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RES PowerFuse 2010 Basic
With application license control enabled for all applications, where can an administrator
find a detailed report on application license usage?
A. Usage Tracking
B. Instant Reports
C. Modification Log
D. Workspace Analysis
Which of the following rules can be used with Zones?
1. USB serial number
2. Active Directory Site
3. Hardware requirement
4. Terminal Server listener name
A. 1 and 2
B. 3 and 4
C. 1, 3, and 4
D. 1, 2, 3, and 4
When authorizing a blocked file from the Read-Only Blanketing Log, which permissions
What can an administrator do with the Workspace Model?
1. Enable or disable a specific feature in RES PowerFuse
2. Change a feature's mode for a specific Workspace Container
3. Analyze the impact of a specific setting in RES PowerFuse
A. 1 only
B. 1 and 2
C. 3 only
D. 1 and 3
What is the best practice to deny alladministratorsaccess to the node "Diagnostics"
EXCEPT for one user called ADMIN?
A. Modify the Administrative Role Technical Managers for all the administrators and
create a new full access role for ADMIN.
B. Create a new role for all the administrators and verify that the Technical Managers role
is assigned only to ADMIN.
C. This is not possible because "Diagnostics" is a global node and cannot be assigned to a
certain Administrative Role, Filter, or Scope.
D. Create a Filter for all the administrators and verify that the Filter does NOT apply to
Automatically setting the Workspace Composer as default shell is possible if
1.Anadministrator performs an unattended installation of RES PowerFuse.
2.AConsole Only installation of RES PowerFuse is performed.
3.ARES PowerFuse installation is performed on a Terminal Server.
A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. 1 and 2
D. 1, 2, and 3
Which entry is recorded in the Audit Trail?
A. Granted access
B. Locked account
C. Security warning
D. Actions error
Given the following: In an environment running the Workspace Extender, Internet
Explorerrunsas a subscribed application The file association 'http' is added to the
subscribed application Internet Explorer and the setting 'Also register this command on the
client using the Workspace Extender is enabled. What will happen when a user clicks an
http link in a Terminal Server session?
A. RES PowerFuse will start the Terminal Server's Internet Explorer.
B. RES PowerFuse will start Internet Explorer as a workspace extension.
C. RES PowerFuse will start the default application for the http file association.
D. RES PowerFuse will start the client's default application for the http file association.
When a Drive Mapping has been configured with Access Control > Identity, Access
Control > Locations & Devices, and Workspace Control, it will be applied to the user if
A. Access Control > Identity, Access Control > Locations & Devices, and Workspace
Control match the user's session.
B. Access Control > Identity settings match the user's session; Access Control > Locations
& Devices and Workspace Control are optional.
C. Either Access Control > Identity or Access Control > Locations & Devices matches the
user's session; Workspace Control is optional.
D. Workspace Control matches the user's session and either Access Control > Identity or
Access Control > Locations & Devices matches the user's session.
Which statements are true about User Registry Actions?
1. To replace the imported registry settings, import a new registry file and perform a
2. To remove a specific registry key from the user registry, use "toggle-remove."
3. To import only changed settings, import a new registry file and perform an "incremental
A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. 1 and 2
D. 2 and 3
Can an administrator configure both Access Control for an Administrative Role and
Access Control for the Scope of that Administrative Role?
A. No, this is not possible.
B. Yes, this is possible but unnecessary, because Access Control for the Administrative
Role will overrule Access Control for the Scope.
C. Yes, this is possible; both sets of Access Control will be used to determine which users
have access to the Administrative Role.
D. Yes, this is possible; one applies to which users have access to the Administrative Role
and the other applies to the settings these users will see.
Which of the following tasks are performed by the RES PowerFuse Agent Service?
1. Checking datastore connectivity
2. Unlocking and locking the User Registry
3. Handle license requests
A. 1 only
B. 1 and 2
C. 2 and 3
D. 1,2, and 3
Which of the following Statements is true regarding the Desktop Sampler?
1. It can be installed on a Terminal Server.
2. It can be installed on a workstation.
3. It can be installed using command line parameters.
A. 1 only
B. 1 and 3
C. 2 and 3
D. 1, 2, and 3
What RES PowerFuse feature must an administrator use to monitor if users save files to
the local hard drive of their computers?
A. Read-Only Blanketing in Enabled mode
B. Read-Only Blanketing in Learning mode
C. Files and Folders in Enabled mode
D. Files and Folders in Learning mode
Several sub processes are presented below. Which of the following sub processes does the
RES PowerFuse Agent Service contain?
A. 1, 2, and 3
B. 2, 3, and 4
C. 1, 3, and 4
D. 1, 2, 3, and 4
A Workspace Container consists of
A. Organizational Units
B. computersrunning the RES PowerFuse Agent
C. Zones based on (partial) computer name
D. applications which are made available for a specificuser
Which RES PowerFuse component or tab provides users with information about
application availability, distribution, and responsibility?
A. Workspace Preferences > Diagnostics
B. The TaskList button
D. The RES PowerFuse Workspace Composer / About
Which of the following file types can be directly imported when creating a new
A. 1 and 4
B. 1, 2, and 4
C. 2, 3, and 4
D. 1, 2, 3, and 4
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Music can motivate you, Excellerate your mood, and help you relax. It can even help you focus so you can study or work. But different types of music can have different effects.
Many people find music helps them concentrate while studying and working. Others find it hard to focus with any background noise at all.
Music offers a lot of benefits, including:
But not everyone agrees that music improves a study session. So whatâs the deal â does it help or not?
Music doesnât affect everyone in the same way, so the answer is not just a straightforward âyesâ or âno.â
Keep studying to learn more about the pros and cons of studying with music and get some tips for making the most out of your study playlist.
It would be fantastic if you could put on a playlist or song that could help you knock out a problem set or memorize all those dates for your history final, wouldnât it?
Unfortunately, music isnât quite that powerful. It mostly helps in indirect ways, but those benefits can still make a big difference.
It reduces stress and improves your mood
Music doesnât just motivate you. It can also help reduce stress and promote a more positive mindset.
In a 2013 study, 60 female volunteers carried out a psychological stress test while listening to relaxing music, sounds of rippling water, or no particular sound. Results suggested that listening to relaxing music makes a physical difference to the way people respond psychologically and physically â in terms of hormone response â under stress. However, the picture is complex, and more studies are needed.
