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DAT Dental Admission Test techniques |

DAT techniques - Dental Admission Test Updated: 2024

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Exam Code: DAT Dental Admission Test techniques January 2024 by team

DAT Dental Admission Test

Test Detail:
The Dental Admission Test (DAT) is a standardized test administered by the American Dental Association (ADA). It is designed to assess the academic readiness and scientific knowledge of prospective dental school applicants. Below is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, test objectives, and test syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The DAT consists of four sections, and the number of questions and time allocation for each section are as follows:

1. Survey of Natural Sciences:
- Biology: 100 questions (90 minutes)
- General Chemistry: 100 questions (90 minutes)
- Organic Chemistry: 100 questions (90 minutes)

2. Perceptual Ability Test (PAT):
- 90 questions (60 minutes)

3. memorizing Comprehension Test (RC):
- 50 questions (60 minutes)

4. Quantitative Reasoning (QR):
- 40 questions (45 minutes)

The total testing time for the DAT is approximately 4.5 hours, including optional breaks.

Course Outline:
The DAT covers various subject areas that are essential for success in dental education. The test content typically includes the following key areas:

1. Survey of Natural Sciences:
- Biology: Cellular and molecular biology, anatomy and physiology, genetics, microbiology, and ecology.
- General Chemistry: Atomic structure, chemical bonding, stoichiometry, thermodynamics, and chemical equilibrium.
- Organic Chemistry: Structure and properties of organic compounds, reaction mechanisms, stereochemistry, and functional groups.

2. Perceptual Ability Test (PAT):
- Keyhole: Visualizing 3D objects from different perspectives.
- Top-Front-End: Analyzing 2D representations of 3D objects.
- Angle Ranking: Evaluating angles and their relationships.
- Hole Punching: Determining the resulting pattern after hole punches in a paper.
- Cube Counting: Counting visible cubes in a 3D structure.
- Pattern Folding: Visualizing 3D objects after folding patterns.

3. memorizing Comprehension Test (RC):
- memorizing and understanding passages related to scientific topics.
- Analyzing main ideas, supporting details, and author's tone.
- Making inferences and drawing conclusions from the text.

4. Quantitative Reasoning (QR):
- Arithmetic: Basic mathematical operations, percentages, ratios, and proportions.
- Algebra: Equations, inequalities, exponents, logarithms, and quadratic equations.
- Geometry: Geometric shapes, angles, lines, circles, and triangles.
- Data Analysis: Interpretation of graphs, charts, and tables.

Exam Objectives:
The DAT aims to assess the academic readiness and scientific knowledge necessary for success in dental school. The key objectives of the test include:

1. Evaluating Scientific Knowledge: Assessing the candidate's understanding of biological and physical sciences relevant to dentistry, including biology, general chemistry, and organic chemistry.

2. Testing Perceptual and Spatial Abilities: Evaluating the candidate's ability to interpret visual information and manipulate 3D objects, which are essential skills in dentistry.

3. Assessing memorizing Comprehension Skills: Testing the candidate's ability to read and comprehend scientific passages, extract relevant information, and draw accurate conclusions.

4. Evaluating Quantitative Reasoning Skills: Assessing the candidate's mathematical proficiency, including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and data analysis, which are necessary for problem-solving in dentistry.

Exam Syllabus:
The DAT syllabus covers a broad range of subjects in biology, general chemistry, organic chemistry, perceptual ability, memorizing comprehension, and quantitative reasoning. It is designed to reflect the knowledge and skills required for dental school. The specific content and emphasis may

vary slightly across different versions of the exam. It is advisable to consult official DAT study guides and resources provided by the ADA for accurate and up-to-date information on the test syllabus.

Candidates should also familiarize themselves with the specific requirements and scoring criteria set by dental schools they are applying to. It is recommended to allocate sufficient time for thorough preparation, including reviewing relevant scientific concepts, practicing problem-solving techniques, and developing memorizing comprehension and perceptual ability skills.
Dental Admission Test
Medical Admission techniques

