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GP-Doctor outline - General Practitioner (GP) Doctor Updated: 2024

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Exam Code: GP-Doctor General Practitioner (GP) Doctor outline January 2024 by team

GP-Doctor General Practitioner (GP) Doctor

Exam Details for General Practitioner (GP) Doctor:

Number of Questions: The number of questions in the exam may vary depending on the country and regulatory body conducting the exam.

Time Limit: The time allocated for the exam varies depending on the format and structure of the exam. It may range from a few hours to multiple days, including practical assessments and written components.

Passing Score: The passing score also varies depending on the country and regulatory body. It is typically determined by the level of proficiency required to practice as a General Practitioner.

Exam Format: The exam format may include a combination of written tests, practical assessments, and clinical evaluations. The specific format will be determined by the regulatory body responsible for the certification.

Course Outline:

The course outline for becoming a General Practitioner typically includes the following areas of study:

1. Basic Medical Sciences:
- Anatomy
- Physiology
- Biochemistry
- Pharmacology

2. Clinical Medicine:
- Internal Medicine
- Pediatrics
- Obstetrics and Gynecology
- Surgery
- Emergency Medicine

3. Preventive Medicine and Public Health:
- Epidemiology
- Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
- Environmental Health
- Occupational Health

4. Diagnostic Skills:
- History taking and physical examination
- Medical imaging interpretation
- Laboratory test interpretation

5. Communication Skills and Professionalism:
- Patient communication and counseling
- Ethics and medical professionalism
- Cultural competency

Exam Objectives:

The objectives of the General Practitioner (GP) Doctor exam typically include assessing the candidate's:

1. Knowledge and understanding of core medical sciences.
2. Diagnostic and clinical skills in various medical specialties.
3. Ability to effectively communicate with patients and provide appropriate counseling.
4. Proficiency in preventive medicine and public health principles.
5. Knowledge of medical ethics and professionalism.

Exam Syllabus:

The exam syllabus covers a wide range of medical syllabus and may include, but is not limited to, the following:

1. Anatomy and Physiology
2. Pathophysiology
3. Internal Medicine
4. Pediatrics
5. Obstetrics and Gynecology
6. Surgery
7. Emergency Medicine
8. Preventive Medicine and Public Health
9. Pharmacology
10. Medical Ethics and Professionalism

Please note that the specific exam details, course outline, objectives, and syllabus may vary depending on the country and regulatory body governing medical practice. It is essential to consult the relevant medical authority or educational institution in your region for accurate and up-to-date information on the certification process and requirements for becoming a General Practitioner (GP) Doctor.
General Practitioner (GP) Doctor
Medical Practitioner outline

