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Question: 194
A 37-year-old woman presents with heavy bleeding. Investigation shows subserosal fibroid-4cm and intramu.
Which is the most appropriate treatment?
A. Abdominal Hysterectomy
B. Vaginal Hysterectomy
C. Abdominal Myomectomy
D. Hysteroscopic Myomectomy
Answer: C
Explanation:
As patient is young we should go for myomectomy. As hysteroscopic myo mainly sub mucosal fibroids we should go
for abdominal myomectomy which will deal with both subserosal a fibroids.
Question: 195
A new screening test has been devised to detect early stages of prostate cancer.
However, the test tends t of people with no cancer, although they do have cancer as diagnosed by other standard tests.
What is this flaw?
A. True Cve
B. False +ve
C. Poor specificity
D. True +ve
E. False -ve
Answer: E
Question: 196
A young girl presented to gynecologist for assessment with lower abdominal pain and per vaginal bleedin of
hysterosalpingograph as a part of her infertility treatment. Observation: BP=90/50mmHg, pulse-120bpm, and revealed
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rigid abdomen.
What is the most appropriate next investigation?
A. Coagulation profile
B. Chest X ray
C. Ultrasound abdomen
D. X-ray erect and supine
E. CT SCAN
Answer: C
Explanation:
Likely cause of bleeding and shock is ruptured fallopian tube for which appropriate ne is US abdomen.
Question: 197
A middle aged woman has some weakness of hand after an injury.
Which vertebra will be the lowest to be x-ray to diagnosis the injury?
A. C7/T1
B. C5/C6
C. c8/T1
D. C6/C7
Answer: A
Question: 198
Patient with major depression what is the first line treatment?
A. Tricyclic antidepressant
B. SSRIs
C. MAOI
Answer: B
Explanation:
A SSRIs are the initial antidepressants of choice for uncomplicated depression because of their minimal anti-
cholinergic effects
Question: 199
A 28-weeks pregnant woman presents with uterine bleeding after sexual intercourse.
What is the most appropriate diagnosis?
A. Placental abruption
B. Missed abortion
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C. Placental previa
D. Ectropion
Answer: D
Explanation:
Post coital bleeding can be either placenta previa or cervical ectropion. But as ectropion pregnancy so it is the option
here.
Question: 200
Condition not associated with increased alpha fetoprotein:
A. Myelomeningocele
B. Down syndrome
C. Spina bifida
D. Gastroschisis
Answer: B
Explanation:
Down syndrome associated with DECREASED levels of alpha fetoprotein. Not increased.
Reference: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triple_test
Question: 201
A 64 years man believes a female newscaster is communicating directly with him when she turns a page.
Where is he suffering from?
A. Delusion of Reference
B. Nihilistic
C. Grandeur
D. Control
E. Persecutory
Answer: A
Explanation:
A delusion of reference is a type of delusion wherein the individual perceives unrelated events or objects in his/her
surroundings to be of significance for himself/herself. For example, a person with schizophrenia might believe a
billboard or a celebrity is sending a message meant for them.
Question: 202
A 48-year-old woman always socially withdrawn has stopped going out of the house. She is afraid to socialize fears
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that people will criticize her.
What is the most probable diagnosis?
A. PTSD
B. GAD
C. Social anxiety
D. Agoraphobia
E. OCD
Answer: C
Explanation:
Social anxiety disorder is a type of complex phobia. This type of phobia has a disrupt disabling impact on a persons
life. It can severely affect a persons confidence and self-esteem, interfere with relationships and impair performance
at work or school.
Question: 203
Victim of RTA came with multiple injuries to abdomen, chest and limbs. BP is 80/ 50. upper limb has upper third near
amputation that bleeds profusely, what is your first thing to do:
A. Tourniquet the limb to stop the bleeding
B. Check the airway and breathing
C. Five IV fluid
D. Call orthopedic
Answer: B
Explanation:
As rule ABC also in description near amputation so difficult to make tourniquet enough which stops bleeding.
Question: 204
A 72years presents with polyuria and polydipsia. The fasting blood sugar is 8 and 10mmol/l.BP=130/80mm
cholesterol=5.7mmol/l. There is microalbuminuria.
What is the single most appropriate next management?
A. Statin and glitazone
B. ACEi and sulfonylurea
C. Statin and Biguanide
D. Statin and ACEi
Answer: D
$13$10

Medical practitioner exam syllabus - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/GP-MCQS Search results Medical practitioner exam syllabus - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/GP-MCQS https://killexams.com/exam_list/Medical UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus for IAS Mains: PDF Download

UPSC Medical Science Syllabus: Medical Science is a popularly chosen optional subject in the UPSC Mains exam. It mainly assesses the candidate’s knowledge of basic concepts and usage of knowledge to address the issues faced by the patient. Scoring Full Marks in this subject is crucial as it can boost the overall marks in the UPSC IAS exam. Candidates with science backgrounds can opt for Medical Science as their UPSC optional to excel in this subject. 

Going by the past five years' statistics, approximately 150-250 aspirants pick Medical Science optional subject, and the success rate hovers around 10%. It is recommended to adhere to the Medical Science Syllabus for UPSC to prepare comprehensively for the civil service exam. As per the past UPSC exam analysis, it is found that the difficulty level of the UPSC Medical Science optional subjects was medium in nature.

Shiv Khera

In this article, we shared the UPSC Medical Science Syllabus PDF for Mains, question weightage, preparation tips, and best books.

Related Article,

UPSC Medical Science Syllabus PDF

The UPSC Medical Science optional syllabus comprises two papers, i.e., Papers 1 and 2. The UPSC Medical Science subject is conducted for a total of 500 marks, with each paper carrying 250 marks. Candidates must carefully review the UPSC Medical Science Syllabus PDF for Papers 1 and 2 to get an idea of the important syllabus and build a robust approach. get the topic-wise UPSC Medical Science Syllabus PDF for papers 1 and 2 tabulated below.

UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus For IAS Mains

There are two papers in the UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus i.e., Paper 1 and Paper 2. Before commencing the preparation, it is vital to check the topic-wise UPSC Medical Science syllabus for main optional papers 1 and 2 as it will allow them to differentiate between important and unimportant topics.

UPSC Medical Science Syllabus for Paper 1

The UPSC Medical Science Paper I syllabus covers syllabus like Human Anatomy, Human Physiology, Biochemistry, Pathology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. Check the topic-wise UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus for Paper I below.

  1. Human Anatomy:

Applied anatomy including blood and nerve supply of upper and lower limbs and joints of shoulder, hip and knee.

Gross anatomy, blood supply and lymphatic drainage of tongue, thyroid, mammary gland, stomach, liver, prostate, gonads and uterus.

Applied anatomy of the diaphragm, perineum and inguinal region.

Clinical anatomy of kidney, urinary bladder, uterine tubes, vas deferens.

Embryology: Placenta and placental barrier. Development of heart, gut, and kidney, uterus, ovary, testis and their common congenital abnormalities.

Central and Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System: Gross and clinical anatomy of ventricles of the brain, circulation of cerebrospinal fluid; Neural pathways and lesions of cutaneous sensations, hearing and vision; Cranial nerves distribution and clinical significance; Components of the autonomic nervous system.

  1. Human Physiology:

Conduction and transmission of impulse, mechanism of contraction, neuromuscular transmission, reflexes, control of equilibrium, posture and muscle tone, descending pathways, functions of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, Physiology of sleep and consciousness.

Endocrine System: Mechanism of action of hormones; formation, secretion, transport, metabolism, function and regulation of secretion of pancreas and pituitary gland.

Physiology of Reproductive System: Pregnancy menstrual cycle, lactation, pregnancy.

Blood: Development, regulation and fate of blood cells.

Cardio-vascular, cardiac output, blood pressure, regulation of cardiovascular functions.

  1. Biochemistry:

Organ function tests—liver, kidney, thyroid Protein synthesis.

Vitamins and minerals.

Restriction fragment length.

polymorphism (RFLP).

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Radio-immunoassays (RIA).