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Dental Admission Test
Question: 94
What is the median for the numbers 89, 87, 94, 82, 89, 91, 95, 88, 90, 87, 92 and
A. 87 and 89
B. 89.5
C. 93
D. 89.75
Answer: B
The median of the number set above is 89.5. The median is the number that falls
in the middle of the set when the numbers are ordered by numeric value (least to
greatest). The set above should be ordered as follows: 82, 87, 87, 88, 89, 89, 90,
91, 92, 93, 94, 95. When there is an even number of entrants in the set, the middle
two numbers should be averaged together to find the median. This sequence has
12 numbers and the middle two are 89 and 90, which equal 89.5 when averaged.
Question: 95
What is the mode for the numbers 34, 62, 58, 49, 37, 85, 22, 44, 37 and 52?
A. 48
B. 46.5
C. 61
D. 37
Answer: D
The mode for the number set above is 37. It is the number that occurs most
frequently in a number set. 37 occurs twice, while all of the other numbers occur
once. The order of the numbers is not relevant nor is the number of entrants in the
Question: 96
What is the median for the following set of numbers? 15, 62, 47, 33, 89, 4, 76, 40,
A. 28
B. 46.7
C. 47
D. 39.2
Answer: C
The median or the middle number when the numbers are in ascending order (4,
15, 33, 40, 47, 54, 62, 76, 89) for the number set above is 47. The mean is about
46.7. There is no mode because each number occurs only one time in the set.
Question: 97
To find the percentage (p) of any number (n), which formula can be used?
A. ( p x 100) n
B. ( p p x x n n ) 100 ) 100
C. 100 - ( p p x x n n ) )
D. ( n n x 100) x 100) p p
Answer: B
To find the percentage of any number, such as 42% of 677, for example, multiply
the percentage in its whole value by the number, then divide the product by 100.
(42 x 677) 100 = 284.34.
Question: 98
People who score in the 95th percentile on an exam:
A. Earned a score of 95 on the test
B. Scored as well or better than 95% of the people who took the same exam
C. Scored in the top 95% of test takers
D. Answered 95% of the questions correctly
Answer: B
A test taker who scores in the 95th percentile scored as well or better than 95% of
the people who took the exam. It is a comparative measure of success that has
nothing to do with the number of questions on the exam, the number of correct
responses given or the score of the test in a 1 to 100 grading scheme. Early
education exams are typically evaluated solely on this measure. Secondary school,
higher education and professional exams vary in their emphasis on this method,
but most report comparative percentile scores as a frame of reference.
Question: 99
What is the outlier in the following set: 11, 22, 33, 44, 55, 112, 23, 34 and 45?
A. 55
B. 11
C. 112
D. There is no outlier.
Answer: C
The outlier is 112. An outlier is any number that is widely divergent from the rest
of a data set, and it can be deduced logically, in many cases. It can be found
arithmetically as well. An outlier is usually any number that is more than two
standard deviations from the mean. The mean of the number set is about 42
(42.11). The standard deviation for the set is about 29.5. 42 + 29.5 + 29.5 = 101;
therefore, any number greater than 101 is an outlier in this set. 101 < 112,
therefore 112 is an outlier.
Question: 100
If Martin invests $20,000 for 20 years and his investment earns 20% interest
compounding quarterly, what will it be worth at the end of his investment period?
A. $991,228.82
B. $120,000.00
C. $244,529.20
D. $424,872.36
Answer: A
A $20,000 investment that earns 20% interest compounded quarterly would be
worth $991,228.82 at the end of a 20-year investment period. The equation for
compound interest is A = P(1 + r/n)nt in which A is the amount including interest,
P is the principle investment, r is the interest rate expressed in decimal form
(0.12), n is the number of times interest is added per year, and t is the number of
years for which the principal is invested. A = $20,000(1+.2/4)80. = $991,228.82.
Question: 101
The division of your company that you oversee contains 18 employees whose
total salary last year was $855,000. The average salary of all company employees
with the same level of responsibility and qualifications is $50,000. Is your
department above or below the company average?
A. Below by 20%
B. Above by 10%
C. Below by 5%
D. Above by 15%
Answer: C
The average salary of a worker in your department is $47,500, which is 5% below
the company average. Divide your workers' total salary by the number of workers.
There is a $2,500 difference between the average salary in your division and the
company's average. $2,500 is 5% of $50,000.
Question: 102
Using data to predict what might occur in the future, beyond what the data set has
explicitly demonstrated, is called:
A. Variable anticipation
B. The futures market
C. Predicate analysis
D. Extrapolation
Answer: D
Extrapolation is the use of recorded data to predict events in similar groups or in
the future. For example, if annual standardized test scores decreased in Alabama,
Georgia and Louisiana, that data could be used to extrapolate (or predict) that
annual standardized test scores also decreased in Mississippi.
Question: 103
In a game, one card is drawn from a complete deck of playing cards without
jokers. If the card is a club or a queen, the gambler wins double his bet.
Otherwise, the dealer keeps the money. How much better are the dealer's odds in
this game?
A. 50% better
B. 38% better
C. 32% better
D. 44% better
Answer: B
In a game where the dealer keeps a gambler's wager if he draws any card but a
club or queen, his odds are 38% better than the gambler's of winning the money.
There are 52 cards in a deck and 13 cards in each suit, including clubs. There are
four queens in each deck, but the queen of clubs has already been counted, so
only the queens of hearts, diamonds and spades count toward the gambler's list of
winning cards. Therefore, the gambler needs one of 16 cards to be pulled in order
to win, which make his odds of winning 31%. If his odds are 31%, the gambler's
odds are the far superior 69%, which is better by 38%.
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Medical Admission techniques - BingNews Search results Medical Admission techniques - BingNews Requirements and Standards

1.0 Introduction

The Liaison Committee on Medical Education (L.C.M.E.) stipulates that the school must develop standards for both objective and subjective criteria used for screening, selection, and admission of applications to the medical education program.

