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Question: 21
A DELTA LIVE TABLE pipelines can be scheduled to run in two different modes, what are these two different
modes?
A. Triggered, Incremental
B. Once, Continuous
C. Triggered, Continuous
D. Once, Incremental
E. Continuous, Incremental
Answer: C
Explanation:
The answer is Triggered, Continuous
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/databricks/data-engineering/delta-live-tables/delta-live-tables-concepts#--
continuous-and-triggered-pipelines
Triggered pipelines update each table with whatever data is currently available and then stop the cluster running the
pipeline. Delta Live Tables automatically analyzes the dependencies between your tables and starts by computing
those that read from external sources. Tables within the pipeline are updated after their dependent data sources have
been updated.
Continuous pipelines update tables continuously as input data changes. Once an update is started, it continues to run
until manually stopped. Continuous pipelines require an always-running cluster but ensure that downstream consumers
have the most up-to-date data.
Question: 22
Which of the following developer operations in CI/CD flow can be implemented in Databricks Re-pos?
A. Merge when code is committed
B. Pull request and review process
C. Trigger Databricks Repos API to pull the latest version of code into production folder
D. Resolve merge conflicts
E. Delete a branch
Answer: C
Explanation:
See the below diagram to understand the role Databricks Repos and Git provider plays when building a CI/CD
workflow.
All the steps highlighted in yellow can be done Databricks Repo, all the steps highlighted in Gray are done in a git
provider like Github or Azure DevOps
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Question: 23
Identify one of the below statements that can query a delta table in PySpark Dataframe API
A. Spark.read.mode("delta").table("table_name")
B. Spark.read.table.delta("table_name")
C. Spark.read.table("table_name")
D. Spark.read.format("delta").LoadTableAs("table_name")
E. Spark.read.format("delta").TableAs("table_name")
Answer: C
Question: 24
How VACCUM and OPTIMIZE commands can be used to manage the DELTA lake?
A. VACCUM command can be used to compact small parquet files, and the OP-TIMZE command can be used to
delete parquet files that are marked for dele-tion/unused.
B. VACCUM command can be used to delete empty/blank parquet files in a delta table.
OPTIMIZE command can be used to update stale statistics on a delta table.
C. VACCUM command can be used to compress the parquet files to reduce the size of the table, OPTIMIZE
command can be used to cache frequently delta tables for better performance.
D. VACCUM command can be used to delete empty/blank parquet files in a delta table, OPTIMIZE command can be
used to cache frequently delta tables for better performance.
E. OPTIMIZE command can be used to compact small parquet files, and the VAC-CUM command can be used to
delete parquet files that are marked for deletion/unused. (Correct)
Answer: E
Explanation:
VACCUM:
You can remove files no longer referenced by a Delta table and are older than the retention thresh-old by running the
vacuum command on the table. vacuum is not triggered automatically. The de-fault retention threshold for the files is 7
days. To change this behavior, see Configure data retention for time travel.
OPTIMIZE:
Using OPTIMIZE you can compact data files on Delta Lake, this can Excellerate the speed of read queries on the table.
Too many small files can significantly degrade the performance of the query.
Question: 25
Which of the following statements are correct on how Delta Lake implements a lake house?
A. Delta lake uses a proprietary format to write data, optimized for cloud storage
B. Using Apache Hadoop on cloud object storage
C. Delta lake always stores meta data in memory vs storage
D. Delta lake uses open source, open format, optimized cloud storage and scalable meta data
E. Delta lake stores data and meta data in computes memory
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Answer: D
Explanation:
Delta lake is
Open source
Builds up on standard data format
Optimized for cloud object storage
Built for scalable metadata handling Delta lake is not
Proprietary technology
Storage format
Storage medium
Database service or data warehouse
Question: 26
What are the different ways you can schedule a job in Databricks workspace?
A. Continuous, Incremental
B. On-Demand runs, File notification from Cloud object storage
C. Cron, On Demand runs
D. Cron, File notification from Cloud object storage
E. Once, Continuous
Answer: C
Explanation:
The answer is, Cron, On-Demand runs
Supports running job immediately or using can be scheduled using CRON syntax
Question: 27
Which of the following type of tasks cannot setup through a job?
A. Notebook
B. DELTA LIVE PIPELINE
C. Spark Submit
D. Python
E. Databricks SQL Dashboard refresh
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Answer: E
Question: 28
Which of the following describes how Databricks Repos can help facilitate CI/CD workflows on the Databricks
Lakehouse Platform?
A. Databricks Repos can facilitate the pull request, review, and approval process before merging branches
B. Databricks Repos can merge changes from a secondary Git branch into a main Git branch
C. Databricks Repos can be used to design, develop, and trigger Git automation pipelines
D. Databricks Repos can store the single-source-of-truth Git repository
E. Databricks Repos can commit or push code changes to trigger a CI/CD process
Answer: E
Explanation:
Answer is Databricks Repos can commit or push code changes to trigger a CI/CD process See below diagram to
understand the role Databricks Repos and Git provider plays when building a CI/CD workdlow.
All the steps highlighted in yellow can be done Databricks Repo, all the steps highlighted in Gray are done in a git
provider like Github or Azure Devops.
Diagram
Description automatically generated
$13$10

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We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Here’s our process.

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Our team thoroughly researches and evaluates the recommendations we make on our site. To establish that the product manufacturers addressed safety and efficacy standards, we:
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We compared the best at-home STD tests available online and found that Everlywell offers users the best overall experience.