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General Practitioner (GP) Doctor
Question: 191
A 6-year-old boy fell in the playground and has been holding his forearm complaining of pain. Exam: no sign
However, there is minimal tenderness on exam.
What is the diagnosis?
A. Green stick fx of distal radius
B. Fracture neck of humerus
C. Fracture mid ulnar
D. Fracture mid radius
Answer: A
Question: 192
An 82-year-old man has woken up with incoherent speech and difficulty in finding the right words. Exam: good
Which anatomical site is most likely to be affected?
A. Pons
B. Wernickes area
C. Brocas area
D. Midbrain
E. Parietal cortex
Answer: C
A person with expressive aphasia will exhibit halting and effortful speech. Speech m important content words. Word
comprehension is preserved. The person may still be understood, but sentence grammatical. This contrasts with
receptive or Wernickes aphasia, which is distinguished by a patients inability comprehend language or speak with
appropriately meaningful words though fluency, may be preserved.
Question: 193
A 14-year-old girl presents with primary amenorrhea and a short stature.
What is the most likely diagnosis?
A. Downs syndrome
B. Fragile X syndrome
C. Turners syndrome
D. Klinefelters syndrome
E. Normal finding
Answer: C
Downs syndrome and Fragile x syndrome dont have primary amenorrhea. Klinefelters patients are tall males. So the
likely diagnosis is Turners syndrome.
Question: 194
A 37-year-old woman presents with heavy bleeding. Investigation shows subserosal fibroid-4cm and intramu.
Which is the most appropriate treatment?
A. Abdominal Hysterectomy
B. Vaginal Hysterectomy
C. Abdominal Myomectomy
D. Hysteroscopic Myomectomy
Answer: C
As patient is young we should go for myomectomy. As hysteroscopic myo mainly sub mucosal fibroids we should go
for abdominal myomectomy which will deal with both subserosal a fibroids.
Question: 195
A new screening test has been devised to detect early stages of prostate cancer.
However, the test tends t of people with no cancer, although they do have cancer as diagnosed by other standard tests.
What is this flaw?
A. True Cve
B. False +ve
C. Poor specificity
D. True +ve
E. False -ve
Answer: E
Question: 196
A young girl presented to gynecologist for assessment with lower abdominal pain and per vaginal bleedin of
hysterosalpingograph as a part of her infertility treatment. Observation: BP=90/50mmHg, pulse-120bpm, and revealed
rigid abdomen.
What is the most appropriate next investigation?
A. Coagulation profile
B. Chest X ray
C. Ultrasound abdomen
D. X-ray erect and supine
Answer: C
Likely cause of bleeding and shock is ruptured fallopian tube for which appropriate ne is US abdomen.
Question: 197
A middle aged woman has some weakness of hand after an injury.
Which vertebra will be the lowest to be x-ray to diagnosis the injury?
A. C7/T1
B. C5/C6
C. c8/T1
D. C6/C7
Answer: A
Question: 198
Patient with major depression what is the first line treatment?
A. Tricyclic antidepressant
Answer: B
A SSRIs are the initial antidepressants of choice for uncomplicated depression because of their minimal anti-
cholinergic effects
Question: 199
A 28-weeks pregnant woman presents with uterine bleeding after sexual intercourse.
What is the most appropriate diagnosis?
A. Placental abruption
B. Missed abortion
C. Placental previa
D. Ectropion
Answer: D
Post coital bleeding can be either placenta previa or cervical ectropion. But as ectropion pregnancy so it is the option
Question: 200
Condition not associated with increased alpha fetoprotein:
A. Myelomeningocele
B. Down syndrome
C. Spina bifida
D. Gastroschisis
Answer: B
Down syndrome associated with DECREASED levels of alpha fetoprotein. Not increased.
Question: 201
A 64 years man believes a female newscaster is communicating directly with him when she turns a page.
Where is he suffering from?
A. Delusion of Reference
B. Nihilistic
C. Grandeur
D. Control
E. Persecutory
Answer: A
A delusion of reference is a type of delusion wherein the individual perceives unrelated events or objects in his/her
surroundings to be of significance for himself/herself. For example, a person with schizophrenia might believe a
billboard or a celebrity is sending a message meant for them.
Question: 202
A 48-year-old woman always socially withdrawn has stopped going out of the house. She is afraid to socialize fears
that people will criticize her.
What is the most probable diagnosis?
C. Social anxiety
D. Agoraphobia
Answer: C
Social anxiety disorder is a type of complex phobia. This type of phobia has a disrupt disabling impact on a persons
life. It can severely affect a persons confidence and self-esteem, interfere with relationships and impair performance
at work or school.
Question: 203
Victim of RTA came with multiple injuries to abdomen, chest and limbs. BP is 80/ 50. upper limb has upper third near
amputation that bleeds profusely, what is your first thing to do:
A. Tourniquet the limb to stop the bleeding
B. Check the airway and breathing
C. Five IV fluid
D. Call orthopedic
Answer: B
As rule ABC also in description near amputation so difficult to make tourniquet enough which stops bleeding.
Question: 204
A 72years presents with polyuria and polydipsia. The fasting blood sugar is 8 and 10mmol/l.BP=130/80mm
cholesterol=5.7mmol/l. There is microalbuminuria.
What is the single most appropriate next management?
A. Statin and glitazone
B. ACEi and sulfonylurea
C. Statin and Biguanide
D. Statin and ACEi
Answer: D
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Medical Practitioner outline - BingNews Search results Medical Practitioner outline - BingNews What Is a Functional Medicine Doctor?

Functional medicine doctors use specialized training and techniques to find the root causes of chronic illnesses. They work holistically, considering the full picture of your physical, mental, emotional, and sometimes even your spiritual health. They provide "patient-centered" care, which means they spend time learning about you, your lifestyle, your medical history, family history, and your needs in order to find a solution to your heath problems that's personalized to you.

Are functional medicine doctors MDs?

There are a wide variety of functional medicine “practitioners,” but not all of them are Doctors of Medicine, or MDs. Physicians assistants and chiropractors might practice functional medicine, for example, but they haven’t gone to medical school to earn an MD degree. 

A Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, or DO, is another type of medical professional that might practice functional medicine and be referred to as a functional medicine “doctor.” Like MDs, DOs have similar education and credentials to practice medicine. They have done residencies, can prescribe medication, and they are licensed to practice medicine in their state. They may also become board-certified like doctors. 

Both MDs and DOs – as well as functional medicine practitioners who aren’t medical doctors – who practice functional medicine may take additional courses specific to functional medicine. The American Association of Family Physicians has accredited some, but not all, functional medicine courses.

Because the field of functional medicine isn’t standardized like traditional medicine, it’s important to do your research when choosing a doctor. Some functional medicine practitioners who aren’t medical doctors may provide treatment for chronic illness, but these methods often have little scientific evidence to support them. In some cases, they could also be dangerous for you. If you decide to go to a functional medicine doctor for treatment, make sure they have MD or DO credentials and are licensed to practice medicine in your state. 

photo of dietitian counseling male patient

Functional medicine doctors look at your full history to identify the root causes of an illness. They collect detailed information about the disease and your overall lifestyle. Functional medicine doctors often spend more time with their patients in order to get all the information they need.

A functional medicine doctor may ask you about:

  • A timeline of symptoms
  • Sleep patterns
  • Exercise habits
  • Nutrition
  • Stressors
  • Personal relationships
  • Emotional well-being

Then, they come up with a treatment plan to manage the many factors that may be contributing to your chronic condition. Unlike traditional doctors, who might prescribe prescription medicine or surgical procedures as the main treatment, functional medicine doctors often first look to Boost things like diet, exercise, sleep, and stress reduction. Of course, if there is an immediate medical need, your functional medicine doctor can also prescribe medication and recommend conventional medical procedures. 

Finally, your functional medicine doctor will track your progress and make changes as needed. The approach is different for each person, since functional medicine is centered around personalized treatment plans.

