to Buffalo for $300 and five percent of the gate receipts-the first APFA player deal.
At the league meeting in Akron, April 30, the championship of the 1920 season was awarded to the Akron Pros. The APFA was reorganized, with Joe Carr of the Columbus Panhandles named president and Carl Storck of Dayton secretary-treasurer. Carr moved the Association's headquarters to Columbus, drafted a league constitution and by-laws, gave teams territorial rights, restricted player movements, developed membership criteria for the franchises, and issued standings for the first time, so that the APFA would have a clear champion.
The Association's membership increased to 22 teams, including the Green Bay Packers, who were awarded to John Clair of the Acme Packing Company.
Thorpe moved from Canton to the Cleveland Indians, but he was hurt early in the season and played very little.
A.E. Staley turned the Decatur Staleys over to player-coach George Halas, who moved the team to Cubs Park in Chicago. Staley paid Halas $5,000 to keep the name Staleys for one more year. Halas made halfback Ed (Dutch) Sternaman his partner.
Player-coach Fritz Pollard of the Akron Pros became the first black head coach.
The Staleys claimed the APFA championship with a 9-1-1 record, as did Buffalo at 9-1-2. Carr ruled in favor of the Staleys, giving Halas his first championship.
After admitting the use of players who had college eligibility remaining during the 1921 season, Clair and the Green Bay management withdrew from the APFA, January 28. Curly Lambeau promised to obey league rules and then used $50 of his own money to buy back the franchise. Bad weather and low attendance plagued the Packers, and Lambeau went broke, but local merchants arranged a $2,500 loan for the club. A public nonprofit corporation was set up to operate the team, with Lambeau as head coach and manager.
The American Professional Football Association changed its name to the National Football League, June 24. The Chicago Staleys became the Chicago Bears.
The NFL fielded 18 teams, including the new Oorang Indians of Marion, Ohio, an all-Indian team featuring Thorpe, Joe Guyon, and Pete Calac, and sponsored by the Oorang dog kennels. Canton, led by player-coach Guy Chamberlin and tackles Link Lyman and Wilbur (Pete) Henry, emerged as the league's first true powerhouse, going 10-0-2.
For the first time, all of the franchises considered to be part of the NFL fielded teams. Thorpe played his second and final season for the Oorang Indians. Against the Bears, Thorpe fumbled, and Halas picked up the ball and returned it 98 yards for a touchdown, a record that would last until 1972.
Canton had its second consecutive undefeated season, going 11-0-1 for the NFL title.
The league had 18 franchises, including new ones in Kansas City, Kenosha, and Frankford, a section of Philadelphia. League champion Canton, successful on the field but not at the box office, was purchased by the owner of the Cleveland franchise, who kept the Canton franchise inactive, while using the best players for his Cleveland team, which he renamed the Bulldogs. Cleveland won the title with a 7-1-1 record.
Five new franchises were admitted to the NFL-the New York Giants, who were awarded to Tim Mara and Billy Gibson for $500; the Detroit Panthers, featuring Jimmy Conzelman as owner, coach, and tailback; the Providence Steam Roller; a new Canton Bulldogs team; and the Pottsville Maroons, who had been perhaps the most successful independent pro team. The NFL established its first player limit, at 16 players.
Late in the season, the NFL made its greatest coup in gaining national recognition. Shortly after the University of Illinois season ended in November, All-America halfback Harold (Red) Grange signed a contract to play with the Chicago Bears. On Thanksgiving Day, a crowd of 36,000-the largest in pro football history-watched Grange and the Bears play the Chicago Cardinals to a scoreless tie at Wrigley Field. At the beginning of December, the Bears left on a barnstorming tour that saw them play eight games in 12 days, in St. Louis, Philadelphia, New York City, Washington, Boston, Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Chicago. A crowd of 73,000 watched the game against the Giants at the Polo Grounds, helping assure the future of the troubled NFL franchise in New York. The Bears then played nine more games in the South and West, including a game in Los Angeles, in which 75,000 fans watched them defeat the Los Angeles Tigers in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum.