  1. Pathology:

Inflammation and repair, disturbances of growth and cancer, Pathogenesis and histopathology of rheumatic and ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Differentiation between benign, malignant, primary and metastatic malignancies, Pathogenesis and histopathology of bronchogenic carcinoma, carcinoma breast, oral cancer, cancer cervix, leukaemia, Etiology, pathogenesis and histopathology of— cirrhosis liver, glomerulonephritis, tuberculosis, acute osteomyelitis.

  1. Microbiology:

Humoral and cell mediated immunity.

Diseases caused by and laboratory diagnosis of —

Meningococcus, Saimonella

Shigella, Herpes, Dengue, Polio

HIV/AIDS, Malaria, E. Histolytica, Giardia

Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus.

  1. Pharmacology:

Mechanism of action and side effects of the following drugs :

Antipyretics and analgesics, Antibiotics,

Antimalaria, Antikala-azar, Antidiabetics,

Antihypertensive, Antidiuretics, General and cardiac vasodilators, Antiviral, Antiparasitic, Antifungal, Immunosuppressants,

Anticancer.

  1. Forensic Medicine and Toxicology

Forensic examination of injuries and wounds; Examination of blood and seminal stains; Poisoning, sedative overdose, hanging, drowning, burns, DNA and fingerprint study.

UPSC Medical Science Syllabus for Paper 2

The UPSC Medical Science Paper II Syllabus focuses on syllabus like General Medicine, Paediatrics, Dermatology, General Surgery,  Obstetrics and Gynaecology including Family Planning, and Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine). Check the topic-wise UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus PDF for Paper II below.

  1. General Medicine
  • Aetiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management (including prevention) of—Typhoid, Rabies, AIDS, Dengue, Kala-azar, and Japanese Encephalitis.
  • Aetiology, clinical features, diagnosis and principles of management of :
  • Ischaemic heart disease, pulmonary embolism.
  • Bronchial asthma.
  • Pleural effusion, tuberculosis, Malabsorption syndromes; acid peptic diseases, Viral hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, renovascular hypertension, complications of diabetes mellitus, coagulation disorders, leukaemia, Hypo and hyper thyroid, meningitis and encephalitis.
  • Imaging in medical problems, ultrasound, echocardiogram, CT scan, MRI.
  • Anxiety and Depressive Psychosis and schizophrenia and ECT. 
  1. Paediatrics

Immunization, Baby friendly hospital, congenital cyanotic heart disease, respiratory distress syndrome, broncho— pneumonia, kernicterus. IMNCI classification and management, PEM grading and management. ARI and Diarrhea of under five and their management.

  1. Dermatology

Psoriasis, Allergic dermatitis, scabies, eczema, vitiligo, Stevan Johnson’s syndrome, Lichen Planus.

  1. General Surgery
  • Clinical features, causes, diagnosis and principles of management of cleft palate, harelip.
  • Laryngeal tumour, oral and esophageal tumours.
  • Peripheral arterial diseases, varicose veins, coarctation of aorta.
  • Tumours of Thyroid, Adrenal, Glands.
  • Abscess cancer, fibroadenoma and adenosis of the breast.
  • Bleeding peptic ulcer, tuberculosis of the bowel, ulcerative colitis, cancer stomach.
  • Renal mass, cancer prostate.
  • Haemothorax, stones of the Gall bladder, Kidney, Ureter and Urinary Bladder.
  • Management of surgical conditions of Rectum, Anus and Anal canal, Gall bladder and Bile ducts.
  • Splenomegaly, cholecystitis, portal hypertension, liver abscess, peritonitis, carcinoma head of pancreas.
  • Fractures of the spine, Colles’ fracture and bone tumours.
  • Endoscopy.
  • Laparoscopic Surgery.
  1. Obstetrics and Gynaecology including Family Planning
  • Diagnosis of pregnancy.
  • Labour management, complications of 3rd stage, Antepartum and postpartum haemorrhage, resuscitation of the newborn, Management of abnormal life and difficult labour. Management of small for date or premature newborns.
  • Diagnosis and management of anaemia. Preeclampsia and Toxaemias of pregnancy, Management of Postmenopausal Syndrome.
  • Intra-uterine devices, pills, tubectomy and vasectomy. Medical termination of pregnancy including legal aspects.
  • Cancer cervix.
  • Leucorrhoea, pelvic pain; infertility, dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), amenorrhoea, Fibroid and prolapse of uterus.
  1. Community Medicine (Preventive and Social Medicine)
  • Principles, methods approach and measurements of Epidemiology.
  • Nutrition, nutritional diseases/disorders and Nutrition Programmes.
  • Health information Collection, Analysis and Presentation.
  • Objectives, components and critical analysis of National programmes for control/eradication of :
  • Malaria, Kala-azar, Filaria and Tuberculosis,
  • HIV/AIDS, STDs and Dengue.
  • Critical appraisal of Health care delivery system.
  • Health management and administration; Techniques, Tools, Programme Implementation and Evaluation.
  • Objectives, Components, Goals and Status of Reproductive and Child Health, National Rural Health Mission and Millennium Development Goals.
  • Management of hospital and industrial waste.

How to Prepare the UPSC Medical Science Syllabus 2023?

Candidates must follow the UPSC Medical Science syllabus and reshape the preparation strategy. This will help them to get a strong grip on the concepts and advanced chapters important from the exam perspective. As the UPSC Medical Science optional syllabus is lengthy, aspirants should consider specific points during the IAS exam preparation.

  • Review the UPSC Medical Science optional syllabus thoroughly and segregate the syllabus based on marks weightage. This will enable them to finish the syllabus in a stipulated time period.
  • Pick the highly recommended books and study resources to understand the concepts easily and comprehensively.
  • Solve UPSC Medical Science's previous year's question paper to get an idea of the questions repeatedly asked over the years and question weightage.
  • Revise all the important syllabus and chapters covered so far to retain concepts for a definite period.

Booklist for UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus

Numerous UPSC Medical Science optional books are available to strengthen the basics. Once they learn fundamentals, they should start covering core syllabus for the advanced preparation. The right books will help them to cover all the important syllabus specified in the UPSC Medical Science Optional Syllabus. Some of the best UPSC Medical Science Optional books are as follows.

Subject

Book Name with Author

Paper-I

  • Human Anatomy by B D Chaurasia
  • Pathology by Robbins, and Cotran
  • Textbook of Pathology by Harsh Mohan
  • Embryology from I B Singh
  • Biochemistry by U. Satyanarayana book.
  • Illustrated Reviews Pharmacology by Lippincott
  • Essentials of Medical Pharmacology by K D Tripathi
  • Microbiology by D R Arora

Paper-II

  • General Medicine textbook of medicine by S N Chugh
  • Manipal Manual of Surgery by K. Rajgopal Shenoy
  • Pediatrics– Essential pediatrics by O P Ghai, Paul and Bagga.
  • Clinical surgery by S Das.
  • Emergency medicine by S N Chugh.
  • Practical Aspects Of Pediatrics by Dr. Mayoor K Chheda

Also Read,

Mon, 23 Oct 2023 11:00:00 -0500 text/html https://www.jagranjosh.com/articles/upsc-medical-science-optional-syllabus-pdf-download-1698062228-1
Referring medical practitioners

Radiological imaging is a major and increasing source of radiation exposure worldwide. Computed tomography (CT) is the largest contributor to medical radiation dose patients receive. Typically, CT scans impart doses to organs that are 100 times higher than doses imparted by other lower dose modalities such as chest X-rays. In general, CT examinations may involve doses (typically an average of 8 mSv) which may be equal to the dose received by several hundreds of chest X-rays (about 0.02 mSv/chest X-ray).

During an IAEA consultation on justification in 2007, it was estimated that up to 50% of examinations may not be necessary. It should be anticipated that part of the increase in global annual mean dose that has been observed recently is due to unjustified radiological procedures. Direct epidemiological data suggest that medical exposure to low doses of radiation even as low as 10-50 mSv might be associated with a small risk of cancer induction in the long term. The fact that a considerable percentage of people may undergo repeated high dose examinations , such as CT (sometimes exceeding 10 mSv per examination) dictates that caution should be used when referring a patient for radiological procedures. Health professionals need to make sure the patient benefits from the procedure and risk is kept minimal. 

