In the 1980s, a 19-year-old pre-med student at the University of Texas just happened to like computers – a lot. Michael Dell never made it to graduation and dropped out at the end of his first year to pursue a different dream, armed only with a $1,000 stake from his family and a love of PCs. No one could have predicted that Dell would turn his dorm room “business” into Dell Inc., a globally recognized leader in computing.
Dell merged with EMC Corporation in late 2016, and the new company was rebranded as Dell Technologies, which includes Dell, Dell EMC, Pivotal, RSA, Secureworks, Virtustream and VMware. According to Forbes, Dell Technologies (before completion of the merger with EMC) was the fourth largest privately held company in the United States and the world’s largest privately held technology company. With offices in more than 180 countries worldwide, Dell boasts more than 145,000 employees, with sales exceeding $74 billion in 2016. According to its investor relations website, a whopping 98% of all Fortune 500 companies use Dell Technologies products and services. Dell is also well represented in Gartner Magic Quadrant leader lists for products and services, including the Data Center Backup and Recovery Software, Managed Security Services, and Integrated Systems lists.
Computing products remain a staple in the Dell product portfolio. Consumers interested in laptops, workstations, tablets and desktops will find a variety of products available (along with peripherals such as monitors, printers and VDI appliances) to meet personal, SMB, enterprise or gaming requirements. Dell also offers solutions for networks, storage, servers, gateways and embedded computing, as well as a broad range of IT and business services.
Dell Technologies’ products and services currently fall under seven technology brands:
Within each brand, there are multiple products, services and solutions that cater to specific areas of interest for Dell customers.
VMware, Secureworks and Pivotal continue to strategically align with Dell Technologies’ core business areas. VMware continues to provide hybrid cloud, mobile computing and software-defined data center solutions. Pivotal offers analytic tools, next-generation software development methodology and modern cloud-native platforms, while Secureworks focuses on incident response and threat intelligence security. RSA helps companies manage and monitor their digital risk profiles and activities.
In response to its merger with EMC, Dell and Dell EMC’s certification programs have merged into the unified Dell EMC Proven Professional certification portfolio. You’ll find that the website and certifications have a brand-new look and feel. Dell Education Services offers two CompTIA certs along with numerous Dell EMC certifications divided up by technology category or track, including Storage, Data Protection, Converged Infrastructure and Data Science. A exact search of the Dell certification website finds that Dell no longer offers Microsoft certification training courses.
If you’re not sure where to start on your certification journey, the new Dell EMC Proven Professional certification framework is a great starting point. Here, you’ll find certifications for four skill levels:
The certification framework is hierarchical: The specialist certification takes the lower-level associate credential as a prerequisite, while the expert-level credentials take both the associate and specialist credentials as prerequisites. Associate and specialist certifications do not expire. Master and expert certifications expire after two years.
In Dell’s certification framework, you’ll find Dell EMC credentials across eight different tracks: Technology Architect (TA), Cloud Architect (CA), Enterprise Architect (EA), Implementation Engineer (IE), Systems Administrator (SA), Platform Engineer (PE), Technical Support Engineer (TSE) and Data Scientist (DS). The certification framework also maps credentials back to specific technology areas (cloud, storage, data protection, server, networking, converged infrastructure and data science).
There are also certification maps for role-based credentials:
Certification candidates should register with Dell EMC TechDirect. From the TechDirect portal, candidates can access free exam prep materials, schedule exams, view exam results and print their certification transcripts. Candidates may also view their company’s competency status through the TechDirect portal.
Dell Partners whose employees have earned the Certified Deployment Professional badge may be eligible to earn the Services Competency for Deployment (or simply Deployment Competency) designation. To earn this competency, Partners must be at least at the Gold tier level and have two or more employees who’ve passed the associated exam. A formal application must be submitted to Dell requesting Deployment Competency designation. Deployment Competency designations are available for Server, Storage, Networking and Client Systems.
Because Dell has updated its certification portfolio, it’s well worth your time to peruse the new Dell EMC Proven Professional Certification Framework to understand the new certification flow. All certification tracks begin with selecting a technology concentration: Cloud, Storage, Data Protection, Server, Networking, Converged Infrastructure or Data Science. Next, candidates earn the DECA (associate) credential recommended for their technology track. From there, candidates select the applicable role-based certification roadmap (Plan and Design, Deploy, Manage, or Support) and follow the certification recommendations to earn the specialist, expert and master credentials available in that certification path.
Below, we’ve listed some examples of the many certifications you’ll find in the new Dell EMC program. We’ve chosen to present these certification examples by the available technology tracks.
The Server technology roadmap is the only certification path where a third-party certification, the CompTIA Server+, serves as the associate-level credential.
On top of its Certified Deployment Professional certifications, Dell Education Services has partnered with several third-party organizations in the past to provide certifications for CompTIA and Microsoft certifications. However, Dell has reduced the number of CompTIA cert courses that it offers and totally eliminated its Microsoft cert courses.
CompTIA is a well-known, vendor-neutral certification provider. Dell has reduced its CompTIA certification training courses to just two online offerings: A+ and Linux+ certs. The cost for CompTIA training courses ranges from $550 to $650 for these topics.