Pottsville and the Chicago Cardinals were the top contenders for the league title, with Pottsville winning a late-season meeting 21-7. Pottsville scheduled a game against a team of former Notre Dame players for Shibe Park in Philadelphia. Frankford lodged a protest not only because the game was in Frankford's protected territory, but because it was being played the same day as a Yellow Jackets home game. Carr gave three different notices forbidding Pottsville to play the game, but Pottsville played anyway, December 12. That day, Carr fined the club, suspended it from all rights and privileges (including the right to play for the NFL championship), and re-turned its franchise to the league. The Cardinals, who ended the season with the best record in the league, were named the 1925 champions.
Grange's manager, C.C. Pyle, told the Bears that Grange wouldn't play for them unless he was paid a five-figure salary and given one-third ownership of the team. The Bears refused. Pyle leased Yankee Stadium in New York City, then petitioned for an NFL franchise. After he was refused, he started the first American Football League. It lasted one season and included Grange's New York Yankees and eight other teams. The AFL champion Philadelphia Quakers played a December game against the New York Giants, seventh in the NFL, and the Giants won 31-0. At the end of the season, the AFL folded.
Halas pushed through a rule that prohibited any team from signing a player whose college class had not graduated.
The NFL grew to 22 teams, including the Duluth Eskimos, who signed All-America fullback Ernie Nevers of Stanford, giving the league a gate attraction to rival Grange. The 15-member Eskimos, dubbed the Iron Men of the North, played 29 exhibition and league games, 28 on the road, and Nevers played in all but 29 minutes of them.
Frankford edged the Bears for the championship, despite Halas having obtained John (Paddy) Driscoll from the Cardinals. On December 4, the Yellow Jackets scored in the final two minutes to defeat the Bears 7-6 and move ahead of them in the standings.
At a special meeting in Cleveland, April 23, Carr decided to secure the NFL's future by eliminating the financially weaker teams and consolidating the quality players onto a limited number of more successful teams. The new-look NFL dropped to 12 teams, and the center of gravity of the league left the Midwest, where the NFL had started, and began to emerge in the large cities of the East. One of the new teams was Grange's New York Yankees, but Grange suffered a knee injury and the Yankees finished in the middle of the pack. The NFL championship was won by the cross-town rival New York Giants, who posted 10 shutouts in 13 games.
Grange and Nevers both retired from pro football, and Duluth disbanded, as the NFL was reduced to only 10 teams. The Providence Steam Roller of Jimmy Conzelman and Pearce Johnson won the championship, playing in the Cycledrome, a 10,000-seat oval that had been built for bicycle races.
Chris O'Brien sold the Chicago Cardinals to David Jones, July 27.
The NFL added a fourth official, the field judge, July 28.
Grange and Nevers returned to the NFL. Nevers scored six rushing touchdowns and four extra points as the Cardinals beat Grange's Bears 40-6, November 28. The 40 points set a record that remains the NFL's oldest.
Providence became the first NFL team to host a game at night under floodlights, against the Cardinals, November 3.
The Packers added back Johnny (Blood) McNally, tackle Cal Hubbard, and guard Mike Michalske, and won their first NFL championship, edging the Giants, who featured quarterback Benny Friedman.
Dayton, the last of the NFL's original franchises, was purchased by William B. Dwyer and John C. Depler, moved to Brooklyn, and renamed the Dodgers. The Portsmouth, Ohio, Spartans entered the league.
The Packers edged the Giants for the title, but the most improved team was the Bears. Halas retired as a player and replaced himself as coach of the Bears with Ralph Jones, who refined the T-formation by introducing wide ends and a halfback in motion. Jones also introduced rookie All-America fullback-tackle Bronko Nagurski.
The Giants defeated a team of former Notre Dame players coached by Knute Rockne 22-0 before 55,000 at the Polo Grounds, December 14. The proceeds went to the New York Unemployment Fund to help those suffering because of the Great Depression, and the easy victory helped supply the NFL credibility with the press and the public.
