With support from Dell EMC, and in association with Intel and Microsoft, Dippy's Naturenauts offers a mobile-friendly interactive experience for children aged seven to eleven.
A fun activity that supports Dippy on Tour, Dippy and Fern the fox lead kids through a series of exploratory games that encourage them to venture outdoors and interact with the nature in their area while learning about science.
Through their generous support of Dippy on Tour and Dippy's Naturenauts, Dell EMC helped the Museum to help the next generation of scientists engage with the natural world through a leading a digital experience, guiding and engage them in scientific thinking.
CRN is live at Dell EMC World 2017 in Las Vegas. Get all of our coverage of the event, as well content from the Dell EMC World 2017 special issue of CRN, here.
Dell EMC Bringing Mission-Critical Cloud Power Virtustream Into Channel Program
Pat Gelsinger: VMware Opens Up Tech Partners To Expand Cloud Capabilities
Virtustream Extends Mission-Critical Cloud Tech To Complex Health Care Applications
Michael Dell To Partners: 'Enormous Cross-Selling Opportunities For You'
Dell EMC's David Goulden: Modern, Automated Infrastructure Provides The First Step For Cloud Migration
Dell EMC Rolls Out 'Flexible Consumption' Rebate For Partners
Dell EMC Takes Aim At Cisco With New Open Networking Push
Dell North America Sales Chief: 'Winning In Both Consumer And Commercial PCs' Is Key
Dell EMC World: Michael Dell's 7 Keys To The Future Of Dell Technologies And The IT Industry
Dell EMC World: Enterprise Sales Chief Scannell Says Partners Are Booting Competitors, Winning Big Deals Amid Huge Market Opportunity
Michael Dell To Partners: 'Enormous Cross-Selling Opportunities For You'
Partner Marketing Push: Dell EMC Arms Partners With New MDF Resources
Dell EMC Gives Partners The Nod On Commercial PCs With Extension Of Partner-Led Strategy
Dell EMC Launches All-Flash Storage Barrage
15 Hot Products Unleashed At Dell EMC World 2017
Dell EMC World: Transformation Titans Map Out Dell EMC's Path To Growth
With the right pieces now in place, Dell EMC's complete-portfolio call to action is being heard loud and clear across the partner ecosystem.
Marius Haas On Why There's 'Zero Debate' About The Value Of Dell EMC's End-To-End Portfolio
Marius Haas believes that when it comes to determining which vendor partner is going to provide you with long-term value creation opportunities, there's no debate that it's Dell EMC.
John Byrne On Partners Pivoting Away From Cisco, HPE, Lenovo, And Selling The Entire Dell EMC Portfolio
John Byrne says that Dell EMC partners are rapidly moving away from competing vendors and aggressively pushing new business opportunities across the entire combined portfolio.
Dell EMC's Cheryl Cook On The Combined Partner Marketing Perspective
Dell EMC's global channel marketing chief Cheryl Cook talks to CRN about the importance of communication when combining the marketing efforts of two massive partner programs.
Chad Sakac On Dell EMC's Push To Turn Hyper-Converged Infrastructure Into A Utility
Dell EMC is putting the 'pedal to the medal' when it comes to hyper-converged infrastructure and is tasking Chad Sakac and his team with making customer transformation as simple as possible for partners.
Jeremy Burton On How Partners Can Take Advantage Of A Combined Dell, EMC
Ahead of Dell EMC World 2017, Jeremy Burton dug into the blockbuster acquisition and how it primes partners to take advantage of the new combined company.
Dell EMC's David Goulden On What It Means To Be The Biggest Player In Storage
Ahead of Dell EMC World 2017, David Goulden talks to CRN about the new combined storage powerhouse and why you won't heard anyone referred to as 'ex-Dell' or 'ex-EMC.'
Q: Who is allowed to submit or enter final grades?
A: Final grades must be entered or submitted online via myPurdue Faculty Self Service or BrightSpace by the instructor of record for that course.
Q: How do you know that you're an instructor of record?
A: Log into myPurdue and look in the My Course channel from the Faculty tab. If you have access to course lists, you will see your course offerings. If all do not appear, select the more link under your visible courses.
Q: What if I make a mistake or need to change a student’s final grade after I have submitted it?
A: Grades can be resubmitted through myPurdue or BrightSpace as often as you need up to the deadline. Corrections after that will require a Form 350 or a change submitted using the Grade Change Workflow in myPurdue.
Q: I keep getting the same final grade roster when I click Final Grade entry.
A: Scroll to the bottom of your final grade page and look for the link called "CRN Selection". Click on it and a drop down for all the courses you are faculty of record will display. Click on the arrow for a full list. Select your next CRN, then hit Submit.