However, ensuring maximum benefit to risk ratio for the patient is not a trivial task. Referring medical practitioners, in a large part of the world, lack training in radiation protection and in risk estimation. 97% of practitioners who participated in a study underestimated the dose the patient would receive from diagnostic procedures. The average mean dose was about 6 times higher  than the physicians had estimated. The fundamental principles of radiation protection in medicine are justification and optimization of radiological protection. Referring medical practitioners have a major role in justification. They are responsible in terms of weighing the benefit versus the risk of a given radiological procedure.

» What is justification and what is the framework?

Justification requires that the expected net benefit be positive. According to principles established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and accepted by major international organizations, the principle of justification applies at three levels in the use of radiation in medicine.

» Is the referring medical practitioner responsible for justification of radiological procedures?

Yes, jointly with the radiological practitioner. As stated above, justification at the third level is the responsibility of the referring medical practitioner, as is the awareness about appropriateness criteria for justification at level 2. According to the BSS, the radiological exposure has to be justified through consultation between the radiological medical practitioner and the referring medical practitioner, as appropriate, or be part of an approved health screening programme.

Since referring medical practitioners usually have the most complete picture of the patient’s health, they should be responsible for the guidance of the patient in undergoing only necessary procedures and benefitting from them. Particularly, this responsibility weighs more on generalists such as primary care providers. In order to facilitate justification in the case of radiological procedures, it is desirable that referring medical practitioners are knowledgeable about radiation effects in regard to the various dose ranges. The referring medical practitioners are responsible for keeping their knowledge about radiation up to date. In support of this, they should be provided education in radiation protection during their medical studies.

» How should justification be practiced and what knowledge is required for proper justification of a radiological procedure?

According to the BSS, the justification of medical exposure for an individual patient shall be carried out through consultation between the radiological medical practitioner and the referring medical practitioner, as appropriate, with account taken, in particular for patients who are pregnant or breast-feeding or paediatric, of:

  • The appropriateness of the request; 
  • The urgency of the procedure; 
  • The characteristics of the medical exposure; 
  • The characteristics of the individual patient; 
  • Relevant information from the patient’s previous radiological procedures. 

Justification should be patient specific. The referring medical practitioner should take into account all clinical aspects regarding the management of every patient separately. Other possible procedures with lower or no exposure, such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, should be considered, if and when appropriate, before proceeding to radiological procedures.

» Is the acquisition of patients’ consent important?

According to the BSS, in order for a symptomatic or asymptomatic patient to undergo a medical procedure that involves ionizing radiation, the patient or the patient’s legally authorized representative should be informed in a timely and clear fashion, of the expected diagnostic or therapeutic benefits of the radiological procedure as well as the radiation risks. Thus, the emphasis is on provision of information.

» When is an investigation useful and what are the reasons that cause unnecessary use of radiation?

According to the guidelines published by the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR),  a useful investigation is one in which the result, either positive or negative, will alter a patient’s management or add confidence to the clinician’s diagnosis. According to the RCR guidelines, there are some reasons that lead to wasteful use of radiation. With emphasis on avoiding unjustified irradiation of patients, the RCR report has provided a check list for physicians referring patients for diagnostic radiological procedures:

  • HAS IT BEEN DONE ALREADY? It is important to avoid repeating investigations which have already been performed relatively recently. Sometimes it is not possible to accurately track the procedures history of patients. Furthermore, patients may not be able to inform the practitioner that they had a similar procedure recently. It is important to attempt retrieving previous patient procedures and reports, or at least procedure history when possible. Digital data stored in electronic databases may help in that direction; 
  • To help in avoiding repeating investigations, it is necessary to establish a tracking system for radiological examinations and patient dose. The IAEA has taken steps towards that direction by setting up the “IAEA Smart-Card” project;
  • DO I NEED IT? Performing investigations that are unlikely to produce useful results should be avoided, i.e. request procedures only if they will change patients’ management. It is important for the practitioner to be sure that the finding that the investigation yields is relevant to the case under study;
  • DO I NEED IT NOW? Investigating too quickly should be avoided. The referring medical practitioner should allow enough time to pass so that the disorder or impact of management of the disorder may be sufficiently evident; 
  • IS THIS THE BEST EXAMINATION? Doing the examination without taking into consideration the optimal contributions of safety, resource utilization and diagnostic outcome should be prevented. Discussion with an imaging specialist may help referring medical practitioners decide on proper modality and technique; 
  • HAVE I EXPLAINED THE PROBLEM? Failure to provide appropriate clinical information and address questions that the imaging investigation should answer should be avoided. Deficiencies here may lead to the wrong technique being used (e.g. the omission of an essential view); 
  • ARE TOO MANY INVESTIGATIONS BEING PERFORMED? Over-investigating. Some clinicians tend to rely on investigations more than others. Some patients take comfort in being investigated. 

» What are the reasons for over-investigating?

There are various reasons that may lead medical practitioners to refer patients for more procedures than needed. Practitioners should be aware of that and take action to avoid such situations. Some of the reasons that lead to over-investigation are the following:

  • Patient wishes. Patients feel more reassured when they are sure that their practitioner has thoroughly investigated their health condition. Some of them connect the quality of care with the number of procedures they undergo and ask their practitioner to subject them to more procedures. There must be a careful balance between informing patients of risks and benefits and the importance of considering patient desires and needs in the decision making process;
  • Financial. Some organizations or doctors get a direct financial benefit related to conflict of interest (also known as self-referral) from subjecting the patients to various procedures mainly because the services in question are provided by these health care professionals. Such practices are unethical and should not be accepted. Financial reasons may also influence a referring medical practitioner’s equity and also equal access to health services; 
  • Defensive medicine. Some professionals rely far more heavily on investigations including radiological procedures than others, possibly to avoid litigation. In the case of radiological procedures, the risk should also be taken into account and exposure limited to the minimum required for a correct diagnosis;
  • Role of media. The opinion of the public on a subject is shaped by many parameters in a society. Media is one of them. For instance, exaggerated publicity in reporting a medical mistake may lead to increased public sensitivity about the subject. Publicity and increased sensitivity are good things and should be encouraged, but when reporting is not scientific but emotion-driven for audience reasons, as is often the case in mainstream media; this may lead to practitioners practicing defensive medicine and patients refusing indicated procedures; both of these scenarios undermine the appropriate practice of medicine; 
  • Role of industry. The medical industry comprises large corporations that compete with each other for market-share. However, one large problem is that time is needed for new or improved technology, and this must be understood and assessed by the scientific community with regard to the cost-benefit ratio. Studies have to be done and sometimes results take time to come. This creates a window of time when misuse of equipment due to knowledge deficiency is possible;
  • Convenience. Sometimes a practitioner may subject a patient to a procedure that the patient has already undergone when imaging films or discs are unavailable, in order to save personal time, instead of checking the patient’s record. This is not relevant with the specific patient’s well-being, and similar convenience driven prescriptions should be avoided. Such practices are also unethical. 

» Is there any guidance available?

During the last 20 years international and national organizations published guidelines for proper justification of radiological procedures. The UK Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) publication "Making the best use of clinical radiology services " has been in print since 1989. The American College of Radiology (ACR) published its guidelines as Appropriateness Criteria. Similar efforts have been undertaken by the Department of Health of Western Australia in Diagnostic Imaging Pathways. 

For references of publications from national societies in Europe, Oceania, and other regions please see publication from Remedios. These publications constitute guidelines and aim to guide referring medical practitioners in the selection of the optimum procedure for a certain clinical problem. In case there are alternative procedures that do not utilize radiation but yield results of similar clinical value, these guidelines encourage the avoidance of radiological procedures.
The cited publications supply very specific guidance to help practitioners perform justification properly. 

» What if the patient whom I refer for a radiological procedure is pregnant?

The responsibility to identify patients that might be pregnant and are unaware of it is shared by the patient, referring medical practitioner and the imaging service providers. Safeguards to avoid inadvertent exposures of the foetus should be observed at all times. 
The “ten day rule” was postulated by ICRP for women of reproductive age. The more exact “28-day rule” allows radiological procedures throughout the complete menstrual cycle unless there is a missed period. When a woman has a missed period, she is considered pregnant unless proven otherwise. 