L.C.M.E. Standard 10.3 Policies Regarding Student Selection/Progress and Their Dissemination
The faculty of a medical school establish criteria for student selection and develop and implement effective policies and procedures regarding, and make decisions about, medical student application, selection, admission, assessment, promotion, graduation, and any disciplinary action. The medical school makes available to all interested parties its criteria, standards, policies, and procedures regarding these matters.

L.C.M.E. Standard 10.4 Characteristics of Accepted Applicants
A medical school selects applicants for admission who possess the intelligence, integrity, and personal and emotional characteristics necessary for them to become competent physicians.

L.C.M.E. Standard 10.5 Technical Standards
A medical school develops and publishes technical standards for the admission, retention, and graduation of applicants or medical students in accordance with legal requirements.

2.0 Purpose

The goal of the admissions, retention, and graduation policy is to establish admissions requirements for the selection of students to the Saint Louis University School of Medicine.

3.0 Scope

The Saint Louis University School of Medicine (SLUSOM) utilizes a variety of strategies to consider and evaluate potential applicants to medical school for admissions, academic and professional progress, and graduation.

4.0 Definitions

Technical standards for the admission, retention, and graduation of applicants or medical students: This policy represents a statement by the medical school of the: 1) essential academic and non-academic abilities, attributes, and characteristics in the areas of intellectual-conceptual, integrative, and quantitative abilities; 2) observational skills; 3) physical abilities; 4) motor functioning; 5) emotional stability; 6) behavioral and social skills; and 7) ethics and professionalism that a medical school applicant or enrolled medical student must possess or be able to acquire, with or without reasonable accommodation, in order to be admitted to, be retained in, and graduate from that school’s medical educational program. (Element 10.5)

5.0 Protocol and Procedure

Academically successful students considered for matriculation are expected to possess:

1. Intellectual, Conceptual, Integrative and Quantitative Abilities

These abilities include measurement, calculation, reasoning, analysis and synthesis. Problem-solving, the critical skill demanded of physicians, requires all of these intellectual abilities and often must be performed quickly, especially in emergency situations. A student must be able to identify significant findings from history, physical examination and laboratory data, provide a reasoned explanation for likely diagnoses, prescribe appropriate medications and therapy and retain and recall information in an efficient and timely manner. The ability to incorporate new information from peers, teachers, and the medical literature in formulating diagnoses and plans is essential. Good judgment in patient assessment and in diagnostic and therapeutic planning is essential; a student must be able to identify and communicate their knowledge to others when appropriate.

2. Observational Skills

The student must be able to observe demonstrations and participate in those experiments in the basic and clinical sciences determined essential by the respective faculties. A student must be able to observe a patient accurately at a distance and at close hand, noting non-verbal as well as verbal signals. Observation necessitates the functional use of the sense of vision and other sensory modalities.

3. Communication Abilities

A student must be able to speak intelligibly, to hear adequately, and to observe closely patients to elicit and transmit information, describe changes in mood, activity and posture, and perceive non-verbal communications. A student must be able to communicate effectively and sensitively with patients, and all members of the health care team. Communication includes not only speech, but also memorizing and writing. In addition, the student must be able to communicate effectively and efficiently in oral and written English with all members of the health care team. A student must possess memorizing skills at a level sufficient to accomplish curricular requirements and provide clinical care for patients. The student must be capable of completing appropriate medical records and documents and plans according to protocol and in a complete and timely manner.

4. Motor Functioning Skills

Medical students are required to possess motor skills sufficient to elicit independently information from patients by palpation, auscultation, percussion, and other manually-based diagnostic procedures. Students should be able to conduct laboratory tests (urinalysis, CBC, etc.), carry out diagnostic procedures (paracentesis, etc.), and provide basic medical care (clearing the airway, placing catheters, controlling bleeding, simple obstetrical maneuvers, etc.) in the general care environment, and coordinate fine and gross muscular movements to treat patients in emergency situations. Emergency situations include any circumstance in which a patient requires immediate medical attention Medical students must be able to meet applicable safety standards for the environment, and to follow universal precaution procedures. 

5. Behavioral and Social Attributes

The student must possess the emotional health required for full use of their intellectual abilities, the exercise of good judgment and the prompt completion of all responsibilities for the diagnosis and care of patients. The student must exhibit the development of mature, sensitive and effective relationships with patients, colleagues, clinical and administrative staff, and all others with whom the student interacts in the professional or academic setting, regardless of their race, ethnicity, gender, religion, age or other attributes or affiliations that may differ from those of the student. The student must be able to tolerate physically taxing workloads and to function effectively when stressed. The student must be able to adapt to changing environments, to display flexibility and to learn to function in the face of uncertainties inherent in the clinical problems of many patients. A student is expected to accept appropriate suggestions and criticism and, if necessary, respond by modification of behavior. A student is expected to self-regulate emotions and behaviors and to seek assistance when the ability to do so is compromised. Empathy, integrity, concern for others, interpersonal skills, interest and motivation are all personal qualities that will be assessed during the admission and educational processes.