Q: When can students see grades in Banner/myPurdue?
A: Students will be able to view grades after they have been rolled to academic history. That process should be complete by 8:00 a.m. the morning after the grade entry deadline.
Q: Can grades be printed?
A: To print a copy of grades for your records, click on "download course roster" from your final grade page.
Q: How can grades be viewed after grades have been rolled to history?
A: Faculty may view their grade rosters again after the deadline has passed and all end of term processing has completed in myPurdue. This is typically by 8:00 a.m. the following day. Grade reports are available using Cognos – Public Folders-Validate-Grades through the schedule deputy in each department for faculty.
Q: What if I have a Pass or No-Pass class?
A: A grade of Pass (P) or No-Pass (N) may be used if the course was originally set up with that grading criteria. If you are assigning an incomplete grade for a Pass or No-Pass class, the grade of PI should be given. If you are pushing grades from BrightSpace, the letter grade you push will automatically convert to a P or N based on the rules in university regulations.
Q: How do I handle regular incomplete grades?
A: Incomplete grades are assigned when a student has attended class, but has not completed work and has been allowed time to do so. As before, a Registrar Form 60 must completed for each student with an Incomplete or (I) grade submitted..
Incompletes are not to be used for students who never attended class and are still on the class roster. Failure to complete the class or turn in passing coursework is noted as an (F).
Q: How do I know if I should assign an "F" grade or an "FN" grade?
A: A grade of F (Failing) is awarded to students who complete the course and participate in activities through the end of the term but fail to achieve the course objectives. A grade of FN (Failing/Non-authorized Incomplete) is awarded to students who did not officially withdraw from the course, but who failed to participate in course activities through the end of the term. The FN grade is to be used when, in the opinion of the instructor, completed assignments or course activities or both were insufficient to make normal evaluation of academic performance possible. Note that once the FN grade is entered, the instructor is required to indicate the date the student last participated in course activity at an academically related activity, i.e., the last date the student completed an exam, quiz, assignment, paper, project, or attended class (if attendance was taken).
In a whirlwind week of developments for Zoom, speculation about privacy issues connected to the company’s terms of service (TOS) has sparked concerns—along with some panic—about how it uses customer data to train AI models. This echoes broader concerns about privacy and data security across the digital communication landscape. Plus it’s another instance in which questions about the handling of AI are arising as quickly as AI technology is advancing.
The breaking news here at the end of the week is that the backlash had led Zoom to change its TOS to avoid the issue of data collection for AI altogether. Let’s unpack what happened.
The level of vitriol in the Zoom example has not been trivial. Some industry leaders publicly called out Zoom for mishandling this situation, which is understandable. Zoom has been on the wrong side of data privacy guardrails before. The company, which grew at an astronomical rate during the pandemic, was found to have misrepresented the use of certain encryption protocols, which led to a settlement with the FTC in 2021. That’s the part specific to Zoom. But the company is also being condemned as one more example in the litany of bad actors in big tech, where lawsuits about and investigations into data practices are countless. It’s no surprise that the public assumes the worst, especially given its added unease about the future of AI.
Fair enough. No one put Zoom in that crossfire. Nonetheless, it’s still true that software makers must strike a delicate balance between user data protection and technological advancement. Without user data protection, any company’s reputation will be shot, and customers will leave in droves; yet without technological advancement, no company will attract new customers or keep meeting the needs of the ones it already has. So we need to examine these concerns—about Zoom and more broadly—to shed light on the nuanced provisions and safeguards that shape a platform's data usage and its AI initiatives.
An analyst’s take on Zoom
By pure coincidence, around 20 other industry analysts and I spent three days with Zoom’s senior leadership in Silicon Valley last week. During this closed-door event, which Zoom hosts every year to get unvarnished feedback from analysts, we got an in-depth look into Zoom's operations, from finance to product and marketing, acquisitions, AI and beyond. Much of what we learned was under NDA, but I came away with not only a positive outlook on Zoom's future, but also a deeper respect for its leadership team and an admiration for its culture and ethos.
It’s worth noting that we had full access to the execs the whole time, without any PR people on their side trying to control the narrative. I can tell you from experience that this kind of unfettered access is rare.
You should also know that analysts are a tough crowd. When we have this kind of private access to top executives and non-public company information, we ask the toughest questions—the awkward questions—and we poke holes in the answers. I compared notes with Patrick Moorhead, CEO and principal analyst of Moor Insights & Strategy, who’s covered Zoom for years and attended many gatherings like this one. He and I couldn’t think of one analyst knowledgeable about Zoom’s leadership and operations whose opinion has soured on the company because of the furor about the TOS.