Your relationship with your functional medicine doctor may also be different than with your primary care doctor. Functional medicine tends to be a more collaborative partnership between you and your doctor. Your doctor considers your input while still keeping you responsible for your choices as they relate to your condition and treatment.

Functional medicine vs. integrative medicine

Functional medicine and integrative medicine are very similar. For example, both use diet and nutrition as primary tools for fighting chronic illness and take a holistic, individualized approach to your health. Both are also often considered “alternative medicine” by the mainstream medical community. 

But there are a few key differences between the two. Functional medicine still relies on tools such as blood tests, allergy tests, and genetic testing. With integrative medicine you’re less likely to have those tests; instead, your health care provider focuses on the mind-body aspects of health. Integrative medicine doctors are more likely to recommend noninvasive treatments for you and are less likely to prescribe "non-natural" medications. 

Functional medicine is based on the idea that every patient is unique and that many factors such as family history, lifestyle, and environment interact with each other. For example, if you are diagnosed with heart disease, this could be due to a combination of genetics, diet, stress, and other lifestyle factors. Your treatment plan would take all of these into consideration to get to the root cause of your disease.

Rather than just treating your heart disease with medication or surgery, your treatment plan would also try to treat the things that are causing your heart disease. That could be changing your diet, getting more exercise, and reducing your stress levels. While some mainstream doctors also incorporate these elements into their treatment plans, it is not as common. In functional medicine, this is central to your treatment. 

To be a functional medicine doctor (MD or DO), you have to go through traditional medical school training. You can then choose to get additional certification from an organization such as The Institute for Functional Medicine. Then you can apply functional medicine teachings to your medical field of practice.

Additional certification does not deliver you any further legal status, but it shows that you have trained and are committed to working within this field of medicine. 

Functional medicine doctors can treat a variety of health issues. They normally focus on chronic conditions that affect physical and mental health, such as:

If you do not have a chronic illness, you can still visit a functional medicine doctor. Many also focus on preventative care.

Seeing a functional medicine doctor might be right for you if:

You want a more personalized type of health care. Functional medicine doctors typically spend more time with you and more time assessing all the factors that affect your health. Functional medicine addresses each person individually. Using different methods than a conventional medical doctor, a functional medicine doctor will help you figure out which specific treatments are right for you.

You're interested in how things like genetics, mental health and lifestyle habits contribute to your illness. Your treatment will address all of these things individually, which will Boost your whole health.

Your chronic illness hasn't responded well to traditional treatment. You might continue to receive conventional treatment, but functional medicine can open up other options that could be better than or work well with your existing treatment plan.

Functional medicine is not as widely practiced as regular medicine, and there are fewer functional medicine doctors to choose from. If you live far from a major city, it can be more difficult to find one. 

A good place to start is with the The Institute for Functional Medicine's online provider search tool. You can put in your ZIP code and see which doctors are closest to you. You can also read reviews from patients that can help you decide whether the doctor is right for you. 

Functional medicine seeks to treat patients holistically and individually. Many people find it to be a helpful approach to treating chronic conditions that conventional medicine hasn't been able to treat. But some of the foundational principles of functional medicine are not yet scientifically proven, and there is less standardization in the quality of care you might receive. For these reasons, you may wish to proceed cautiously when seeking functional medical care. 

What does a functional medicine doctor do?

Functional medicine doctors use a more holistic approach to treat chronic conditions. This includes taking your lifestyle, genetics, mental health, and environment into account when making a treatment plan. 

Are functional medicine doctors legitimate?

Functional medicine doctors need to go through conventional medical school training. They can then choose to practice functional medicine. Since the standards aren't as well established in the functional medicine field, people may pass themselves off as doctors without having the necessary credentials. It's important to do your research and check that your functional medicine doctor has legitimate education and licensure. 

Functional medicine itself is sometimes questioned for its legitimacy. There isn't as much scientific research to prove that the methods it uses are effective. That's why many people prefer to stick to conventional medicine. In the future, there may be more studies that prove the effectiveness of functional medicine. 

Of course, just because an approach hasn't been Tested yet through rigorous research doesn't mean it's junk – but it does mean that you should be cautious if you decide to proceed with a functional medicine professional. Ask for their credentials and seek other treatment options if their suggestions raise any red flags.

Is a functional doctor the same as a holistic doctor?

While there is some overlap between a functional medicine doctor and a holistic doctor, there are also a couple of important differences. Both types of professionals try to treat patients by taking a multifaceted, individualized approach. However, holistic doctors typically avoid prescribing conventional medications or recommending surgery. Functional medicine doctors may be more open to these options. 

Sun, 17 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Gypsy Rose Blanchard’s Story Exposes The Horrors Of ‘Munchausen By Proxy’

Gypsy Rose Blanchard’s release from Chillicothe Correctional Center in Missouri last week has sparked vast renewed interest in her case—a profoundly sad story filled with dark twists and turns—as well as the disturbing condition, Munchausen by proxy, at its center.

Upon her request on June 14, 2015, Gypsy Rose’s then-boyfriend, Nicholas Godejohn, stabbed her mother, Dee Dee Blanchard, to death. She received parole in September of 2023, and was ultimately set free after serving 85% of her 10-year sentence for second degree murder.