In a 2021 study, patients in ICU said they felt less pain and anxiety after listening to music for 30 minutes than before.
Research suggests that a good mood generally improves your learning outcomes. Youâll likely have more success with studying and learning new material when youâre feeling good.
Studying can be stressful, especially when you donât entirely understand the subject material. If you feel overwhelmed or upset, putting on some music can help you relax and work more effectively.
It can motivate you
If youâve ever grappled with a long, exhausting night of homework, your resolve to keep studying may have started to flag long before you finished.
Perhaps you promised yourself a reward in order to get through the study session, such as the latest episode of a show you like or your favorite takeout meal.
Research from 2019 suggests music can activate the same reward centers in your brain as other things you enjoy. Rewarding yourself with your favorite music can provide the motivation you need to learn new information.
If you prefer music that doesnât work well for studying (more on that below), listening to your favorite songs during study breaks could motivate you to study harder.
It can increase focus
According to a 2007 study, music â classical music, specifically â can help your brain absorb and interpret new information more easily.
Your brain processes the abundance of information it receives from the world around you by separating it into smaller segments.
The researchers found evidence to suggest that music can engage your brain in such a way that it trains it to pay better attention to events and make predictions about what might happen.
How does this help you study? Well, if you struggle to make sense of new material, listening to music could make this process easier.
You can also link the ability to make better predictions about events to reasoning skills.
Improved reasoning abilities wonât help you pull answers out of thin air come test time. But you could notice a difference in your ability to reason your way to these answers based on the information you do have.
Other research also supports music as a possible method of improving focus.
In a 2011 study of 41 boys diagnosed with ADHD, background music distracted some of the boys, but it appeared to lead to better performance in the classroom for others.
It could help you memorize new information
According to a 2014 study, listening to classical music seemed to help older adults perform better on memory and processing tasks.
These findings suggest certain types of music can help boost memorization abilities and other cognitive functions.
Music helps stimulate your brain, similar to the way exercise helps stimulate your body.
The more you exercise your muscles, the stronger they become, right? Giving your brain a cognitive workout could help strengthen it in a similar fashion.
Not everyone finds music helpful for tasks that require concentration.
It can distract you
An important part of musicâs impact lies in its power to distract.
When you feel sad or stressed, distracting yourself with your favorite tunes can help lift your spirits.
But distraction probably isnât what youâre looking for when you need to hit the books.
If youâre trying to argue your position in a term paper or solve a difficult calculus equation, music thatâs too loud or fast might just interrupt your thoughts and hinder your process.
It can have a negative impact on working memory
Working memory refers to the information you use for problem-solving, learning, and other cognitive tasks.
You use working memory when trying to remember:
Most people can work with a few pieces of information at a time. A high working memory capacity means you can handle more material.
Research suggests, however, that listening to music can reduce working memory capacity.
If you already have a hard time manipulating multiple pieces of information, listening to music could make this process even more challenging.
It can lower studying comprehension
Certain types of music â including music with lyrics and instrumental music that is fast and loud â can make it harder to understand and absorb studying material.
Whether youâre looking at an evening of Victorian literature or some one-on-one time with your biology textbook, soft classical music with a slow tempo may be a better choice.
Listening to music while you study or work doesnât always make you less productive or efficient.
If you prefer to study with music, thereâs no need to provide it up. Keeping these tips in mind can help you find the most helpful music for work and study:
Is music good while studying?
Some research suggests that music can help reduce stress during an academic task and that it may help with memory and processing during tasks that require thinking. However, this may depend on the type of music and the individual.
What type of music is good to study with?
The best type will depend on the individual. There is evidence that classical symphonies or relaxing music are a good choice for managing stress, but also that upbeat music might boost a personâs thinking processes. Instrumental music may be more suitable than songs with lyrics, as the lyrics can be distracting.
When is it bad to listen to music while studying?
Each person can decide if it suits them to listen to music while studying or not and which type of music is best. Types of music that may not be helpful include songs, fast and loud music, and music that provokes strong feelings in the listener.
Music can Excellerate your mood and help you feel more motivated to tackle important tasks, but it doesnât always work as a study tool.
Even people who love music might find it less than helpful when trying to concentrate.
Choosing music carefully can help you maximize its benefits, but if you still struggle to focus, it may help to consider white noise or other audio options instead.
Crystal Raypole has previously worked as a writer and editor for GoodTherapy. Her fields of interest include Asian languages and literature, Japanese translation, cooking, natural sciences, sex positivity, and mental health. In particular, sheâs committed to helping decrease stigma around mental health issues.
Part of the series âTodayâs True Leadershipâ
One of the questions I hear frequently from emerging and current leaders is this: âHow has leadership changed from 10 years ago and what do I need to understand about running a successful enterprise that I donât know today?
A accurate study attempts to address this question in a fuller way than ever before. Jointly published by DDI, The Conference Board, and EY, the Global Leadership Forecast 2018 is one of the most expansive leadership research projects ever conducted. Integrating data from more than 28,000 leaders and HR professionals at 2,488 organizations around the world, the report offers insight into the state of global leadership and provides evidence-based recommendations for organizations to change their people strategies to meet upcoming challenges.
Evan Sinar, Ph.D.,Â Chief Scientist and Vice President at DDI, leads the companyâs global research on leadership and people strategies, and shares with us below the key findings from this latest study. DDI is a global leadership company that helps organizations transform the way they hire, promote, and develop leaders at every level.
Hereâs what Dr. Sinar shares on the key findings about leadership today:
Kathy Caprino: From this study, what are you seeing as the ways in which leadership overall has changed in the past 10 years?
Evan Sinar: The Global Leadership Forecast 2018 is the eighth edition of the study, which weâve published every few years going back to 1999. As a general trend, weâve seen a continued slippage in leadership bench strength (ready-now leaders who can step in to replace those who retire or move on) â in 2018, only 14% of companies have a strong bench, the lowest number weâve ever seen. More specifically, weâve seen digital transformation and the constant threat of disruption having a profound impact on leadership at every level.
While not every leader needs to be a technical expert, leaders do need to be able to understand the impact of digital tech on their business and more importantly, predict the impact of technology in the future. They also need to be highly adaptable, hyper-collaborative, and able to leverage data to make better decisions. And
Caprino: What are the 10 most critical findings of this study?