Still, we were intent on finding out more, so Moorhead and I requested a meeting with key members of Zoom's C-suite to get a better understanding of what was going on with the TOS. We had that meeting mid-week, yet before we could even finish this analysis, our insights were supplemented by a startlingly vulnerable LinkedIn post by Zoom CEO Eric Yuan. In that post, he said Zoom would never train AI models with customers' content without explicit consent. He pledged that Zoom would not train its AI models using customer "audio, video, chat, screen sharing, attachments and other communications like poll results, whiteboard and reactions."
What happened with Zoom's terms of service change?
In March 2023, Zoom updated its TOS “to be more transparent about how we use and who owns the various forms of content across our platform.” Remembering that Zoom is under FTC mandates for security disclosures, this kind of candor makes sense. Where the company went wrong was in making this change quietly and with a lack of clear delineation of how Zoom would use data to train AI.
In our discussions with Zoom this week, the company took full ownership of that lack of communication. I don’t believe that the company was trying to hide anything or get anything past users. In fact, many of the provisions in the TOS don’t currently affect the vast majority of Zoom's customers. In being so proactive, the company inadvertently got too far ahead of itself, which caused unnecessary alarm among many customers who weren’t ever affected by the issue of AI training data.
Once the (understandable) panic began, Zoom released an updated version of its TOS, along with a blog post explaining the changes from the company's chief product officer, Smita Hashim. Hashim clarified that Zoom is authorized to use customer content to develop value-added services, but that customers always retain ownership and control over their content. She also emphasized the wording added to the TOS: “Notwithstanding the above, Zoom will not use audio, video or chat Customer Content to train our artificial intelligence models without your consent.”
The day after Zoom released its blog post explaining the TOS changes, Yuan addressed the communication failure and the company’s plans for training AI more directly and soberly. The CEO took responsibility in his LinkedIn mea culpa, saying the company had an internal process failure. The post on his personal page addressed users’ concerns, similar to Zoom’s official blog post, but Yuan emphasized the promise not to train AI with customer data with a bold statement. He wrote, “It is my fundamental belief that any company that leverages customer content to train its AI without customer consent will be out of business overnight.”
By the end of the week, Zoom cemented Yuan’s commitment not to use customer data to train AI and issued a revised TOS, effective August 11, 2023. Hashim’s blog post was also updated with an editor’s note reiterating Zoom’s AI policy. What’s more, the company made immediate changes to the product.
Will this satisfy everyone who believes that Zoom steals their information and can’t be trusted? Maybe not. Yet with all of this in mind, let’s take a clear-eyed look at the different aspects of how Zoom uses data.
How Zoom uses customer data
First, let's distinguish between the two types of data addressed in Zoom's TOS. Zoom can gather two categories of data: "service-generated data," which includes telemetry, diagnostic and similar data, and "customer content," such as audio recordings or user-generated chat transcripts.
Zoom owns the service-generated data, but the company says it is used only to Improve the service. Meanwhile, video content, audio, chat and any files shared within the virtual four walls—that is, the customer content—of any Zoom meeting is entirely owned by the user. Zoom has limited rights to use that data to provide the service in the first place (as in the example that follows) or for legal, safety or security purposes.
The usage rights outlined in the TOS for meetings are used to safeguard the platform from potential copyright claims. These rights protect Zoom’s platform infrastructure and operation, allowing the company to manage and store files on its servers without infringing on content ownership.
Here's an example: a budding music band uses the platform to play some music for friends. Zoom, just by the nature of how the service works, must upload and buffer that audio onto company servers (among other processes) to deliver that song—which is considered intellectual property—to participants on the platform. If Zoom does not have the rights to do so, that band, its future management, its record label or anyone who ever owns that IP technically could sue Zoom for possessing that IP on its servers.
This may sound like a fringe use case, and it would be unlikely to hold up in court, but it is not unheard of and would expose the company or any future company owner to legal risk.
Is Zoom using your data to train AI models?
After this week’s changes to the TOS, the answer to this question is now a resounding No. When Zoom IQ Meeting Summary and Zoom IQ Chat Compose were recently introduced on a trial basis, they used AI to elevate the Zoom experience with automated meeting summaries and AI-assisted chat composition. But as we are publishing this article on August 11, Zoom says that it no longer uses any customer data to train AI models, either its own or from third parties. However, to best understand the series of events, I’ll lay out how the company previously handled the training of models.
Account owners and administrators were given full control over enabling the AI features. How Zoom IQ handled data during the free trial was addressed transparently in this blog post, which was published well before the broader concerns around data harvesting and AI model training arose. (The post has now been updated to reflect the clarified policy on handling customer data.)