The NFL decreased to 10 teams, and halfway through the season the Frankford franchise folded. Carr fined the Bears, Packers, and Portsmouth $1,000 each for using players whose college classes had not graduated.
The Packers won an unprecedented third consecutive title, beating out the Spartans, who were led by rookie backs Earl (Dutch) Clark and Glenn Presnell.
George Preston Marshall, Vincent Bendix, Jay O'Brien, and M. Dorland Doyle were awarded a franchise for Boston, July 9. Despite the presence of two rookies-halfback Cliff Battles and tackle Glen (Turk) Edwards - the new team, named the Braves, lost money and Marshall was left as the sole owner at the end of the year.
NFL membership dropped to eight teams, the lowest in history. Official statistics were kept for the first time. The Bears and the Spartans finished the season in the first-ever tie for first place. After the season finale, the league office arranged for an additional regular-season game to determine the league champion. The game was moved indoors to Chicago Stadium because of bitter cold and heavy snow. The arena allowed only an 80-yard field that came right to the walls. The goal posts were moved from the end lines to the goal lines and, for safety, inbounds lines or hashmarks where the ball would be put in play were drawn 10 yards from the walls that butted against the sidelines. The Bears won 9-0, December 18, scoring the winning touchdown on a two-yard pass from Nagurski to Grange. The Spartans claimed Nagurski's pass was thrown from less than five yards behind the line of scrimmage, violating the existing passing rule, but the play stood.
The NFL, which long had followed the rules of college football, made a number of significant changes from the college game for the first time and began to develop rules serving its needs and the style of play it preferred. The innovations from the 1932 championship game-inbounds line or hashmarks and goal posts on the goal lines-were adopted. Also the forward pass was legalized from anywhere behind the line of scrimmage, February 25.
Marshall and Halas pushed through a proposal that divided the NFL into two divisions, with the winners to meet in an annual championship game, July 8.
Three new franchises joined the league-the Pittsburgh Pirates of Art Rooney, the Philadelphia Eagles of Bert Bell and Lud Wray, and the Cincinnati Reds. The Staten Island Stapletons suspended operations for a year, but never returned to the league.
Halas bought out Sternaman, became sole owner of the Bears, and reinstated himself as head coach. Marshall changed the name of the Boston Braves to the Redskins. David Jones sold the Chicago Cardinals to Charles W. Bidwill.
In the first NFL Championship Game scheduled before the season, the Western Division champion Bears defeated the Eastern Division champion Giants 23-21 at Wrigley Field, December 17.
G.A. (Dick) Richards purchased the Portsmouth Spartans, moved them to Detroit, and renamed them the Lions.
Professional football gained new prestige when the Bears were matched against the best college football players in the first Chicago College All-Star Game, August 31. The game ended in a scoreless tie before 79,432 at Soldier Field.
The Cincinnati Reds lost their first eight games, then were suspended from the league for defaulting on payments. The St. Louis Gunners, an independent team, joined the NFL by buying the Cincinnati franchise and went 1-2 the last three weeks.
Rookie Beattie Feathers of the Bears became the NFL's first 1,000-yard rusher, gaining 1,004 on 101 carries. The Thanksgiving Day game between the Bears and the Lions became the first NFL game broadcast nationally, with Graham McNamee the announcer for NBC radio.
In the championship game, on an extremely cold and icy day at the Polo Grounds, the Giants trailed the Bears 13-3 in the third quarter before changing to basketball shoes for better footing. The Giants won 30-13 in what has come to be known as the Sneakers Game, December 9.
The player waiver rule was adopted, December 10.
The NFL adopted Bert Bell's proposal to hold an annual draft of college players, to begin in 1936, with teams selecting in an inverse order of finish, May 19. The inbounds line or hashmarks were moved nearer the center of the field, 15 yards from the sidelines.
All-America end Don Hutson of Alabama joined Green Bay. The Lions defeated the Giants 26-7 in the NFL Championship Game, December 15.
There were no franchise transactions for the first year since the formation of the NFL. It also was the first year in which all member teams played the same number of games.