Sinar: In brief, here were 10 of the most important data points that came out of the study:
#1: CEO concerns about talent
CEOs are incredibly panic about the leaders theyâll need to drive enterprise success. OnlyÂ 14% of CEOsÂ say they have the talent they need to execute their business strategies.
#2: Need for digital leadership skill
Digital leadership skills are becoming increasingly critical. Companies who have the most digitally-capable leadersÂ financially outperformÂ the average by 50%.
#3: Why gender diversity improves profitability
The value of gender diversity continues to be proven.
#4: Develop leadership potential earlier
Organizations need to take a broader view of what it means to have âleadership potential,â and start developing leadership potential earlier in careers. Organizations that extend development of high-potential talentÂ below senior levels are 4.2 times more likely to financially outperform those that donât.
#5: Value Gen X more
Most companies are overlooking theÂ value of Gen X. As the first generation to grow up with video games, they are nearly as digitally savvy as millennials, but also excel in more conventional leadership skills associated with Baby Boomers, such as building talent and driving execution.
#6: Tech leaders are failing
Four out of ten tech leaders are failing,Â which is the highest leadership failure rate of any industry. The high failure rate is likely due to the fact that the industry puts little effort into developing its leaders. In fact, 32 percent of tech leaders reported that theyÂ neverÂ meet with their manager to have performance discussions.
#7: Senior leaders need greater alignment
Leadership is being redefined as a team sport. As companies increasingly rely on teams, we foundÂ three areas where itâs critical for senior leaders to be aligned: energy and development passion, future-focused leader skills, and views on company culture. A lack of alignment in these three areas quickly derails a senior team.
#8: HR needs developed skill in âpeople analyticsâ
Using data to make decisions about peopleâknown as âpeople analyticsââis becoming an incredibly important skill for HR. However, onlyÂ 18% of organizationsÂ are managing to implement advanced people analytics.
#9: The 3 cultural shifts needed mostÂ
Organizations need to focus on three cultural factors to Excellerate their leadersâ ability toÂ respond to disruption:
#10: Do-it-yourself leadership growth doesnât cut it
Too many organizations are taking aÂ âdo it yourselfâ approach to leadership development, which usually begins and ends with giving leaders access to a generic self-study resources. But what leaders really want is a personalized experience and the opportunity to learn from internal and external mentors and their fellow-leaders.
Caprino: What finding was the biggest surprise and the most controversial (going against what many believe about leadership success today)?
Sinar: One of the most controversial subjects we studied is theÂ impact of performance ratings. Many people dread the annual performance review discussion, which are often focused on ratings. We found that when performance ratings were eliminated, there was a small boost in effectiveness. However, eliminating performance ratings was tied to a sizeable increase in leader quality and bench strength, and also led to more gender diversity in leadership.
Itâs somewhat surprising, because eliminating ratings seems to go against the wisdom of making data-driven decisions. But whatâs important is not the ratings themselves, but the fact that many organizations replaced ratings with a conversation focused on future development and growth. So regardless of whether you eliminate ratings, leaders should be having more conversations about development.
Caprino: Tell us more about the findings regarding the impact of women in leadership?
Sinar: As we have found in the past, our research showed that havingÂ more women in leadershipÂ is linked to better financial performance. Organizations that fill at least 20% of senior leadership roles with women and have at least 30% women overall are 1.4 times more likely to experience sustained, profitable growth.
Furthermore, the data showed aboutÂ whyÂ having more women leads to better profitability. Itâs not because women necessarily have superior skills. Instead, the key is that the organizations have built inclusive cultures that enable everyone to thrive. Organizations with greater gender diversity reported higher levels of collaboration, higher quality leadership, greater agility, and more likely to experiment in pursuit of innovative approaches.
Caprino: What about the decline in reputation of HR and the changes needed within that field?
Sinar: The biggest reason HRâs reputation is worsening is that HR professionals are struggling to keep up with digital transformation.Â HR leaders lagged far behindÂ leaders in every other functional area on skills that are key in a digital environment, such as using data to guide decisions and anticipating high-speed change.
Conversely, those HR professionals who are succeeding at applying analytics to their jobs are bringing a lot of value to their employers, and areÂ 6.3 times more likelyÂ to report having new advancement opportunities.
The lesson is clear for HR: Gain digital and analytics skills now to boost your own career and be seen as a more strategic and valuable business partner in your organization.
Caprino: According to the study, the impact of mentorship on success for employees and leaders has been significant - what do we need to know about that?
Sinar: Organizations that have aÂ formal mentoring cultureÂ have 20% lower turnover, 46% higher leader quality, and can immediately fill 23% more roles immediately. Formal mentoring programs were also associated with greater financial success. They also enable organizations to capture significantly more of their vital knowledge before it gets lost as senior employees retire or leave the organization, a major and growing problem for many companies.
Despite the benefits, only about a third of organizations offer formal mentoring. In fact, six in 10 leaders say theyâve never had a mentor, and a third of senior leaders say theyâve never mentored anyone. The good news, however, is that mentoring is growing among Millennials, with nearly 50% saying theyâve had a mentor. Interestingly, Gen X seems to particularly crave mentorship from outside their organization, which they arenât getting enough of.
Caprino: What is the impact of having a purpose-driven culture on the success of the organization?
Sinar: In todayâs disruptive business environment, people need purpose to drive their work and focus more than ever. In fact, our partner organization EY found in a 2017 study that 96% of leaders said that purpose was important to their job satisfaction. In the Global Leadership Forecast 2018, we found that organizations that operated without aÂ purpose-driven culture, or even a purpose statement, financially underperformed the average by 42%.
In organizations that at least have a purpose statement, twice as many leaders say they get meaning from work, and their energy levels are 60% higher. In truly purpose-driven cultures beyond simply having a statement, leaders weave purpose into the fabric of work.These companies financially outperform the market average by 42%, and a strong culture build on trust, loyalty, and a sense of working toward a common goal.
Caprino: What should every leader and emerging leader take away from this study that will help them succeed at a higher level?
Sinar: No matter what business function you work in, leaders today need to understand the impact of technology on their business. You donât have to be a technical expert, but you do need to be able to predict both opportunities and potential negative effects of technology.