Best at-home tests

Regular testing for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is important for overall health and any necessary treatments. At-home tests can provide an accurate and convenient method for knowing your status.

STDs and STIs are very common. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1 million STIs are acquired daily worldwide.

One reason for this is that contraceptive methods, such as condoms, aren’t always failproof. Overall, if you’re sexually active, you could contract an STI.

Nowadays, there are dozens of at-home testing kits that may make getting tested easier.

Here’s some information on quality at-home testing options, how to figure out what type is best for you, and when to contact a doctor.

You can use this chart for a quick comparison of the tests in our roundup:

There are a lot of factors to consider when choosing an at-home STD test, which is why we turned to the experts.

Every product we recommend and brand we work with is thoroughly vetted by our team. If there are any lawsuits, recalls, or regulatory action letters documented about these products or companies, our vetting team makes sure they’re reported and listed.

In addition to legalities, our team always checks for medical credibility, good business practices, privacy practices and security, social impact, and the validity of any health claims a brand makes about a product. At-home testing services are required to abide by telehealth standards in the following circumstances:

  • Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and/or Certified Analytics Professional (CAP) certified
  • guidance available to customers who test positive for an STD
  • prescription services available in the event of positive test results
  • physician orders for in-person lab testing available where necessary

With dozens of at-home testing kits available, it can be hard to choose the right one. After all, what does a good at-home STD testing kit look like? What should it entail? What do you need?

There’s no one-size-fits-all answer. Your needs will vary, depending on your situation and circumstances. Also, they may change over time.

This chart can help you determine which type of test is right for you.

If you think you’ll need help determining results from your at-home test, taking an in-office test may be preferable. It’s an immediate source of information, and an action plan can be created on-site in the case of a positive result.

Also, be sure the test you choose is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). To determine whether the FDA approves a product, you can check the FDA’s website.

At-home STD tests arrive with all the tools needed to collect a sample, such as:

  • needles or lancets
  • swabs
  • collection tubes
  • alcohol wipes
  • bandages
  • a prepaid envelope to mail your trial back to the company

You might need to provide a blood or urine trial or perform a rectal, oral, or vaginal swab. It’s best to return the samples the same day you take them. The company then sends results through your online account, usually within 1 to 7 days.

While every home STD testing service is different, most brands recommended here offer professional advice or support for practicing test results at home.

If you do a fully at-home STD test, there’s a risk you’ll misinterpret your results. Lab-based tests can also be difficult to interpret without a medical background.

As such, it’s best to opt for a testing service where you have access to a healthcare professional who can discuss your results with you. They can help you interpret your results and advise on treatments and next steps.

Talk with a healthcare professional if one of your partners has recently tested positive for an STD or STI or if you’re experiencing possible symptoms of an STI.

The CDC recommends STD screenings from a healthcare professional in the following cases:

  • You’re between 13 and 64 years old and have never been tested for HIV.
  • You share needles. Your doctor may recommend annual HIV testing.
  • You have sex without a condom or other barrier methods. Your doctor may recommend annual HIV testing.
  • You have oral or anal sex regularly. Your doctor may recommend throat and rectal testing.
  • You’re pregnant. Your doctor will test you for hepatitis B and C, HIV, and syphilis.

If you have an STI but are experiencing more or worsening symptoms, like genital discharge or urinary symptoms, contact a healthcare professional to further evaluate your symptoms.

The CDC makes the following additional recommendations for screening:

  • People who are sexually active and assigned female at birth, people assigned male at birth, and people under 25 years old may want to undergo annual chlamydia and gonorrhea testing.
  • People who are sexually active and assigned male at birth who have sex with other people assigned male at birth may want to undergo testing as frequently as every 3 to 6 months.

Our roundup of at-home STD tests is a good starting point if you want to get tested without contacting a doctor.

Depending on the test, you may need to visit a lab for collection. Every other part of the process, including the lab order, payment, and results, is done online.

If you receive a positive test result, the testing kit company may offer a consultation with one of their doctors. During that consultation, you can discuss any next steps, such as further testing or treatment.

At this point, it’s also a good idea to contact your primary care doctor to share your results.

With both at-home and lab-direct tests, you’ll provide a sample. The samples may include blood, urine, anal, vaginal, or oral swabs.

The samples are submitted to a lab, and results are shared discreetly.

If you receive a positive STD result, contact your primary care clinician to discuss the best treatment option for you. Also, be prepared to notify any partners of the positive result.

An at-home test may confirm whether you have an STD, but it’s important to contact your doctor if you have symptoms of a possible infection. These symptoms may include:

  • vaginal or penile burning or discharge
  • frequent urination
  • pelvic or genital pain
  • sores or bumps around your genitals, anus, or mouth
  • atypical bleeding (bleeding other than menstruation)

The CDC recommends that people ages 13 to 64 get tested for HIV at least once a year as part of their routine health checkup.

The CDC also recommends that sexually active women younger than 25 years get tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia every year.

In addition, the CDC suggests that pregnant people get tested for syphilis, hepatitis B, and HIV early in their pregnancy.

Sexually active men who have sex with men may want to also get tested for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea annually.

If you experience symptoms at any time, don’t wait to get tested. The quicker you’re tested, the sooner you can begin treatment.

Most modern STD tests are very accurate. Still, test accuracy can vary, depending on the type of trial and the test detection method.

Traditional in-office tests are more accurate than fully online tests, and home-to-lab tests are more accurate than self-collected tests. But all are highly efficient.

