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FPGEE Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency

The Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination®, or FPGEE®, is one of the examinations required as part of the FPGEC Certification Program (You must also take and pass the TOEFL iBT, the English-language exam administered by Educational Testing Service. Applications submitted after January 1, 2020 must complete the TOEFL iBT requirement prior to sitting for the FPGEE).

The FPGEE is offered once per year, and it is administered at Pearson VUE test sites throughout the continental United States. Only individuals made eligible during the FPGEC application process can take the FPGEE.

You will be notified via your e-Profile that you are eligible to sit for the FPGEE after successfully completing the FPGEC evaluation process. You must pass the FPGEE within two years of having your FPGEC application accepted or your application will expire, and you will need to submit a new FPGEC application.

An overview of FPGEC Certification

FPGEC and ECE application procedures

Documentation of pharmacist credentials

Registering for the FPGEE

FPGEE administration

FPGEE score results

The FPGEE Competency Statements provide a blueprint of the subjects covered on the examination. A strong understanding of the Competency Statements will aid in your preparation to take the examination. The 200 questions on the FPGEE are divided among four content areas:

Basic biomedical sciences – 10%

Pharmaceutical sciences – 33%

Social, behavioral, administrative pharmacy sciences – 22%

Clinical sciences – 35%

The statements can be found in the FPGEC Candidate Application Bulletin.

Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Examination Committee™ (FPGEC®) Certification is required for
foreign-educated pharmacists seeking to apply for the pharmacy licensing exams (including the North
American Pharmacist Licensing Examination® (NAPLEX®) and Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence
Examination® (MPJE®)) in the United States and NABP member jurisdictions. To obtain FPGEC
Certification, a candidate must have their required documentation and application accepted, including
a passing score on the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based Test (TOEFL iBT), and
pass the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Examination® (FPGEE®). The information below is
provided to guide you through the key steps in applying for FPGEC Certification, including instructions
for registering to take the FPGEE. It answers the most frequently asked questions about the FPGEC
application process. Please read this information carefully and refer to the appropriate sections of this
Application Bulletin for detailed information.

NABP provides the FPGEC Certification Program to document the educational equivalency of
a candidates foreign pharmacy education, as well as their license and/or registration to practice
pharmacy. To achieve FPGEC Certification, candidates must:

• Provide documents that verify their education background.

• Provide documents that verify licensure and/or registration to practice pharmacy.

• Pass the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based Test (iBT).

• Pass the FPGEE.

Candidates who receive an FPGEC Certificate may be qualified to take the pharmacy licensing
examination in jurisdictions that accept this Certification. All 50 US states, the District of Columbia,
Guam, and Puerto Rico require foreign-trained pharmacists to achieve FPGEC Certification before
applying for a license from a state board of pharmacy

- Physiology

- Function of the major body systems and homeostatic impact at organ and system level

- Biochemistry

- Chemistry and utilization of biomacromolecules including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acid, intermediary metabolism of energy and nutritional molecules

- Enzymology and coenzymes and kinetics

- Cell chemistry, signal transduction pathways

- Transport and mobility

- Recombinant DNA and molecular biotechnology

- mRNA translation and protein synthesis

- Microbiology Related to Human Disease

- Structure, function, and characteristics of microorganisms: microbe classification, structure, metabolism, genetics

- Pathogenic microorganisms of humans

- Immunology

- Innate and adaptive immunity

- Principles of antibody actions

- Hypersensitivity and types of reactions

Area 2.0 - Pharmaceutical Sciences (Approximately 33% of Test)

- Medicinal Chemistry

- Physicochemical properties of drugs in relation to drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME)

- Chemical basis for drug action

- Fundamental pharmacophores for drugs used to treat diseases

- Structure-activity relationships in relation to drug-target interactions

- Chemical pathways of drug metabolism

- Applicability to making drug therapy decisions

- Pharmacology and Toxicology

- Mechanisms of action of drugs of various categories including biologics

- Pharmacodynamics of drug binding and response

- Adverse effects and side effects of drugs

- Mechanisms of drug-drug interactions

- Drug discovery and development

- Acute and chronic toxic effect of xenobiotics, including drug and chemical overdose and antidotes

- Pharmacognosy and Dietary Supplements

- Concepts of crude drugs, semi-purified, and purified natural products

- Classes of pharmacologically active natural products

- Science and regulation of dietary supplements (vitamins, minerals, and herbals)

- Pharmaceutics/Biopharmaceutics

- Biopharmaceutical principles of drug delivery to the body via dosage forms: liquid, solid, semisolid, controlled release, patches, implants