The murder of Dee Dee Blanchard is a case that is often referred to as “unprecedented,” with layers of abuse and trauma as well as years of lies and deceit. Research shows how Dee Dee’s tragic and avoidable death can be dissected and understood as well as the psychological warfare that led to it.

What Led Gypsy Rose Blanchard To Matricide?

Gypsy and Dee Dee Blanchard were loved, revered and cared for by their community. To the public eye, the Blanchards were a regular family that faced immense hardship, as Gypsy Rose suffered from a plethora of physical and mental disabilities.

According to a psychological and medical report of the case, Dee Dee reported that Gypsy Rose had suffered from:

  • Leukemia
  • Asthma
  • Epilepsy
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Brain damage due to premature birth
  • Sleep apnea
  • Hearing and vision impairment

The combination of these illnesses led to Gypsy Rose living an incredibly difficult life. Her muscular dystrophy left her indefinitely bound to a wheelchair. Her brain damage left her with the mental capacity of a 7-year-old. The remaining illnesses required constant, large amounts of medication, surgery and treatment. Her requirement for around-the-clock care led to various forms of charity and philanthropy dedicated to Gypsy’s cause, aiding Dee Dee in caring for her.

After Dee Dee’s murder in 2015, 23-year old Gypsy Rose was declared missing from her Missouri home, and the world was left shocked as to why such a dedicated and caring mother would be killed. It came as an even more monumental surprise when Gypsy Rose walked into court in handcuffs, being charged with the murder of her own mother.

The murder trial revealed that Gypsy Rose never actually suffered from any of the illnesses that Dee Dee claimed she had, and she had gone through over 20 years of unnecessary medical treatment, had many unneeded surgeries and had taken many redundant medications. The slow realization of these factors led Gypsy Rose to fight against her mother’s wishes.

She longed for a normal and healthy life, for love and for freedom, but her mother did not allow her these rights and physically abused her when she expressed such desires or went against her will. She continued to misrepresent Gypsy Rose’s health while forcing her to do the same. Behind her mother’s back, Gypsy Rose entered an online relationship with Nicholas Godejohn. She begged him to save her from her situation, and he ultimately killed Dee Dee upon her request. Although Gypsy Rose has just been released, Godejohn is still serving life in prison.

What Was Wrong With Dee Dee Blanchard?

It eventually came to light that Dee Dee suffered from “factitious disorder imposed on another,” formerly yet more commonly known as “Munchausen syndrome by proxy.” According to a study from the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, Munchausen by proxy refers to willfully committing abuse by intentionally and deceitfully feigning the physical, psychiatric or developmental disorder of another.

The researchers outline that this is often achieved by exaggerating, simulating, fabricating or even intentionally inducing physical or psychiatric illness. Munchausen by proxy, in the author’s words, is often characterized by “a persistent and repetitive drive to place the victim in the sick role in order to satisfy a psychological need of the abuser, such as attention or to appear as a caring and competent parent.”

In Dee Dee’s case, Gypsy Rose was entirely healthy. However, due to inexplicable and untreated psychological factors, Dee Dee would repeatedly lie to medical practitioners regarding the state of her daughter’s health. She would report symptoms and illnesses that Gypsy Rose never experienced and forced her daughter to undergo relentless, invasive surgeries and treatments for no reason at all—making her look and feel more sickly than she was—to satisfy her dysfunctional desires.

Being the victim of a parent with Munchausen by proxy can be incredibly traumatic, as their lives are filled with medical abuse from a young age. For Gypsy Rose—who was forced to use a wheelchair, have her salivary glands surgically removed, take medication that made her severely ill and renounce eating orally in favor of a feeding tube—her trauma ultimately became too large a burden to carry, leading her to believe that extreme measures were the only way she could free herself from the abuse.

Dee Dee’s murder was entirely preventable by an early diagnosis, making it all the more tragic. Although one physician noted that Dee Dee “wasn’t a good historian” and suspected she suffered from Munchausen by proxy, Dee Dee promptly changed doctors when she was met with probing questions about her daughter’s conditions.

She also successfully duped new doctors by claiming that Gypsy Rose’s medical history was lost, and her vast medical vocabulary gave her an air of credibility. Then there’s the ethical dilemma medical practitioners faced in accusing Dee Dee of suffering from Munchausen by proxy—especially when the family was supported and embraced by the community. All these factors partially explain how many medical practitioners that the Blanchards dealt with were unable (or unwilling) to identify and recognize the deceit, allowing it to persist for over two decades.

After serving her time in prison, Gypsy Rose reports she deeply regrets the actions she took: “She was a sick woman, and unfortunately, I wasn’t educated enough to see that. She deserved to be where I am, sitting in prison doing time for criminal behavior.” Gypsy Rose’s story underscores the crucial role that knowledge and awareness play in safeguarding vulnerable individuals from the effects of Munchausen by proxy.


Gypsy Rose and Dee Dee Blanchard’s tragic case serves as a chilling reminder of the devastating impact of Munchausen by proxy. The manipulation, abuse and deception she endured at the hands of her own mother highlight the need for increased awareness and education surrounding this form of abuse. By understanding the mechanism of the disorder, healthcare professionals, law enforcement and the public can work collaboratively to identify and intervene in such cases, potentially saving lives and preventing further suffering.