While in-office STD tests may be considered the most reliable, the at-home test kits on our list also have a reputation for being accurate.

It’s important that you don’t rely on home testing in place of contacting your doctor if you have any possible symptoms of an STD or STI or have other important questions about your overall health.

Most insurance plans cover the cost of STD tests, as these tests are considered preventive and covered under the Affordable Care Act. But whether your plan covers a specific STD test depends on several factors, including your:

  • age
  • sex and gender
  • risk factors
  • pregnancy status

Also, the coverage of at-home tests varies.

To learn more about your specific options, talk with a nurse, a doctor, or your insurance company.

You can also find free or low cost STD testing sites across the country.

Testing for STDs and STIs regularly is important.

Testing can help prevent the transmission of STIs. It can also help you get the appropriate treatment if you have a viral, bacterial, or fungal infection, as many STDs and STIs can be treated or cured.

Contacting a doctor or other healthcare professional is generally the most reliable way to know whether you’ve contracted an STI or have an STD. But an at-home test is an excellent alternative. For many, an at-home test is a confidential and convenient option.


Kimberly Zapata is a mother, writer, and mental health advocate. Her work has appeared on several sites, including The Washington Post, HuffPost, Oprah, Vice, Parents, Health, and Scary Mommy — to name a few. When her nose isn’t buried in work (or a good book), Kimberly spends her free time running Greater Than: Illness, a nonprofit organization that aims to empower children and young adults working through mental health conditions. Follow Kimberly on Facebook or Twitter.

Kristeen Cherney is a freelance writer and PhD candidate who specializes in covering subjects related to mental disabilities, women’s health, skin health, diabetes, thyroid disease, asthma, and allergies. She’s also currently working on her dissertation, which explores intersections of disability studies and literacy studies. When she’s not researching or writing, Cherney enjoys getting outdoors as much as possible. She also practices yoga and kick-boxing.

Mon, 01 Jan 2024 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.healthline.com/health/at-home-std-test
Self-Esteem Test

Do you believe in yourself? Do you deliver yourself the credit you deserve? Self-esteem is an integral part of personal happiness, fulfilling relationships and achievement. This test is designed to evaluate your general level of self-esteem and determine whether you need to work on your self-image. Take this self-esteem test to find out your true sense of self.

Examine the following statements and indicate how often or to what degree you agree with them. In order to receive the most accurate results, please answer each question as honestly as possible.

After finishing this test you will receive a FREE snapshot report with a summary evaluation and graph. You will then have the option to purchase the full results for $6.95

This test is intended for informational and entertainment purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional diagnosis or for the treatment of any health condition. If you would like to seek the advice of a licensed mental health professional you can search Psychology Today's directory here.

Tue, 07 Mar 2017 01:10:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/tests/personality/self-esteem-test
Perfectionism Test

Are you obsessed with perfection? Do you constantly let yourself down, no matter how well you do? Do you expect too much from those around you? Even though we live in an imperfect world there are still many who are obsessed with making their lives absolutely perfect. However, if we leave no room for error, then no matter what challenge we take on, the end result will almost always be disappointment. The goal of this perfectionism test is to determine whether you have perfectionistic tendencies, to what degree, and in which areas of your life.

Examine the following statements and indicate which option best describes or applies to you. In order to obtain the most benefit from this test, please answer as honestly as possible.

After finishing this test you will receive a FREE snapshot report with a summary evaluation and graph. You will then have the option to purchase the full results for $6.95

This test is intended for informational and entertainment purposes only. It is not a substitute for professional diagnosis or for the treatment of any health condition. If you would like to seek the advice of a licensed mental health professional you can search Psychology Today's directory here.

Sun, 18 Jun 2023 04:53:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/tests/personality/perfectionism-test
Test Preparation Resources

Entry into most professional health schools requires students to perform well on Standardized Admission Tests.  Since standardized tests are a way of life in health care, you will want to develop the skills necessary to succeed on them over the course of your undergraduate degree. 

  • OAT (Optometry Admission Test)
  • DAT (Dental Admission Test)
  • MCAT (Medical College Admission Test -- also required by most podiatry schools)
  • GRE  (Graduate Record exam -- required by many PT, OT and PA programs.  Also required by most graduate schools).

Professional health schools also expect students to have a well-rounded understanding of current issues, research and ethics that are faced on a daily basis when working in the medical field.

The resources listed below will help you to prepare for admissions tests for professional health schools, and you may even find them useful in your current studies!

DAT

Dental

ADA (American Dental Association)

ADEA (American Dental Education Association)

DAT Practice Tests

DAT Guide

MCAT

Allopathic Medicine, Osteopathic Medicine, Podiatric Medicine, and accepted (but not required) by some Physician Assistant Programs

AAMC Association of American Medical Colleges Practice Materials

AC Online MCAT Prep and Success for Medical Students

MCAT Khan Academy Study Materials

OAT

Optometry

Optometry Admission Test Information

GRE

Physical Therapy, some Occupational Therapy programs, and many Physician Assistant Programs

GRE Free Test Prep

GRE Online Guide

CASPer

A situational judgment test that is increasingly used by Physician Assistant programs (sometimes in place of the GRE); Used by other professional health programs in the secondary phase of applications

CASPer Test Prep


To make an advising appointment, click HERE.