- Materials and methods used in preparation of drug forms

- Physicochemical properties relating to drug entities and dosage forms

- Principles of drug and dosage form stability, including chemical degradation and physical instability

- Pharmacokinetics

- Basic principles of in-vivo drug kinetics (linear and nonlinear)

- Principles of bioavailability and bioequivalence

- Physiologic determinates of drug onset and duration, including disease and dietary influences on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion

- Pharmacogenomics and Genetics

- Molecular genetics, genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic principles that serve as a foundation for pharmacogenomics and the genetic basis of disease

- Genetic variants affecting drug action and metabolism, adverse drug reactions, and disease risk that influence the practice of personalized medicine

- Sterile and Nonsterile Compounding

- United States Pharmacopeia guidelines on sterile and nonsterile compounding, hazardous drugs, and FDA regulation of compounding

- Techniques and principles used to prepare and dispense individual extemporaneous prescriptions, including dating of compounded dosage forms

- Dosage form preparation calculations

- Sterile admixture techniques, including stability, clean-room requirements, sterility testing, and dating

Area 3.0 – Social/Behavioral/Administrative Sciences (Approximately 22% of Test)

- Health Care Delivery Systems and Public Health

- Organization of health care delivery systems at the national, state, and local levels: various settings where pharmacy is practiced and the structure of health care delivery systems such as managed care organizations, accountable care organizations, health departments

- Health care delivery financing in the United States

- Social, political, and economic factors that influence the delivery of health care in the United States

- Public Health and Wellness: chronic disease prevention, health promotion, infectious disease control, demographics, physical, social, and environmental factors leading to disease, comparing and contrasting public health with individual medical care

- The health care delivery system compared and contrasted with that of other industrialized nations

- Population-Based Care and Pharmacoepidemiology

- Data sources and analytic tools that provide an estimate of the probability of beneficial or adverse effects of medication use in large populations

- Application of epidemiological study designs to evaluate drug use and outcomes in large populations

- Methods for continually monitoring unwanted effects and other safety-related aspects of medication use in large populations

- Economic and Humanistic Outcomes of Health Care Delivery

- General microeconomic and general macroeconomic principles

- Pharmacoeconomic analysis and its application to Improve the allocation of limited health care resources

- Humanistic outcomes and their application to Improve the allocation of limited health care resources

- Pharmacy Practice Management

- Management principles (planning, organizing, directing, and controlling pharmacy resources) applied to various pharmacy practice setting and patient outcomes

- Personnel management

- Planning, including delineation between business and strategic planning

- Marketing of goods and services: product versus service pricing, distribution, promotion

- Accounting and financial management

- Budgeting

- Risk management

- Pharmacy Law and Regulatory Affairs

- Legal and regulatory principles applied to pharmacy practice: dispensing, professional services, drug use control

- Administrative, civil, and criminal liability

- Authority, responsibilities, and operation of agencies and entities that promulgate or administer laws, regulations, or guidances related to practice and prescription and nonprescription medications

- Biostatistics and Research Design

- Research study designs used in medical research

- Application and interpretation of statistical tests and data collection instruments

- Ethical Decision Making

- Principles of biomedical ethics

- Ethical dilemmas in the delivery of patient-centered care including, conflicts of interest, end-of-life decision making, use of codes of ethics, oaths of the pharmacist

- Research ethics

- Professional Communication

- Communication abilities (appropriate verbal, nonverbal, visual, and written) with patient and caregivers, including empathetic communication

- Communication abilities with other health care providers

- Assertiveness and problem-solving techniques in relation to difficult social and professional conflicts and situations

- Measurement and use of health literacy in pharmacy communications

- Development of cultural competency in pharmacy personnel such that services are respectful of and responsive to the health beliefs, practices, and cultural and linguistic needs of diverse patient populations

- Social and Behavioral Aspects of Pharmacy Practice

- Health-, illness-, and sick-role behaviors of patients

- Principles of behavior modification

- Patient adherence to therapies and recommendations

- Caregiving throughout the lifecycle

- Death and dying

- Medication Dispensing and Distribution Systems

- Systems for safe and effective preparation and dispensing of medications in all types of practice settings

- Role of automation and technology: pharmacy informatics, information management

- Continuous quality improvement programs or protocols in the medication-use process, including identification and prevention of medication errors, and establishment of error reduction programs

Area 4.0 – Clinical Sciences (Approximately 35% of Test)

- Evidence-based Practice

- Interpret and evaluate drug information

- Apply drug-information skills for the delivery of medication therapy management