Part of being a great leader in the digital era also depends on developing other leaders. Success in todayâs world depends on how leaders perform as a team. The unpredictable and rapidly changing business landscape means you need to have people with a variety of skillsets and mindsets who can quickly step in to show leadership in response to a variety of challenges. Itâs become more important than ever that part of your job as a leader is to be a talent scout and a mentor who develops other leaders.
For more information, visit www.ddiworld.com/glf2018.
To expand your leadership capability and career success, join Kathy Caprinoâs Amazing Career Project online course, and tune into her Finding Brave podcast.
Finally Solved! The Great Mystery of Quantized Vortex Motion
June 1, 2023 â Scientists investigated numerically the interaction between a quantized vortex and a normal-fluid. Based on the experimental results, researchers decided the most consistent of several theoretical models. They found that a model that accounts for changes in the normal-fluid and incorporates more theoretically accurate mutual friction is the most compatible with the experimental ...
Flat Fullerene Fragments Attractive to Electrons
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June 1, 2023 â An international team of surface scientists has now developed a simple method to produce large and very clean 2D samples from a range of materials using three different ...
NASA's Webb Space Telescope Peers Behind Bars
June 5, 2023 â A delicate tracery of dust and bright star clusters threads across this image from the James Webb Space Telescope. The bright tendrils of gas and stars belong to the barred spiral galaxy NGC 5068, whose bright central bar is visible in the upper left of this image -- a composite from two of Webb's ...
Early Universe Crackled With Bursts of Star Formation, Webb Shows
June 5, 2023 â Among the most fundamental questions in astronomy is: How did the first stars and galaxies form? NASA's James Webb Space Telescope is already providing new insights into this question. One of the largest programs in Webb's first year of science is the JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey, or JADES, which will devote about 32 days of telescope time to uncover and characterize faint, distant ...
Eventually Everything Will Evaporate, Not Only Black Holes
June 2, 2023 â New theoretical research has shown that Stephen Hawking was likely right about black holes, although not completely. Due to Hawking radiation, black holes will eventually evaporate, but the event horizon is not as crucial as had been believed. Gravity and the curvature of spacetime cause this radiation too. This means that all large objects in the universe, like the remnants of stars, will ...
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May 31, 2023 â Researchers have succeeded in filming the interactions of light and matter in an electron microscope with attosecond time ...
Tiny Video Capsule Shows Promise as an Alternative to Endoscopy
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Electric vehicles, or EVs, promise to reduce carbon emissions and serve as a tool to help mitigate climate change, but a team of Penn State researchers report there has been little research to determine how equitable the benefits of EVs are and, in fact, whether the technology may unfairly harm some areas and populations.
In a study, the researchers only found 48 papers out of a pool of 9,838 studies that explicitly addressed equity issues of EVs, said Wei Peng, assistant professor of international affairs and civil and environmental engineering, Peng added that the small percentage of papers that addressed equity was telling in itself.
"During that screening process, we began to learn what is overstudied and what is understudied," said Peng, who is also an associate of the Institute for Computational and Data Sciences. "We highlighted in our paper what we saw as the most understudied: making equity more explicit as research and, second, we saw a need to focus on those emerging markets and parts of the developing world where EVs are going to be more important."
Unlike vehicles powered by gasoline or diesel fuel, which produce carbon and other chemicals during the combustion process, the electric motors that drive the wheels of an EV do not produce tailpipe emissions. EV owners charge the batteries that are stored on board the EV, rather than add fuel.
While driving electric vehicles may not emit carbon and other gases that could be harmful to people and the environment, there could be other economic and ecological costs that are not readily apparent, according to the researchers, who published their findings in Environmental Research Letters. For example, power plants that create the electricity to charge the vehicles may rely on systems that produce carbon. These plants may also be located long distances from where the electric vehicles are in use.
The researchers added that the electric vehicles themselves require metals and materials that must be mined and manufactured. These materials are often transported through complex supply chains that stretch across the globe.
"As one example, electric cars are often seen as a positive step towards reducing air pollution in urban areas," said Peng. "However, depending on how the electricity used to charge these cars is generated, it can have unintended consequences. If coal-fired power plants are used to generate the electricity for charging electric cars, then those living near these power plants may suffer from the transition to clean transportation. Additionally, the global supply chain challenges for electric vehicles, such as the need for batteries and steel, raise concerns that maybe we are just shifting emissions and other negative impacts to other countries."
Little work has been done to understand the makeup of populations that may be vulnerable to those impacts, the researchers report.
"One of the things we need to focus on are the effects for air pollution and, in particular, location specific factors," said Jinyu Shiwang, doctoral student in civil and environmental engineering. "For example, there is the distribution of social demographic patterns that will influence the exposure and influence the environmental impacts."
As an example, locations with more older people might be more vulnerable to the health impacts of air pollution compared to places with higher numbers of young people, Shiwang added.
Technologies aimed at improving the environmentâoften called "clean tech"âare often viewed as universally beneficial. However, the study points toward the need to deeply probe all of possible effectsâpositive and negativeâof these complex technological advances from the lens of equity, said Anna Lee, an undergraduate student in geosciences.
"There is an importance to understanding the intersection between environmental and social issues and also understanding how to better assess equity about the research in a policy setting," said Lee. "As this study shows, equity is definitely a complex issue that involves better understanding the complex intersections between the transport of power and the manufacturing sector and how these equity implications can greatly differ depending on the geographical location, spatial scale and other social demographic factors."
Peng, Shiwang and Lee worked with Anjali Sharma, the first author of the paper, who was a postdoctoral researcher in Peng's lab and is now an assistant professor at the Indian Institute of Technology.
The team conducted the literature review by searching for peer-reviewed papers published in English between January 2010âwhen EV technology began to rapidly emergeâand August 2022. The researchers included papers that quantitatively assessed the distribution of at least one outcome of interest, such as emissions, pollution or health. They also included papers that studied the impacts across different population groups and locations. However, they excluded papers that did not perform a quantitative assessment of the distribution of emission and/or health impacts.
The researchers suggest two areas for future work. First, more information is needed on the pollution and health impacts at a fine spatial scale, in addition to quantifying the impacts on emissions. There is also a need to understand the links between the transportation, power and manufacturing sectors to better understand the region-specific activities and impacts of the whole EV value chain.