Tue, 15 Sep 2020 15:28:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.uwyo.edu/preprof/apply-to-professional-school/test-preparation-resources.html
Teachers Test Prep Partnership

ECP RD - 760x285 BT roundtable 1

Santa Clara University's Center for Professional Development is committed to providing our students with an exceptional level of support, and we understand that passing certification exams is a crucial step in the path to becoming a teacher. That’s why we’re pleased to partner with Teachers Test Prep, the nationwide leader in credentialing exam preparation, to provide our eligible students with Core Plus Online Prep for the Praxis, CSET, CBEST, RICA, and CPACE, at a 40% discount off of the regular test prep materials price.

To get started, please contact cpd@scu.edu to request that an account be created on your behalf, so that you may utilize free practice tests and diagnostics to determine if you are in need of prep. Once you complete your free practice test, you will receive an instant diagnostic breakdown. If your likelihood of passing is borderline or below, we will purchase the corresponding online prep program for you at a discounted price.

PLEASE NOTE: If you do not contact us and instead purchase prep directly on your own, we are unable to reimburse for costs.

To learn more about the prep resources available and to see general info about the exams, visit the PraxisCSETCBESTRICA, and CPACE test info pages on the Teachers Test Prep website.

If you have questions or are interested in purchasing a test prep package, please contact cpd@scu.edu.

Wed, 21 Mar 2018 18:23:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.scu.edu/ecp/center-for-professional-development/credprep/
Test Anxiety

An animated video about test anxiety that highlights the importance of mindfulness and writing practices to loosen worries from your mind to help boost your grade!

Meditation Music by Anatolie Antoniu & Marin Nicoarã | Graphic Animation by Koyote Sundance Meiners-Rios | Video & Audio by Thomas Molash

Practices to Decrease Test Anxiety

Write it Out!

  • Write it Out Audio (7:38)
  • Get rid of worries before the exam - A guided practice that clears out worries from the mind; research shows it has increased test performance by at least 5 points.

Walk Off Your Stress

  • Walk Off your Stress Audio (11:50)
  • Mindful walking helps to distract you from worrying and increase well-being as you are more present in the world around you rather than up in your head worrying about stuff that usually doesn’t happen.

Catch Your Breath

  • Catch Your Breath Audio (9:34)
  • This practice helps decrease the stress response so you can think more clearly and do better on your exam.

5 Minute Meditation

  • 5 Minute Meditation (7:20)
  • Research says 5 minutes of deep breathing will boost your exam scores, so chill out for a few minutes using this practice.

Find a Comfortable Rhythm

  • Find a Comfortable Rhythm Audio (6:10)
  • Paced breathing helps to distract the mind from worries, freeing up space in the brain to think about more important stuff.
Sat, 14 Apr 2018 12:05:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.northwestern.edu/breathe/test-anxiety/
The Purdue Civics Knowledge Test

“I know of no safe depository of the ultimate powers of the society but the people themselves; and if we think them not enlightened enough to exercise their control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to take it from them, but to inform their discretion.”

[1] -Thomas Jefferson - 1820

Introduction and Background

As Jefferson’s quote implies, a constitutional republic, such as the United States of America, requires informed, effective, and responsible citizens. Indeed, it has been said that ‘democracy is not a machine that will go of itself” and therefore requires each generation of citizens to develop, and employ, a certain level of civic knowledge in order to sustain it. Defining and developing such civic knowledge—that is, the effective preparation of citizens to fulfill their responsibilities to sustain and enhance self-government--is an essential condition for our representative government to survive.

Unfortunately, the civic literacy of Americans has been a concern for over 75 years.  For example, national surveys of college freshman in the 1940s revealed a “striking ignorance” of even the most basic civic knowledge (Fine, 1943, p. 1).”  In 2019, the Woodrow Wilson Foundation surveyed 41,000 Americans using 20 questions drawn from the USCIS Naturalization Panel.  The results “validated what studies have shown for a century: Americans don’t possess the history knowledge they need to be informed and engaged citizens…. (Wilson Foundation, n.p. 2019)”

Additional support for this trend comes from the Congressionally mandated National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).  This assessment measures American K-12 students’ progress in a number of subjects, including civics, every four years.  Results of the most latest Grade 12 NAEP-Civics assessment indicated that only 24 percent of 12 th graders scored at the ‘proficient’ level or above and that 36 percent scored below even a ‘basic’ level of civic literacy.

Civics Knowledge

In order to assess student progress, sophisticated frameworks identifying and detailing key civics concepts have been created.  For example, the most latest NAEP-Civics assessment framework was developed by a panel of more than two dozen experts in civics and civic education. [2]   These authors of the NAEP-Civics Framework determined that essential civic knowledge consisted of answers to questions such as:

  • What are civic life, politics, and government?
  • What are the foundations of the American political system?
  • How does the government established by the Constitution embody the purposes, values, and principles of American democracy?
  • What is the relationship of the United States to other nations and to world affairs?
  • What are the roles of citizens in American democracy?

The National Standards for Civics and Government—developed by the Center for Civic Education (2003) [3] — provides another key reference point for determining key civics concepts.  The authors of this framework extended their document to stress that educational institutions have a responsibility “to prepare informed, rational, humane, and participating citizens committed to the values and principles of American constitutional democracy (page v).