- Evaluate the reliability of various sources of information

- Interpret guidelines as they apply in a clinical setting

- Utilize core scientific and systems-based knowledge in the patient care decision-making process

- Utilize basic science principles in the development and/or implementation of drug treatment protocols and clinical practice guidelines

- Evaluate clinical trials that validate clinical appropriateness

- Clinical Pathophysiology

- Apply concepts of pathophysiology to clinical decision making

- Clinical Pharmacokinetics

- Utilize pharmacokinetics to calculate, evaluate, and individualize drug therapy

- Interpret clinical pharmacokinetics of commonly used and low-therapeutic-index drug
- Clinical Pharmacogenomics

- Utilize pharmacogenomics to calculate, evaluate, and individualize drug therapy

- Disease Prevention and Population Health

- Recognize the proper use of nonpharmacologic therapies, including complementary and alternative medicines

- Describe measures to promote wellness and disease prevention

- Identify the role of immunizations in disease prevention and health promotion

- Patient Assessment

- Describe techniques for obtaining a comprehensive patient history

- Describe how to perform patient physical assessments: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation

- Differentiate between normal physical assessment findings and modifications caused by common disease states and drug therapy

- Interpret common clinical laboratory values and diagnostic tests

- Perform calculations related to patient assessment: BMI, CrCl, lab adjustments

- Describe the use of OTC point-of-care testing devices: glucometers, pregnancy tests, home testing for HbA1c, drug screening

- Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Decision Making

- Make therapy recommendations based on dosage calculations, specific uses and indications of drugs and nutritional and support therapy

- Interpret therapeutic drug concentrations

- Assess pharmacotherapy considering contraindications, therapeutic duplications, dietary interactions, adverse drug reactions and interactions, and allergies

- Triage and identify when to refer patients to other health professionals

- Design patient-centered, culturally-relevant treatment plans

- Apply evidence-based decision making to patient care

- Recommend nonprescription and natural product therapies

- Identify and manage drug toxicity, drug-induced diseases, and misuse or abuse

- Monitor drug therapy for misuse, abuse, and non-adherence
Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency
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Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency
Question: 90
Class of nystatin is:
A. Thiazides
B. Antiprotozoan agents
C. Autonomic nervous system drugs
D. Polyenes
E. Oral hypoglycemics
Answer: D
Question: 91
Indication of ticarcillin is:
A. Streptococcus pneumoniae
B. Varicella zoster virus
C. Myocardial infarction
D. Generalized motor seizures
E. Bone marrow failure states (aplastic anemia, myelodysplasias) (investigational)
Answer: A
Question: 92
Side effect of clindamycin is:
A. Colitis (by Chlostridium difficili)
B. Malabsorption
C. Constipation
D. Hypoglycemia
E. Hepatotoxicity
Answer: A
Question: 93
Route of administration of ofloxacin is:
A. Intra-auricular
B. Sublingual
C. Oral
E. Intramuscular
Answer: C
Question: 94
Which of the following Cytochrome P450 isozymes is responsible for the bulk of phase I metabolism?
E. CYP51
Answer: E
Question: 95
Which of the following causes the smallest change in solubility?
A. Hydroxylation
B. Glucuronidation
C. Sulfation
D. Glutathione conjugation
Answer: A
Question: 96
For the majority of drugs, which of the following equations correctly defines clearance?
A. Cl = Elimination rate/Cp
B. Cl = QxE
C. Cl = .7VD/t1/2
D. All are correct
Answer: D
Question: 97
Side effect of dipyridamole is:
A. Diarrhea
B. Headache
C. Bleeding
D. Hypercalcemia
E. Pseudothrombocytopenia (clumping of platelets)
Answer: B
Question: 98
Site of metabolism of zolpidem is:
A. Liver
B. None
C. Reticuloendothelial system
D. Leukocytes
E. Unknown
Answer: A
Question: 99
Which of the following is considered a class IA Sodium Channel blocker?
A. Mexiletine
B. Aminodarone
C. Quinidine
D. Procainamide
Answer: B
Question: 100
Potassium sparing diuretics have the primary effect upon the _____ found in the kidney.
A. Proximal convoluted tubule
B. Loop of Henle
C. Collecting duct
D. Distal convoluted tubule
Answer: D
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Medical Equivalency availability - BingNews Search results Medical Equivalency availability - BingNews Best Vitamins And Foods To Boost Your Immune System

To keep your body healthy, energized and protected, consider including some of these nutrients in your daily diet.