Even if safeguards are observed, sometimes a pregnant patient may be exposed to radiation. Depending on the radiation dose and the gestation age of the foetus, radiation effects may differ. Radiation risks are most significant during organogenesis in the early foetal period, somewhat less in the second trimester, and least in the third trimester. 

As a rule of thumb one can assume that properly carried out diagnostic radiological  procedures to any part of the body other than the pelvic region or when the primary X-ray beam is not passing through the foetus can be performed throughout pregnancy without significant foetal risk, if clinically necessary and justified. For radiological procedures where the primary beam intercepts the foetus, advice from the medical physicist should be obtained, who will calculate radiation dose to the foetus and, based on that, the practitioner and patient should make a decision. However, doses associated with radiotherapy procedures and interventional procedures are high and they require the attention of experts (including medical or health physicists, practitioners, and sometimes engineers and epidemiologists). In the case when a practitioner is responsible for a patient who has undergone a radiological procedure inadvertently and has subsequently been found to be pregnant, advice from the individuals listed above is needed. For more information, please click here where comprehensive information is provided not only for diagnostic radiology but also for nuclear medicine and radiotherapy.

Read more:

  • Report of a consultation on justification of patient exposures in medical imaging. Rad. Prot. Dosimetry 135 (2009) 137–144. 
  • Brenner, J.D., Doll, R., Goodhead, D.T., Hall, E.J., et al., Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation: Assessing what we really know. P Natl Acad Sci USA 100 (24) (2003) 13761-13766. 
  • Mettler, F.A., Huda, W., Yoshizumi, T.T., Mahadevappa, M., Effective doses in radiology and diagnostic nuclear medicine: A catalog. Radiology 248 (2008) 254-263. 
  • Shiralkar, S., Rennie, A., Snow, M., Galland, R.B., Lewis, M.H., Gower-Thomas, K., Doctors’ knowledge of radiation exposure: questionnaire study. BMJ 327 (2003) 371–372. 
  • INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION, 2007. Recommendations of the ICRP, Publication 103, Pergamon Press, Oxford (2007). 
  • INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY. International Basic Safety Standards for protecting people and the environment. Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. General Safety Requirements Part 3. No. GSR Part3 (Interim), IAEA, Vienna (2011). 
  • Royal College of Radiologists. Making the best use of clinical radiology services. Referral guidelines. Sixth edition, London 2007. 
  • Remedios, D., Justification: how to get referring physicians involved. Rad. Prot. Dosimetry (2011) Epub ahead of print, accessed 21 July 2011. 
Tue, 21 Feb 2012 23:54:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.iaea.org/resources/rpop/health-professionals/other-specialities-and-imaging-modalities/referring-medical-practitioners
A Delphi developed syllabus for the medical specialty of sport and exercise medicine

Abstract

Training in the medical specialty of sport and exercise medicine is now available in many, but not all countries. Lack of resources may be a barrier to the development of this important specialty field and the International Syllabus in Sport and Exercise Medicine Group was convened to reduce one potential barrier, the need to develop a syllabus. The group is composed of 17 sport and exercise medicine specialists residing in 12 countries (Australia, Canada, India, Ireland, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Qatar, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK and USA). This paper presents the first phase of this project covering the domains and general learning areas of a specialist training syllabus in sport and exercise medicine.

  • Education
  • Sports And Exercise Medicine

Introduction

Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) has become a recognised field of medical specialisation in countries on six continents. The specialty of SEM includes the:

In many countries SEM specialist training is not available. Physical inactivity poses significant health related risks throughout the world. Given the skill set that SEM physicians can bring in a variety of areas, including to any overarching governmental process to encourage and maintain physical activity, training of SEM physicians in these countries is highly desirable.

The development of a medical specialist training programme is a significant undertaking and requires considerable resources, both intellectual and physical. In 2016 a group of medical practitioners with experience in the development of training and assessment programmes in SEM were invited to join a Delphi group. The group was tasked with creating a ‘basic syllabus in the specialty of SEM’ with the intention that the syllabus be made available for use by any country wishing to develop a specialist training programme in SEM. It is hoped that by reducing the resource barrier more people, organisations and governments will have access to the expertise of specialist SEM physicians. The syllabus presented here is not intended for countries where specialty training is currently in place; excellent programmes already exist in these countries.

Background

This project arose out of a series of discussions which occurred at SEM conferences in Australia, New Zealand and Europe in 2014 and 2015. The SEM specialist physicians involved in these discussions recognised that SEM is now practised at the specialist level in a substantial number of countries internationally, but that each country undertaking SEM specialist training had essentially ‘re-invented the wheel’. It was recognised that this was an inefficient use of scarce resources, and that the effort required to create a specialist training programme may form a barrier to the specialty being developed in more countries. The project is an attempt to provide an advanced starting point for those countries who do not have a SEM specialist training programme.

Internationally the existing postgraduate training path to specialty status for doctors in the field varies considerably. It ranges from undertaking an additional year or more of training postprimary specialty (eg, USA) through to stand-alone 4-year primary specialty training programmes (eg, Australia). Specialist SEM training is a lengthy process; in many countries training would not be complete before postgraduate year 7.

The group is offering a syllabus rather than a curriculum as it was felt that the specialty will best evolve in individual countries on the back of pre-existing educational and medical infrastructure. The syllabus presented here is flexible enough to be used in a variety of specialist training scenarios. With an understanding of local resources, a national medical organisation could take this basic syllabus, and determine how they will train and assess in the specialty of SEM.

The authors recognise there are many upskilling short courses designed to Excellerate a doctor’s knowledge of various branches of SEM, however these do not produce SEM specialists.

No funding or organisational support has been sought for this project. The group has no affiliated organisations, although the individual group members have affiliations to various national SEM organisations.

Methods

The Delphi group, which has come to be known as the International Syllabus in Sport and Exercise Medicine Group (ISSEMG) was formed by inviting approximately 20 SEM specialists from 12 countries where specialist SEM training is already established. The invitees were told of the nature of the project and asked to inform their national SEM organisation of the invitation, with the understanding that the national SEM organisations were not being asked to ratify the project, but could offer an alternate participant if the primary invitee could not participate for some reason, or if someone in the organisation had a greater interest in the project. Ultimately the group came to be composed of 17 SEM specialists residing in 12 countries (Australia, Canada, India, Ireland, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Qatar, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK and USA).

The development process was a modified Delphi process, with questionnaires around syllabu inclusion being sent out at a rate of approximately one every 3 weeks, the comments of the group collated and circulated, with iterative questionnaires developed as needed. A cut-off point of 80% agreement was the general standard for syllabu inclusion. One member of the group (DH) created the questionnaires with multiple members offering initial lists of syllabu inclusions. Surveys were distributed via a link embedded in an email with a reminder email circulated approximately 2 weeks later. Response rates to the surveys varied from 60% to 100%. Each questionnaire posed a series of questions around syllabu areas, with members agreeing or disagreeing on a topic’s inclusion, with the option of commenting on the syllabu area and a final option of suggesting other syllabu areas for inclusion. The commentary and additional suggestions were then collated and circulated to the group with the option of further comment available. It was generally not possible for the collator to identify who had completed a survey or who had provided particular comments. Where appropriate, follow-up questions on the syllabu areas were posed in the next questionnaire.

The agreed syllabus is hierarchical, the top level contains the ‘Domains’, that is to say the overarching areas of learning. In the second level, the domains have been divided into ‘General Learning Areas’ (GLA) and each GLA will be divided into ‘Specific Learning Areas’ (SLA).

This paper presents the domains and GLAs; the SLAs are still in development and will be presented in a later publication.

It has been assumed that the doctors undertaking specialist training in SEM have prior high-level training in anatomy and exercise physiology. If this is not the case then these areas need to be included in the learning domains.