When Zoom IQ was introduced, collecting data to train Zoom's AI models was made opt-in based on users' and guests’ active choice. As with the recording notifications that are familiar to most users, Zoom's process notified participants when their data was being used, and the notification had to be acknowledged for a user to proceed with their desired action. Separate from the collection of data for AI, Zoom told me this week that the product alerts users if the host has even enabled a generative AI feature such as Meeting Summary.
User data was collected to enhance the AI models' capabilities and overall user experience. Given the latest change to the TOS, it is unclear how Zoom plans to train its AI models now that it won’t have customer data to work with.
Until this week, here is what the opt-in looked like within the Zoom product.
And here is what it looks like as of August 11, 2023.
Zoom's federated AI approach integrates various AI models, including its own, alongside ones from companies such as Anthropic and OpenAI, as well as select customer models. This adaptability lets Zoom tailor AI solutions to individual business demands and user preferences—including how models are trained.
Responsible AI regulation will be a long time in the making. Legislators have admitted to being behind the curve on the rapid adoption of AI as industry pioneers such as OpenAI have called for Congress to regulate the technology. In the current period of self-regulation, the company’s AI model prioritizes safety, interpretability and steerability. It operates within established safety constraints and ethical guidelines, enabling training with well-defined parameters for decision making.
The bottom line: Zoom is using your data, but not in scary ways
Amid widespread privacy and data security concerns, I believe Zoom's approach is rooted in user control and transparency—something reinforced by this week’s changes to the TOS. There are nuanced provisions within Zoom's TOS that allow it to take steps that are necessary to operate the platform. This week’s events have highlighted the need for Zoom to communicate actively and publicly what I believe they are already prioritizing internally.
As technology—and AI in particular—evolves, fostering an open dialogue about data usage and privacy will be critical in preserving (or in some cases, rebuilding) trust among Zoom's users. This week has shown that people are still very skittish about AI, and rightfully so. There are still many unknowns about AI, but Moor Insights & Strategy’s assessment is that Zoom is well positioned to securely deliver a broad set of AI solutions customized for its users. Zoom has established that it intends to do so without using customer content to train its AI models. As the company navigates data privacy concerns, I hope it can strike a balance to meet users’ concerns while advancing technology to meet their business needs.
The company admittedly had an operational misstep. Let’s not confuse that with reprehensible intent. Zoom as an organization and its CEO personally have acknowledged its customers’ concerns and made necessary adjustments to the TOS that accurately reflect Zoom's sensible data privacy and security governance. I now look forward to seeing Zoom get back to focusing on connecting millions of people worldwide, bringing solutions to meetings, contact centers and more to make people and gatherings more meaningful and productive.
Note: This analysis contains content from Moor Insights & Strategy CEO and Chief Analyst Patrick Moorhead.
Moor Insights & Strategy provides or has provided paid services to technology companies, like all tech industry research and analyst firms. These services include research, analysis, advising, consulting, benchmarking, acquisition matchmaking, and video and speaking sponsorships. The company has had or currently has paid business relationships with 8×8, Accenture, A10 Networks, Advanced Micro Devices, Amazon, Amazon Web Services, Ambient Scientific, Ampere Computing, Anuta Networks, Applied Brain Research, Applied Micro, Apstra, Arm, Aruba Networks (now HPE), Atom Computing, AT&T, Aura, Automation Anywhere, AWS, A-10 Strategies, Bitfusion, Blaize, Box, Broadcom, C3.AI, Calix, Cadence Systems, Campfire, Cisco Systems, Clear Software, Cloudera, Clumio, Cohesity, Cognitive Systems, CompuCom, Cradlepoint, CyberArk, Dell, Dell EMC, Dell Technologies, Diablo Technologies, Dialogue Group, Digital Optics, Dreamium Labs, D-Wave, Echelon, Ericsson, Extreme Networks, Five9, Flex, Foundries.io, Foxconn, Frame (now VMware), Fujitsu, Gen Z Consortium, Glue Networks, GlobalFoundries, Revolve (now Google), Google Cloud, Graphcore, Groq, Hiregenics, Hotwire Global, HP Inc., Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Honeywell, Huawei