Tue, 02 Jan 2024 01:28:00 -0600 Mark Travers en text/html
Doctors on the Use of Medical Cannabis

To the Editor:

Re “More Seniors Are Choosing Pot Over Pills” (front page, Nov. 17):

As a primary care doctor, I have been discussing, recommending and prescribing cannabis to my patients over my entire 25-year career. I have known it was a medicine since I saw it help my brother Danny during his unsuccessful battle with childhood leukemia.

My family procured it for him illegally in the early 1970s as they had heard about the benefits. It was transformational, as Danny could now hold down food and, importantly from my perspective, play with his little brothers during the time he had left.

As primary care doctors, we do not prescribe “perfectly safe medications” ever. No drug or medicine comes with zero toxicity. Rather, we prescribe the medicine that we believe will have the least toxicity and that will alleviate whatever ailment we are treating.

I have found that having medical cannabis in my toolbox has vastly improved my ability to treat anxiety, insomnia and chronic pain, to deliver a few examples — problems that plague our older populations, and that are often unsafely and ineffectively treated by current pharmaceutical options.

It is difficult to argue that cannabis is more toxic, especially if used judiciously, than many of the pharma options we often provide.

It is no surprise to me that, as we roll back our ineffective war on drugs, and as older Americans increasingly have legal access to cannabis as an option, the usage in this population is increasing. In many cases, we are finding cannabis to be a more effective and safer alternative.

Peter Grinspoon
Newton, Mass.
The writer is the author of “Seeing Through the Smoke: A Cannabis Specialist Untangles the Truth About Marijuana.”

To the Editor:

I applaud this excellent article, which sheds light on the potential benefits of cannabis for seniors. As a geriatrician who has recommended cannabis to more than 2,000 older adults, I can attest to its benefits for many problems that plague them, including pain, anxiety, sleep disorders, spasticity, cancer-related nausea and even Alzheimer’s-related agitation.

Medical cannabis has also helped many of my patients (and my colleagues’ patients) discontinue using dangerous medications, such as opioids or benzodiazepines, as well as cut down on other prescription drugs.

There is a desperate need for better and safer approaches for many geriatric syndromes. Cannabis can, in fact, safely treat many of these conditions. But, as the article pointed out, it’s important to use it correctly — especially by starting low and going slow — and getting good medical advice.

Unfortunately, accurate medical information is sorely lacking; most geriatricians and other health care providers are not educated about medical cannabis, and the media is often filled with hype and misleading information.

My colleagues and I are dedicated to providing evidence-based information to consumers, medical students and medical practitioners so they can make informed decisions about using or recommending cannabis.

Mikhail Kogan
The writer is a co-author of “Medical Marijuana: Dr. Kogan’s Evidence-Based Guide to the Health Benefits of Cannabis and CBD” and associate professor of medicine and associate director of geriatric fellowship at George Washington University.

To the Editor:

Re “So Many Child Deaths in Gaza, and for What?” (column, Dec. 7):

Nicholas Kristof writes passionately about the horrifying deaths of so many Palestinian children. What he does not mention is the psychological trauma for surviving children and the possible consequences.

Some of those terrified boys and girls, covered in dust and blood frantically looking for family members, will struggle to ever become functioning, much less happy and successful, adults. Others will grow into hatred of Israel, eventually joining whatever terrorist group comes along to replace Hamas.

I fear that in this massive destruction Israel sows the seeds of its own future tragedies and wars.

Anne-Marie Hislop

To the Editor:

Nicholas Kristof devotes his column to decrying the number of child deaths in Gaza and the brutality of the Israeli campaign, but he offers nothing helpful about solving the larger problem of Hamas and terrorism. All he can suggest is an anemic “Every bit of diplomatic pressure should be applied to Hamas to free those hostages.”

Diplomatic pressure will do zero to free the hostages. And the hostages are only a small part of the problem, with Hamas sending rockets throughout Israel and promising to repeat the Oct. 7 atrocities until it accomplishes its genocidal goals.

All decent people suffer with the death of each Gazan child. Until Mr. Kristof can provide a viable solution to removing an entrenched terrorist organization other than an air and ground campaign such as Israel is waging, he should refrain from such columns that imply that the Israel Defense Forces are acting unethically.

Jeffrey L. Rubenstein
New York
The writer is a professor of Hebrew and Judaic studies at New York University.

To the Editor:

Re “Democracy Relies on Local Newspapers” (Opinion, Dec. 3):

Serge Schmemann’s somber assessment of the state of local news — and the civic costs of its disappearance — was a timely wake-up call for anyone concerned about the state of our democracy. But Mr. Schmemann underestimates the promise of the creative solutions that are emerging to re-energize local news.

Chief among those solutions are partnerships between universities and local newsrooms. Such news-academic partnerships have been gaining momentum in exact years, and they offer a sustainable path forward for regions in danger of becoming news deserts. Perhaps most critically, these partnerships are also cultivating an appreciation among college students for the essential role that local news plays in a thriving democracy.

Building a strong future for local news will require more than just newsrooms; we also need generations of savvy news patrons who demand rigorous coverage of local civic life.

Meg Little Reilly
Burlington, Vt.
The writer is managing director of the Center for Community News at the University of Vermont.

To the Editor:

Re “Apple Opens Path for Healing Green and Blue Divide in Texts,” by Brian X. Chen (Tech Fix column, Nov. 30), about the “green versus blue bubble” disparity in texts between iPhone and Android users:

First I’ve heard of this, since I confess to texting sparingly at best. But I’m not surprised.