6. Ethics and Professionalism

Students must interact with all individuals in a respectful and effective manner regardless of gender, age, race, sexual orientation, religion, or any other protected status. They must maintain ethical and moral behavior consistent with professional standards for interactions with students, faculty, staff, patients, and the public. They must understand the legal and ethical aspects of the practice of medicine and function within both the law and ethical standards of the medical profession. Professionalism, compassion, integrity, concern for others, interpersonal skills, interest, and motivation are all qualities that are expected throughout the educational processes.

6.0 Responsibilities 

The Office of Admissions will confirm that the members of the Admissions Committee are apprised of the policy, and ensure that the criteria will be applied equitably during the screening, interview, and selection processes.

7.0 References

L.C.M.E. Standard 10.3: Policies Regarding Student Selection/Progress and Their Dissemination Applicants
L.C.M.E. Standard 10.4: Characteristics of Accepted Applicants
L.C.M.E. Standard 10.5: Technical Standards

Read About L.C.M.E. Functions and Structure of a Medical School

Learn About the Americans with Disabilities Act


The policy will be reviewed by the Admissions Executive Committee and approved by the Curriculum Committee. The Admission Executive Committee approved it on June 30, 2021, and the Curriculum Committee on July 28, 2021.

Download Technical Standards for Admissions, Retention and Graduation (PDF)

Wed, 08 Nov 2023 00:50:00 -0600 en text/html
How to Apply

The Saint Louis University School of Medicine encourages applications from students who have achieved a high level of academic performance and who manifest in their personal lives qualities compatible with a career that serves society.

The University's mission statement affirms the value of a diverse educational environment to prepare students for life and work in a global society. To foster this mission, the SLU School of Medicine strives to recruit, admit, retain and graduate a diverse student body. Besides ethnicity, this diversity encompasses differences based on gender, culture and economic circumstances.

Learn About SLU’s M.D. Program

Find Application Requirements

Get Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

Application Service

Saint Louis University is one of many medical schools using the American Medical College Application Service. AMCAS allows you to submit application materials to multiple participating medical schools while requiring only one set of official academic transcripts. Saint Louis University School of Medicine uses a rolling admissions process.

The AMCAS application becomes available each spring and the deadline for submission of materials is Nov. 15.

Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC)
655 K Street NW, Suite 100
Washington, D.C. 20001

SLU-Specific Materials

Application information that is pertinent to all medical schools is on the AMCAS form, but your application to SLU will only be considered for evaluation when the Committee on Admissions receives all of the following materials:

* This non-refundable fee helps defray the cost of processing applications and reviewing credentials. Fee waivers may be granted only to those applicants for whom AMCAS previously waived its application fee.

The Committee on Admissions is unable to assume responsibility for notifying candidates of missing application materials. It is, therefore, most important that you determine that we receive the required credentials. Inquiries by email are encouraged.

The deadline for the receipt of all application materials is Dec. 15.

Additional transcripts reflecting your current grades must be sent to the committee at the end of each quarter or semester to supply information concerning your progress. Action on your application may be delayed if these are not submitted.

Early Decision Program

If you are applying only to Saint Louis University and would prefer to have an admission decision by Oct. 1, you may file through AMCAS under the Early Decision Program (EDP).

Under the EDP, you must submit all required credentials to AMCAS and a complete application to the School of Medicine by Aug. 1.

Applicants who choose this route may not apply to any other medical school accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) prior to the EDP admissions decision.

If the Committee accepts you on Admissions through this process, you must attend Saint Louis University School of Medicine and not apply elsewhere. If the Committee does not accept you as an early decision candidate, you will be considered as a regular candidate and can apply to other schools after Oct. 1. Only applicants with exceptional credentials should pursue the Early Decision Program.


SLUSOM’s Committee on Admissions is not able to interview every applicant. Therefore, we invite only a select few for an interview, luncheon and tour of the Health Sciences Center.

Following that, each applicant is discussed in detail. The committee strives to evaluate each application in its entirety and only then make a decision.

Application status decisions start Oct. 15. These statuses are: accepted, not accepted or deferred.

By April 30, most applicants, except those on deferred status, will have received a final decision on their candidacy.

It should be noted that acceptances are contingent upon applicants maintaining a high level of academic performance and their continued demonstration of personal behavior reflecting integrity, excellence in character and other personality traits deemed appropriate for a doctor of medicine.

Helpful Information

Letters of Recommendation

Letters of recommendation in support of your application are required for a complete application. If your school has a pre-medical advisory committee, a letter from the committee is sufficient, and you also have the option to supplement your committee letter with two additional letters of your choosing. If your school does not have a committee, please request three letters of recommendation. At least one of these letters should be from a college or university science professor. The two additional letters are your choice and may be from an individual that you worked with (research mentor, shadowed physician, service organizer, etc.) who may also speak to your strengths. An insightful and in-depth evaluation by someone who knows you is of greater value than a recapitulation of your academic work. While not required, the admissions committee greatly appreciates seeing a letter from a clinical or service experience that was longitudinal and meaningful to you. 

It is the responsibility of the applicant to ensure that all of the necessary documents reach the Committee on Admissions. Please remember that your application is incomplete until all letters of recommendation have been received. Please do not send additional letters of recommendation, only the three required letters.