The Purdue Civics Test

As an educational institution, Purdue University recognizes its responsibility to prepare informed citizens who value the principles of American democracy.  The creation of a civics literacy requirement is in-line with that responsibility. The development of the Purdue Civics Knowledge Test is part of the overall literacy plan.  The purpose of the test is  to measure undergraduate students’ mastery of the basic civics concepts and principles underlying the system of government in the United States.  This includes an awareness of their rights and responsibilities, as well as the source of those rights and responsibilities.  Students should also know the structure and function of the government as described in the U.S. Constitution, and the role citizens play in the political and social life of the country.  Finally, students should be familiar with the origin and contents of significant documents and events that have shaped the United States

“Citizenship—commitment to and participation in a community’s civic life—is the engine of constitutional democracy and a free society. Knowledge of the rights, responsibilities, and privileges of citizenship fuel that engine. Without the participation of informed, effective, and responsible citizens, a democratic republic cannot and does not function, nor can it make progress toward its ideals (NAEP Governing Board, p. 1, 2014).

Although it is hoped that civics knowledge will be related to active participation in civic life, the Purdue Civics Knowledge Test is focused directly on assessing student knowledge of key civics principles, facts, and government structures.  It does not try to assess student behavior or beliefs.

Developing the Test

The development of any standardized test should follow clear, well-documented procedures consistent with professional test development practices.  The first step is establishing a clear purpose for the test.  The purpose of the Purdue Civics Knowledge Test was outlined above.  The next steps include (1) identifying eligible content, (2) establishing detailed test specifications, (3) developing items aligned to the targeted content, (4) providing for expert review of test items for content accuracy and freedom from bias, (5) field-testing items, (6) completing the psychometric analysis of field-test data, and (7) creating final test forms. [4]   The development of the Purdue Civics Knowledge Test included attention to each of these steps.

Defining Eligible Content .  The test development team referenced multiple sources to identify eligible content.  The three most significant sources were (1) the National Standards for Civics and Government produced by the Center for Civic Education (2003), (2) The National Assessment of Educational Progress Framework: Civics (2018), and
(3) test items from the Naturalization Test for United States Citizenship managed by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). [5] In addition, released items from the AP US History and AP US Government tests were also referenced.  As a result, the working group identified five broad constructs that defined eligible civic knowledge content for the test:

  • Civic life, politics and government,
  • Foundations of the American political system,
  • How the government established by the constitution embodies the purposes, values and principles of American democracy,
  • Roles of citizens in American democracy, and
  • Important individuals and events in the history of the United States  

Establishing Test Specifications .  Using these sources, and these constructs, a test blueprint was developed to define the range and balance of eligible test content within a civics knowledge test form.  The blueprint also set targets for the cognitive complexity of the final item pool and became a reference point for the development of assessment support materials including the development of study guides and practice tests. The final test blueprint identified five critical civic knowledge dimensions and the specific content standards to be assessed within each dimension.  The test blueprint is contained in List 1.

List 1. Test Blueprint

  1. Civic Life, Politics, and Government - 11%
    1. Distinguish between civic life and private life - 2%
    2. Identify ways people are represented in government - 3%
    3. Define limited government and rule of law - 3%
    4. Know the purpose of a constitution - 3%
  2. Foundations of the American Political System - 26%
    1. Identify the historical events and documents that led to the Constitution of the United States - 3%
    2. Identify distinctive characteristics of American society (e.g., absence of nobility, religious freedom, history of slavery, etc.) - 2%
    3. Identify distinctive characteristics of American federalism (i.e., overlapping powers at the local, state, and federal levels) - 5%
    4. Identify the different ways the Constitution can be amended and the types and number of amendments that have been added to the Constitution. - 4%
    5. Identify how the idea of natural rights is critical to the Constitution of the United States.
    6. Identify separated and shared powers. - 4%
    7. Recognize the values and principles of American constitutional democracy - 3%
  3. How the Government Established by the Constitution Embodies the Purposes, Values, and Principles of American Democracy - 30%
    1. Identify how the Constitution of the United States distributed and limited government powers among levels, branches, and agencies - 6%
    2. Identify the main branches of local, state and national government - 4%
    3. Recognize how checks and balances influence the making and enforcing of laws - 7%
    4. Identify examples of the rule of law 4%
    5. Identify the role of political parties in the United States - 4%
    6. Identify the role of the free press - 5%
  4. The Role of Citizens in American Democracy - 19%
    1. Identify constitutional amendments regarding citizenship and participation of citizens in politics (ex. 14th, 15th, 19th and 26th Amendment) - 5%
    2. Identify personal, political, and economic rights of citizens - 9%
    3. Identify ways that citizens take part in civic life - 5%
  5. Important Individuals and Events in the History of the United States  - 14%
    1. Recognize the contributions of diverse groups to the political and social development of the United States - 6%
    2. Identify the causes of the American Revolution - 4%
    3. Identify the causes of the Civil War - 4%

Item Development . A team of professional item writers developed well-written items clearly aligned to the targeted learning standard.  Items for the civics knowledge test were either adapted from existing sources (e.g., USCIS Naturalization test items, 12 th grade NAEP history and civics items, released civics items from large-scale state testing programs) or were new items written specifically for the Purdue Civics Knowledge Test.

Expert Review of Item Content and Bias and Sensitivity Review .  The pool of potential items was reviewed for both content accuracy and to ensure the items were free of potential bias and sensitivity issues. [6]   Items were reviewed by expert faculty, and items were edited or eliminated based on this review.  Over 175 new items passed the review process.