Vitamin C

When it comes to health and immunity, one of the first vitamins most people think of is vitamin C. This water-soluble vitamin is known for its ability to ward off sickness and can help shorten the duration of colds once contracted. A powerful antioxidant, it can fight free radicals, which may prevent or delay certain cancers, heart disease and aging. Vitamin C supplementation can also help prevent and treat respiratory infections.

Get it from food: Oranges are chock-full of this nutrient, as are tropical fruits like kiwi, guava papaya and lychee and non-citrus fruits like plums, cherries, strawberries, currants and persimmons. Vegetables that are good reservoirs of vitamin C include cruciferous choices like Brussels sprouts and broccoli, as well as mustard spinach, sweet peppers, chili peppers and kale, says Dr. Fenster. Rosehips, parsley and thyme also provide abundant doses.

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Vitamin A

Vitamin A can help the body fight infections, especially of the respiratory variety. It’s known as an anti-inflammation vitamin because of its role in developing and enhancing the immune system. Since the body doesn’t make vitamin A on its own, it must come from the foods you eat or supplementation.

Get it from food: Foods rich in vitamin A include natural cheeses (not processed cheese like slices of American cheese), milk products like yogurt, eggs and fatty fish like salmon, tuna, anchovies and herring.

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Vitamin D

Research shows vitamin D can protect us from colds and the flu, both of which are rampant during the colder months . Studies have also found over 80% of COVID-19 patients have vitamin D deficiency . “We get 90% of our needed vitamin D from our skin exposure to the sun; however, during the winter, we tend to avoid outside activities, and even when we are outside, we bundle up with extra clothing,” says Friedman. So unless you live on a tropical island, it’s likely that you’re going to have to ingest your vitamin D in the winter.

Get it from food: Oily fish—such as salmon, sardines, herring and mackerel—red meat, liver and egg yolks are all great sources of vitamin D. But since it’s not easy to get enough vitamin D in the winter, supplementation is often recommended, says Friedman. Learn more about the benefits, sources and supplementation in our complete guide to Vitamin D.

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Vitamin B6

Vitamin B generally refers to a group of eight vitamins (which includes riboflavin and niacin), but when it comes to immunity, vitamin B6 is the one to focus on. Otherwise known as pyridoxine, vitamin B6 is in charge of keeping the immune system strong, aiding in the production of white blood cells and T cells (which regulate immune response) and helping transport oxygen throughout the body. Vitamin B6 deficiencies can lead to a reduction in antibodies needed to ward off infection.

Get it from food: Heritage and pasture-raised pork and poultry deliver plenty of vitamin B6. Tuna and salmon are also good options. Plant sources include peanuts, soy, chickpeas, leafy greens, oats and bananas.

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Zinc is a micronutrient that can help the immune system fight off invading viruses and bacteria. “Zinc is a very popular remedy for the common cold, and extensive research confirms its efficacy,” says Friedman. In fact, results from 13 randomized placebo-controlled trials show taking zinc soon after the onset of symptoms of the common cold can significantly reduce both the duration and severity of symptoms .

Studies have also alluded to the efficacy of zinc supplementation in thwarting COVID-19 and other respiratory infections . “With so much evidence supporting zinc’s immune-boosting powers, it’s become one of the most popular supplements sold during the pandemic,” says Friedman.

Get it from food: While zinc is prevalent in oysters, crab, lobster, beef, chickpeas, cashews and beans, it can be hard to get enough for an immunity boost through diet alone when you’re sick. In such cases, supplementation in capsule, tablet or lozenge form may be a good idea. “The recommended daily zinc intake is 8 milligrams for women and 11 milligrams for men,” says Friedman.

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This lesser-known antioxidant is essential for the activity of virtually all arms of the immune system. People who are deficient in this trace element may have less protection against bacteria, viruses and even cancer. On the other hand, studies show that increased blood levels of selenium are associated with enhanced immune response to the flu .

Get it from food: Brazil nuts are one of the best sources of selenium, but you can also get this nutrient in healthy doses via tuna, halibut, ham, turkey and cottage cheese.