The Eagles made University of Chicago halfback and Heisman Trophy winner Jay Berwanger the first player ever selected in the NFL draft, February 8. The Eagles traded his rights to the Bears, but Berwanger never played pro football. The first player selected to actually sign was the number-two pick, Riley Smith of Alabama, who was selected by Boston.
A rival league was formed, and it became the second to call itself the American Football League. The Boston Shamrocks were its champions.
Because of poor attendance, Marshall, the owner of the host team, moved the Championship Game from Boston to the Polo Grounds in New York. Green Bay defeated the Redskins 21-6, December 13.
Homer Marshman was granted a Cleveland franchise, named the Rams, February 12. Marshall moved the Redskins to Washington, D.C., February 13. The Redskins signed TCU All-America tailback Sammy Baugh, who led them to a 28-21 victory over the Bears in the NFL Championship Game, December 12.
The Los Angeles Bulldogs had an 8-0 record to win the AFL title, but then the 2-year-old league folded.
At the suggestion of Halas, Hugh (Shorty) Ray became a technical advisor on rules and officiating to the NFL. A new rule called for a 15-yard penalty for roughing the passer.
Rookie Byron (Whizzer) White of the Pittsburgh Pirates led the NFL in rushing. The Giants defeated the Packers 23-17 for the NFL title, December 11.
Marshall, Los Angeles Times sports editor Bill Henry, and promoter Tom Gallery established the Pro Bowl game between the NFL champion and a team of pro all-stars.
The New York Giants defeated the Pro All-Stars 13-10 in the first Pro Bowl, at Wrigley Field, Los Angeles, January 15.
Carr, NFL president since 1921, died in Columbus, May 20. Carl Storck was named acting president, May 25.
An NFL game was televised for the first time when NBC broadcast the Brooklyn Dodgers-Philadelphia Eagles game from Ebbets Field to the approximately 1,000 sets then in New York.
Green Bay defeated New York 27-0 in the NFL Championship Game, December 10 at Milwaukee. NFL attendance exceeded 1 million in a season for the first time, reaching 1,071,200.
Our story began in 1950, when 13 brave and bold women launched the LPGA with a dream of providing a platform for women to play professional golf. Just nine years later, that same bold spirit and focus on women’s opportunities led to the start of the LPGA Teaching and Club Professionals. Since then, so many people have been instrumental in keeping the LPGA soaring to new heights.
Since the 1960’s, ecologists have been actively involved in setting environmental policy and influencing decision-making in our society. The Ecological Society of America strives to enhance the quality of this advice by instituting a Code of Ethics and providing a professional certification program designed to evaluate the education and professional experience of ecologists. Professional certification means that ecologists have demonstrated an appropriate level of education and experience in applying ecological principles in their professional environmental careers.
The professional certification program, begun in 1981, recognizes ecologists who seek to incorporate ecological principles in decision-making, who meet a minimum set of standards in education and experience, and who adhere to high ethical standards. It is clear that a formal identification of minimum standards for ecologists is needed and that society needs, welcomes, and now recognizes the ESA Certification Program as a means of identifying well-trained and reliable professionals who meet criteria of competence. Other scientific environmental organizations have furthered their certification programs in response to the requirement for professional certification credentials.
The demand for professional certification is apparent. Ecologists need to meet that demand in order to ensure that ecological science is considered in environmental policy and decision making be it on the local, regional, national, or international level. Formal certification is an important criteria to be met by ecologists, whether they are employed in the private or public sector or in academia. Clearly ecological certification will define the standards, formally identify the profession, and increase the respectability of ecologists in environmental affairs.
Beginning in 2021, to maintain the same standards of professionalism as other professions and to keep ESA’s certification competitive in the environmental sciences, continuing education is required of our certified ecologists. We consider this just one step in an ongoing effort to maintain a rigorous program of validation for anybody holding our certifications!
The goal of certification is to foster the incorporation of ecological principles in the decision-making process of the Society. To meet this goal, the Ecological Society of America recognizes individuals whose education, training and experience meet the established standards of the Society.The ESA certification program provides ready access to professional ecologists for advice and technical guidance on public policy and regulatory issues facing society.