More information: Anjali Sharma et al, Equity implications of electric vehicles: A systematic review on the spatial distribution of emissions, air pollution and health impacts, Environmental Research Letters (2023). DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/acc87c
Citation: More research needed to spread the benefits of electric vehicles equitably, says study (2023, May 15) retrieved 6 June 2023 from https://phys.org/news/2023-05-benefits-electric-vehicles-equitably.html
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Research shared by California Walnuts shows that adding walnuts can help you live longer as they play a huge role in heart and brain health, as well as healthy ageing
Adding walnuts to your diet can actually help you live longer, a study has found.
In fact, research has shown that the seeds may play a role in heart health, brain health and healthy ageing.
While we all know that greens, berries and plenty of cruciferous vegetables that activate the body's natural detoxification system work, who thought that adding nuts to our diet would help us live longer?
Research shared by California Walnuts as part of a study for the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study shows that eating walnuts as a daily snack is a proven way to boost your health and potentially live longer.
So here's how this one nut comes out on top.
It should be noted that not all nuts are created equal, as some have a far higher fat content, but health experts recommend that eating walnuts in moderation can stave off age-related diseases.
Scientists for CARDIA reviewed 20 years of diet history and 30 years of physical and clinical measurements in more than 3,300 people.
What this research found was that participants who ate walnuts early on in life showed a greater likelihood for being more physically active, having a higher quality diet, and experiencing a better heart disease risk profile as they aged.
It also established that having five or more servings of the nut per week may provide the greatest benefit for reducing mortality risk and increasing life expectancy.
Lead researcher on CARDIA, Lyn Steffen, said: âWalnut eaters seem to have a unique body phenotype that carries with it other positive impacts on health like better diet quality, especially when they start eating walnuts from young into middle adulthood â as risk of chronic diseases like heart disease, obesity, and diabetes elevates.â
And in a more accurate study published in Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases, researchers theorised that a possible explanation for the results could be due to the unique combination of nutrients found in walnuts and their effect on health outcomes.
Using data from the CARDIA study, the team compared data on 3,000 people who were divided into the categories: âwalnut consumers,â âother nut consumers,â or âno nut consumers.â
It assessed the relationships among heart disease risk factors, including dietary intake, smoking, body composition, blood pressure, plasma lipids, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose and insulin concentrations in 352 walnut consumers, 2,494 other nut consumers, and 177 no nut consumers.
The average intake of walnuts during the study was about 21 grams a day, and intake of nuts among other nut consumers was about 42.5g a day.
The study by scientists at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health involved information collected from 3,023 men and women aged between 18 and 30 years.
Self-reported diet history was taken at three times throughout the study.
Walnuts contain significant amounts of the plant-based essential omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, which research shows may play a role in heart health, brain health and healthy ageing.
They contain 4.4g of protein and 1.4g of fibre per 30g. Further to this they are filled with other nutrients such as vitamin E, magnesium, vitamin B6, folate and potassium.
They also contain thiamin, zinc, pantothenic acid and iron.
Consuming walnuts two to four times per week could have its benefits too.
Other research found that moderate walnut consumption was associated with a 14% lower risk of death (from any cause), 25% lower risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases, and a gain in about 1.3 years of life expectancy - compared to those who do not consume walnuts.
One ounce of walnuts is a powerhouse of important nutrients for optimum health, including protein (4g), fibre (2g), a good source of magnesium (45mg) and an excellent source of the essential omega-3 ALA (2.5g).
Walnut consumers also had:
And these are all factors that lower your risk of heart disease.
According to Dr Lyn M. Steffen, professor of epidemiology and community health at the School of Public Health and Lead Researcher on CARDIA: âWalnut-eaters seem to have a unique body phenotype that carries with it other positive impacts on health like better diet quality, especially when they start eating walnuts from young into middle adulthood â as risk of chronic diseases like heart disease, obesity, and diabetes elevates."
Dr Steffen added: âThere was a good degree of diversity in terms of the research field locations geographically speaking and the population studied.
âFollowing these women and men for 30 years provides an unparalleled window of study into how lifestyle decisions made in free-living environments in young adulthood can affect health in middle-age.â
Not all nightshade plants are safe to eat.
Nightshade vegetables are members of the Solanaceae family of flowering plants. Most nightshade plants are not edible, such as tobacco and the deadly herb belladonna.
A handful of nightshade vegetables, however, are edible. In fact, they are well-known staples in our diets, including:
All nightshade plants contain compounds called alkaloids. One alkaloid found in nightshade vegetables, solanine, may be toxic in large quantities or in a green potato.
Thereâs no evidence solanine is harmful in typical food amounts, though. And solanine isnât found only in nightshades â blueberries and artichokes contain it, too.
Thanks to anecdotal evidence, nightshade vegetables have earned a bad reputation for causing inflammation in the body.
But not everyone with painful joints who eliminates nightshades from their diet experiences pain relief. And some evidence suggests that the nutrition content of nightshades may help with arthritis symptoms.
Keep studying to learn how these vegetables may affect inflammation in the body, their potential health benefits, and more.
According to the Arthritis Foundation, the belief that eating nightshade vegetables worsens arthritis is a myth. In fact, people with arthritis may benefit from the high nutrition content in nightshades.
For example, researchers in one 2011 study found that inflammation and DNA damage was reduced in healthy men who ate yellow or purple potatoes â which are nightshade vegetables â for 6 weeks.
On the other hand, a 2020 study has shown that for individuals with RA, the solanine in nightshade vegetables may weaken the gutâs barrier causing intestinal permeability or leaky gut.
However, more research is needed. To date, thereâs little scientific evidence to draw a conclusion either way.
Most nightshade vegetables contain an abundance of nutrients. Theyâre also readily available and easy to prepare. In some cases, the benefits of eating nightshade vegetables may outweigh any inflammation risk for those who donât have an autoimmune disease such as RA.
Peppers, including bell peppers and chili peppers, are low in fat and calories.
Theyâre a good source of nutrients such as:
The capsaicin in chili peppers may relieve arthritis pain by reducing a specific pain transmitter in your nerves called substance P, according to 2016 research.
Capsaicin is a common ingredient in many pain-relieving creams. It may cause mild burning or a skin reaction when applied topically.
The white potato often gets a bad reputation because itâs a starchy carb, but all varieties of potatoes are nutritionally dense. They can be a part of a healthier diet when eaten in moderation and not fried or slathered in butter and sour cream.