If we’re not killing one another over borders, riches, religion, politics, skin color/ethnicity or sexual orientation/gender identity — to name but a few — then we’re arguing over and grouping ourselves by preferred computer operating systems, applications, hardware, and, yes, even the color of our messaging bubble.

Is there no limit to our penchant for tribalization?


Marc Truitt
Sackville, New Brunswick

Tue, 12 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Health & Wellness Partners

About Health & Wellness Partners

Founded in 2005, Health & Wellness Partners provides pharmaceutical companies and health practitioners with educational materials, such as information about rare drug interactions and diagrams for doctors’ offices. “I went through systems that created barriers to success because I was a woman. I knew there had to be greater opportunities,” says founder Jani Hegarty. “By creating my own shop, guess what? There’s no ceiling.” The company is certified by the Women’s Business Enterprise National Council for being women owned and operated and boasts a workforce that is 90% female.

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Tue, 26 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Researchers outline AI blueprint to help tackle antimicrobial resistance on a global scale

Researchers from the University of Liverpool have outlined a framework for artificial intelligence (AI) to Boost antimicrobial use and infection care, helping to address the global challenge of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

Their blueprint is published in The Lancet Digital Health journal.

Lead author Dr. Alex Howard said, "Different forms of AI bring many opportunities to Boost health care. AIs can harness complex evolving data, inform and augment human actions, and learn from outcomes. The global public health challenge of AMR needs large-scale optimization of antimicrobial use and wider infection care, which can be enabled by carefully constructed AIs."

The researchers noted that while AIs become increasingly useful and robust, health care systems remain challenging places for their deployment—and an implementation gap exists between the promise of AIs and their use in patient and population care.

With this in mind, the group has outlined an adaptive implementation and maintenance framework for AIs to Boost antimicrobial use and infection care as a learning system. This considers AMR problem identification, law/regulation, organizational support and data processing in relation to AMR-targeted AI development, assessment, maintenance, and scalability.

"Bridging the implementation gap between AI innovation and tackling AMR presents technical, regulatory, organizational, and human challenges. Learning systems built on integrated dataflows, governance, and technologies have the potential to close this gap. Translational expertise between AMR and AI fields will be essential to appropriately design, maintain, normalize, and globalize AMR-AIs in infection care and realize the potential for AIs to support clinician-driven AMR minimization strategies," Dr. Howard said.

The work articulates a vision of how can be leveraged to tackle antimicrobial resistance as part of the Centres for Antimicrobial Optimization Network program, a global collaborative bringing together world-leading multidisciplinary expertise in and health informatics.

More information: Alex Howard et al, Antimicrobial learning systems: an implementation blueprint for artificial intelligence to tackle antimicrobial resistance, The Lancet Digital Health (2023). DOI: 10.1016/S2589-7500(23)00221-2

Citation: Researchers outline AI blueprint to help tackle antimicrobial resistance on a global scale (2023, December 18) retrieved 5 January 2024 from

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Sun, 17 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Women's Health Nurse Practitioners in Liverpool, PA No result found, try new keyword!Nicole Dreibelbis is a women's health nurse practitioner in Mechanicsburg, PA, and is affiliated with Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center. Hospitals: Penn State Health Holy Spirit ... Wed, 27 Dec 2023 13:41:00 -0600 Psychedelic treatment office for mental health has 90% client success rate

'It’s groundbreaking and it’s incredible that it’s here in Sault Ste. Marie,' says social worker Julie Myers of ketamine therapy

One year after opening a Canadian Centre for Psychedelic Healing office in Sault Ste. Marie to treat those suffering from severe mental health issues, staff are encouraged with the results they’ve seen in their clients.

The centre works with people who have suffered long periods of anxiety and depression that stop them from living their lives to the fullest.

“It’s been the most fulfilling work I’ve done in 16 years of being a registered social worker. We’ve had folks who have considered medically assisted dying and we’ve had folks who are extremely suicidal who have made attempts at taking their own life," said Ashley Irwin speaking to SooToday.

The local Canadian Centre for Psychedelic Healing office, located in Suite 303 at 390 Bay St., is the sole provider of ketamine-assisted psychotherapy (KAP) in the region.

“We’ve had almost 50 clients through the clinic. We’ve had an 88 per cent success rate reported by clients. In traditional psychotherapy you don’t see those results in  such a short term model. It’s been lovely to see the large range of folks we’ve been able to support. Suicidality has been dissipated and. People have shown a new sense of fulfillment and compassion toward themselves. We’ve had an individual with OCD, and the ritualistic OCD urges have completely gone away after just one session,” Irwin said.

“It’s the most exciting work. It’s groundbreaking and it’s incredible that ketamine is here in Sault Ste. Marie,” said Julie Myers, a registered social worker for the past 15 years.

Clients can refer themselves for KAP treatment if they feel their mental health issues have not eased after two attempts at treatment with antidepressants and/or traditional counselling.

“A lot of times we’re working with folks who’ve been on several antidepressants that haven’t really supported them to feel fulfilled, alive and participating in life, and they’re reporting that ketamine is helping them come back to themselves. So that’s been really neat to see the difference,” Irwin said.