According to Dell, 78% of all companies use IT deployment services. With such a widespread need, IT professionals specializing in deployment find a demand for their skills across multiple industry sectors. Some of the sectors that Dell serves are education, energy, financial services, government (federal, state and local), healthcare, manufacturing, retail, telecommunications, media and entertainment, and web development.
Popular job boards such as TechCareers, SimplyHired and Glassdoor reveal numerous jobs available for Dell-certified deployment professionals. Most of the listed positions focus on engineering roles for server, virtualization, networking, systems, integration, data security and the like. Other available roles include consultants, account executives, system administrators, IT managers and deployment managers.
Dell recommends and offers core training courses for each of its Dell EMC credentials. Interested candidates who register on the DirectTech website can also access free exam study guides. In addition, Dell offers many free e-learning courses at the foundation level on various Dell products and technologies, including networking, storage, data protection, big data and converged infrastructure.
Core recommended training for each solution track includes a basic, intermediate and advanced course. Prices vary, but candidates can expect to pay $2,500 to $5,000. Most training is a combination of e-learning activities that you complete prior to attending instructor-led training.
Dell also provides training for other certifications and training opportunities for end users and IT professionals in various disciplines, including these:
Fundamental or introductory courses typically cost $100 to $200, while advanced training courses may cost thousands of dollars (we found one course with a price tag of $10,000). Dell also offers onsite training courses, with most prices running at least double that of public courses. The most expensive onsite course we found topped $42,000.
Check out everything Dell has to offer on its Education Services webpage.
Ed is a 30-year-plus veteran of the computing industry who has worked as a programmer, a technical manager, a classroom instructor, a network consultant, and a technical evangelist for companies that include Burroughs, Schlumberger, Novell, IBM/Tivoli and NetQoS. He has written for numerous publications, including Tom’s IT Pro, and is the author of more than 140 computing books on information security, web markup languages and development tools, and Windows operating systems.
Earl is also a 30-year veteran of the computer industry who has worked in IT training, marketing, technical evangelism, and market analysis in the areas of networking and systems technology and management. Ed and Earl met in the late 1980s when Ed hired Earl as a trainer at an Austin-area networking company that’s now part of HP. The two of them have written numerous books together on NetWare, Windows Server and other topics. Earl is also a regular writer for the computer trade press, with many e-books, whitepapers and articles to his credit.
CRN is live at Dell EMC World 2017 in Las Vegas. Get all of our coverage of the event, as well content from the Dell EMC World 2017 special issue of CRN, here.
Dell EMC Bringing Mission-Critical Cloud Power Virtustream Into Channel Program
Pat Gelsinger: VMware Opens Up Tech Partners To Expand Cloud Capabilities
Virtustream Extends Mission-Critical Cloud Tech To Complex Health Care Applications
Michael Dell To Partners: 'Enormous Cross-Selling Opportunities For You'
Dell EMC's David Goulden: Modern, Automated Infrastructure Provides The First Step For Cloud Migration
Dell EMC Rolls Out 'Flexible Consumption' Rebate For Partners
Dell EMC Takes Aim At Cisco With New Open Networking Push
Dell North America Sales Chief: 'Winning In Both Consumer And Commercial PCs' Is Key
Dell EMC World: Michael Dell's 7 Keys To The Future Of Dell Technologies And The IT Industry
Dell EMC World: Enterprise Sales Chief Scannell Says Partners Are Booting Competitors, Winning Big Deals Amid Huge Market Opportunity
Michael Dell To Partners: 'Enormous Cross-Selling Opportunities For You'
Partner Marketing Push: Dell EMC Arms Partners With New MDF Resources
Dell EMC Gives Partners The Nod On Commercial PCs With Extension Of Partner-Led Strategy
Dell EMC Launches All-Flash Storage Barrage
15 Hot Products Unleashed At Dell EMC World 2017
Dell EMC World: Transformation Titans Map Out Dell EMC's Path To Growth
With the right pieces now in place, Dell EMC's complete-portfolio call to action is being heard loud and clear across the partner ecosystem.
Marius Haas On Why There's 'Zero Debate' About The Value Of Dell EMC's End-To-End Portfolio
Marius Haas believes that when it comes to determining which vendor partner is going to provide you with long-term value creation opportunities, there's no debate that it's Dell EMC.
John Byrne On Partners Pivoting Away From Cisco, HPE, Lenovo, And Selling The Entire Dell EMC Portfolio
John Byrne says that Dell EMC partners are rapidly moving away from competing vendors and aggressively pushing new business opportunities across the entire combined portfolio.
Dell EMC's Cheryl Cook On The Combined Partner Marketing Perspective
Dell EMC's global channel marketing chief Cheryl Cook talks to CRN about the importance of communication when combining the marketing efforts of two massive partner programs.
Chad Sakac On Dell EMC's Push To Turn Hyper-Converged Infrastructure Into A Utility
Dell EMC is putting the 'pedal to the medal' when it comes to hyper-converged infrastructure and is tasking Chad Sakac and his team with making customer transformation as simple as possible for partners.
Jeremy Burton On How Partners Can Take Advantage Of A Combined Dell, EMC
Ahead of Dell EMC World 2017, Jeremy Burton dug into the blockbuster acquisition and how it primes partners to take advantage of the new combined company.
Dell EMC's David Goulden On What It Means To Be The Biggest Player In Storage
Ahead of Dell EMC World 2017, David Goulden talks to CRN about the new combined storage powerhouse and why you won't heard anyone referred to as 'ex-Dell' or 'ex-EMC.'