Potatoes are fat-free and a good source of fiber. Fiber helps to keep you fuller longer so you may eat less. Since they contain sodium and potassium, potatoes also help keep your electrolytes in balance.
Theyâre also a good source of:
The healthiest potato is a baked potato. Add herbs and a dollop of Greek yogurt as a nutritious topping. Donât be shy about trying different varieties, especially since pigmented potatoes may provide you an anti-inflammatory bang for your buck.
Tomatoes contain all four of the carotenoid antioxidants, which include:
Lycopene is the most powerful carotenoid. Itâs thought to help prevent some types of cancer, help prevent heart disease, and boost immunity. Some research from 2022 has suggested that tomatoes have anti-inflammatory abilities, although more research is still needed.
Nevertheless, solanine in tomatoes may have a harmful effect on RA development according to the previously-cited 2020 study.
Tomatoes are a good source of:
Add fresh, diced tomatoes to a green salad or make fresh tomato juice. Tomatoes are delicious in vegetable soup and chili, too.
Like tomatoes, eggplant is also a fruit. It has no fat or cholesterol. Eggplant isnât high in any one vitamin or mineral, but it contains small amounts of most essential vitamins and minerals.
According to one 2015 study, eggplant stalk extract may help reduce inflammation. More research is needed to determine if eggplant fruit has the same abilities. Keep in mind that eggplant may be harmful to individuals with RA because of solanine.
To enjoy eggplant in your diet, go beyond eggplant Parmesan, which has lots of calories and fat. Instead, try sprinkling sliced eggplant with olive oil and herbs, then roasting or grilling them. You can also steam eggplant or add sautĂ©ed slices to your favorite veggie pizza.
For those living with RA, removing or limiting nightshades from your diet may decrease the risk of complications arising from leaky gut syndrome or other gastrointestinal disorders.
To know for certain how nightshades impact you, try an elimination diet. Stop eating all nightshades for 2 weeks to see if your symptoms improve. If youâre not sure, add them back into your diet and see if your symptoms get worse.
Discontinue eating and call your doctor if you experience symptoms such as these after eating any food:
If you develop these symptoms, go to the emergency room or call 911. You may be experiencing anaphylactic shock, which is a serious medical emergency:
Food intolerances are different from food allergy symptoms, in that they donât pose an anaphylactic risk. However, can still produce uncomfortable symptoms like pain, discomfort, aches, and gastrointestinal issues.
A dietitian can help you follow an elimination diet to identify and manage any allergies and intolerances.
Many foods are thought to help reduce inflammation in the body. Eating them regularly may help reduce joint pain and swelling. Some popular anti-inflammatory foods include:
1. Omega-3 fatty acids
Foods high in omega-3 fatty acids may help fight inflammation by limiting two proteins that cause inflammation. Omega-3s may also help reduce your risk of heart disease and help lower cholesterol.
Common options include:
Berries, leafy greens, and other fresh produce are chock full of antioxidants. A diet rich in antioxidants helps boost your immunity and may reduce the risk of inflammation. Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables is one of the best things you can do for your overall health.
This may help:
3. High fiber foods
According to the Arthritis Foundation, foods high in fiber â such as nuts, whole grains, and produce â may help respond to inflammation markers common in arthritis. They do this in a few ways:
4. Olive oil
Olive oil is a staple in the anti-inflammatory Mediterranean diet. According to an older 2011 study, olive oil contains several compounds with anti-inflammatory abilities. One compound, a phenolic compound known as oleocanthal, was shown to have as potent anti-inflammatory abilities as ibuprofen.
Onions contain a bioflavonoid called quercetin. According to one 2016 study, quercetin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant abilities. It may help prevent an allergic reaction by stopping the release of histamine and mast cell secretion. However, this study is older, and more accurate research is needed.
Other foods that contain quercetin are:
Not only is it important to add foods that prevent inflammation to your diet, but you should also avoid inflammatory foods.
Foods high in saturated fat and trans fats are linked to inflammation in the body. Some of these items are:
Certain dairy products may cause inflammation in some people, especially if you are allergic to cowâs milk but other dairy products such as yogurt are associated with decreased inflammation.
To see how dairy impacts your arthritis symptoms, eliminate it from your diet for 2 weeks.
Itâs OK to add nightshade vegetables to your anti-inflammatory diet. Unless you eat huge quantities of green potatoes, they donât contain enough solanine to make you sick. And evidence to date does not support a link between nightshades and inflammation.
If youâre concerned, however, talk with your doctor or a dietitian, if you have access to one. Theyâre the best resource to determine the diet thatâs right for you.
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A new study is suggesting that robots with more "charismatic" voices â as opposed to flat, matter-of-fact ones â can help people be more creative.Â
Scientists from Denmark found that students who are given a task by a robot with a voice programmed to be more "engaging" and "inspiring" performed better.
These students were also more creative than students who received instructions from an identical robot with a flat voice, according to the findings from researchers in Denmark as published by Frontiers in Communication, a peer-reviewed, open-access science journal.Â
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Increasingly, social robots are being used for support in educational settings, as SWNS, the British news service, noted.
But the Danish research team wanted to determine if the sounds emitted by a robot actually affected the students' performance.
While teamwork is a key factor in human creativity, boosting collaboration and new ideas, the researchers said they wanted to understand whether robots using a voice designed to sound charismatic would be more "successful" as creativity facilitators.
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Said Dr. Kerstin Fischer of the University of Southern Denmark, one of the study's authors, "We had a robot instruct teams of students in a creativity task. The robot either used a confident, passionate â i.e., charismatic â tone of voice or a normal, matter-of-fact tone of voice," as SNWS reported.
She went on, "We found that when the robot spoke in a charismatic speaking style, studentsâ ideas were more original and more elaborate."
Dr. Fischer and colleagues used a text-to-speech function engineered for characteristics associated with charismatic speaking, such as a specific pitch range and a certain way of stressing words.Â
Two voices were developed â one charismatic and one less expressive, said SWNS.
The scientists recruited five classes of university students; the students were all taking courses that included an "element of team creativity," as SWNS noted.
Students were told they were testing a creativity workshop, which involved "brainstorming" ideas based on images and then using those ideas to come up with a new chocolate product.
A robot speaking on video "led" the workshop: It introduced the task, reassured the teams of students that there were no bad ideas â and then, afterward, congratulated them for completing the task.Â
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It then asked them to fill out a self-evaluation survey, as SWNS noted.