Though certification does not ensure the competence of individuals to address specific matters, the Society attests that certified members have met minimum education and experience requirement for various certification levels. Each certified member also acknowledges adherence to the ESA Code of Ethics.
Twelve Nigerian students from the University of Ibadan, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, and University of Port Harcourt have qualified for the Huawei Global ICT competition following an excellent performance in the cloud and network examination at the just concluded Huawei sub-Saharan Africa region ICT competition finals.
The Huawei ICT Competition, which generally covers examination on the latest ICT technologies such as cloud computing, artificial intelligence, mobile networks and big data, is believed to be the biggest of its kind in Africa featuring 123 student-talents from 13 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, grouped into 41 teams (28 network track and 13 cloud track teams).
At the sub-Saharan regional finals, the students compete for 18 prizes and 12 admission tickets for the Huawei Global ICT Competition Final in October 2020, which will attract more than 300 other student-talents from 66 countries across the globe.
Team Nigeria had 15 students grouped into five teams who competed under the network and cloud segment. The Nigerian students had a great performance which guaranteed four of the Nigerian teams’ tickets to the Global ICT Competition.
Two teams emerged first position and third position respectively in the Cloud examination, while two other teams of the Nigerian students emerged second position in the Network examination.
Due to the pandemic, the Huawei ICT sub-Saharan regional competition was held virtually. The Nigerian students participated from the Huawei Technologies Nigeria offices in Abuja and Lagos respectively.
The Huawei ICT competition which is established to foster ICT learning in Africa and bridge the gap between theoretical study and practical experience typically comprises of a national preliminary contest, regional semi-final and a Global final. Following a successful run at the national finals of the Huawei ICT Competition which was held on December 10th 2019 and had over 23,000 Nigerian students in the contest, 15 students were selected to represent Nigeria at the sub-Saharan Africa Region ICT competition finals which held on September 10th and 11th, 2020 to determine those who will be selected to participate the Huawei Global ICT Competition finals.
One of the Huawei Channel Training Managers for ICT Talent Ecosystem Development in Nigeria, Mr. Weilei, said: “The Huawei ICT competition was first launched in Nigeria in 2017 and currently runs under the Huawei ICT Academy which is in collaboration with more than 90 Nigerian universities. The Huawei ICT Academy was established to train students for free in the latest internationally relevant ICT skills in subjects such as Networks, Cloud Computing and Big Data. As at today, over 10,000 Nigerian students have benefitted.”
He added that “there are 150 instructors from partnering institutions, with 120 of them acquiring various Huawei certifications in different technology track and 250 training classes in various technology tracks, in Routing & switching, storage, cloud services, big data, W-Lan, security and AI delivered by Huawei certified instructors.”
Director, Huawei Nigeria Enterprise D&S Department, Ms. Melissa Chen, said: “The competition-related training has helped over 300 students receive job offers. In Nigeria alone, over 3,000 Nigerian students trained by Huawei have successfully passed the Huawei professional certification exams. Huawei hopes to skill up more than 700,000 ICT professionals by 2023. The aim is to bridge the ICT talent gap, advance the digital transformation of industries, and bring digital to every person, home and organization for a fully connected, intelligent world.”
Mr. Kenneth Igwe, another of the Huawei Channel Training Managers for ICT Talent Ecosystem Development in Nigeria, explained how the students were trained adequately for the examination by Huawei certified instructors, following hands-on trainings/internship with the company. He said: “Prior to the ICT competition, Huawei Technologies Nigeria took time out to train 9 of the 15 students who were also given internship opportunities with the company in Abuja and Lagos. Meanwhile, all the students had also been trained since January for this competition and many of them already acquired HCIA, HCIP and HCIP which are globally recognised certifications in various Huawei technology Courses.”
The students and instructors were glad to have qualified to represent Nigeria at the Huawei Global ICT competition which will be held later in the year 2020.