Power At Every Position: Dell Fills Exec Lineup With Seasoned Channel, Sales Veterans
The new Dell Technologies intends to lean heavily on EMC's channel experts. Here's a rundown of the executives leading Dell Technologies' sales and channel operations.
Dell Adds Systems Integrators To Its IoT Solutions Partner Program
Systems integrators have a 'unique vertical experience,' says a Dell IoT executive, and have expertise in manufacturing, utilities and industrial automation.
Dell EMC Launches First Midmarket-Focused VMAX Solution At Sub-$100K Price Point
The new 250F is 'VMAX for everyone,' says Dell EMC Vice President of Marketing Peter Smails, delivering enterprise capabilities to a new market of midsize customers.
Partners: Cisco And Dell EMC Will 'Inevitably' Hit VCE Architecture And Sales Crossroads
Although Cisco and Dell are playing nice around VCE for now, partners say architectural differences and sales incentives will inevitably lead to a break up.
6 Fun Facts About Dell Technologies You Might Not Know
Ahead of the first Dell EMC World, here are six fun facts about Dell Technologies, including its environmental efforts, sports sponsorships and its high profile in television and movies.
CCNA Data Center (Cisco)
CCNP Data Center (Cisco)
JNCIP-DC (Juniper Networks)
*Search results for the generic phrase “VCE data center engineer”
Regardless of which job board you use, you’ll find many employers looking for qualified people to join their data center teams. SimplyHired lists 114,000-plus data center jobs in the U.S., with more than 172,000 on Indeed, 50,000 on LinkedIn Jobs and 20,000 on LinkUp. With the right credential(s) in hand, one of these jobs is sure to be yours.
Data center job roles start at the network technician level and advance through senior architect. Most of the certifications covered would fit well with an associate- or professional-level network engineer position. According to SimplyHired, the average salary for network engineer jobs is about $79,000, and $111,000 for senior network engineers. Glassdoor reports a U.S. national average salary of about $73,000 for network engineers, and their average for senior network engineers climbs to $94,000.
Cisco certifications continue to be some of the most recognizable and respected credentials in the industry. The CCNA Data Center certification is a great introductory certification for networking professionals who want to specialize in data center operations and support and have 1-3 years of experience.
Candidates for the CCNA Data Center certification need to understand basic data center networking concepts. These include addressing schemes, troubleshooting and configuring switches with VLANs and routers using Nexus OS, network and server virtualization, storage, and common network services such as load balancing, device management and network access controls.
The CCNA Data Center is valid for three years, after which credential holders must recertify. Recertification requires passing a current version of one of the following exams:
Candidates can also sit through the Cisco Certified Architect (CCAr) interview and the CCAr board review to achieve recertification for CCNA Data Center.
|Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) Data Center|
Prerequisites and required courses
Cisco offers classroom courses, which run for five days and cost about $4,500.
Number of exams
Both exams are 90 minutes and 55-65 questions.
Cost per exam
|$300 per exam; $600 total (price may vary by region). Exams administered by Pearson VUE.|
|The certification page provides links to self-study materials, including the syllabus, study groups, videos, study guides, Learning Network resources and learning partner content.|
Networking professionals looking to validate their data center skills and achieve a competitive edge in the workplace can’t go wrong with the Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) Data Center credential.
Geared toward technology architects, along with design and implementation engineers and solutions experts, the CCNP Data Center identifies individuals who can implement Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS) rack-mount servers; install, configure and manage Cisco Nexus switches; and implement and deploy automation of Cisco Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI). The CCNP Data Center is designed for candidates with 3-5 years of experience working with Cisco technologies.
When pursuing the CCNP Data Center, Cisco lets you choose either a design or troubleshooting track. Related data center certifications include the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA Data Center), for those with 1-3 years of experience, and the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) Data Center, aimed at professionals with seven or more years of experience.
The CCNP Data Center is valid for three years, after which credential holders must recertify. The recertification process requires candidates to pass a single exam to maintain the credential, or to sit for the Cisco Certified Architect (CCAr) interview and the CCAr board review. Credential holders should check the Cisco website for the current list of qualifying exams before attempting to recertify.
|Cisco Certified Network Professional Data Center (CCNP Data Center)|
Prerequisites and required courses
|Valid Cisco Certified Network Associate Data Center (CCNA Data Center) certification or any Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) certification. Training recommended but not required; classes are usually four or five days and start at $3,950.|
Number of exams
All exams are 90 minutes, 60-70 questions.
Cost per exam
|$300 per exam; $1,200 total (price may vary by region). Exams administered by Pearson VUE.|
|The certification page provides links to self-study materials, including the syllabus, study groups, webinars, Cisco Learning Network resources and learning partner content.|
Juniper Networks, based in California and incorporated in 1997, develops and sells network infrastructure equipment and software aimed at corporations, network service providers, government agencies and educational institutions. The company has a large certification and training program designed to support its solutions, which includes Data Center, Junos Security, Enterprise Routing and Switching, and Service Provider Routing and Switching tracks.
The Data Center track recognizes networking professionals who deploy, manage and troubleshoot Juniper Networks Junos software and data center equipment. The single exam (JN0-680) covers data center deployment and management, including implementation and maintenance of multi-chassis link aggregation group (LAG), virtual chassis and Internet Protocol (IP) fabric, virtual extensible LANs (VXLANs), and data center interconnections.