The Purdue University item review team included:

  • David Atkinson, Ph.D., Associate Professor, History Faculty
  • Kathryn Cramer-Brownell, Ph.D., Associate Professor, History Faculty
  • James McCann, Ph.D., Professor, Political Science Faculty
  • Christopher Munt, Ph.D., Director of Inclusive Excellence, College of Liberal Arts
  • Yvonne Pitts, Ph.D., Associate Professor, History Faculty
  • Phillip VanFossen, Ph.D., J. F. Ackerman Professor of Social Studies Education
  • Eric Waltenburg, Ph.D., Professor, Political Science Faculty
  • Peter Watkins, Ph.D. Visiting Professor, Political Science

The wordings of the test items were further subjected to a separate bias review by the Purdue University Division of Diversity and Inclusion

Simultaneous with these reviews and subsequent psychometric analysis, Purdue Libraries, under the direction of Professor Zoe Mayhook, created a resource page to provide background information for students preparing for the test.

Field-Testing the Items .  The test development team built four 50-item field test forms.  Each form included a core of 19 common items, and an additional set of 31 unique items.  This design allowed statistical analyses to place all items on a common underlying difficulty scale.  The forms were administered to samples of Purdue undergraduate students in March-April, 2021.

The test was administered through the Brightspace learning management system, with students self-pacing outside of a conventional classroom setting.

The students who took a version of the field test were recruited through a random trial of all undergraduates and two more specialized samples: undergraduates enrolled in political science courses in the Spring-21 term; and international students. In total, 355 students took part in this field test.

Psychometric Analysis of Field Test Data .  Item response data collected during the field test were used to establish the psychometric properties of the items and test forms. Each of the test items was analyzed to gauge its difficulty and functioning. The full battery of items was further assessed to confirm the high reliability of the instrument, and student performance was compared across the different forms and samples to explore the overall fairness of the test.

Establishing Final Test Forms .  The results of the psychometric analyses guided the development of three distinct, parallel, and equivalent 50-item test forms.  The evidence collected during the development process establishing the validity, reliability, and fairness of the final test forms will be summarized in a final technical manual.  

Based on the results of the field test, the decision was made to place the passing mark at 80%. 

[1] Letter to William Charles Jarvis, 28 September 1820; The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Memorial Edition, Lipscomb and Bergh, eds., vol. 15 (278). More information.

[2] Civics Framework for the 2018 National Assessment of Educational Progress (2018).  More information.

[3] Center for Civic Education (2003). National Standards for Civics and Government. Calabasas, CA.  More information.

[4] American Educational Research Association., American Psychological Association., National Council on Measurement in Education., & Joint Committee on Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (U.S.). (2014). Standards for educational and psychological testing.

[5] More information

[6] The development process and plans were also submitted for IRB review and approval.  This will allow data from the field test data to be presented outside of the immediate working group.

Sat, 22 Jan 2022 11:52:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.purdue.edu/provost/about/provostInitiatives/civics/test-guide.html
4 Best At-Home Testosterone Test Kits in 2024

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Our pick for best overall at-home testosterone test kit goes to LetsGetChecked, but Verisana gets the nod for most affordable. See how the others stack up according to usability and results.

*Prices accurate as of January 2024

You may be tempted to test your testosterone levels using an at-home test kit you’ve seen advertised. Before you try a test kit, make sure you know:

  • how it works
  • how reliable it is
  • what information it will deliver you
  • what to do with your results

We dig deep into the ratings, reviews, accreditations, and business practices of each of the brands listed in this article to ensure they meet industry standards and our high quality standards.

We always check each brand’s medical claims for accuracy and trustworthiness to ensure the products we recommend are safe and effective for you.

For these at-home testosterone test kits, in particular, we made sure the tests produce accurate results and the companies provide assistance after your results are delivered to you.

Testosterone is a sex hormone produced in the testicles and ovaries. Production of testosterone ramps up during puberty and begins to gradually decline in adulthood.

It’s often considered the “male” sex hormone, but people of all sexes and genders produce testosterone. People assigned male at birth (AMAB) produce more testosterone than people assigned female at birth (AFAB), though.

Your body uses testosterone for many purposes, including:

  • development and function of reproductive organs, including the penis, testicles, and ovaries
  • voice deepening during puberty
  • development of facial hair and body hair as well as the progression of balding later in life
  • development, growth, and strength of bones
  • muscle mass and body fat distribution
  • sex drive (libido)
  • production of sperm
  • production of red blood cells

Testosterone levels may also play a role in regulating your mood and supporting cognitive function, though research is still inconclusive on exactly how this works. A decrease in testosterone levels is a normal part of aging for people assigned male at birth, especially after age 30.

When your testosterone levels are too high (hypergonadism) or too low (hypogonadism), you may experience uncomfortable symptoms. A blood or saliva test can check the amount of testosterone your body is making.

In males, testosterone levels should generally fall between 300–1,000 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL), or 10–35 nanomoles per liter (nmol/L).

In females, the testosterone levels produced in the ovaries are quite low, between 15–46 ng/dL.

You may need to check your testosterone levels if you’re experiencing any symptoms associated with low T, regardless of your age or sex.

Keeping an eye on your testosterone levels is important for transgender men and transmasculine people using masculinizing HRT, also known as female-to-male testosterone therapy or simply T therapy.

Before you start T therapy, a healthcare professional will need to check your base levels of the sex hormones testosterone and estrogen so you can take an appropriate dose of T to achieve the level of masculinization you want.

Current guidelines suggest getting your levels checked every 3 months for the first year that you’re on HRT and every 6–12 months afterward.

Monitoring your testosterone levels is important because taking too much testosterone can have adverse effects like metabolic problems, while doses that are too low may induce a hypogonadism-like state and could cause significant losses in bone density.

Not to mention, if your testosterone levels aren’t high enough, you may not experience the masculinization you desire or you may notice changes happening very slowly.