“I am excited we have qualified for the global finals since we have been preparing for this for over 8 months. Huawei gave us free access to their cloud services and also free vouchers to write the HCIP Cloud Services Certification and also support from their engineers” – Abdullahi Muhammad Khalifa, Cloud Team, student from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, said.
“Huawei offered us internship opportunities which exposed us to real life projects and has played a major role towards our success in the regional final even as we look forward to a greater performance at the global finals. Connection, Glory, Future, the theme of the Huawei ICT Competition says it all. I am looking forward to the glory of becoming a world champion which will make the future brighter for me,” Ugheoke Anthony Oshiobugie, Network team student from the University of Port Harcourt, said.
“I feel very excited to be participating in the Huawei ICT Global Finals. It took a lot of time and effort to come this far and I am glad our team’s perseverance yielded great results. Huawei provided us with a suitable learning environment during our six weeks internship where we learnt about the emerging technologies such as Cloud and Storage,” Mustapha Abdullahi Jimoh, Cloud Team, and student from Ahamadu Bello University, Zaria, said.
“I am very excited to represent Nigeria in the global final and I will put more effort to bring the Gold medal home. Huawei has helped me in attaining my HCIA and HCIP R&S certifications and I also participated in a lot of rigorous trainings organized by Huawei including but not limited to HCIE training. These certifications and trainings really go a long way” – Abideen Bolaji Olaide (Network Team, student from University of Ibadan)
“I am so excited and honoured to represent Nigeria in the global finals, it has been an awesome experience so far. I was part of the boot camp at the Huawei office Abuja for about 2 months where we (I and my team) were extensively trained and well equipped for the regional finals. I am definitely looking forward to coming out in flying colours and making Nigeria proud at the global finals.” – Ukasanya Elma Tejiri (Network Team, student from University of Port Harcourt).
“What an intensive support from Huawei through the provision of quality trainings and exam vouchers right from the associate level to the expert level also the provision of quick access to study guides.” – Badiru Toheeb Adeniyi (Network Team, student from University of Ibadan).
“This competition made me learn a lot of things. Previously, I could not configure a Huawei enterprise router via the CLI. But after preparing for this competition, I have been able to configure, install and integrate some enterprise links using Huawei enterprise routers. The preparation for this competition has enabled me to master most of the syntax for setting up a Huawei router/switches via CLI. The Huawei Academy has been so helpful in our preparation for the Regional finals through well-planned online classes, lucid presentation via Meet/Zoom mobile Apps and excellent tutors. During the classes, we were given all the materials needed for the exam” – Ohagim Chinemere (Network Team, student from University of Port Harcourt).
“This platform has enabled me broaden my knowledge in computer networking, information and network security. It has also kept me abreast on trending network protocols and procedures and how I can secure information properly hereby ensuring the triple A (authentication, authorization and accounting) to protect data and information using the 3 major components (CIA Triad) confidentiality, integrity and availability. This competition has also helped my knowledge and the level of experience acquired during the course and has enabled me have an outstanding edge of knowledge and professional qualification over other IT computer personnel’s in networking and security” – Nwala Uchechi Blessing (Network Team, Student from University of Port Harcourt).
“Looking at the performance of the students, I am just so happy. I am encouraged by the way they embrace this challenge, and always look forward to even more challenges. Huawei really helped in preparing us for the finals by making a pool of learning resources available online which we can always refer to at any time. More preparation time would go a long way for the students as they anticipate the global finals. A great performance is what I look forward to.,” Adebayo, Samuel Oluwafemi, Network Team, and Instructor from University of Port Harcourt, said.
The European Commission on Thursday urged EU member countries to reduce the risks associated with Chinese telecoms equipment in 5G networks, naming Germany in particular as a country that needs to implement the bloc's joint 5G security guidelines.
"We are urging member states who have not yet imposed restrictions on high-risk suppliers to do that without delay, as a matter of urgency," said Margrethe Vestager, executive vice president of the Commission in charge of digital issues.
"A number of countries have passed legislation but they have not put it into effect ... Making it work is even better," she said.