Technologies, HYCU, IBM, Infinidat, Infoblox, Infosys, Inseego, IonQ, IonVR, Inseego, Infosys, Infiot, Intel, Interdigital, Jabil Circuit, Juniper Networks, Keysight, Konica Minolta, Lattice Semiconductor, Lenovo, Linux Foundation, Lightbits Labs, LogicMonitor, LoRa Alliance, Luminar, MapBox, Marvell Technology, Mavenir, Marseille Inc, Mayfair Equity, Meraki (Cisco), Merck KGaA, Mesophere, Micron Technology, Microsoft, MiTEL, Mojo Networks, MongoDB, Multefire Alliance, National Instruments, Neat, NetApp, Nightwatch, NOKIA, Nortek, Novumind, NVIDIA, Nutanix, Nuvia (now Qualcomm), NXP, onsemi, ONUG, OpenStack Foundation, Oracle, Palo Alto Networks, Panasas, Peraso, Pexip, Pixelworks, Plume Design, PlusAI, Poly (formerly Plantronics), Portworx, Pure Storage, Qualcomm, Quantinuum, Rackspace, Rambus, Rayvolt E-Bikes, Red Hat, Renesas, Residio, Samsung Electronics, Samsung Semi, SAP, SAS, Scale Computing, Schneider Electric, SiFive, Silver Peak (now Aruba-HPE), SkyWorks, SONY Optical Storage, Splunk, Springpath (now Cisco), Spirent, Splunk, Sprint (now T-Mobile), Stratus Technologies, Symantec, Synaptics, Syniverse, Synopsys, Tanium, Telesign,TE Connectivity, TensTorrent, Tobii Technology, Teradata,T-Mobile, Treasure Data, Twitter, Unity Technologies, UiPath, Verizon Communications, VAST Data, Ventana Micro Systems, Vidyo, VMware, Wave Computing, Wellsmith, Xilinx, Zayo, Zebra, Zededa, Zendesk, Zoho, Zoom, and Zscaler. Moor Insights & Strategy founder, CEO, and Chief Analyst Patrick Moorhead is an investor in Fivestone Partners, Frore Systems, Groq, MemryX, Movandi, and Ventana Micro.
As ISRO prepares for the launch of Chandrayaan-3, there are many questions in the minds of people about the mission. Here are some questions and their answers.
What is Chandrayaan-3?
Chandrayaan-3 is the name of the spacecraft to be sent to the moon by India’s space agency, ISRO.
We come across many terms such as LVM-3, propulsion module, lander, rover, and instruments like RHAMBHA. It is a bit confusing. What are all these, and which of these is called Chandrayaan-3?
LVM-3 is the the rocket that will take Chandrayaan-3 up and drop it at a certain point above the earth. With that LVM-3’s job would end.
From that point, Chandrayaan-3 will journey towards the moon.
The spacecraft consists of two parts — the propulsion and the Lander-rover modules. The propulsion module’s main job is to take the lander-rover payloads to the moon. You can think of the propulsion module as a truck and the lander-rover payload as the cargo.
After reaching the vicinity of the moon, the lander-rover payload will detach itself from the propulsion module and falling on to the moon. The lander has engines that will slow down the fall, so that it descends gently onto the moon rather than crash-landing on it.
The rover is a tiny, trolley kind of device with wheels. Once the lander lands on the moon, the rover will slide out of the lander’s belly and crawl over the moon’s surface.
Both the lander and the rover have instruments for experiments, such as analysing the moon soil, checking how the moon’s surface conducts heat, and how quake waves move through the moon surface.
Watch: Why Chandrayaan-3 is important for India’s space dreams
Why does Chandrayaan-3, like Chandrayaan-1 and 2, take a month to reach the moon, when fifty years ago, the United States’ Apollo spacecraft reached the moon in four days?
We can also shoot off a rocket straight to the moon. Only, the rocket will have to be extremely big. To travel the distance of 384,400 km, the rocket will have to carry enormous amounts of fuel. The fuel adds to the weight of rocket, so it would need to be more powerful. The Saturn V rocket that took Apollo 11 to the moon in 1969 stood 363-feet tall. The LVM-3 is 142-feet tall. Big rockets are very expensive. Besides, there is no urgency, there is no need for the Chandrayaan-3 to reach the moon fast. That is why it takes a route that makes use of the gravity of the earth to sling itself towards the moon.
The Chandrayaan-3 circles the earth many times before it reaches the moon and then circles the moon many times before the lander detaches itself from the propulsion module and descends onto the moon surface? Why this peculiar route?
Kepler’s second law of planetary motion states that the imaginary line that connects a planet and its satellite sweeps equal areas in equal intervals of time. This means that the satellite travels faster as it approaches the planet and slows down as it moves away, while moving in an elliptical orbit. The law also means that the farther an object approaches the planet from, the higher the velocity it acquires as it comes closer to the planet. We want to make use of this property to get Chandrayaan-3 enough velocity to shoot off towards the moon.