KAP involves the use of ketamine, a pediatric anesthetic, to ease entrenched negative attitudes within the mind.

“We use ketamine in low doses and it induces a psychedelic state. It can really assist in diminishing symptoms of treatment-resistant mental health issues,” Irwin said.

“Ketamine acts as a catalyst in treatment. It really elevates the therapeutic process and acts as a catalyst to much more rapid change and shifts in perspective,” Myers said. 

“Basically it allows clients to promote forgiveness toward self and others, to end something negative that might be causing intrusiveness in their life through symptoms of flashbacks and nightmares. A client may feel like there's been a weight lifted from them. They feel much more connected to themselves in mind and body and more connected to a sense of community, participating in events and daily living,” Irwin said.

The process begins with a phone call to a nurse administrator at the Bay Street office.

A nurse at the office will receive a client and measure their weight, examine their blood pressure and heart rate.

From there, an on-site nurse practitioner will decide if KAP is suitable for them.

The client then meets with social workers Irwin or Myers to outline their desired treatment goals.

A treatment session begins with a nurse practitioner administering a sublingual ketamine lozenge.

A few minutes later, the client is then guided by Irwin or Myers to a meditative, altered state. 

“They can go back and reprocess something that happened with a lighter, more pleasant emotion to be felt,” Irwin said.

“For a lot of clients who may have struggled with traditional therapy who don’t feel comfortable opening up, that psychedelic state is providing them with an enhanced comfort level and they’re able to open up more. With ketamine it’s just a whole new ball game. People are willing to open up and the results of that are pretty incredible.”

Social workers will then use a process called integration, which is an attempt to instill new habits and healthy tendencies in a client, such as enjoying nature or taking up creative pursuits once the brain is at an optimal level of functioning. 

“There tends to be a really significant level of motivation after,” Myers said. 

After a ketamine session with a social worker, the client will be checked by a nurse to verify if their overall state, including their mobility, is in check before they leave the office.

On average, prep time before a session with a social worker lasts for 30 to 45 minutes, the ketamine-induced altered state lasts for 45 to 60 minutes and post treatment integration with a social worker is approximately 45 minutes, a treatment session usually two and a half hours in duration.

Sessions are longer for clients who have been suicidal.

Clients are not left unattended.

The office’s treatment course consists of six sessions, two per week for a three week period. 

A post-treatment summary is written in which clients are asked if their treatment goals have been met or if they feel a need for further treatment.

“Most often there isn’t,” Irwin said.

“Their needs have been met and that’s nice to see for a relatively short term model of treatment. Clients have the opportunity to come back for a consultation or further maintenance appointments if needed. They can ask for a monthly followup after a course of treatment."

The office has treated clients - from teens to seniors - from the Sault and Algoma District.

The Canadian Centre for Psychedelic Healing is monitored by Health Canada and the Ontario Ministry of Health.

In the past year the Centre has acquired Field Trip Health and has offices in Ottawa, Vancouver, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay and Toronto.

Treatment sessions are not covered by OHIP and cost approximately $3,700. 

A good benefit plan can cover up to approximately $2,200 of that amount, Irwin said.

“It’s hard not to get extremely passionate about it because we’re seeing the results. We want to shout it from the rooftops, that it’s here in the Sault and it’s working so well. Traditional therapy can be a struggle and progress is sometimes slow but every one of these sessions feels groundbreaking,” Myers said.

Mon, 01 Jan 2024 03:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Family Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner, Post-Master's Certificate

At Saint Louis University, future family psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioners learn to apply the nursing process and medical/medication management to promote optimal mental health while engaging in active, ongoing collaboration with clients, their families, significant others and the interprofessional team.

Students pursuing the family psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner program at SLU work with children, adolescents and adults of all ages with acute or complex mental health needs or psychiatric diagnoses. SLU's family psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioner program encourages evidence-based, culturally sensitive, recovery-oriented and holistic care.

At Saint Louis University, we partner with our students on clinical placement. Besides being paired with a faculty mentor with expertise in students' desired field of study, SLU helps students obtain preceptors for their clinical rotations.

The Valentine School of Nursing is renowned for excellence in nursing education. U.S. News and World Report consistently ranks our MSN-NP program as a top program in their Best Graduate Schools survey.

Curriculum Overview

Saint Louis University's post-master's nurse practitioner certificate programs are conducted almost completely online, requiring only two visits to the St. Louis campus.

A minimum of 15 credits is required for completion of a post-master's nurse practitioner certificate program. The total number of credits varies, depending on the particular certificate pursued.

At the Valentine School of Nursing’s discretion, students may transfer three to six credits of graduate-level coursework to be applied toward their post-master's certificate program of study.

Student files are individually reviewed. Students may be able to petition for advanced standing in courses such as “Advanced Health Assessment,” “Advanced Pathophysiology” and “Advanced Pharmacology.”


Upon completion of the post-master's nurse practitioner certificate program, you will qualify to take the certification exam through the Pediatric Nursing Certification Board.

According to a U.S. News & World Report ranking, the median salary of nurse practitioners in 2022 was $120,680. The best-paid 25% of NPs made $129,680 that year; the lowest-paid 25% made $99,540. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects 52.2% employment growth for nurse practitioners between 2020 and 2030. In that period, an estimated 114,900 jobs are projected to open up in the NP profession.