The JNCIP-DC certification is good for three years. To renew the certification, candidates must pass the current JNCIP-DC exam.
VCE, short for Virtual Computing Environment, was part of EMC Corporation, which Dell acquired in 2016. The VCE line of converged infrastructure appliances are still being manufactured and widely sold, and the company has a handful of VCE certifications geared toward designing, maintaining and supporting those solutions.
VCE certifications are now part of the larger Dell EMC Proven Professional certification program but have retained some independence. The program currently offers the VCE Certified Converged Infrastructure Associate (VCE-CIA), VCE Converged Infrastructure Administration Engineer (VCE-CIAE) and VCE Converged Infrastructure Master Administration Engineer (VCE-CIMAE) credentials. We focus on the VCE Administration Engineer in this article because it’s available to the public as well as Dell employees and partners, and it ranks well in job board searches.
The VCE-CIAE is a professional-level credential that recognizes professionals who manage and support Vblock Systems. The single exam includes syllabus such as system concepts, administration, security, resource management, maintenance and troubleshooting.
Candidates must recertify every two years to maintain a VCE certification. To renew, credential holders must pass the current VCE-CIA exam (this is the prerequisite for the VCE-CIAE certification), as well as pass the current VCE-CIAE exam or earn a higher-level credential.
|VCE Converged Infrastructure Administration Engineer (VCE-CIAE)|
Prerequisites and required courses
|Prerequisite: VCE Certified Converged Infrastructure Associate (VCE-CIA) certification
Recommended: VCE Vblock Systems Administration Management training; available as instructor-led classroom and online (five-day course, $5,000; prices may vary by course provider and location)
Number of exams
|One: exam 220-010 (60 multiple-choice questions, 90 minutes)|
Cost per exam
|$200. Exams administered by Pearson VUE.|
The VCP6-DCV is one of those credentials that sits firmly on the line between traditional data center networking and cloud management. As such, it appeals to a wide networking audience. In fact, the VMware website states that more than 100,000 professionals have earned VMware VCP6-DCV certification, making it one of the company’s most popular certifications.
VMware offers an extensive certification program with a rigorous Data Center virtualization track, which includes the VCP6-DCV. Candidates must thoroughly understand Domain Name System (DNS), routing and database connectivity techniques, and how to deploy, configure, manage and scale VMware vSphere environments and storage. VMware recommends that candidates have a minimum of six months of experience with VMware vSphere 6 before attempting the VCP6-DCV certification.
New candidates must take a VMware training course and pass two exams. Training courses start at $4,125; pricing is based on the specific course, delivery format and learning partner.
VMware requires credential holders to recertify every two years. Recertification is achieved by taking whatever exam is most current for the certification, earning a new VCP certification in a different solution track or advancing to the next-level VMware certification.
Note: VMware certifications are geared toward the VMware vSphere product, the latest incarnation of which is Version 6.5. As of April 2019, VMware is still rolling out various Version 6.5 exams. Currently, Version 6.5 exams are offered for the Professional and Advanced Professional (Design only) levels. We anticipate that Version 6.5 exams and credentials at the Associate, Advanced Professional Deploy and Expert levels will follow soon.
|VMWare Certified Professional 6 – Data Center Virtualization (VCP6-DCV)|
Prerequisites and required courses
|Candidates who are new to VMware Data Center Virtualization technology: Six months’ vSphere 6 experience plus one of the following training courses:
Note: The cost of VMware training varies; expect to pay from $4,125 for classroom training to more than $6,000 for Bootcamps and Fast Track courses.
Number of exams
|Two exams for new candidates, those with vSphere 5 training only, those with an expired VCP in a different solution track or those with an expired VCP5-DCV certification:
One exam for candidates with valid VCP5-DCV certification: VMware Certified Professional 6 – Data Center Virtualization Delta exam, 2V0-621D, 105 minutes, 65 questions
One exam for candidates with valid VCP certification, any solution track: VMware Certified Professional 6 – Data Center
Exams administered by Pearson VUE.
Cost per exam
|Links to an exam guide, training and a practice exam (if available) appear on each exam page (see the How to Prepare tab). VMware Learning Zone offers exam prep subscriptions. Numerous VCP6-DCV study materials are available through Amazon. MeasureUp offers a VCP6-DCV practice test ($129) and a practice lab ($149).|
While not featured in the top five this year, the BICSI Data Center Design Consultant (DCDC) is a terrific certification, designed for IT professionals with at least two years of experience in designing, planning and implementing data centers. This vendor-neutral certification is ideal for data center engineers, architects, designers and consultants. Another good vendor-neutral certification is Schneider Electric’s Data Center Certified Associate (DCCA), an entry-level credential for individuals who design, build and manage data centers as part of a data center-centric IT team.
CNet’s Certified Data Centre Management Professional (CDCMP) and Certified Data Centre Technician Professional (CDCTP) are also worthy of honorable mention. Based in the U.K., these certifications don’t appear in a lot of U.S. job board postings but still deliver solid results from a general Google search.