So, after the LVM-3 puts it above the earth, Chandrayaan-3 will start circling the earth, on its own, in an elliptical orbit. When it reaches the farthest point, engineers on the ground will nudge it slightly to change the direction a little so that its next loop is bigger than the first. So, when the spacecraft approaches the earth on its second loop, it will acquire a higher velocity. Again, when it reaches the farthest point, called apogee, the engineers will once again change the direction a little, so that on the third loop, the spacecraft acquires an even higher velocity. On completing 5-6 such loops, the spacecraft will have acquired enough velocity to sling itself towards the moon.
Once it reaches the moon, the reverse will happen. Loop-by-loop the spacecraft will get closer to the moon. When it is about 100 km from the moon’s surface, the lander will detach itself and begin its descent onto the moon.
Also read: Way to go — the intriguing route of Chandrayaan-3 to the Moon
How does the lander descend onto the moon?
The lander actually ‘falls’ on the moon. But it has four thrusters — or engines — which will provide it an upward thrust and slow down its descent. It is calculated that just before the touchdown, it will be traveling at a speed of 2 meters per second.
We have seen spacecraft sent to Mars, like Curiosity and Perseverance, slowly parachute down, but there is no parachute in our moon missions. Isn’t parachuting down simpler and cheaper than using engines to slow down the descent?
That is because Mars has an atmosphere, while the moon doesn’t. Yes, the Martian atmosphere is thin. The average atmospheric pressure is about 1 per cent of Earth’s. But still there is an atmosphere, which is, by the way, made of carbon dioxide. You need some air to be put under the parachute — to provide what is called ‘drag’. Mars has some, the moon has none.
What happens after the lander touches down on the moon surface?
After the lander has soft-landed, it will make sure everything is okay. Then, figuratively speaking, a sort of a trap door under the lander will open and guiderails will slip out of it. The rover will slide down the rails to the moon surface.
What is the rover and what does it do?
Equipped with wheels, the rover will crawl around the moon’s surface like a cockroach, pick up soil and do experiments, punch a probe a foot down the surface to check thermal conductivity. Instruments on the lander will also do experiments. Basically, these instruments check-out the moon, to know more about it.
Do the lander and rover return to earth?
No. The propulsion module, the lander, the rover are all up there forever. Unless some day an astronaut lands on the moon and decides to bring them back as souvenirs.
The lander and rover do experiments and analysis. How do we, on earth, get the information?
They digitize the data and transmit it in the form of electromagnetic waves, to a receiver on the propulsion module, which is still circulating the moon. For back-up, we still have the orbiter module of Chandrayaan-2, the previous moon mission, which also has a receiver. The propulsion module or the orbiter will transmit the data to the earth.
Is the method of sending information like how radio stations broadcast, say, a running commentary?
No. Broadcasts are done through audio waves, which need a medium — the air — to propagate. Signals through space are sent in the form of electromagnetic waves — such as radio waves or microwaves — which are progressions of energy. They don’t need a medium to travel.
Howlong will the lander and rover function?
The lander and rover will be alive for 14 earth days, which corresponds to one moon day. When the moon rotates one full round on its axis, the earth would have completed 29.5 days. A moon day is about 14 earth days, as is a moon night. Since the solar panels that provide electricity to the lander and rover need sunlight, they will be alive for one moon day, which is 14 earth days.
Also read: Chandrayaan-3. Wishing India’s moon lander a happy touchdown
What is the cost of the Chandrayaan-3 mission?
The Chandrayaan-3 is estimated to cost around Rs 615 crore.
What is the significance of Chandrayaan-3? Why go to the moon at all?
For decades after the US Apollo missions, mankind ignored the moon. But now, after the presence of ice in the southern polar region of the moon has been conclusively established, there is renewed interest. Ice means water, water could be split into hydrogen and oxygen, both of which are rocket fuels. This means, in future, rockets could be built on the moon and powered by locally produced fuels, for other space missions. It is easier and cheaper to launch deep space missions from the moon, because of its low gravity, but this wouldn’t have been economically feasible if you have to carry rocket fuel from the earth to the moon.
There’s a lot to love about Halloween: playing Halloween party games, watching the best Halloween movies, dressing up in Halloween costumes (or maybe as Halloween monsters), playing Halloween bingo, solving Halloween riddles and indulging in a bit of Halloween trivia! But how much do you really know about Halloween? The October holiday may be one of the most popular holidays in the United States now, but the origin of Halloween actually has quite a rich international history.
After you’ve mastered this Halloween trivia, you can bring it out at your next Halloween party to wow your friends and family. And don’t worry, we’ve included the answers to the Halloween trivia questions too.