Admission Requirements

  • A master's degree in a nursing specialty, preferably from a program accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency
  • A college cumulative grade point of 3.20 or higher
  • Completion of a graduate-level physiology or pathophysiology course and a beginning health assessment course, or the equivalent thereof
  • Experience in an advanced practice role in nursing is preferred
  • Proof of completion of an American heart care provider course is required after acceptance.

The Valentine School of Nursing adheres to the principles of a holistic admission process in which selection criteria are broad-based and linked to our University’s and school’s mission and goals. While we do consider academic metrics we also look at applicant experiences, attributes, potential for success, and how applicants may contribute to the school’s learning environment and to the profession.

The curriculum for this program meets the educational requirements for licensure as an Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) in the State of Missouri. Note that the Missouri Board of Nursing may impose additional requirements on candidates prior to granting a license; we encourage you to investigate these requirements.

The Trudy Busch Valentine School of Nursing has not determined whether the curriculum for this program meets the educational requirements for nursing licensure in any other states or territories. However, graduates of our APRN programs are eligible to sit for National Board Certification Exams in all states and territories. We encourage you to investigate the requirements in your state or territory prior to accepting an offer of admission.

Saint Louis University School of Nursing accepts applications to the pediatric primary care post-master's certificate program from students living in the following states: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin.

Application Requirements

Please follow the five steps outlined below to apply:

Requirements for International Students

International students on F1 or J1 student visas are not eligible for admission, as these programs are conducted entirely online. For additional information, contact the Office of International Services.

Application Deadlines

  • Fall admissions: Priority admission is April 15 with an application deadline of June 1.
  • Spring admissions: Priority admission is October 15 with an application deadline of December 1.

    If the application deadline has passed for your semester of interest, please contact Late applications may be accepted.


Tuition Cost Per Credit
Graduate Tuition $1,310

Additional charges may apply. Other resources are listed below:

Net Price Calculator

Information on Tuition and Fees

Miscellaneous Fees

Information on Summer Tuition

Scholarships and Financial Aid

Financing for this program may be available through grants, scholarships, loans (federal and private) and institutional financing plans.  For price estimates, please review the SLU Cost Calculator.  

The Valentine School of Nursing offers scholarship and graduate research assistantship opportunities to eligible graduate students.  Additionally, most nursing students will participate in a tuition assistance program provided through their employer.

For more information, visit the student financial services office online at


The Trudy Busch Valentine School of Nursing is fully approved by the Missouri State Board of Nursing.

The Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing and Doctor of Nursing Practice at the Valentine School of Nursing are accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education and approved by the Missouri State Board of Nursing. To achieve its educational objectives, the school uses the hospitals within SSM Health and many health care organizations in the greater St. Louis area.

NURS 5040

Advanced Practice Nursing: Role Acquisition

NURS 5080

Advanced Pharmacology

NURS 5110

Advanced Assessment and Clinical Decision Making

NURS 5130

Clinical & Diagnostic Reasoning

NURS 5140

Health Promotion

NURS 5160

Principles of Practice Management

NURS 5170

Advanced Pathophysiology

NURS 5900

NURS 5340 Advanced Clinical Studies I: Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing 4
NURS 5350 Advanced Clinical Studies II: Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing 5
NURS 5400 Ecological Approach to Human Behavior 3
NURS 5430 Psychopharmacology 2
NURS 5510 Mental Health Care Family 2
NURS 5550 Family and Child Development 3
NURS 5810 Advanced Practice Nursing Clinical Practicum 4
Total Credits 23-40

Continuation Standards

Students must maintain a cumulative grade point average (GPA) of 3.00 in all graduate/professional courses.

Tue, 23 May 2023 02:47:00 -0500 en text/html
Ludhiana: Medical practitioner, assistant held captive, robbed of ₹45,000

Two masked miscreants allegedly held captive a medical practitioner and his assistant in his clinic and robbed them of 45,000 at Bahadurke Road, police said on Tuesday.

Ludhiana: Medical practitioner, assistant held captive, robbed of <span class='webrupee'>₹</span>45,000
Ludhiana: Medical practitioner, assistant held captive, robbed of 45,000

The miscreants, who were laced with sharp-edged weapons, locked the medical practitioner and his female assistant in the clinic while escaping. Later, the locals rescued them.

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In his complaint, Rasik, a medical practitioner, stated that he was about to leave the clinic on Monday night when two masked men came there around 9.30 pm.

“The miscreants held me and my assistant captive in the clinic. They brandished a sharp-edged weapon and threatened to kill me. The accused robbed 45,000 kept in the clinic and fled, locking us inside the clinic,” Rasik said.

“After the miscreants left the spot, we raised an alarm following which the locals opened the gate and rescued both of us,” he added.

Inspector Gurmukh Singh, SHO at Jodhewal police station, said that the police have received a complaint and they are in the process of filing an FIR. The police have procured CCTVs footage of the spot. The police are trying to identify the miscreants.

Tue, 19 Dec 2023 21:28:00 -0600 en text/html
Occupational Health Nurse Practitioners in Riverside, NJ No result found, try new keyword!Jennifer Smith is an occupational health nurse practitioner in Philadelphia, PA, and is affiliated with Jefferson Health-Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals. Maria Lanzi is an occupational ... Mon, 01 Jan 2024 15:29:00 -0600

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