The questionnaire evaluated the robotâs performance, the studentsâ own views on how their teamwork went â and the success of the session.
Creativity levels of each session were measured by the number of original ideas produced and by how elaborate they were; the researchers measured them as well.Â
The group that heard the "charismatic" voice rated the robot more positively, finding it more interactive.
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Their perception of their teamwork was also more positive and they produced more original and elaborate ideas.Â
They also rated their teamwork more highly.
But the group that heard the non-charismatic voice perceived themselves as more resilient and efficient, possibly because a less charismatic leader led to better organization by the team members themselves, although they produced fewer ideas.
Study co-author Dr. Oliver Niebuhr, also of the University of Southern Denmark, said, "I had suspected that charismatic speech has very important effects, but our study provides clear evidence for the effect of charismatic speech on listener creativity," as SWNS reported of his remarks.
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"This is the first time that such a link between charismatic voices, artificial speakers and creativity outputs has been found," he also said.
Although the sessions with the robot's charismatic voice were generally more successful, not all the teams responded identically to the different voices. The researchers acknowledged that previous experiences in the students' different classes may have affected their response.
The scientists said that bigger studies are needed to understand how external factors affected team performance.
Added Dr. Fischer, "The robot was present only in videos, but one could suspect that more exposure or repeated exposure to the charismatic speaking style would have even stronger effects," as SWNS reported.
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She also said, "We have only varied a few features between the two robot conditions. We don't know how the effect size would change if other or more features were varied."
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"Finally, since charismatic speaking patterns differ between cultures, we would expect that the same stimuli will not yield the same results in all languages and cultures," Dr. Fischer also said, as SWNS reported.
For years, experts have spoken about the importance of quality sleep for good health. But new research suggests it may even help lower your risk of developing Alzheimerâs disease.
The study, which was published in the journal BMC Medicine, followed 62 older adults who were not diagnosed with dementia and had them do a sleep study. During the sleep study, the researchers monitored their sleep waves with an electroencephalography (EEG) machine and used a positron emission tomography (PET) scan to measure the amount of beta-amyloid deposits in their brains. (Beta-amyloid is a protein thatâs linked to memory loss and dementia.)
The researchers found that half of the study participants had high amounts of amyloid deposits. After the sleep study, the researchers had the participants complete a memory game where they matched names to faces.
The researchers discovered that people with high amounts of beta-amyloid deposits in their brains who had higher levels of deep sleep did better on the memory test than people with the same amount of deposits who did not get as good of a nightâs sleep. This difference was only seen in people with beta-amyloid depositsâmeaning, deep sleep had no effect on people who didnât have amyloid deposits.
The researchers concluded that deep sleep may help combat memory impairment caused by Alzheimerâs disease and pointed out that this is a modifiable risk factor for Alzheimerâs disease. âAs such, it represents an intervention possibility that may aid the preservation of cognitive function in the face of Alzheimerâs disease pathology, both present moment and longitudinally,â they wrote.
âWith a certain level of brain pathology, youâre not destined for cognitive symptoms or memory issues,â lead study author ZsĂłfia Zavecz, a postdoctoral researcher at UC Berkeleyâs Center for Human Sleep Science, said in a statement. âPeople should be aware that, despite having a certain level of pathology, there are certain lifestyle factors that will help moderate and decrease the effects. One of those factors is sleep and, specifically, deep sleep.â
But what is deep sleep and why might it help protect against the effects of Alzheimerâs disease? Hereâs the deal.
What is deep sleep?
Deep sleep is sleep thatâs harder to wake up from, according to the Cleveland Clinic.
When you sleep, your brain goes through different cycles that can be divided into two phases: Non-REM sleep, which features three stages (including two where you sleep deeply); and REM sleep, which happens about an hour or so after you fall asleep and is when you tend to have vivid dreams, the Cleveland Clinic explains.
Your body flips through non-REM and REM sleep when youâre conked out, and a full sleep cycle takes about 90 to 110 minutes. As the night goes on, you have longer REM sleep and less deep sleep.
âDeep sleep generally constitutes about 20% of our night and is usually during the first half of the night,â says W. Christopher Winter, M.D., a neurologist and sleep medicine physician with Charlottesville Neurology and Sleep Medicine and host of the Sleep Unplugged podcast. âDeep sleep is importantâit can really make a difference in terms of health and staying youthful.â
Why might deep sleep help protect against Alzheimerâs disease?
This isnât the first study to link deep sleep to a lowered risk of developing Alzheimerâs disease. One study published in 2020 that involved some of the same researchers as the latest study analyzed 32 people in their 70s with no memory problems who underwent a sleep study. The researchers used brain scans to monitor levels of beta-amyloid in each person for up to six years and found that those who got less deep sleep had more beta-amyloid build-up.
Research has also linked lack of deep sleep with higher levels of tau, a protein that forms tangles in the brain cells of people with Alzheimerâs disease.
ButâŠwhy? The theory is that deep sleep helps the brain clear waste products that increase the risk for Alzheimerâs disease, Dr. Winter says. Everyone makes beta amyloid protein in the brain during the day but, when you sleep, your brain and related connections usually shrink and flush away beta amyloid and other substances that build up during the day, Dr. Winter explains. The theory is that, if you donât get good sleep, your brain canât function well enough to flush away those substances and they build up.
âMore specifically, it has a lot to do with the glymphatic system which acts like a pump for removing waste from the brain,â he says. âResearch has shown itâs significantly more effective when individuals get more quality sleep.â
Deep sleep âmay essentially be a compensation strategyâ in people with Alzheimerâs disease or who have high risk of developing the disease, says David Merrill, M.D., Ph.D., an adult and geriatric psychiatrist and director of the Pacific Neuroscience Instituteâs Pacific Brain Health Center in Santa Monica, Calif. âDeep sleep may help build up your cognitive reserve and clear the brain of disease such as amyloid,â he says. âBut at this point, these are hypotheses.â
But itâs important to note that the study didnât prove that getting good sleep will prevent you from getting Alzheimerâs disease, and the connection between sleep and dementia is still being explored. âPoor sleep leads to difficulty with alertness and awareness,â says Amit Sachdev, M.D., M.S., medical director in the Department of Neurology at Michigan State University. âPatients with Alzheimerâs and poor sleep might be less able to maintain good memory.â
How to lower your risk of Alzheimerâs disease
Itâs not exactly known why some people develop Alzheimerâs disease and related dementias and others donât. However, experts generally agree that doing things like exercising regularly, eating a healthy and balanced diet, and getting good, regular sleep can help.