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In-Flight Medical Emergencies during Commercial Travel No result found, try new keyword!Because of Dalton’s law and because commercial airliners are usually pressurized to the equivalent altitude ... Although aspirin is available in the emergency medical kit, this medication ... Wed, 20 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html How to Maximize the Benefits of a Savings Account No result found, try new keyword!Your parents probably taught you early on that saving money is good. But keeping your money under your mattress or buried in the backyard is not a good approach to saving money. That’s where savings ... Fri, 05 Jan 2024 01:00:06 -0600 en-us text/html EU Grants Medical Device Certification to iRhythm’s Zio Wearable ECG with AI Detection of Heart Problems No result found, try new keyword!In a groundbreaking development in cardiac healthcare, iRhythm Technologies has received European Union (EU) medical device certification for its innovative Zio wearable ECG (Electrocardiogram). This ... Wed, 03 Jan 2024 19:23:10 -0600 en-us text/html Cargo volume in Portland Harbor broke records in 2023, but pace of growth is slowing

Shipping containers are moved at the International Marine Terminal in Portland on Thursday.  Brianna Soukup/Staff Photographer

After nearly a decade of double-digit growth, Portland’s shipping boom appears to be leveling off.

The city’s International Marine Terminal closed out yet another record-breaking year in 2023 with roughly 44,000 20-foot-equivalent shipping containers crossing the dock.

But that’s only about a 1.5% increase from the prior year, far more modest than the roughly 25% growth that was seen annually since 2013, when Eimskip, the port’s only container company, began calling on Portland.

Matthew Burns, executive director of Maine Port Authority, said the market returned to normal in 2023 following a pandemic-driven boom in the shipping industry.

“COVID was a major speed bump for the industry,” he said.

During the height of the pandemic, demand for shipping skyrocketed and companies could essentially name their prices. Now, the market has begun to correct itself and shipping companies have to be more judicious with their pricing to compete in what Burns said is a “cutthroat” industry.

“We did fine, but we didn’t have a banner year of growth,” he said.

Imports dipped 2.4% last year, while exports increased by 5.5%, according to data from the Maine Port Authority.

However, the value of both imports and exports increased by double digits. According to data from the Maine International Trade Center, the value of exports increased by almost 29% and imports by almost 11% between October 2022 and October 2023. Full-year data for 2023 is not yet available.

Officials say they’re pleased with any increases, especially as larger, surrounding ports have seen year-over-year declines and face an uncertain future following a series of attacks in the Red Sea. The attacks by Iranian-backed Houthi rebels in Yemen caused shipping giants Maersk, CMA CGM and COSCO to reroute shipments around the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, creating delays and increased prices for shippers and consumers, the Washington Post reported. Previously, those companies used the Suez Canal, which connects the Red Sea with the Mediterranean.

But because Icelandic-based Eimskip exclusively operates a transatlantic line, Maine has been largely unaffected, Burns said.

There could be some ripple effects related to congestion in other ports or increased prices industry-wide, but it’s too soon to say what or when that might be.

Gylfi Sigfússon, president and CEO of Eimskip North America, said he’s optimistic for continued growth in 2024 – he predicted between 5% and 7% – with the anticipated completion of the $55 million 107,000-square-foot cold storage facility. In November, Portland received $14 million in federal funding to increase the number of electrical outlets needed to power the refrigerated containers, as well as the construction of storage racks, new lighting and other improvements.

“It has been good for us to be able to settle down a little and look ahead,” Sigfússon said, adding that the company is working on a new 10-year plan.

Burns also is confident that things will start to pick up in the next few years as long as both players continue doing their part.

“Eimskip’s job in this relationship is to bring the freight and they’ve always done that,” he said. “Our job is to bring the infrastructure, and that’s what we’re doing.”

Shipping containers are moved at Eimskip in Portland on Thursday. Brianna Soukup/Staff Photographer

Eimskip has been working to grow trade further by steadily increasing the number and size of vessels that operate on its Transatlantic Green Line service. The company’s ships call on Portland once a week.

Until last fall, Portland was at the end of a line that included stops in Atlantic Canada and Iceland, with connections to northern Europe and Asia.


But Sigfússon said Thursday that as Portland has become more important, and to accommodate an increase in fresh salmon imports, the company reversed the line and now stops at Portland first.

Aside from the fresh salmon, Sigfússon said spring water, frozen fish and machinery were among the top imports to Portland last year.

Medical instruments, industrial machinery, arms and ammunition, meat, and prepared vegetables and fruits were among the most valuable exports.

Contributing to Eimskip’s projected growth is an increasing eye toward sustainability. Producers are starting to look at their environmental footprints, and shipping via the ocean rather than by air is more carbon efficient and produces fewer emissions, Sigfússon said.

Burns said that with the construction of the new cold storage facility, Portland will be able to specialize in refrigerated cargo and compete with larger ports like Boston.

The terminal currently covers roughly 21 acres, and there are an additional 6 acres that can be developed for cold storage. Beyond that, the port authority hopes to brainstorm some creative terminal layout and increase stacking capabilities to accommodate more volume and larger ships.