Personal Interview

Interviews of selected applicants will be conducted by invitation. Interviews will be conducted virtually for the 2024 application cycle. 

Interviews with the Committee on Admissions are absolutely necessary. Because the interview schedule is crowded, make every effort to attend the interview on the date selected to prevent possible exclusion later due to scheduling problems.

Sun, 15 Oct 2023 16:01:00 -0500 en text/html
What can you do to induce urination?

A person may need to make themselves pee when their body does not want to. Several tips can help, such as running water, putting a hand in warm water, massaging the inner thigh, and doing jumping jacks.

Some medical conditions can make urination difficult, such as prostate problems or bladder infections. In these circumstances, a person should seek medical attention to address the underlying cause of their symptoms, instead of trying to force urination.

In most cases, a person can help prevent urination problems with some preparation, such as by drinking plenty of water before an appointment where urine samples are required.

However, there are times when a person needs to pee, either for a urine sample or other reasons, and cannot prepare beforehand. Below are some techniques and tricks to help induce urination when needed.

There are several ways that a person may be able to force themselves to pee on demand.

These techniques may not work for everyone. A person may need to try several methods in order to find what works best for them.

While sitting on the toilet, a person can tap the area located between the belly button and the pubic bone.

Using the fingertips, a person can gently but firmly tap the skin near the bladder every 30 seconds to encourage urination.

Bending forward and rocking side to side while sitting on the toilet puts additional pressure on the bladder, which can encourage urination.

Placing a hand in cold water can trigger the urge to pee. A person should do this while sitting on the toilet.

If the toilet is within reach of a sink or tub, a person can let cold water run from the tap over their hand.

The sound of water can trigger the need to urinate. A person having trouble urinating can turn on the bathroom sink before attempting to pee or flush the toilet before using it.

Some people find that playing recordings of running water can also have the same effect.

Drinking water or another low-sugar liquid while attempting to pee may also trigger the body to urinate.

People may need to drink several sips before trying to pee in order to get this technique to work.

Drinking caffeinated beverages or alcohol is not recommended, as they can make a person more dehydrated.

Simple exercises such as walking or doing jumping jacks can help a person urinate.

Before heading to the bathroom, a person may wish to do a few laps of the house or office to stimulate urination.

Rubbing the lower stomach or inner thighs or pulling on pubic hair while on the toilet can help induce the need to pee. A person should gently massage the area with their hands or fingers.

If a person is nervous or stressed about being unable to pee, they can try some basic relaxation techniques to encourage urination.

Keeping their eyes closed, a person can focus on relaxing the muscles, starting with the fingers and hands and working through all parts of the body. The goal is to relax the bladder and encourage urination.

A person’s nervous system is typically responsible for signaling when the bladder is full and should be emptied. The sensation is often one of fullness and pressure.

In most cases, a person can rely on these natural signals to know when urination must occur. However, there are times when urination needs to happen on demand, often for medical procedures.

Some of the most common reasons a person may need to pee on demand for a medical test include:

Examples of urodynamic studies include uroflowmetry, cystometrogram (CMG), urethral pressure profiling, and electromyography (EMG).

Following surgery, a person may experience a condition called neurogenic bladder. This is when the nerves no longer tell the brain when it is time to urinate.

Neurogenic bladder can cause a person to either hold urine for too long or have difficulty urinating because they cannot feel when their bladder is full.

People should seek medical attention if they experience trouble urinating several times a day. Not being able to pee can be a sign of underlying conditions that require treatment, such as urinary tract infections or prostate problems.

A person having difficulty urinating on demand for a urine test probably does not have an underlying medical condition. They may have recently urinated or may feel nervous. In these cases, the person can typically induce urination using the techniques listed above.

Below are some commonly asked questions about how to induce urination.

How can a person stimulate themself to pee?

Ways a person can help stimulate urination include tapping their navel region, placing their hand in cold water, and massaging their lower stomach.

How long after drinking water will a person pee?

How soon a person urinates after drinking water may depend on the following factors:

  • how hydrated the person is
  • how full their bladder is
  • kidney filtration rate
  • type of fluid

What triggers a person to pee?

Over time, the bladder fills up and expands like a balloon, which puts tension on the bladder muscles. At a certain point, the body senses that it is reaching a limit which triggers the urge to urinate.

Trouble urinating on demand is not uncommon when visiting a doctor’s office.

People can prepare for a urine test or other medical procedure by drinking more water and not urinating immediately before seeing the doctor. If this is not possible, they can use one or more of the techniques above to help induce urination.

Finally, if a person experiences problems with urinating outside of a medical examination, they should seek medical attention for a proper diagnosis. An untreated infection can have serious consequences, so it is crucial to see a doctor as soon as possible.

Sun, 17 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Medical Laboratory Science Admissions Process

Two-Step Admissions Process

  1. Students interested in the Medical Laboratory Science option must first be accepted to the Applied Biomedical Sciences B.S. degree, Clinical Science option by application to Undergraduate Admissions.
  2. Students currently enrolled in the Applied Biomedical Sciences major, Clinical Science option are eligible to apply to the Medical Laboratory Science option after at least one successful semester in the major.