Results

Domains

The following have been agreed as the key domains of SEM specialist training

  1. Physical activity and human health

  2. Medical issues related to exercise

  3. Injuries related to sport and exercise

  4. Nutrition

  5. Pharmacology

  6. Antidoping

  7. Sports team care and sports event medical management

  8. Physical activity in challenging environments

  9. Specific groups undertaking sport and exercise

  10. Intrinsic skills of an SEM physician

  11. Extrinsic skills of an SEM physician

General learning areas

For each domain, the following have been agreed as the GLAs:

Physical activity and human health GLAs

  1. The role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of disease: population health perspectives

  2. Applied exercise physiology: types of exercise, effects of exercise and maximising adaptations to exercise

  3. Physical activity guidelines and recommendations

  4. Barriers to physical activity: environmental, social, physical and psychological

  5. Considerations before prescribing exercise

  6. Exercise prescription in healthy individuals

  7. Exercise prescription in individuals with disease

  8. Exercise prescription in special circumstances

  9. Communicating the physical activity message beyond the individual

Medical issues related to exercise GLAs

  1. Neurological issues related to physical activity

  2. Respiratory issues related to physical activity

  3. Cardiovascular issues related to physical activity

  4. Gastrointestinal issues related to physical activity

  5. Renal and urogenital issues related to physical activity

  6. Metabolic issues related to physical activity

  7. Ear, nose and throat issues related to physical activity

  8. Immunological and haematological issues related to physical activity

  9. Dermatological issues related to physical activity

  10. Psychological and mental health issues related to physical activity

Injuries related to sport and exercise GLAs

  1. Principles of tissue injury and repair in the musculoskeletal system

  2. Principles of injury prevention

  3. General pathology of the musculoskeletal system

  4. Head and neck injuries

  5. Upper limb injuries

  6. Trunk, abdominal and thoracic spine injuries

  7. Lumbar spine and pelvic injuries

  8. Lower limb injuries

  9. Interpretation of radiological and other investigations

  10. Principles of injury rehabilitation

  11. Return to sport decision making

Nutrition GLAs

  1. Sports nutrition for health and performance

  2. Hydration

  3. Carbohydrates

  4. Fats

  5. Protein

  6. Micronutrients and vitamins

  7. Energy requirements and relative energy deficiency

  8. Nutritional supplements

Pharmacology GLAs

  1. Medication abuse in elite athletes

  2. The influence of medications used in the treatment of disease on exercise capacity

  3. Medication and exercise interactions which may cause or worsen disease

Antidoping GLAs

  1. The World Anti-Doping Authority (WADA) list

  2. The WADA therapeutic use exemption process

  3. Other prohibited medications in specific sports

  4. The consequences of doping: health risks, sanctions and responsibilities

Sports team care and sports event medical management GLAs

  1. Roles of the SEM physician in the team environment

  2. The Olympic movement medical code on the ethical treatment of athletes

  3. Medical screening of athletes and event participants

  4. Preseason/pre event medical organisation

  5. Equipment, medical supplies and facilities for team and event care

  6. Match/event day medical issues

  7. Emergency sports medicine: on-field assessment and management of sports injuries and medical conditions

  8. Postseason and postevent review of medical care

  9. Team travel

  10. Common general practice problems encountered when travelling with teams

Specific environments and sport GLAs

  1. SEM as it relates to physical activity at altitude

  2. SEM as it relates to physical activity in cold environments

  3. SEM as it relates to physical activity in hot environments

Specific groups in sport GLAs

  1. Sports medicine as it relates to paediatric athletes

  2. Sports medicine as it relates to female athletes

  3. Sports medicine as it relates to ageing athletes

  4. Sports medicine as it relates to athletes with a disability

  5. Sports medicine as it relates to extreme and adventure sport athletes

Intrinsic skills of an SEM physician GLAs

Intrinsic skills are core skills which all physicians should learn during basic training, but which also have particular applications within SEM practice.

  1. Communication

  2. Collaboration

  3. Leadership and management

  4. Health advocacy

  5. Research, teaching and learning

  6. Professionalism

  7. Ethics

  8. Cultural, religious and LGBTQ awareness and safety

Extrinsic skills of an SEM physician GLAs:

The ISSEMG have defined extrinsic skills primarily as the ‘doing’ skills, that is to say skills that require hands-on ability as opposed to the primarily cognition skills defined in the intrinsic skills.

Please note that in this domain the ISSEMG has chosen to define some skills as core, that is to say required of all specialists in SEM, and some skills as advanced, that is to say skills which could reasonably be expected to be acquired postspecialty training, but which could be acquired during specialty training.

Core skills

  1. Perform a comprehensive examination of the musculoskeletal and neurological systems and interpret the findings at an advanced level.

  2. Perform a sport-specific medical and musculoskeletal screening examination.

  3. Perform advanced life support in non-hospital environments.

  4. Provide effective immediate medical care for on-field injuries and medical events.

  5. Perform concussion screening examinations, baseline and postinjury, and interpret the results.

  6. Interpret radiological and other investigations relating to SEM at an advanced level.

  7. Interpret ECG findings in an athlete with reference to current guidelines.

  8. Inject a variety of joints and soft tissues without radiological guidance.

  9. Prescribe advanced protective braces.

Advanced skills

  1. Tape joints, tendons and muscle for injury prevention and treatment.

  2. Interpret simple video analysis of a variety of sporting skills including running gait.

  3. Perform a targeted ultrasound examination of a peripheral musculoskeletal problem.

  4. Inject a variety of joints and soft tissues with radiological guidance.

  5. Perform and interpret the findings of a resting and exercise lung function test.

Conclusion

ISSEMG has developed a baseline syllabus SEM medical specialist training programme and offers the first two layers of the syllabus in this document. The members of ISSEMG hope that this project is of value to those national medical organisations seeking to create a specialist training programme in SEM. ISSEMG intends to provide the SLA component of the syllabus within the next 3 years.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the ISSEMG team members for their contribution.

Wed, 20 Dec 2017 13:01:00 -0600 en text/html https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/52/8/490 AIIMS exam 2023- All India Institute of Medical Sciences Examinations, 2023

AIIMS Delhi does not prescribe a specific syllabus for its entrance examinations. In the case of the BSc exam, the standard is generally based on the curriculum of the 12th class as per the 10+2 scheme or an equivalent examination conducted by an Indian University/Board.

Typically, the syllabus for the AIIMS B.Sc. (Hons.) Nursing exam includes questions from Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and General Knowledge. For B.Sc. (Paramedical) courses, the syllabus covers subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Mathematics, with candidates having the option to choose either the biology or mathematics part.

Regarding the syllabus for B.Sc. Nursing (Post-Basic), encompasses syllabus such as fundamentals of Nursing, Medical-Surgical Nursing (including Anatomy, Physiology, and pharmacology), Obstetrics Nursing and Midwifery, Paediatric Nursing, Community Health Nursing, Psychiatric Nursing, and Professional Trends in Nursing.

As for M.Sc. Nursing, M.Sc. Courses, and M. Biotechnology Courses, AIIMS does not specify a syllabus. Typically, the entrance exam syllabus is based on the subjects and syllabus covered during the undergraduate-level course.

Mon, 20 Mar 2023 18:05:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.telegraphindia.com/edugraph/colleges/exams/aiims-exam-2023-all-india-institute-of-medical-sciences-examinations-2023/syllabus/122
JEE (Main) to get lighter next year, syllabus soon NEW DELHI: Engineering aspirants can expect a lighter joint entrance examination (JEE-Main) next year, for which the National Testing Agency is likely to announce the syllabus and release the information bulletin next week. Rationalisation of syllabus by boards across the country has been taken into account while designing the curriculum for the engineering/architecture entrance examination, which will be conducted during January-April in 2024.
Several education boards, including CBSE, as well as NCERThad reduced the syllabus for Classes 9 to 12 due to the academic disruption caused by the Covid pandemic. The current batch of Class 12 was in Class 9 in 2020 when rationalisation of syllabus was initiated. However, the syllabus forJEE (Main) and NEET-UG were kept untouched.

NTA director general Subodh Kumar Singh said the agency has consulted all boards and based on the deliberations, the expert committee is finalising the syllabus. "The revised syllabus will be notified along with the information bulletin which will be released next week along with the registration dates," he added.