IT professionals who are serious about advancing their data center careers would do well to check out complementary certifications from our featured vendors. For example, Cisco also offers a number of certifications in data center design and support, including application services, networking infrastructure, storage networking and unified computing. VMware also offers additional data center virtualization certifications worth exploring, including the VMware Certified Advanced Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization Design (VCAP6.5-DCV Design) and the VMware Certified Design Expert (VCDX6-DCV). Also, the Dell EMC Proven Professional certification program offers a bevy of data center-focused certifications, including the Dell EMC Implementation Engineer (EMCIE) and the Dell EMC Certified Cloud Architect (EMCCA).
Because of the proliferation of data center virtualization and cloud computing, you can expect the data center networking job market to continue to remain strong soon. Achieving a certification can be a real feather in your cap, opening the door to new and better work opportunities.
Medical Device & Diagnostic Industry Magazine
MDDI Article Index
An MD&DI January 1998 Column
A design may seem perfect; however, when electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) performance hasn't been considered, too often the product will fail at the point in the development process, the final testing phase, where redesign is most expensive and difficult. Designing medical electronic products to be electromagnetically compatible means establishing confidence that the design will comply with regulatory agency requirements and be compatible with associated equipment.
Loop probes are easily constructed and facilitate benchtop testing for electromagnetic compatibility during product design, testing, and production phases.
A cost-effective approach to product development is to gradually increase confidence in a design's EMC performance during the design, testing, and production phases, rather than to defer testing to the very end. Potential problems and contingency solutions should be identified as early as possible so that problems encountered later in development can be handled with relative ease. While some product designs might seem straightforward—apparently negating the need for thorough process testing—the cost and effort required to redesign a product late in development and the potential loss of revenue caused by delayed market entry, are greater than the costs of early EMC testing.
For example, to minimize cost a manufacturer might design a printed circuit board (PCB) with only two layers. Attaining good grounding on a two-layer board is far more difficult than doing so on a multilayer board with a dedicated ground plane. If the two-layer board passes the final EMC test, everything is fine. However, if it fails, redesign may delay production and shipments. A more prudent approach would be to design a two-layer board with the best possible ground system while simultaneously pursuing a multilayer design. Because it has a better ground system, the apparently more expensive multilayer approach may work with fewer bypass capacitors or require less-stringent shielding. When alternatives are developed in parallel, the choice of which design to use can be made after final EMC testing with little or no effect on production scheduling.
Final EMC testing of products with embedded microprocessors is usually done at an open area test site (OATS) or in a specially designed absorber-lined chamber (ALC). These tests are the most accurate available but also the most time-consuming. In comparison, benchtop EMC measurements are faster but focus on individual sources of interference instead of system emissions. Benchtop tests can be powerful complements to OATS or ALC measurements. For example, a preliminary OATS test can be carried out on a prototype, and then benchtop tests can be used to identify the specific source of the emissions. Once the emissions source is identified, specific design changes can be evaluated on the design bench and clarified with further OATS or ALC measurements.
Identifying radiated emissions sources close to their origins is usually done with a sensor or transducer that converts fields into voltages for measurement by a receiver or spectrum analyzer. This sort of transducer, or antenna, comes in two basic types: dipolelike structures that sense electric fields and looplike structures that sense magnetic fields. Derivations of the classic loop antenna are often used for benchtop EMC work because it is usually easier to identify and characterize radiated emissions sources by examining magnetic fields produced close to their origin than it is by studying electric fields.
MAGNETIC FIELD LOOP PROBES
Any electrical circuit can produce magnetic fields and radiate radio-frequency (RF) energy.In digital circuits, RF currents usually come from the high-order harmonics of the digital signals. Magnetic fields will be strongest wherever RF currents are forced to flow in other than straight lines. For example, a cutout or opening in an otherwise continuous ground-plane layer of a PCB will cause RF currents in that layer to flow in curved paths around the cutout, just as water flows around a rock in a stream. These currents produce magnetic fields in the cutout.1 A similar situation can occur near apertures or seams in otherwise continuous shields.2
Essentially identical to the loops used as radio direction-finding antennas, but much smaller, electrically small shielded loop antennas are effective near-field probes for characterizing magnetic field sources on PCBs or other electronic structures.3
Theoretical Basis. An electrically small loop antenna will produce an output voltage proportional to a perpendicular incident magnetic field, as shown in Figure 1. This voltage can be calculated from Faraday's law as
where n = number of turns in loop (typically one for small probes), = angular frequency = 2 ¼ x frequency, B = incident magnetic field, A = area enclosed by loop, and = angle between perpendicular to loop plane and the B-field vector.
Figure 1. A loop probe's output voltage is proportional to the perpendicular component of the impinging RF magnetic field. Equivalent circuit impedance is very small.
The "electrically small" assumption means the loop probe is small compared to the wavelength at the frequency of interest, so the phase shift of the current flowing around the loop is negligible. For benchtop EMC testing, there is no need to match the probe's impedance to the receiver or spectrum analyzer to which it's connected.
The probe's equivalent circuit is composed of the radiation resistance (Rr), the simple bulk resistance of the loop (RL), and the inductance of the loop (L). All three of these quantities are usually very small, and the sum of their impedances is usually much smaller than the typical 50-‡ input impedance of most receivers or spectrum analyzers. Consequently, in most cases the impedance mismatch can be ignored, and the probe acts as an ideal voltage source.