Admission will be based primarily on:

  • Scholarship (both cumulative and science with an emphasis on the GPA of the required prerequisite science courses)
  • Personal Statement
  • Meeting with the Medical Laboratory Science Program Director

At the current time, applications are reviewed at the end of each semester by the Medical Laboratory Science Program Director and a Department Faculty Committee. Qualified students will be accepted on a space available basis.

For additional information, contact the Medical Laboratory Science Program Director.

Fri, 04 Aug 2023 07:40:00 -0500 en text/html
The Handbook of Medical Image Perception and Techniques

A state-of-the-art review of key subjects in medical image perception science and practice, including associated techniques, illustrations and examples. This second edition contains extensive updates and substantial new content. Written by key figures in the field, it covers a wide range of subjects including signal detection, image interpretation and advanced image analysis (e.g. deep learning) techniques for interpretive and computational perception. It provides an overview of the key techniques of medical image perception and observer performance research, and includes examples and applications across clinical disciplines including radiology, pathology and oncology. A final chapter discusses the future prospects of medical image perception and assesses upcoming challenges and possibilities, enabling readers to identify new areas for research. Written for both newcomers to the field and experienced researchers and clinicians, this book provides a comprehensive reference for those interested in medical image perception as means to advance knowledge and Strengthen human health.

  • An overview of key techniques allows the reader to adopt these in their own studies
  • A summary of the future of medical image perception enables identification of new areas of research
  • Examples and applications demonstrate the role of information perception in multiple clinical disciplines
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Reviews &amp; endorsements

'In The Handbook of Medical Image Perception and Techniques, Samei and Krupinski have assembled a group of internationally-recognized experts to address an important but under-emphasized stage in the process of medical imaging.' William Hendee, Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Medical College of Wisconsin

'A concise text that offers a unique collection of chapters from all the leading authors in medical perception. I would highly recommend this text for anyone wanting to know more about medical perception from its historical perspective to current research. A must have reference for anyone wanting to join in this exciting discipline.' Lonie R. Salkowski, University of Wisconsin, Madison

'Drs Elizabeth Krupinski and Ehsan Samei have given us a wonderful new edition of their landmark textbook on medical image perception, with updated chapters throughout and with approximately thirty percent new material added since the first edition was published in 2010. This new volume comprehensively updates and extends the ‘keystone’ publication in the field of medical image perception research. Each chapter is the definitive reference on its topic, authored by a foremost expert. With this new edition, Drs Krupinski and Samei have assembled a compendium of what amounts to decades of research and accumulated wisdom in a compact package-comprehensive and yet still very accessible for a broad audience. … Anyone with an interest in this syllabu will find this book to be an invaluable resource.' Michael A. Bruno, Pennsylvania State University

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Product details

  • Edition: 2nd Edition
  • Date Published: December 2018
  • format: Adobe eBook Reader
  • isbn: 9781108173636
  • contains: 279 b/w illus.
  • availability: This ISBN is for an eBook version which is distributed on our behalf by a third party.

Table of Contents

1. Medical image perception Ehsan Samei and Elizabeth Krupinski
2. A short history of image perception in medical radiology Harold Kundel and Calvin Nodine
3. Spatial vision research without noise Arthur Burgess
4. Signal detection theory – a brief history Arthur Burgess
5. Signal detection in radiology Arthur Burgess
6. Lessons from dinners with the giants of modern image science Robert Wagner
7. Perception in context David Manning
8. Perceptual factors in memorizing medical images Elizabeth A Krupinski
9. Cognitive factors in memorizing medical images David Manning
10. Satisfaction of search in radiology Kevib Berbaum, Edmund Franken, Robert Caldwell, Kevin Schartz and Mark Madsen
11. Acquiring expertise in radiologic image interpretation Calvin F. Nodine and Claudia Mello-Thoms
12. The first moments of medical image perception Jeremy M. Wolfe, Karla K. Evans and Trafton Drew
13. Image quality and its clinical relevance Justin Solomon, Robert Saunders, Jr and Ehsan Samei
14. Designing perception experiments Ehsan Samei
15. Receiver operating characteristic analysis: basic concepts and practical applications Georgia Tourassi
16. Multireader ROC analysis Stephen L. Hillis
17. Memory effects and experimental design Tamara Miner Haygood and Karla K. Evans
18. Observer models as a surrogate to perception experiments Craig K. Abbey and Miguel P. Eckstein
19. Implementation of observer models Matthew A. Kupinski
20. Value and limitations of observer models Lucretiu M. Popescu
21. Perception of volumetric data Geoffrey D. Rubin, Trafton Drew and Lauren H. Williams
22. Performance assessment using standardized data sets: the PERFORMS® scheme in breast screening and other domains Yan Chen and Alastair Gale
23. Breast screen reader assessment strategy (BREAST): a research infrastructure with a translational objective Patrick Brennan, Lee Warwick and Kriscia Tapia
24. CAD: an image perception perspective Maryellen Giger and Weijie Chen
25. Common designs of CAD studies Yulei Jiang
26. Evaluation of CAD and radiomic tools Berkman Sahiner and Nicholas Petrick
27. Quantitative imaging – images to numbers Daniel C. Sullivan and Edward F. Jackson
28. Optimization of 2D and 3D radiographic imaging systems Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen
29. Display optimization from a physics perspective Alisa Walz-Flannigan and Scott Stekel
30. Display optimisation from a perception perspective Mark Mcentee and Rachel Toomey
31. Perception and training William F. Auffermann and Maciej Mazurowski
32. Ergonomics 2.0: fatigue in medical imaging Sian Taylor-Phillips, Chris Stinton and Elizabeth Krupinski
33. Perception issues in pathology Liron Pananowitz, Claudia Mello-Thoms and Elizabeth A. Krupinski
34. Medical image perception from a clinical perspective Francine L. Jacobson
35. Future of medical image perception Elizabeth A. Krupinski and Ehsan Samei.