More specifically, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommends doing these to lower your risk of dementia:
It doesnât hurt to focus on your sleep, too, Dr. Winter says. âIf you have reason to believe that your sleep quality is not good, this is a great time to investigate that,â he says. Dr. Winter recommends asking your primary care physician for a referral to a sleep specialistânot taking a sleeping pill. âPeople make the mistake of thinking, Iâm taking this pill and itâs knocking me out, so I must be sleeping better,â he says. âBut itâs just sedating youâitâs not doing what you think itâs doing for your sleep qualityâand it may come with its own health risks.â
Dr. Merrill also recommends doing your best to have good sleep hygiene, including creating a regular sleep schedule, doing relaxing breathing techniques on a consistent basis, and avoiding caffeine in the afternoon. âThese things have been shown to Excellerate quality of deep sleep,â he says.
Korin Miller is a freelance writer specializing in general wellness, sexual health and relationships, and lifestyle trends, with work appearing in Menâs Health, Womenâs Health, Self, Glamour, and more. She has a masterâs degree from American University, lives by the beach, and hopes to own a teacup pig and taco truck one day.
CNN Â âÂ
Adults who have obstructive sleep apnea have up to an 75% increased risk, on average, of developing long Covid after a SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with people without sleep apnea, a new study found.
Women with obstructive sleep apnea had up to an 89% increased risk, while men had a 59% higher risk, according to the analysis of electronic health data on nearly 1.8 million people.
Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially dangerous disorder in which breathing stops for about 10 seconds multiple times during the night due to a blockage of the airways by heavy or relaxed soft tissues in the mouth and throat.
A second analysis of medical records of a smaller group of 330,000 adults found the risk to be only 12%, according to the study, which is part of RECOVER, or Researching Covid to Enhance Recovery. RECOVER is a National Institutes of Health initiative dedicated to understanding why some people develop long Covid and how best to detect, treat, and prevent the condition.
Why the huge difference in numbers? People in the larger study had additional health concerns, or comorbidities, such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease, said senior study author Lorna Thorpe, co-lead of the RECOVER Clinical Science Core at NYU Langone Health.
âThe range of 12% to 75% is likely due to a combination of different study populations and different levels of comorbidities, but also different definitions of long Covid,â she said. âWe didnât even have a diagnostic code for long Covid until October 2021.
âI believe the risk is likely to be in the middle, but we will need additional studies to tease that out,â added Thorpe, a professor and director of the division of epidemiology at NYU Grossman School of Medicine.
A third analysis of medical records of 102,000 children with sleep apnea found no correlation between sleep apnea and long Covid after the various confounding health conditions were factored out, âwhich, of course, is great news,â Thorpe said.
âBy using three very large networks of electronic health records, we were able to do this study three times, which is one of the strengths of the research,â she added. âThis study is the first collaboration of this focus and scale to find that adults with sleep apnea are at greater risk for long Covid.â
This is an âimportant studyâ on long Covid, said Dr. Sairam Parthasarathy, a principal investigator of the University of Arizona Health Sciences RECOVER Adult Study and professor of medicine.
âResearch needs to be done in a prospective study to verify this association, and if found to be true these findings have implications for treatment of long Covid,â said Parthasarathy, who was not involved in the study.
âIt is important to note that some of the symptoms of long Covid such as fatigue may be related to obstructive sleep apnea, and that the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea may Excellerate such long Covid-related symptoms,â he added.
The study, published Thursday in the journal Sleep, is one of a several studies released since Congress allocated $1.15 billion to NIH in January 2021, to study the long-term effects of Covid over a four-year period. To date, the agency says it has used about $811 million to fund research.
Researchers wanted to investigate the role of sleep apnea in long Covid due to the well-known association between the condition and poorer outcomes after a Covid infection.
âPeople with sleep apnea are at higher risk for a more severe case of Covid-19, admission to intensive care at the hospital and for mortality,â Thorpe said.
âObstructive sleep apnea can result in increased inflammation, potentially disrupted sleep leading to an increased propensity to develop infections and reduced immunity,â said Dr. Bhanu Prakash Kolla, a sleep medicine specialist in the Center for Sleep Medicine at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.
âThis could potentially explain the pathway by which obstructive sleep apnea leads to an increased risk of having Covid and also âŠ (long Covid),â said Kolla, who was not involved in the study.
Sleep apnea is an underdiagnosed condition regardless of gender, said the University of Arizonaâs Parthasarathy.
âIt is conservatively estimated that 80% of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are not diagnosed,â he said. In addition, âan assumption with these analyses is that patients with OSA are likely to be treated. However, nearly half of them are not using the treatment.â
Why would women have up to an 89% higher risk compared with 59% in men? The study did not address that issue.
However, âone can postulate this difference may be based on what we know about sex differences in sleep and immune responses,â said Dr. Phyllis Zee, director of the Center for Circadian and Sleep Medicine at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago.
Zee, who was not involved with the new research, coauthored one of the first published studies on the link between sleep apnea and serious Covid infection.
âWomen typically have stronger immune responses to viral infections, and thus also vulnerability for post-infection inflammation,â Zee said. âWomen in general have more insomnia and with long Covid tend to present with fatigue and insomnia symptoms, which are also common symptoms of long Covid.â
Another reason could be that sleep apnea has historically been considered a male disease, Thorpe said, which could mean that by the time a woman is diagnosed her apnea is more advanced.
âIt could be that the women who are documented in electronic health records have more severe sleep apnea because physicians more often look for sleep apnea among men,â she said.
As scientists continue to learn more about long Covid, further information will become available, Thorpe said. In the meantime, people who have sleep apnea â or who snore, snort and stop breathing at night, which are all signs of the condition â should be exceedingly careful when they contact Covid.
âPeople with sleep apnea who get infected with Covid should seek early treatment and consider getting Paxlovid, the oral medication prescribed to reduce risk of severe outcomes,â Thorpe said. âThey should also keep up with their vaccinations to lower the risk of infection in the first place.â
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