1. Question: What is the name of the legend that jack-o’-lanterns originated from?
Answer: Stingy Jack
2. Question: Before jack-o’-lanterns were carved as pumpkins, what other root vegetable was commonly used?
3. Question: Halloween can be traced back to a Celtic holiday. What’s the name of that holiday?
4. Question: In what century was Halloween first introduced?
Answer: The 19th century
5. Question: How did the tradition of dressing up for Halloween start?
Answer: It was once believed that at the end of October, ghosts and demons would be able to walk the earth again. To protect themselves, people dressed up as spirits to blend in.
6. Question: Where did the game of bobbing for apples originate?
7. Question: On Halloween during the 18th century, why would women throw apple peels over their shoulders?
Answer: To see if they would land in a pattern resembling initials, indicating the man who would become their husband.
8. Question: Who brought the Halloween tradition to the United States?
Answer: The Irish, during the potato famine
9. Question: Which Roman goddess is thought to be honored on Halloween?
10. Question: What is another name for Halloween?
Answer: All Hallows’ Eve
11. Question: What is another name for Nov. 1, the day after Halloween?
Answer: All Saints’ Day
12. Question: What are the Halloween colors?
Answer: Black, orange and purple
13. Question: Who was the first First Lady to decorate the White House for Halloween?
Answer: Mamie Eisenhower, in 1958
14. Question: What was Bram Stoker’s original name for Dracula in his vampire novel?
Answer: Count Wampyr
15. Question: When is the next time there will be a full moon on Halloween?
16. Question: What do you call a fear of Halloween?
17. Question: What is the name of Ireland’s traditional Halloween bread?
18. Question: Which state produces the most pumpkins?
19. Question: Where in the United States can you traditionally find the biggest Halloween parade?
Answer: New York City
20. Question: Halloween is the second most commercial holiday in the United States. Which holiday is No. 1?
21. Question: When was the Halloween song “Monster Mash” first recorded?
22. Question: Who are the guests of the Halloween party, according to the lyrics of “Monster Mash”?
Answer: Wolfman, Dracula and his son
23. Question: Where did real mummies originate?
Answer: Ancient Egypt
24. Question: Which story originated the Headless Horseman?
Answer: The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
25. Question: Who wrote the horror book Frankenstein?
Answer: Mary Shelley
Still curious about Halloween traditions after these Halloween trivia questions and answers? Find out why we carve pumpkins.
26. Question: Michael Myers’s mask in Halloween was that of a famous actor. Which one?
Answer: William Shatner—the studio didn’t have much of a budget, so his mask was a Shatner mask from Star Trek painted white and distorted.
27. Question: How many Michael Myers movies are there?
Answer: 13. If you’re a fan of Halloween trivia questions, try this horror movie trivia next!
28. Question: Which actor turned down the role of Max Dennison in Hocus Pocus?
Answer: Leonardo DiCaprio
29. Question: Which famous boy band used the mansion from Casper for one of their music videos?
Answer: The Backstreet Boys, for the “Everybody (Backstreet’s Back)” video
30. Question: What year did Halloweentown premiere on Disney Channel?
31. Question: Where was Halloweentown filmed?
32. Question: Who did Tim Burton want to play Beetlejuice in Beetlejuice?
Answer: Sammy Davis Jr.
33. Question: What was Beetlejuice almost called?
Answer: Scared Sheetless
34. Question: Which TV network airs the 31 Nights of Halloween event?
35. Question: What colors make up Freddy Krueger’s shirt in A Nightmare on Elm Street?
Answer: Red and green
36. Question: How long did it take to put on Freddy Krueger’s makeup in A Nightmare on Elm Street?
Answer: 3 1/2 hours
37. Question: How many takes did it take to get the puking scene right in The Exorcist?
Answer: Just one
38. Question: Which horror movie earned the most at the box office?
If you’re looking to get into the Halloween spirit, we recommend checking out these scary movies on Netflix.
39. Question: What is the most popular Halloween candy in America?
Answer: Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups
40. Question: About how much money does the United States spend on Halloween candy annually?
Answer: Around $3 billion
41. Question: What was the original name of candy corn?
Answer: Chicken feed
42. Question: What two candy bars were the first to come in “fun size”?
Answer: Snickers and Milky Way
43. Question: In which decade did the term “trick or treat” originate in the United States?
Answer: The 1920s
44. Question: How is the Dum-Dums mystery flavor lollipop made?
Answer: At the end of the production run, Dum-Dums mixes the leftover candy together to form a new (mysterious) flavor for its lollipops.