NTA has also decided to announce the result dates at the time of notifying the dates for registration. "Candidates go through a tough time guessing the result dates. From 2024, the result dates will be notified at the time of releasing the information bulletin," said Kumar.
Trying to allot JEE candidates centres close home: NTA
NTA director general Subodh Kumar Singh said announcing the result dates at the time of notifying the dates for registration "will not only help the aspirants but also the institutions in planning their yearly admission cycle".
The agency is trying to ensure that all candidates are allotted centres close to their residence addresses. "We will ensure that no candidate is required to travel out of his/her home state," he said. NTA released its 2024 exam calendar in September, three months in advance as compared to 2023, for JEE (Main), CUET UG & PG NEET-UG and UGC-NET.

'Premature to comment': NCERT on replacing 'India' with 'Bharat' in new textbooks


Sat, 28 Oct 2023 22:35:00 -0500 en text/html https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/education/jee-main-to-get-lighter-next-year-syllabus-soon/articleshow/104790167.cms
CAT 2023 Syllabus: Your Comprehensive Guide to Crack the Exam CAT 2023: With the Common Admission Test (CAT) exam date nearing, candidates are in a hurry to review their syllabus and address any previously missed topics.
The CAT 2023 examination is being organised by the Indian Institute of Management, IIM Lucknow. According to the schedule, the exam is set for November 26, 2023, and the link for downloading the admit card will become active on November 07 at 5:00 PM.
It is essential to understand the subjects covered in the CAT exam for 2024 to better anticipate question types and formulate effective strategies for addressing them. Being familiar with these subjects can significantly boost your preparation and enhance your chances of performing well in the CAT entrance test.
Read Also: 10 Common Mistakes CAT Aspirants Must Avoid
Shall we delve into the specific sections and their respective subjects outlined in the article?
The CAT exam necessitates proficiency in three specific sections, which are:
1. Quantitative Aptitude (QA)
2. Verbal Ability & studying Comprehension (VARC)
3. Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning (DILR)
Quantitative Aptitude (QA)
Subjects
Topics
Number System
Prime Factorization, Divisibility Rules, Finding Units place and tens place of a number, LCM and HCF, Indices and Surds, Cyclicity, Remainders, Base Change, Factorial
Arithmetic
Simple Interest, Compound Interest, Time, Distance, Speed, Mixtures, Allegations, Ratios, Proportions, Variations, Time and Work, Pipes, Cisterns, Percentages, Averages, Profit, Loss, Discount
Geometry
Circles, Polygons, Triangles, Trigonometry, Lines, Angles, Coordinate geometry
Algebra
Functions, Groups, Inequalities, Modulus, Logarithms, Maxima, Minima, Polynomials, Linear, Quadratic Equations, Algebraic Identities
Modern Mathematics
Probability, Permutations, Combinations, Set Theory, Venn Diagram, AP, GP, HP, Binomial theorem

Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning (DILR)
Subjects
Topics
Data Interpretation
Tables, Scatter Plots, Venn Diagrams, Radar Charts, Line Charts, Column Graphs, Pie Charts, Bubble Charts, Bar Graphs, Routes and Networks, Data Caselets - Reasoning-Based DI
Logical Reasoning
Team Formation, Arrangements, Games and Tournaments, Order and Ranking, and Binary Logic

Verbal Ability & studying Comprehension (VARC)
Subjects
Topics
Verbal Ability
Para jumbles, Summary Based Questions, Sentence exclusion question
Reading Comprehension
RC passages

The selection of candidates for the interview phase by IIMs is determined by individualized criteria, varying across each institute. This selection process typically involves a Written Ability Test (WAT), Group Discussion (GD), and Personal Interviews (PI). Success in the CAT 2023 exam holds significant weight in the overall admission process.
Remember, it's vital to both put in effort and study regularly, but it's just as important to look after your health and keep a balance. Preparing for the CAT exam can be tough, but if you plan well and stay dedicated, you can definitely succeed.
Tue, 14 Nov 2023 20:13:00 -0600 en text/html https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/education/news/cat-2023-syllabus-your-comprehensive-guide-to-crack-the-exam/articleshow/104983578.cms
How to Become a Family Medicine Physician No result found, try new keyword!One of the advantages of being a family medicine practitioner is that ... Aspiring family doctors also need to pass board exams in the field of family medicine. There are some medical schools ... Sun, 24 Jan 2021 19:04:00 -0600 https://www.usnews.com/education/best-graduate-schools/top-medical-schools/articles/what-family-medicine-is-and-how-to-become-a-family-doctor Life insurance medical exam: Understanding the process and its importance

A life insurance medical exam is part of the life insurance company’s underwriting process to determine your eligibility and premium. The life insurance exam can occur in your home, office, or the paramedical company’s lab. It’s done by a trained medical professional who will ask basic health and lifestyle questions. There are also tests that typically require a urine sample, blood sample, height and weight measurements, and blood pressure readings.

Why life insurance companies require a medical exam

Insurance companies use personal information to determine your risk of filing a claim. In the case of a life insurance policy, the closer you are to your life expectancy, the riskier you are to insure since your beneficiary is more likely to file a death benefit claim while the policy is active. Besides a physical exam and medical records, life insurers also use other factors to determine your mortality risk, like your:

  • Hobbies.
  • Occupation.
  • Driving record.
  • Family medical history.
  • Tobacco and drug use.

The less risk you pose to the insurance company – like being in good health with a low-risk lifestyle – the better rates you’ll receive. But if you’re not in the best of health, for example if you have a medical condition like high blood pressure or a family history of cancer, you’ll likely get approved at higher rates.

Can I get life insurance without a medical exam?

You can get life insurance without a medical examination, though it’s usually more expensive, especially if you’re in good health. Three types of policies offer coverage without a paramedical exam: simplified issue, final expense, and guaranteed issue life insurance. You may also be eligible for employer-sponsored life insurance through your job.

Simplified issue life insurance

Simplified issue life insurance is popular for applicants who want a policy fast and may not qualify through the traditional underwriting process. Rather than use test results from the medical exam, life insurers use the applicant’s answers to health questions and third-party data to determine ratings.

You can get term or whole life insurance through the simplified issue application process. After completing the entire application, you could receive an instant approval or denial, depending on your responses. If you don’t get an immediate decision, the life insurance company may need more information to complete their assessment.

Final expense life insurance

Final expense insurance is a type of whole life insurance geared towards older adults with medical conditions. The application process is similar to the simplified issue process, but there is no option for term life coverage. Available coverage amounts are usually smaller, topping at $25,000 or $50,000.

This type of policy is best for seniors with good overall health but may not be the ideal life insurance candidate. Maybe you’re overweight and have high blood pressure readings or cholesterol levels. If you don’t need a lot of coverage, you could get better rates through the final expense application process and not have to worry about the added step of a life insurance physical.

Guaranteed issue life insurance

A guaranteed issue policy is the easiest to qualify for but is also the most expensive. Approval is guaranteed with a simple application process that doesn’t have medical questions or a health exam. Since you’re guaranteed to be approved, you also get instant coverage. However, the death benefit isn’t fully available for two or three years. 

Guaranteed issue is only available as a whole life insurance policy and is mainly for older adults. If you or a loved one needs a small amount of coverage but has severe health issues, guaranteed issue is the best way to get it.

Employer-sponsored life insurance

Also called group life insurance, employer-sponsored life insurance is available through some employers as part of your employee benefits package. This policy has a fixed rate based on your age and coverage amount. There is no medical exam, though you may have to answer health questions on the application. 

This option is usually the most affordable but typically comes in smaller death benefit amounts and may not be portable, meaning you can’t take it with you if you leave your current employer. 

What a life insurance medical exam entails

A life insurance medical exam usually includes asking questions about your medical history and health conditions, if you have any, plus the exam. The process can take up to an hour but usually lasts around 30 minutes. 

The amount and type of tests can vary by your age, life insurance company, type of policy you’re applying for, and the requested coverage amount. The paramedical company examiner may:

  • Take samples to complete a urine and blood test.
  • Measure your height and weight to check your body mass index (BMI).
  • Check your pulse and blood pressure readings.
  • Administer an electrocardiogram (EKG) or treadmill stress test.

After collecting the necessary samples and health information, your part of the application process is complete. The life insurance company underwriters will evaluate your application answers, medical history and exam results to determine your policy cost and eligibility.