“We have to work with what we’ve got,” Burns said.

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Are you ready for a career change? Consider these jobs of the future.

What does the future of work look like? With computer systems changing the way we do our jobs, you may be wondering whether it’s time for a new career path.

We've looked at the Bureau of Labor Statistics to find the growth rate of different industries and used this information to help predict the jobs of the future.

We’ll take you through the top nine jobs of the future and what they involve. And we’ll tell you how much you can expect to earn in these positions.

Why knowing about future jobs is important

When you think about the jobs of the future, you may think of high-tech, automation, and artificial intelligence jobs. While these industries are set to boom, not all jobs of the future fall into these categories.

Understanding which jobs will be in high demand can help you decide whether the career you’re considering will have opportunities in the future. And it gives you time to change paths or upskill in areas that are set to grow.

People are also reading…

What are the top jobs of the future?

What are the jobs of the future? What will be in demand, what skills do you need, and how much can you expect to earn?

Read on and learn about nine jobs that are expected to grow significantly in the future.

Chefs plan menus, cook food, and order quality ingredients. They are in charge of the kitchen and oversee safe food preparation, training, and cleaning. They need to meet strict health and safety regulations.

They need to be confident using a range of tools, including ovens, slicers, knives, food processors, and scales.

Chefs often create recipes and many open their own restaurants. They may need to help with promotion, bookkeeping, and administration.

What are the educational requirements?

To become a chef, you’ll need a high school diploma and culinary experience. While formal training is not always required, you can Improve your chances of employment by attending a technical school, college, or dedicated cooking school.

Most chefs start as kitchen hands or line cooks. Some of the skills you’ll need include good communication, physical fitness, creativity, and time management.

How much does a chef make?

The median salary for chefs and head cooks is $53,380 per year. Within the next decade, job vacancies in this field are expected to grow by 6%.

Electricians work on building sites to plan and install power connections. This blue-collar job might include the installation of wiring, light fixtures, wall sockets, and heating and cooling units.

They need to read floor plans and make sure their work is safe and following local laws.

Electricians may also work on domestic, commercial, and industrial properties to install, test, and maintain electrical wiring and parts.

With advances in technology, the demand for renewable energy, such as solar panels and batteries, will continue to increase. Installing and maintaining these types of devices will become a bigger part of an electrician’s job in the future.

What are the educational requirements?

To become an electrician, you'll need a high school diploma. To learn the trade, you'll need to complete a four-year apprenticeship.

Some of the skills you need to be an electrician include critical thinking, physical strength, and good customer service.

How much does an electrician make?

The median annual salary for electricians is $56,900, with new jobs set to grow by 8% in the next 10 years. There is the potential to make more money if you run your own business or work as a supervisor.

Learn more about these types of jobs: Top 8 Highest Paying Blue Collar Jobs.

3. Medical and health services managers

Medical and health services managers will be in high demand in the future. Their role is to manage different healthcare teams, departments, and services.

They oversee recruitment and training of new staff, set goals, streamline processes, manage rosters and budgets, and make sure records are accurate.

Medical and health services managers need to understand local laws and regulations and make sure the organization is compliant.

What are the educational requirements?

To become a medical and health services manager, you’ll need a bachelor’s degree in health management, health administration, or a similar area. You will usually need work experience in a healthcare setting.

The skills you need include good communication, attention to detail, leadership, and medical knowledge.

How much does a medical and health services manager make?

On average, medical and health services managers make $104,280 per year. The industry is growing rapidly, with demand expected to rise by 32% in the next decade.

Welders work with metals. They use high heat to permanently join and repair metal components such as steel beams and ship components. They work with blueprints and plans in a variety of industries, including car manufacturing, building, plumbing, and manufacturing.

Welders need to wear appropriate safety gear and be confident using torches at high temperatures.

Before starting a project, they need to perform an inspection and make sure their work area is safe. Welders monitor their equipment and perform maintenance as required.

What are the educational requirements?

To become a welder, you’ll need a high school diploma or equivalent. You’ll need to complete technical training, and your employer may offer an apprenticeship. Alternatively, you can complete a vocational training course at a local college, a welding school, or through the U.S Armed Forces.

The skills you’ll need include strength, stamina, and dexterity. You’ll also need good attention to detail. Some knowledge of chemistry, mathematics, and physics can be beneficial.

How much does a welder make?

The median annual salary for a welder is $44,190. You may earn more if you start your own business. Job growth is expected to rise by 3% in the next 10 years.