45. Question: What is the least popular Halloween candy?
Answer: Candy corn
46. Question: On average, how many cups of sugar from Halloween candy do kids consume each year?
Answer: Three cups
47. Question: How far in advance does Hershey’s start production on Halloween candy?
Answer: Six months in advance
48. Question: How many pounds of candy corn are produced each year?
Answer: 35 million pounds
49. Question: What day is National Candy Corn Day?
Answer: Oct. 30
50. Question: How many pounds of chocolate are sold during Halloween week?
Answer: 90 million pounds
Q. I have a 2005 Buick Lacrosse and it has been making a clacking, snapping sound when I brake, and 50-100 ft after brake is released. The sound itself seems to come from the from the brake on the left side, and toward the center front in the car. Sometimes if I hit an unforeseen bump which cannot be avoided, I hear the same sound. The mechanic replaced the left front tie rod, but the noise remains.
A. I would start by going on a road test with a mechanic so you both hear the same noise. I suspect that the first repair was on the right track. It is possible something in the front suspension, inner tie-rod end wear is common, stabilizer links, body mounts or even a brake caliper is shifting could be making the noise.
Q. The speedometer is reading way out of normal range (on the dial). Does the dash need to be removed to repair this, or does the speedometer mechanism have to be replaced entirely? Can it be reset?
A. This really depends on the age and type of vehicle. Nearly all speedometers today are electronic and do not use traditional cable drives. The issue could be the speed sensor in the transmission, or a faulty circuit in the instrument panel. A technician with a scan tool should be able to determine is the speed sensor is working properly.
Q. The steering wheel whirrs when I make a sharp right or left turn and the noise seems to be outside the car. Is this a simple repair job?
A. There could be several causes of this noise, from low power steering fluid to a worn or losoe power steering belt.
Q. I own a 2015 Mercedes GLK 250 diesel, which has displayed the check engine light frequently. The dealership has checked this out with repairs and claimed it to be part of the recall for diesel emissions. The recall was completed, and the light still returned intermittently. It frequently occurred after long road trips over 150 miles and with subsequent driving sometimes went off by itself. Mercedes high end repair shops recommended replacement of the entire sensor board since they said it was easier to affect a repair by its replacement rather than trying to replace the sensors individually. This is a very expensive repair. They said that since l am a Mercedes owner, I could afford the expense. Hogwash. Is this a Mercedes engineering fiasco?
A. The first thing that needs to be performed is a test to see what codes are causing the check-engine light. There are some common issues with this vehicle. Some or all of the following could cause a check engine light to be illuminated intermittently. There could be a vacuum leak, damaged and leaking O-rings, damaged water pump impeller, low battery voltage and even contaminated coolant or engine oil. Using the “parts-cannon or shotgun” approach of just throwing parts at the car almost never actually repairs the issue and is certainly not in the customer’s best interest.
Q. I have a 2006 Toyota Sienna, 103,000 miles, runs great, well maintained with no problems. Should I have the transmission fluid changed? As far as I know. The fluid was never changed.
A. Toyota considers it a lifetime fill and unless there is a leak or other issue is good for the lifetime of the car. But you could certainly change it as a preventative measure. If you do use only Toyota or equivalent fluid, not a generic fluid used in some flushing machines. If it were my vehicle and I drove it “normally” I would leave well enough alone.
Q. My Husband’s car was taken to get an oil change and inspection sticker yesterday. They did the oil change but rejected the car for the sticker. The reason was front body rot/rust. A front cross member piece is needed because it is so badly rusted. The car is a 2007 Chrysler Pacifica; do you think one could be found? He loves the car, and it still looks great. Any suggestions?
A. Yes, you can find a good rust free front subframe on eBay motors and other salvage yard websites. The part is $6-$900 plus about six hours labor to install it, plus a wheel alignment. There could be added expenses due to other rusty parts, but yes it can be repaired.
Q. I own a 2016 black Subaru Forester and I need to touch up some scratches. Can you please recommend a good brand to purchase for me to do the job myself?
A. The brand that I have been most happy with over the years is www.automotivetouchup.com Great color match and everything from touch up pens to quarts and gallons. Plus, they have clear coat paint to get the factory finish look. Recently I was alerted to another similar company https://touchuppaintfactory.com which also has factory color match in all size applicators. Like all painting, the preparation before painting is what determines the outcome of the job.
Q. I recently saw a Chevrolet at a car show, it was a small two-door wagon (not a Chevrolet Vega). The car was highly modified with a big V-8 engine. The steering wheel was on the left and I suspect it may have been a Canadian car. Is this enough of a clue to know what it could be?
A. What you may have seen (and I just saw one recently) was a Chevrolet Caravan. The car was from Brazil and sort of a combination of a Chevy and Opel. Sometimes referred to as an Opala, the factory engine was a 2.5-liter, 150 cubic-inch four-cylinder, but over the years many four-cylinder engine were replaced with a larger 250 cubic inch straight six-cylinder engine.
Got a car question, email the Car Doctor for a personal reply. firstname.lastname@example.org
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