Ehsan Samei, Duke University Medical Center, Durham
Ehsan Samei is Professor in Radiology, Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Medical Physics at Duke University, where he is the Chief of the Clinical Imaging Physics and the Director of the Medical Physics Graduate Program. His current research includes quality and dose metrics that are clinically relevant and that can be used to design and utilize advanced imaging technologies for optimum interpretive and quantitative performance.

Elizabeth A. Krupinski, Emory University, Atlanta
Elizabeth Krupinski is a Professor and Vice Chair for Research at Emory University, Atlanta, in the Departments of Radiology, Psychology and Biomedical Informatics. Her research interests include medical image perception, assessment of observer performance, and human factors issues.


Ehsan Samei, Elizabeth Krupinski, Harold Kundel, Calvin Nodine, Arthur Burgess, Robert Wagner, David Manning, Kevib Berbaum, Edmund Franken, Robert Caldwell, Kevin Schartz, Mark Madsen, Calvin F. Nodine, Claudia Mello-Thoms, Jeremy M. Wolfe, Karla K. Evans, Trafton Drew, Justin Solomon, Robert Saunders, Jr, Georgia Tourassi, Stephen L. Hillis, Tamara Miner Haygood, Craig K. Abbey, Miguel P. Eckstein, Matthew A. Kupinski, Lucretiu M. Popescu, Geoffrey D. Rubin, Lauren H. Williams, Yan Chen, Alastair Gale, Patrick Brennan, Lee Warwick, Kriscia Tapia, Maryellen Giger, Weijie Chen, Yulei Jiang, Berkman Sahiner, Nicholas Petrick, Daniel C. Sullivan, Edward F. Jackson, Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, Alisa Walz-Flannigan, Scott Stekel, Mark Mcentee, Rachel Toomey, William F. Auffermann, Maciej Mazurowski, Sian Taylor-Phillips, Chris Stinton, Liron Pananowitz, Francine L. Jacobson

Sun, 18 Jun 2023 05:02:00 -0500 en text/html
Medical College Admission Denied for Physically Disabled Student Polio could not fell her, but a medical college did when it refused admission to a young Orissa student, who topped the Scheduled Tribe category in the recently held joint entrance examination.

Susmita Haro, 18, was denied admission to the VSS Medical College in Burla that certified her as having 87 percent disability -- even though the chief district medical officer of Sambalpur had in May this year examined her and said she has 65 percent disability.


The Sambalpur certificate is well within the limits laid by the Supreme Court, which in a recent directive said a physically handicapped person can get admission in a medical college only if she or he has below 70 percent disability.

The Sambalpur girl was asked to undergo a physical test by the Burla college despite the certificate by the district medical officer R.C. Nanda. The medical board comprised the heads of orthopaedic, surgery and medicine departments as well as Nanda.

Citing 87 percent physical disability, the board refused to supply her admission.

Defending the decision, VSS Medical College principal J.K. Balabantaray told IANS: "Since her disability is over what is prescribed by the Supreme Court, we denied her admission.


For Susmita, that decision was a body blow to her dreams and ambitions, carefully nurtured despite her polio.

"Now I have to fight a legal battle against the opinions of doctors. I don't know how many years it will take and whether I will be able to become a doctor or not," she said.


Added her bewildered father, who works in the police department: "I cannot challenge the ability of the doctors who examined my daughter. But I am surprised how her disability could go up, when only two months ago the chief district medical officer certified my daughter as having 65 percent disability."

The man in the centre of the storm was evasive when asked about the conflicting figures.

"Her left leg is affected by polio from childhood and she has already become totally invalid and is unable to move with out a strider," Nanda said sidestepping the issue.

Susmita has always been a bright student.

Last year, she got a first division in her Class 12 examination. She appeared in the medical entrance examination the same year and was 18th in the physically handicapped category and 52nd in the Scheduled Tribe category.

She was not allowed admission then as the Supreme Court case was still pending. And then appeared again in the Joint Entrance Examination and bettered her record, ranking second in the state in the Scheduled Tribe category and seventh amongst the physically handicapped.

Susmita has already lost a year in building what she hoped would be a great career. Sorting out the wrangle over one certificate versus the other could cost her some more time.