Remember, though, that it can take several years for the maximum effects of T therapy to develop. Plus, not everyone taking T will experience the same effects — everybody is different!

If you’re taking an at-home testosterone test, the type of collection method used to test testosterone levels may vary. Different types of collection methods may include blood samples, urine samples, or saliva samples.

Testosterone levels vary throughout the day and are highest in the morning. For this reason, your test instructions may say that you should collect samples between 7:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m.

A blood test for testosterone can tell a healthcare professional how much free testosterone is circulating in your blood. It can also show the total amount of the hormone in your body.

One study from 2016 suggests that measuring free testosterone is a better way to diagnose hypogonadism accurately.

Remember that many factors can affect total testosterone levels, and high or low levels do not necessarily indicate a clinical problem.

Some factors that could lead to decreases in T levels might include:

  • your age
  • your weight
  • disorders of the testicles, pituitary gland, or brain
  • use of medications, especially anticonvulsants
  • use of tobacco, alcohol, or caffeine
  • liver disease
  • hyperthyroidism
  • type 2 diabetes
  • sleep apnea
  • chronic narcotic use, like heroin or methadone

According to 2015 research, low testosterone may affect about 10% of men over age 30, and up to 40% of men over age 70.

Low T levels may cause different symptoms depending on your age, your sex assigned at birth, and whether you’re undergoing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) as part of a gender transition.

In adults assigned male at birth (AMAB)

If you’re AMAB and you aren’t intentionally modifying your hormone levels, symptoms of low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) may include:

  • erectile dysfunction
  • lowered sex drive
  • low semen volume
  • smaller testicle size
  • anemia or low blood counts
  • decreased muscle or bone mass
  • increased body fat, especially around the breasts
  • decreased body or facial hair
  • fatigue
  • hot flashes
  • trouble concentrating, depression, or other mood or cognitive changes

Consider talking with a healthcare professional if you experience any of these symptoms and suspect that you may have low or decreased testosterone. Low T can be a normal part of aging, but drastic or rapid changes could indicate a health condition that may need treatment.

In adults assigned female at birth (AFAB)

For AFAB adults who aren’t intentionally modifying their hormone levels, research is limited to what low testosterone feels like. There also isn’t a set guideline for what constitutes low T in this population.

Some symptoms, which are largely attributed to low estrogen levels, may include:

  • fatigue or sluggishness
  • menstrual irregularities
  • vaginal dryness
  • loss of bone density
  • lowered sex drive
  • trouble sleeping
  • problems with fertility
  • unintentional weight gain
  • mood changes, including depression

Consider talking with a healthcare professional if you experience any of these symptoms and suspect that you may have low or decreased testosterone. Again, since the research is limited on low testosterone levels for AFAB adults, the symptoms could vary from those listed above.

The onset of menopause, dysfunction of the pituitary or adrenal glands, or problems with ovarian health could be causing your hormone levels to shift, and you may need to seek treatment or support managing symptoms.

At-home testosterone tests allow you to collect your own trial and ship it back to a lab for evaluation. These test kits require you to collect either saliva or blood, and they come with everything you need to return your trial safely and securely.

Testosterone tests, in general, track the amount of free testosterone present in the trial provided. This can help deliver you a better overall idea of your testosterone levels.

Blood test kits will come with a pinprick mechanism that can break the skin on your finger and allow a small amount of blood to flow.

The kit also comes with a collection vial, a biohazard/specimen bag, and a return envelope or a separate shipping label. You’ll want to collect the required amount of blood in the included vial, complete any required forms or trial labeling, and securely return your test.

Make sure to read through the instructions and take any necessary precautions to ensure that you don’t accidentally damage or taint your blood sample. This could potentially skew your results.

Saliva test kits are very similar to blood test kits in how you collect, label, and ship your sample. The advantage of a saliva test is that it doesn’t require a finger pinprick, which is good news for those who are uncomfortable with needles.

However, the effectiveness of testing saliva over blood is up for discussion. A 2013 study found that saliva test results were fairly accurate and reliable for testing testosterone levels.

However, research from 2014 found that saliva tests were less accurate than blood samples because free testosterone could bind with saliva proteins and ultimately skew the results.

If you want to test your T levels, in general, a saliva or blood test is a good option for you. But, if you or your doctor need results that are as accurate as possible, a blood test may be your best bet.

Of course, there’s no substitute for getting tests done in person at a certified lab. This can help reduce the risk of any errors in the trial collection and evaluation process.

If you decide to measure your testosterone levels with a home kit, you should be prepared to take any necessary next steps. The laboratory results should come with an explanation of your measured testosterone level.

If your level is considered average, but you still have symptoms that concern you, it’s a good idea to talk with a healthcare professional like a doctor or endocrinologist.

If your results come back as lower than average, make an appointment to see a doctor before trying any home remedies. Over-the-counter testosterone supplements aren’t approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and could carry a risk of side effects, especially if you’re taking other medications.

Plus, at-home test kits aren’t likely as accurate as in-office lab tests. A doctor may want to double-check your levels before recommending any treatment.

Not to mention, low T can sometimes be a sign of a serious underlying medical condition. It’s important to work with a professional to rule out or treat any conditions.

It’s important to choose a home testosterone kit produced by a reputable brand that delivers results on a timeline that works for you.