Software developers make the software programs we use on our computers. This is a broad field with a range of different career options. For example, you could develop phone apps, build operating systems, or create video games.

Software developers oversee the whole process. To start, they work with clients to come up with an idea. They then design the software and test, monitor, and repair it to make sure it runs as it should.

What are the educational requirements?

To become a software developer, you’ll usually need a college degree in computer science or a similar area.

Programming, algorithms, and coding skills are essential for software development, and you need to be good at problem-solving.

How much does a software developer make?

The average salary for a software developer is $110,140 per year. This is a fast-growing industry, with job availability set to rise by 22% in the next 10 years.

Physical therapists work with patients to manage and relieve their pain. Their workday may include rehabilitation, preventative medicine, and the treatment of long-term injuries.

Physical therapists work closely with doctors to diagnose pain and develop plans that they can continue at home. Treatment often involves exercise programs, massages, and physical aids.

They help people of all ages and commonly support patients with workplace injuries, sports injuries, arthritis, and neurological conditions.

What are the educational requirements?

To become a physical therapist, you’ll need to complete a Doctor of Physical Therapy degree.

Good communication, physical fitness, and attention to detail are all important skills for this job.

How much does a physical therapist make?

The average salary for a physical therapist is $91,010 per year. Job growth over the next 10 years is predicted to be 18%, making it one of the fastest-growing professions.

7. Market research analysts

Market research analysts work with brands to analyze their customers and competitors. They can use computer programs, polls, and surveys to understand who their shoppers are, what they want to buy, and when.

They put this information together into graphs and reports, and companies can use it for marketing, pricing, and sales.

In a digital world, this data is invaluable, as it gives companies a clear picture of their target audience.

What are the educational requirements?

The degree you need will depend on the job and your field of interest. For example, you could use a Bachelor of Computer Science or a Bachelor in Market Research degree.

Critical thinking and good communication are two skills often required for this job.

How much does a market research analyst make?

The average salary for a market research analyst is $65,810, with job availability set to grow by 18% in the next 10 years.

8. Information security analysts

Information security analysts work with companies to make sure their networks are secure. They install and update antivirus protection software, encryptions, and firewalls and educate organizations on how to keep their data safe.

They are in charge of watching the network and will regularly test systems to find any areas that may be vulnerable.

If there is a problem, such as a virus or a breach, a cybersecurity expert will help to resolve it.

What are the educational requirements?

To become an information security analyst, you’ll need a postsecondary degree in computer science, programming, or information technology. Depending on the position, you may need a Master of Business Administration degree.

You’ll need problem-solving skills and attention to detail to thrive in this role.

How much does an information security analyst make?

On average, cybersecurity experts make $103,590 per year, but this can be much more in the private sector.

This is going to be an in-demand job of the future, with 31% growth predicted in the next decade.

Nurse practitioners work with other healthcare professionals to treat illnesses. They check and record symptoms, supply physical exams and tests, monitor patients, keep medical records, use medical devices, prescribe and administer medications, and communicate with families.

A nurse practitioner has more training and experience than a registered nurse and can diagnose and treat patients without the support of a doctor.

They often work with the aging population, children, and pregnant and new moms.

What are the educational requirements?

You'll need a master’s degree in your preferred healthcare specialty. You will also need a Bachelor of Nursing, experience in the industry, certifications, and licenses.

The skills you need to be a nursing practitioner include good communication, empathy, critical thinking, and leadership.

How much does a nurse practitioner make?

The median annual salary for nurse practitioners is $114,510. The demand for workers in the next 10 years is set to grow by 52%.

Alternatively, physician assistants perform a similar role and make $115,390 per year.

Are you ready for your future career?

We’ve told you about the careers of the future, and some of them may surprise you.

There are the obvious tech choices, such as software developers and information security analysts, but these aren’t the only job types to look out for.

Healthcare workers, market analysts, chefs, and electricians are all on the list with above-average growth predictions over the next 10 years.

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Access to Radiation Therapy: From Local to Global and Equality to Equity No result found, try new keyword!Some HICs have even proposed the medical equivalent of the USAID Peace Corps programs to ... In conclusion, although the availability of RT facilities is currently suboptimal at best, this situation ... Thu, 11 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html Loan repayment program aids veterinarians in shortage areas

The financial assistance is provided through the National Institute of Food and Agriculture

The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) is a relatively new organization established within the US Department of Agriculture in 2009 as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. Its mission is to find innovative solutions to challenging problems facing agriculture. It does this in collaboration with scientists in the United States and around the world, contributing to discussions and establishing new science-based policies.