Asked whether Germany — where operators like Deutsche Telekom and Vodafone have relied heavily on equipment from Chinese giant Huawei in the past decade — is of particular concern, Vestager said: "It is not only Germany, but it is also Germany."
European countries in 2020 agreed on a set of measures called the 5G Security Toolbox to reduce their reliance on "high-risk vendors" for future telecoms networks, in what was widely seen as a policy to dial down procurement of equipment from Huawei and its smaller Chinese rival ZTE.
Berlin last year passed a law allowing government ministries to intervene on telco contracts with Huawei, but the law leaves a lot of discretion to the government in how it imposes restrictions. The new government of Chancellor Olaf Scholz was expected to take a tougher stance on China but so far hasn't intervened much in telcos' reliance on Huawei.
Your efficiency and effectiveness on the job can benefit greatly from your ability to manage yourself. Raising your proficiency in these areas is a fantastic way to define your career path and make a positive impression on recruiters and hiring managers.
As illustrations, learning to manage your time better, getting yourself motivated, and showing initiative in the workplace can be some significant areas of focus.
Self-management abilities are the capacity to plan and organize your career and take responsibility for upgrading your qualifications. These skills help you to manage thoughts, feelings, and behavior.
Self-management skills make you an independent, self-motivated professional who can work with little or no supervision, because you can set goals and prioritise tasks. This is very essential when you are seeking new avenues.
A recruiter will always remember a candidate who shows the ability to meet company goals. Employers invariably prefer candidates who-- in addition to high self-awareness-- can align their ambitions with the company.
Organised people are likely to be good managers. Organisation implies you can prioritise, plan, and execute things on your own. It helps you finish projects on schedule and manage your space, time, energy, and mind.
Accountability implies owning responsibility for your thoughts and actions. This talent helps you evaluate your work and plan the next steps. If you can deal with the results of your work or behavior respectfully and effectively, you will be a much sought after professional.
Prioritising and focusing is easier with time-management skills. If you manage your workday well, you will be more productive and complete more chores than someone who does not. Excellent time-management abilities can help you manage your work and boost team morale.
Taking initiative means resolving situations pro-actively without being asked. When looking for a new job, it is crucial to show that you are willing to take chances and, if the situation demands, take the necessary action. It may also mean you can do tasks using your experience and knowledge. Taking the lead means you can quickly deal with an important issue or settle disagreements at work.
Knowing what measures to take can make improving your talents easier. Here are some significant self-management practices:
Knowing your strengths might reveal your innate talents. These strengths can aid career management. With this knowledge, you can plan to enhance your other personal management skills. Addressing weaknesses and highlighting strengths shows an employer you're goal-oriented.
If you want to Strengthen several abilities at once but work full-time, you may need to prioritize. Analyze which ability is most relevant to your role. If you cannot decide, explore with your boss. They can look at your job duties and supply you an honest opinion of your ideas for self-improvement.
Choosing one talent to enhance does not mean you cannot Strengthen other skills later. Long-term career progress is vital. This may include swapping skills once you are satisfied with your first. Single-tasking allows you to focus on fewer tasks and find ways to improve.
Setting career deadlines helps to plan your growth. Assigning deadlines to each assignment may seem needless, especially if you have never done it, but it can Strengthen your organisation. Once you are used to completing assignments on time, consider delivering essential projects early. This shows that you want to Strengthen yourself and gives you more time to make changes to the project.
Personal management abilities can affect your employer's success, but remember to prioritise your well-being. Consider how this change affects your mood and emotions. You can also gather and analyse self-revelation.
Since personal management abilities are linked to self-awareness, you can strengthen them by developing your emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is the capacity to comprehend and control emotions.
It helps you handle other peoples' emotions. Prioritising it might help you communicate effectively and reduce stress.
Consider going the extra mile to complete tasks to the best of your ability so that you can put your talents in self-management to use.
Whenever working on a significant project you should always ask yourself "Is there anything else I could do to make this better?" You could also think about providing support to the other people in your workplace.
It demonstrates that you care about your work and want to take the initiative to make things easier for other people.
Authored by Anil Somani, Chairman, FOSTIIMA Business School.
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