You might also want to think about costs, collection methods, and whether the brand connects you with healthcare professionals to go over your results. Some other qualities to look out for are:

  • Results delivery time: Some at-home testosterone kits take longer to return your results than others. If you’re experiencing uncomfortable symptoms that could be associated with low T, you may want to spring for a kit that offers faster results.
  • Collection methods: Testosterone levels can be tested by your saliva or your blood. While blood tests are considered more reliable, most people have an easier time collecting saliva samples. Be sure to think through which method you’d prefer.
  • Access to support: Some companies connect you with in-house healthcare professionals, who can help you decipher your test results and talk over next steps if your levels are out of the normal range. Ask yourself how confident you are in your ability to understand your results and determine whether this kind of support is important to you.
  • Affordability: The at-home testosterone kits on our list range from $49 to more than $200. Most insurance plans won’t cover these kits, so be sure to keep that in mind as you consider your budget.
  • Brand integrity: When submitting your trial for analysis, you’re trusting the lab with potentially sensitive health information. It’s important to choose a brand that you feel will respect your privacy. It may be a good idea to read reviews from real consumers before selecting a testosterone kit.

Testosterone levels must be checked more than once to gain a complete understanding of your levels, according to the Endocrine Society.

Make an appointment with a healthcare professional if your test results show low testosterone or if you’re experiencing symptoms of low T. They’ll probably want to check again using a more reliable method to be sure.

You may need to check your testosterone levels if you’re experiencing any symptoms associated with low T, regardless of your age or sex assigned at birth.

Keeping an eye on your testosterone levels is also important for transgender men and transmasculine people who are using hormone replacement therapy as part of their transition.

Trans folks should check their levels every 3 months for the first year that they’re on HRT and every 6–12 months afterward.

Before you rely on the results of a testosterone home test kit, you should be aware of the accuracy of salivary testing versus blood testing.

Testing saliva is easier and less invasive than drawing blood. Still, testosterone in saliva samples can be affected by how they’re collected and stored, so researchers are interested in whether this method is reliable.

The results and expert opinions are mixed.

Some studies and reviews suggest that saliva testing is preferable because it’s less stressful for the patient. A 2016 study concluded that saliva is a reliable method to determine testosterone levels.

But there has not been enough analysis of commercial home testing kits. Whether they deliver accurate, reliable, and unvarying results has not been confirmed.

Health insurance plans don’t generally cover at-home tests. Most insurers prefer that you undergo laboratory testing in a doctor’s office if you have symptoms of low T.

However, you may be able to pay using a Flexible Spending Account (FSA) or Health Savings Account (HSA). You can also check with your insurance provider to see if you’re eligible for reimbursement.

Research into at-home testosterone kits is lacking. It’s unclear how accurate they are compared with tests ordered by a doctor in a lab.

However, it’s safe to say that an in-office testosterone test will be less subject to human error. Doctors, especially endocrinologists, are trained in collecting and handling samples properly.

Plus, if you discuss the results of an at-home testosterone kit with a healthcare professional, chances are they’ll want to double-check your levels via a professional test anyway.

While at-home kits can provide a good baseline for starting a conversation with a professional, doctor-administered tests are likely more accurate.

Many factors go into choosing an at-home test, such as:

  • Would you rather avoid a finger prick?
  • Do you have a budget?
  • Are you on a time crunch?

You may also want to look at reviews to see if other people have found that certain brands provide better accuracy than others.

Also, certain brands may not be able to deliver results to certain states, so make sure you live in a state where the results of at-home kits can eventually be sent to you.

Having low testosterone levels may be a regular part of the aging process. But you may also have a condition that’s causing your levels to drop.

While at-home kits may provide some insight into your levels, the best solution is to work with a healthcare professional that you trust to get an accurate diagnosis and learn about your treatment options.

Sun, 31 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.healthline.com/health/testosterone-test-kits
America’s Test Kitchen: Whether you want to splurge or save, here’s how to make a cocktail that sparkles

We started our Champagne cocktail with an Angostura bitters-soaked sugar cube in the bottom of a chilled flute. Then we filled the glass with Champagne and garnished it with a lemon twist. These four ingredients interacted to form a cocktail that evolved from sip to sip.

Bursting bubbles aromatized lemon oils from the twist to make the first sip bright and citrusy. Then the Champagne’s flavors and aromas took over, with whispers of warm spices and orange hinting at what was to come. As the sugar cube dissolved, it created a bitters-infused syrup. Because this syrup was denser than the wine, it stayed at the bottom of the flute.

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The final sips delivered the flavors of the Angostura and balanced the bitters with the wine’s acidity and the sugar’s sweetness.

Champagne Cocktail

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Makes 1 cocktail

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1 sugar cube

1/4 teaspoon Angostura bitters

5 1/2 fluid ounces (1/2 cup plus 3 tablespoons) Champagne, chilled

1 lemon twist

1. Place sugar cube in a small bowl. Add bitters to the sugar cube. Transfer soaked sugar cube to a chilled champagne flute. Add Champagne and garnish with lemon twist. Serve.

(For 25 years, home cooks have relied on America’s Test Kitchen for rigorously tested recipes developed by professional test cooks and vetted by 60,000 at-home recipe testers. The family of brands — which includes Cook’s Illustrated and Cook’s Country — offers reliable recipes for cooks of all skill levels. See more online at www.americastestkitchen.com/TCA.)

©2023 America’s Test Kitchen. Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC.

Tue, 26 Dec 2023 16:00:00 -0600 en-US text/html https://www.chicagotribune.com/dining/recipes/ct-americas-test-kitchen-cocktail-that-sparkles-20231227-7hvm2qusajd4hd73246tucw3wi-story.html




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