What do life insurance companies test for?

Life insurance companies test blood and urine samples to confirm the information you provided in the application process and get a good idea of your general health. Any health conditions or drug use that could shorten your life expectancy can also increase your premium.

Generally, life insurance companies test for:

  • Blood sugar levels.
  • Cholesterol levels.
  • Prescription and recreational drug use.
  • AIDS or HIV.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Tobacco usage.
  • Enzyme levels.
  • Red and white blood cell counts.
  • Health issues such as diabetes, infections, liver problems, or kidney disease.

How to prepare for a medical exam

Here are some ways you can prepare for your medical exam appointment to get the best results:

  • Focus on lean meats, fresh fruits, and vegetables a few days leading up to your appointment.
  • Avoid high cholesterol and salty foods for at least 24 hours prior to your exam time.
  • Use a clear liquid diet for six to 12 hours before your exam.
  • Avoid strenuous activity and alcoholic beverages for at least 12 hours before your appointment.
  • Limit caffeine or nicotine for at least an hour before your exam.
  • Drink one or two glasses of water an hour before.
  • Get a full night’s rest the night before your examination.
  • Wear something light and loose on exam day for comfort and to ensure an accurate weight reading.
  • Bring a government-issued picture ID and any other paperwork with you as instructed by the insurance company.

How to get a life insurance medical exam

Getting a life insurance medical exam is simple. After completing the application, you’ll be contacted by phone or email to schedule your exam with the insurer’s paramedical exam partner. The examiner can complete the exam at your home or office or the paramedical laboratory. If you must complete an EKG or treadmill stress test, you may be required to visit the facility. 

How to get life insurance without a medical exam

The good news is getting a life insurance policy without a medical exam is easy. Many life insurers offer this option, though some still require fully underwritten applications. There are also brokers offering this option, like Ladder Life and Ethos. Both companies offer term no medical exam life insurance. Ethos also offers simplified issue whole life insurance for adults 66 and older. 

There is usually a cap on the insurance coverage you can get without a paramedical exam. Ladder, for example, only offers term life insurance without a medical exam if you apply for $3 million or less in coverage. Ethos's maximum term life option is $2 million and for seniors needing whole life coverage, $30,000.

Whether searching for fully underwritten life insurance to get the best rate as a healthy individual or prefer to skip the medical exam, shopping for quotes can help you find the most coverage at the lowest price. Evaluating your coverage needs and assessing your health risk and budget can help you determine which policy type and underwriting process is best for you.

Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

What is the catch with no medical exam life insurance?

The catch with no medical exam life insurance is higher rates. Since there is no medical exam to assess your current health and predict your future health, life insurance companies rely instead on third-party data and your health question responses. While accelerated underwriting can get you approved faster, you might pay more if you’re in good health with a low-key lifestyle and low-risk occupation.

Does life insurance medical exam include drug test?

The life insurance medical exam typically includes a drug test. You can test positive for prescribed, recreational and illegal drugs, plus non-prescribed and over-the-counter medications. Depending on your results, answers to application questions and the insurer’s underwriting guidelines, you could be denied, approved, or approved with a higher risk class and premium.

Will no-exam life insurance cost more?

No-exam life insurance will usually cost more than completing the medical exam. Insurance companies take on more risk by insuring applicants without a medical exam. The higher the risk they take on, the higher the premium you pay to offset the insurer’s risk. Even if you have a medical condition, getting a traditional life insurance policy may be cheaper than no-exam life insurance if your condition is well managed.

Can I “fail” a life insurance medical exam?

You can’t “pass” or “fail” a life insurance medical exam. The insurer collects the information you provide during the paramedical exam to determine your risk class. The lower your risk class, the better your premiums will be. The higher your risk class, the more you’ll pay for the same coverage. If you have serious health issues, the insurance company may not be willing to take on the risk, in which case the insurer can decline to offer you coverage.

What if I don’t feel well on the day of my exam?

If you don’t feel well on the day of your exam, you should call the paramedical company to reschedule. An illness could affect your blood pressure readings and other results, which can also impact the rate the insurance company offers you.

Sat, 28 Oct 2023 22:45:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.nj.com/personal-finance/article/life-insurance-medical-exam
The Best Health Care Jobs That Don't Require Medical School No result found, try new keyword!They may perform physical exams, treat patients and write prescriptions. Nurse practitioners have one of the best and highest paying jobs that don’t require medical school, but they must earn an ... Mon, 24 Jan 2022 20:30:00 -0600 https://money.usnews.com/careers/articles/the-best-medical-jobs-that-dont-require-medical-school Best no-exam life insurance companies November 2023

Editorial Note: Blueprint may earn a commission from affiliate partner links featured here on our site. This commission does not influence our editors' opinions or evaluations. Please view our full advertiser disclosure policy.

Banner Life and Lincoln Financial are the best no-exam life insurance companies, according to our analysis. 

We evaluated insurers to determine the best no-exam life insurance companies based on cost and coverage options. Use our analysis as a jumping-off point to compare top insurers and find the best policy for your situation.

The best no-exam life insurance companies of 2023

Why trust our life insurance experts

Our team of experts evaluates hundreds of insurance products and analyzes thousands of data points to help you find the best product for your situation. We use a data-driven methodology to determine each rating. Advertisers do not influence our editorial content. You can read more about our methodology below.

  • 28 insurers evaluated
  • 162 rates reviewed
  • 5 levels of fact checking

Top-rated no-exam life insurance companies

Compare the best no-exam life insurance of 2023

To determine the best no-exam life insurance policies, our life insurance experts evaluated several of the top life insurance companies that offer coverage in the United States.

Each life insurance company included in our evaluation had the opportunity to earn up to 100 points, based on the following factors.

Policy cost: 75 points. Since term life insurance is often the most affordable coverage option, we evaluated rates for both 30- and 40-year-old males and females in excellent health, for term lengths of 10, 20 and 30 years and coverage amounts of $500,000 and $1 million and $2 million.

Accelerated death benefit age: 5 points. An accelerated death benefit option lets you access your death benefit early if you’re diagnosed with a terminal illness. Companies that offer this benefit with a no-exam life insurance policy earned the full points allotted.

Maximum face amount for lowest eligible age: 10 points. Companies that offer higher coverage amounts for the lowest eligible age earned more points. Keep in mind that a company’s maximum coverage amount for a no-exam life insurance policy may decrease based on an applicant’s age, with older applicants eligible only for lower face-value policies.

Term life conversion availability: 5 points. Some companies allow policyholders to convert their term coverage to a permanent life insurance policy. We factored this in to help those considering term life insurance policies identify companies that provide this option.

Age eligible for best term length/coverage amount: 5 points. Some companies limit no-exam life insurance eligibility to younger applicants. Companies offering this type of coverage to individuals over 50 earned the full points.

Why some companies didn’t make the cut

Of the life insurance companies we evaluated, only those offering policies offering competitively priced no-exam life insurance policies for high coverage amounts made the cut.

What is no-exam life insurance?

No-exam life insurance does not require applicants to go through a medical exam for approval. This is in contrast to a more traditional life insurance underwriting process that requires you to complete a health questionnaire as well as a medical exam. 

For a life insurance medical exam, insurers often request a paramedical professional collect information, such as your blood pressure, as well as blood work and a urine specimen. Because no-exam life insurance skips this step, this type of coverage may be ideal if you’re looking for a faster application process. Some insurers even offer same-day or instant approval to eligible applicants. 

Though no-exam life insurance policies were once less common, today more and more insurers are extending this type of coverage to eligible applicants. Eligibility criteria can vary by insurer, but usually, you must be relatively young (under 50) and in good health. 

It’s important to note that even if a company advertises no-exam life insurance policies, not every applicant is eligible. After completing the application, you may find that the insurer wants to follow up to obtain additional information via an exam or additional health questions. This is particularly true if you’re over 50 or considered a high-risk candidate. 

Different types of no-exam life insurance

There are three primary ways an insurer may choose to offer life insurance with no medical exam. Each varies by the underwriting process, which is the way insurers assess your risks and determine how much you will pay for insurance. 