Construction Features. Magnetic field loop probes can be constructed or purchased. To be effective, the loop probe's response to incident electric fields must be minimized. Otherwise, the probe's response to magnetic fields will be difficult to differentiate from its response to electric fields. The classic way to reduce a loop antenna's electric field response is to add an electric field shield with a small break at one point to keep the circulating currents from shielding the loop from magnetic fields, too.
Another way to minimize electric field responses in loop antennas is to use their inherent balance. Electric fields produce a common mode current at the probe's output terminals, whereas magnetic fields produce a differential response. A balanced-to-unbalanced transformer, or balun, attenuates the electric field response but has less effect on the differential magnetic field response. Figure 2 shows how a common mode transformer or choke can be used as a simple balun.
Figure 2. Small magnetic field probes should have E-field shields and a balun or other means to inhibit common-mode E-field responses.A loop probe tests for magnetic fields, which are most likely to be found near a product's seam fasteners or corners.
Finally, antennas must be insulated when used as field probes. It's easy to inadvertently touch the probe to electronic components and live circuitry, creating a short to ground if the probe isn't insulated. If high voltages are exposed or high currents available, such as in a power supply, this can be very hazardous to the circuitry and the user. Loop probes should be covered with a durable insulating layer of plastic or rubber.
PROBING FOR MAGNETIC FIELD SOURCES
Loop probes help designers visualize the structure of the magnetic fields produced by electronic circuitry. The probe responds to the portion of the field that is perpendicular to the plane of the loop. For example, a circuit loop on a PCB acts as a small electromagnet, producing a field that is vertical directly over the board but then curves over to return to the other side of the board. Consequently, when probing PCBs, the loop should first be held with its plane parallel to the board (perpendicular to vertically oriented fields). In the vicinity of a hot spot, the probe should be turned 90° to see how the field behaves.
Loop probe tests for magnetic fields, which are most likely to be found near a product's seam fasteners or corners.
When probing shields for leakage, the strongest magnetic fields will be found where shield currents are constricted and forced to flow in a curved path—most likely near seam fasteners or corners, especially at seam gaps. Again, the loop probe should be held parallel to the shield's surface to search for hot spots.
INDUCING MAGNETIC FIELD SOURCES
Loop probes can also use a signal generator's output to produce magnetic fields for EMC troubleshooting. However, loop probes are almost the electrical equivalent of a dead short, so the absolute minimum signal power needed for the job should be used. To protect the signal generator, it's a good idea to add a 50-(omega) resistor in series with the probe.
When using the loop probe as a field source, be aware of the structure of the magnetic field around the probe. The probe should be rotated to control the field orientation and induced currents when it is near sensitive circuitry.
In some cases, passive structures within electronic equipment have naturally resonant frequencies that coincide with internal RF sources, such as clock harmonics. When excited, resonant structures can act as antennas, exacerbating radiated emissions. A spectrum analyzer, tracking generator, directional coupler, and simple loop probe can be configured as an absorption wave meter to locate such resonant structures.4 Once they are located, the product's design can be altered to dampen the resonance (e.g., by adding a ferrite to a cable) or to move it to a frequency where an internal excitation source doesn't exist.
Structural resonances can be found by using a spectrum analyzer with an internal tracking generator (Figure 3). The tracking generator's output frequency follows the spectrum analyzer's swept input frequency. The generator's output is connected to the loop probe through a directional coupler. The loop probe reflects most of the incident energy it receives from the tracking generator through the directional coupler, which then routes this reflection to the spectrum analyzer.
Figure 3. A system for finding structural resonances can be assembled from a spectrum analyzer with a tracking generator, directional coupler, and loop probe.
In operation, the spectrum analyzer sweeps some band of interest, such as a portion of the 30—1000-MHz range used for commercial EMC testing. The reference level is adjusted so the loop reflection appears near the top of the screen. When the loop is brought near a structure with a natural resonant frequency within the swept-frequency range, some of the incident RF is absorbed and lost. This absorption appears as a dip in the spectrum analyzer's trace, and the structure's resonant frequency can be read from the screen.
This effect is subtle and can easily be missed. The spectrum analyzer's vertical sensitivity should be set to 1 dB per division and the probe moved very slowly. Frequency spans should be no larger than necessary, e.g., 30—130 MHz.
Many structures with measurable electromagnetic resonances may be discovered this way. The probability of finding such resonant structures is likely to increase as clock speeds increase, because progressively higher RF frequencies will more often excite smaller structures.
Anticipating problems and preparing contingency solutions helps keep new product development on schedule. Early EMC information is useful even when somewhat qualitative. Benchtop EMC techniques using small magnetic field loop probes sacrifice some accuracy for speed but help identify potential EMC problems and cost-effective solutions.
1. Kimmel WD, and Gerke DD, Electromagnetic Compatibility in Medical Equipment, IEEE and Interpharm Press, Buffalo Grove, IL, 1995.
2. Ott HW, Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems, 2nd ed, New York, John Wiley, 1988.
3. Roleson S, "Evaluate EMI Reduction Schemes with Shielded-Loop Antennas," EDN, 29(10):203—207, 1984.
4. Roleson S, "Finding EMI Resonances in Structures," EMC Test Design, 3(1):25—28, 1992.
Scott Roleson is the lead engineer for Hewlett-Packard's Telecom Test Center (San Diego). Photos courtesy of Scott Roleson
Copyright ©1998 Medical Device & Diagnostic Industry
Nicole Manuel is a finance and economics writer with a degree in economics and more than six years of professional writing experience. She is also a Certified Professional Coach (CPC) known as The Personal Eco-nomist, who specializes in helping people live healthy, abundant lives on a budget.