One of NIFA’s many roles is to administer the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). NIFA enters into direct agreements with veterinarians in shortage situations to provide financial loan repayment assistance up to $25,000 per year for a predetermined period. It is a contract, not a grant, and requires that the awardee commit at least 3 years of service to the shortage situation. Between 2010 and 2022, more than 600 veterinarians have been awarded contracts through the VMLRP. The maximum award amount of $75,000 must be applied to either government or commercial loans taken while the veterinarian was in veterinary school. The veterinary college must have been a school approved by the American Veterinary Medical Association with a DVM or equivalent degree. The veterinarian must also be established in a practice within the designated shortage area at least 90 days following the award. Veterinarians who have existing federal liens or are obligated with work agreements within governmental organizations are ineligible for the program. Similarly, veterinarians who do not have the minimum threshold of at least $15,000 of debt burden are ineligible to apply for this program. Because the VMLRP contracts are not grants, the designation and review process is unique and includes a review of a personal resume as well as financial records.

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Each year, designated shortage situations can be nominated by a state animal health official (SAHO) or their designee. These shortage descriptions are reviewed by an external panel of food animal veterinarians and the nominations are approved and published for applicants. NIFA awards the maximum number of shortage situations possible using the data from the National Agriculture Statistics Service to support its review of shortage situations. Shortages are divided into 3 categories as follows:

  • Those shortages that may or may not be in rural areas, requiring a minimum of 32 hours devoted to the shortage work description, and are specific for a private practice.
  • Those in private practice but also in a rural area and requiring a minimum of 12 hours devoted to the shortage work description.
  • Those shortages that are for public practice and require a minimum of 19.6 hours dedicated to the shortage work description.

The SAHO can increase the requirements beyond the minimum standard that NIFA sets.

At the beginning of each application cycle, a request for applications is advertised. Applicants can access the VMLRP website and find the shortage descriptions that may apply to them, the total dollar amount for the award in the competition areas, and important application deadlines. The total dollar amount is determined by the amount appropriated by congressional funds each year and the cutoff amount may change based on the availability of such funds. Unless otherwise noted, each shortage situation is limited to 1 awardee and not all shortage situations are filled. In some special situations, an award may be split by 2 equivalent veterinarians in 1 shortage area.

In public practice, awards cannot exceed 10% of the overall funding award cutoff, to prioritize private food animal practice. This is a competitive process, and each application is reviewed by a panel of peers selected by NIFA. These panels are trained to review the applications uniformly and must disclose any possible conflicts of interest, and it is for that same reason that panelists do not live in the same state as the applicants that they review. Applications should include references, resumes, and a written statement describing how the applicant will meet the shortage situation as posted by the SAHO.

Despite NIFA’s ongoing efforts to support this nationwide problem, access to veterinary care in agriculture and rural communities continues to be one of the largest problems cited by producers. Those graduates and current veterinarians serving or considering food animal practice or mixed practice should be encouraged to seek financial support by applying for the VMLRP and see whether they qualify for assistance. This is an excellent way to help increase access for producers to veterinarians by giving incentive for veterinarians to consider career paths serving agriculture.

NIFA will be hosting a listening initiative for stakeholders on January 24, 2024. Questions and comments will be considered at that time and can be submitted. The next application cycle is expected to open in March 2024. For more information, please visit the VMLRP website at programs/veterinary-medicine-loan- repayment-program.

”A pocket of prevention” is a recurring column brought to you by the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine (ACVPM). The ACVPM is an American Veterinary Medical Association-recognized veterinary specialty organization offering board certification in preventive medicine with the option of a specialty in epidemiology. Becoming a diplomate of the ACVPM means joining some of the most distinguished veterinary professionals in preventive medicine and public health at national and international levels. For more information, go to

Thu, 04 Jan 2024 03:21:00 -0600 en text/html
Flaws in FDA oversight of medical devices, and patient harm, exposed in lawsuits, records No result found, try new keyword!The pump Gautney depended on was among more than 400,000 Medtronic devices recalled, starting in November 2019, after the company said in a recall notice that damage to a retainer ring on the pump ... Fri, 22 Dec 2023 04:37:00 -0600 en-us text/html New CenterPoint CEO talks consumer bills, reducing outages and 'explosive growth' on the grid No result found, try new keyword!Jason Wells, CenterPoint's new CEO, sat down with the Chronicle to discuss consumer bills, reducing outages and more. Thu, 04 Jan 2024 20:00:00 -0600 en text/html

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