Accelerated underwriting life insurance

When you apply for a policy that uses accelerated underwriting, the insurer takes information from your application to collect personal data that is used to determine your level of risk. 

Though the exact variables that an insurer considers may vary, the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) identifies multiple third-party sources from which an insurer may collect data: 

  • Digital health records. 
  • Prescription drug history. 
  • Credit reports.
  • Motor vehicle records. 
  • Medical Information Bureau (MIB) data. 
  • Public records.

After gathering your information, the underwriter will use AI technology, predictive models and algorithms to determine if you are eligible for no-exam life insurance and, if so, your premium, or how much you will pay. 

The information and tools used in the accelerated underwriting process allow insurers to create a more comprehensive risk analysis that is similar to that achieved through traditional underwriting practices. As such, rates for eligible applicants may be similar to those determined during a traditional underwriting process. They also are likely to be lower than those obtained through simplified issue or guaranteed issue life insurance

Simplified issue life insurance

Simplified issue life insurance does not require a medical exam, but applicants are usually required to submit answers to a health questionnaire. Traditionally, simplified issue coverage relied on limited third-party information, but as access to information increased, industry practices have evolved. Today, a simplified issue underwriting process will likely pull in information from the MIB, motor vehicle records, prescription drug history and in some cases credit reports. 

Still, simplified issue underwriting is not as in-depth as accelerated underwriting and therefore does not always capture an applicant’s risk. As such, applicants often face a trade-off: quicker application periods in exchange for higher rates and lower coverage limits.  

Guaranteed issue insurance

There are no medical exams or health questionnaires required for guaranteed issue life insurance, and if you apply, you are “guaranteed” to be approved. Because you can’t be denied, this type of coverage may be the best option if your health or age prevents you from being approved for other types of coverage. 

However, because you are guaranteed for approval, and the insurer does not have the information required to make a proper risk assessment, policies are much more expensive than other types of life insurance and offer lower maximum coverage amounts. 

Guaranteed issue life insurance policies also typically have graded death benefits. A graded death benefit means that if you pass away within the first two to three years of opening your policy, your beneficiary will not receive the plan’s death benefit. Instead, they will be refunded the premiums you’ve paid on the policy in addition to interest — typically between 10% and 30%. There is one exception: If you die due to an accident, such as a vehicle accident, your beneficiary will receive the death benefit in full.  

Though guaranteed life insurance is considered a type of “no-exam” life insurance, we did not include this type of product in our scoring of the best no-exam life insurance. 

How much does no-exam life insurance cost?

How much you pay for no-exam life insurance will depend on various factors, including your age, gender, health, the type of underwriting process — accelerated, simplified or guaranteed — and the information collected as part of the underwriting process. 

Example annual cost: No-exam coverage for a man, age 30 (20-year term)

Example annual cost: No-exam coverage for a woman, age 30 (20-year term)

Example annual cost: No-exam coverage for a man, age 40 (20-year term)

No-exam life insurance coverage for a woman, age 40 (20-year term)

No-exam life insurance coverage for a man, age 50 (20-year term)

No-exam life insurance coverage for a woman, age 50 (20-year term)

Pros and cons of no-exam life insurance policies

Not sure if a no-exam life insurance policy is best for you? Here are some pros and cons associated with this increasingly popular life insurance product. 

Pros

  • No exam. Maybe you don’t have time or maybe you’re not a big fan of needles. No-exam life insurance lets you skip bloodwork and other lab requirements commonly associated with traditional underwriting. 
  • Faster approval. If you’re eligible for no-exam life insurance, you could secure it quickly, with some insurers in our analysis offering instant or same-day approval.  
  • Potentially similar rates. Depending on your age, health, desired coverage amount and the insurer you choose, you may find that no-exam life insurance policies that use accelerated underwriting are priced similarly to those that rely on traditional underwriting. 

Cons

  • Health conditions affect eligibility. No-exam life insurance is best suited for healthy, young applicants. If you’re not in one of those two categories, you may find that you’re ineligible for coverage or that you’re subject to a higher rate.
  • Coverage may be limited. Though some companies offer higher coverage amounts for no-exam life insurance policies, that’s not always the case — especially if you’re applying for a guaranteed issue or simplified issue policy. If you’re looking for a high coverage amount, a no-exam life insurance policy may not be the best option. 
  • Age limits apply. Most life insurance companies have caps on the age at which they will issue a policy, but that age is much lower for no-exam life insurance policies. Generally, no-exam coverage is best suited for people age 50 or younger. Don’t assume that no-exam life insurance is out of the question if you’re over 50, though. There are some companies, like SBLI, that offer this type of life insurance to older individuals. 

How to shop for no medical exam life insurance

Here are a few easy steps you can take to find the best no-exam life insurance company and policy to meet your individual needs. 

Determine how much coverage you need. Start with the reason you want to buy life insurance. Are you looking to replace your income for a specific period of time to support your loved ones financially when you die? Do you need to ensure your family can continue to cover specific bills, such as mortgage payments or college tuition?

Add up any expenses you hope to cover to determine how much coverage you may need. This step is important for any type of life insurance purchase, but because some no-exam life insurance policies have lower maximum coverage amounts — especially if you’re older — this step can help you narrow your search down to insurers that offer plans that meet your coverage needs.

Understand your health. Since almost all no-exam life insurance policies require the applicant to be in good health, it’s best to figure out your chances of being approved. For instance, if you have a health condition that may make it harder to get coverage, such as a heart attack, or you’re a tobacco user, you may be denied or pay a lot more for certain types of no-exam life insurance, particularly accelerated underwriting or simplified issue products.  

Recognizing any impediments to approval can help you examine your options and prepare for the potential health exam requirements.

Be honest. If you’re nervous about your eligibility for a no-exam life insurance policy, you may be tempted to leave out important information, like a exact health diagnosis or tobacco usage, but doing so can create big problems for you and your beneficiaries. 

If your insurer determines you lied during the application process, they can deny you coverage or cancel your policy. Further, if your untruths are uncovered after you die, and you’ve passed during what’s known as the contestability period, the insurer can deny the claim, leaving your beneficiary without a death benefit.

Get multiple insurance quotes. Whether you’re purchasing life insurance, car insurance or homeowners insurance, one of the best things you can do is get multiple quotes to compare. Doing so can ensure you’re getting the best rate for the type and amount of coverage you want. 

Evaluate policy features. While cost is an important factor, it’s a smart idea to look beyond that to consider what you need or what benefits and features, such as an accelerated death benefit, may be available to you for a similar cost.

Have a backup plan. No-exam life insurance may be your first choice, but not everyone is eligible for coverage. Depending on your age, health and other factors, you may find that you’re denied or that the insurer requires additional information or steps, such as a health exam, before it will issue coverage. 

Don’t supply up as there are other options, such as purchasing a policy that uses a more traditional underwriting process or looking for a guaranteed issue policy, which will provide coverage regardless of your health.

No med exam life insurance FAQs

No-exam life insurance policies are available for both term and whole life insurance, but all the policies scored in our no-exam life insurance analysis are for term life insurance

Term life policies typically offer more coverage at a lower price. No-exam whole life insurance policies, in contrast, may only offer low coverage amounts and generally have higher rates in relation to the amount of coverage received. 

If you have whole life insurance, you may be able to borrow money from your life insurance policy if it has a cash value. 

However, if you have a no-exam term life insurance policy, it will not have a cash value, so you won’t be able to borrow against the policy. 

Some no-exam term life insurance policies offer as much as $1M or $2M in coverage, while a no-exam whole life insurance policy will have much lower coverage maximums, such as $25,000. 

The amount of life insurance coverage you can get with no-exam life insurance will vary based on factors like the insurer and policy you choose and your age. 

More: How much does a $1 million life insurance policy cost? 

A no-exam term life insurance policy will lock in your rate for the duration of a specific term, such as 30 years. When the term ends, you can usually renew your policy annually, but you’ll pay a higher premium each year.

If you purchase a no-exam whole life insurance policy, your policy will usually last your lifetime, as long as you continue to make your premium payments.

Tue, 04 Apr 2023 21:20:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.usatoday.com/money/blueprint/life-insurance/life-insurance-no-medical-exam/




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