Round Rock, Texas
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Figures are for the latest twelve months ended Oct. 31, 2022. Market value as of Jan. 20, 2023. Sources: Bloomberg; S&P Global.
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No matter the size of your organization, it is crucial to maintain an IT infrastructure that is capable of supporting growth and adapting to the changing needs of your business. The Dell EMC PowerEdge R650xs is a feature-rich 1U rack server that is designed for companies looking to innovate at scale with demanding and emerging workloads.
Equipped with the third-gen Intel Xeon Scalable processors, this server promises to be an ideal choice for workloads that require high performance, virtualization, and a scale-out database. Let’s talk about how the Dell PowerEdge R650xs will help you innovate and adapt with confidence, thus facilitating growth.
The Dell EMC PowerEdge R650xs is a powerful 1U server designed for scale-out environments where resources such as processing power and storage capacity can be added to the system as needed. It has dual-socket capabilities, allowing for the addition of up to two 3rd generation Intel Xeon Scalable processors with up to 32 cores per socket. With support for up to 16x DDR4 RDIMMS at 3200 MT/s, the added processing power and cores can help to accelerate in-memory workloads or operations that are performed entirely in the main memory.
Additionally, the PowerEdge R650xs includes several features that can Boost throughput and reduce latency, such as up to 5 PCIe Gen4 slots, OCP 3.0 support for cost-effective and energy-efficient network cards, and Dell’s SNAP I/O support for efficient use of shared storage resources.
It is designed for virtualization, medium VM density or VDI, and software-defined storage node (SDS) workloads such as data protection, data migration, or data optimization.
In terms of storage, the PowerEdge R650xs offers a variety of options to fit different needs. It can support up to 12x 3.5” SAS/SATA HDDs or SSDs, up to 16x 2.5” SAS/SATA HDDs or SSDs, and 8 NVMe drives. This provides a lot of flexibility for organisations that may need to scale storage up or down quickly. This also helps with better data protection, disaster recovery and data management.
The Dell EMC OpenManage systems management portfolio has all the tools needed to efficiently manage the PowerEdge R650xs. Modern management tools provide better workload tracking and performance analysis, making complex IT enterprise management simple and intuitive. There are tools and automation that help you scale, manage, and protect your technology environment, freeing up resources that can be used for business growth.
Built-in telemetry streaming, thermal management, and RESTful API with Redfish let you monitor and manage the server remotely in an efficient manner. Intelligent automation allows for the integration of human actions and system capabilities to enhance productivity.
Full-stack management integration with Microsoft, VMware, ServiceNow, Ansible, and many other tools offers a number of advantages and makes it easier for different teams to collaborate and work together. It can increase efficiency by automating tasks and streamlining processes and provides a unified view of your entire IT infrastructure, making it easier to identify and troubleshoot issues.
Dell EMC and Intel solutions provide a comprehensive approach to ensuring the security and resilience of the PowerEdge R650xs. From the silicon and supply chain to asset retirement, these technologies help avoid vulnerabilities to ensure that your servers are safe and secure against emerging threats. With enterprise-class security, organizations of all sizes can minimize risk and have confidence in their cyber resilience.
Dell offers continuous innovations that bolster cyber resilience, such as OpenManage Secure Enterprise Key Manager and Automatic Certificate Enrollment. Additionally, intelligence, automation, and recovery tools like iDRAC9 Telemetry, BIOS live scanning, and Rapid OS recovery, allow organizations to stay ahead of potential threats.
Dell also verifies the authenticity and integrity of the firmware and hardware components in the supply chain using platform security features such as Secured Component Verification and Silicon Root of Trust (RoT). This helps ensure that the server is protected against cyber attacks and runs only authorized and trusted code.
Dell PowerEdge R650xs is a powerful and versatile option for enterprises that can help accelerate transformation. This dual-socket 1U server is designed for scale-out environments, it easily adapts to changing resource needs, and benefits from Dell’s robust and comprehensive management portfolio, as well as enterprise-class security solutions. This combination of advanced technology and solutions allows for easy scalability and efficient management and security, making it a great option for organizations looking to innovate, adapt, and grow.
To know more about the Dell PowerEdge R650xs rack server, check here.
You can’t beat the quality of a Dell Outlet product! You’ll find some of the latest Dell products at a great low price with the same limited hardware warranty and service as if you bought it brand new. Refurbished systems help reduce the environmental impact of your technology purchase, so whether you’re shopping for a PC, server, or networking system, you can shop confidently knowing you’re making a difference.
Dell Outlet systems are also built and ready to go, so most products ship within 24 hours of order approval. As their inventory is updated in real-time and changes frequently, if you’re waiting for a good Dell Outlet sale, you should keep checking back so you don’t miss out! Sales like the Dell Outlet Black Friday event are must-sees if you're looking for the lowest prices on high-quality tech.
No matter if you’re shopping the Dell Outlet for home or business, there are a few different categories to choose from that depend on what you’re looking for. Their new and unused collection consists of factory-sealed products that were either canceled or were unopened returns; these products don’t have any cosmetic damage and are essentially new in the box.
You might also wish to browse the certified refurbished section for previously opened or used products that have gone through a rigorous process to achieve the highest quality and performance. Finally, there is the scratch and dent category, which are certified refurbished products with visible blemishes that do not affect performance. Whichever category you wish to shop in, our Dell Outlet vouchers are eligible for any purchase!
Committed to maximizing the reuse or recycling of all returned Dell products, they offer Dell Outlet refurbished systems as a way to turn something old into a brand new, ready-to-use computer. When you choose something such as the Dell Outlet latitude or Dell Outlet XPS 15, you’re choosing to keep old technology going by using pre-loved parts. Grab your next Outlet monitor or Dell 2-in-1 PC in their refurbished section and see just how much you can save!
Wanting you to love your new technology without worrying about the price, if you happen to find your item for less, they’ll match it! Just identify the lower-priced product you wish to price match from a qualifying competitor and share the active link with a Dell Outlet customer service representative to begin the process.
No matter if it’s a tablet, monitor, or even one of the Dell Outlet workstations, they’ll make sure you get it at the lowest possible price. Don’t forget to use your Dell Outlet student discount if you’re eligible for even more savings!
To keep you happy and your brand new purchase running smoothly, the Dell Outlet warranty is identical to the standard warranty that they offer on their new systems to better serve you.
They also offer free Dell Outlet shipping with no minimum purchase required; if you decide that something isn’t for you, the Dell Outlet return policy lets you ship it back within 30 days of your invoice date including free return shipping.
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Browse through refurbished Dell laptops, tablets, and more for high-performing technology at a fraction of the original cost. There’s no need to wait for a sale when you can find a deal anytime by shopping Dell refurbished.
To redeem your discount, simply follow these steps:
For more information on saving and redeeming instructions, check out the Dell website or contact customer service via email or live chat.
It’s easy and free to join Dell Rewards! When you shop for laptops, like the latest Dell XPS 13, XPS 15, or Inspiron 15, you can earn 3% back in rewards with free expedited delivery!
Once you rack up those Dell premier Advantage rewards, you can select from a wide range of Dell monitors, PCs, accessories, and more. You’ll also get early access to sales, exclusive Dell coupon codes, and more just by signing up.
When shopping for new Dell computers, consider recycling old devices so they can breathe new life as something different. From unwanted computers to game consoles and ink cartridges, it’s free to recycle your unwanted tech with the Dell trade-in program: print a prepaid shipping label, box up your items, and drop them off at your local mailing center.
Now that you’ve picked the perfect laptop, desktop, or tablet, you’ll need accessories to elevate your experience. Shop for Dell diagnostics to help clean up your computer, a Dell laptop docking station for easy charging, or Dell Tech Direct for your business. Choose essential accessories to keep your system running smoothly for years to come. You may also request a Dell warranty check or a renewal to ensure that your products will last.
If you're shopping for Dell laptops or accessories and find a lower price advertised elsewhere, they will match it. Call their toll-free phone number, send them an email, or contact them through live chat, and they’ll walk you through the process.
During Black Friday sales, Dell discounts their top-rated products to help you save big on the latest tech. Score the lowest prices of the year on Dell laptops and much more with free shipping on every order and a quality experience from start to finish. From the classic Inspiron laptop to discounted McAfee Antivirus software, it’s easy to see why Dell Black Friday deals are a must!
Dell often runs special promotions and sitewide sales on its website. If you time it right, you’ll never have to pay the total price for a desktop PC or Dell laptop. The best place to start is on the Deals page, highlighting the best offers and discounts currently on the site.
From the Deals tab on the homepage menu, you can find discount offers by the department. Filter your search to specify the type of computer you want, such as an XPS 13 or XPS 15 laptop. You can also filter by “highest discount” to find the best deals Dell offers. Follow the other shopping tips below to score a good discount on a computer.
The tech giant constantly offers coupons and promo codes on its laptops and computers; we list them here for convenience. Once you’ve found a Dell coupon code on our site that you want to use, applying it to your purchase is easy.
Dell discount codes can get you $50, $100, and sometimes more off your purchase of a new computer. We’re sure you can find a code that brings you the best deal you are looking for.
Get notified of sale events and featured promotional codes by signing up for the Dell newsletter. You will be privy to Dell’s hottest deals for shopping holidays, such as Black Friday and Cyber Monday, and annual savings for the Back-to-School shopping season.
Signing up for Dell’s email is the easiest way to not miss out on its biggest promotions. Receiving email offers is also a great way to keep yourself informed about new products, including gaming laptops and computer accessories.
You’ll never have to pay for shipping when you buy anything at Dell. Free shipping with no minimum is standard whether you are purchasing an Inspiron 15 laptop or a simple low-priced accessory, such as a wireless mouse. In some regions, free two-day delivery is available. Plus, Dell will let you know the estimated delivery dates before you complete your purchase.
If you join the free Rewards program, you will qualify for free expedited shipping on eligible products. Members get 3% back in rewards they can use for future purchases. For example, if you spend $1,100 on a new laptop and monitor, you’ll receive $33 in rewards to apply to a later purchase.
|Discount Type||Discount Codes & Deals||Discount Amount||Status|
|Online Coupon||$150 off with this Dell coupon||$150 Off||Expired|
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