(Source: IANS)

Thu, 21 Dec 2023 22:27:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Medical Admission Test Cancelled Over Leakage Reports The Dental and Medical Admission Test (DMAT) conducted recently in Madhya Pradesh has been cancelled over reports of the question paper having been leaked , despite protests by private colleges.

The five-member Justice Chandresh Bhushan Committee, formed to check the alleged irregularities, decided that the examination be held afresh.


The test for admission into three medical colleges and eight dental colleges was conducted at various centres across the state Aug 13 and about 7,500 students appeared for it.

Soon after the test, authorities were flooded with complaints of the paper having been leaked and sold for Rs.500,000. There were also complaints of pencils having been used instead of pens. Students alleged that the test of a few students was conducted in places other than the allotted examination rooms.

The matter was brought to the notice of Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan who sought a detailed report in this regard.

The Justice Bhushan Committee immediately served a notice to the Association of Private Medical and Dental Colleges (APDMC) seeking a reply on the alleged irregularities during the test.


Meanwhile, Chaturbhuj Dubey, an employee of a local college R.K. Dhawan Foundation, was arrested Aug 16 and Rs.1.2 million recovered from his possession, apart from several post-dated cheques running into several millions.

Dubey admitted to have received the amount from students for admission into medical colleges.


"Investigations reveal that the foundation was deeply involved in heavy transactions for admissions into private medical and dental colleges," said a police official.

The police team also reportedly uncovered huge financial transactions from the accounts of over a dozen employees of the college. They have now sought the help of the income tax department to keep a tab on these accounts.

The APDMC said these allegations of malpractice were baseless and its members protested the cancellation of the exam. Ashok Khurana, secretary of APDMC, said they would move the High Court against the decision.

The committee's decision, however, has been welcomed by political parties.

Vishnu Datt, national secretary of the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), the student's wing of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), said it was a victory of the poor and meritorious students.

Said Manak Agrawal, Madhya Pradesh Congress general secretary: "The tests should now be conducted by the State Professional Examination Board."

(Source: IANS)

Thu, 21 Dec 2023 22:27:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Medical admission test on February 9

The admission test for medical colleges under 2023-24 academic sessions will be held on February 9.

The one-hour-long admission test will begin at 10am on the day.

All coaching centres will remain closed for a month.

The decision was taken at a meeting on the MBBS and BDS admission tests for the academic year 2023-24 held at the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare on Sunday.

Health and Family Welfare Minister Zahid Maleque presided over the meeting.

Sat, 23 Dec 2023 23:35:00 -0600 en text/html
US medical schools grapple with first admissions since end of affirmative action

The National Medical Association, an organization for Black physicians, is raising money for a new scholarship. The Association of American Medical Colleges will get involved in K-12 education for the first time.

Underrepresentation is a long-standing problem: only 5.2% of practicing physicians in the US were Black even before the ruling, despite Black people making up about 14% of the overall population.

But participants at multiple stages of the education process say the ruling laid bare the urgency of eliminating systemic obstacles, many of which begin a lot earlier in a potential medical student’s life than college.

“Underrepresentation has been a consistent problem over many decades,” said Reynold Verret, president of Xavier University of Louisiana, one of about 100 Historically Black Colleges and Universities. “If we do not come to other solutions to bring representation and diversity across our hiring system, you may see fewer students of color at some of our elite institutions.”

The cost of the disparity is substantial, showing up in worse health outcomes for Black patients and deteriorating trust in the healthcare system.

Experts say there’s no single solution; instead, hurdles from the earliest years of education through medical school and beyond must be removed.

The high court’s decision brings full circle its history of dealing with race and medical education in particular — its landmark 1978 decision in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke struck down racial quotas at a University of California medical school while allowing schools to consider race in admissions.

Here’s a snapshot of where barriers to entry crop up throughout the pipeline for potential Black doctors:

Early Education

It begins in kindergarten, where as few as 3% of Black students display advanced mathematics or science compared with up to 16% of White students, a 2022 study in Gifted Child Quarterly found. The disparities were strongly linked to the greater likelihood of the Black students' families experiencing economic disadvantage, according to the study, whose authors advocated for programs to increase racial and ethnic representation in STEM subjects to start in elementary school.

At times, teachers can also be discouraging, as Charles Farmer, an emergency physician at Summit Health in New Jersey, found out. When a 12-year-old Farmer expressed an interest in becoming a doctor, his teacher said he wasn’t great at math and wished him luck. “I was one of the only few African Americans and you already feel like you have to compete with your classmates because you want to show that you belong,’’ Farmer, 30, said in an interview. “When you hear stuff like that it makes you feel like you don’t belong.”

In high school, Black student representation falls short in the math and science courses highlighted by the AAMC as useful to prepare for medical training.

The SCOTUS ruling highlighted how “we have more work to do” to create more Black doctors, said Geoffrey Young, who runs the AAMC’s program to Strengthen diversity in medicine. The group is looking for partner organizations to develop a mentorship program for young students. It’s also advising its member schools on retooling their admissions processes, offering data and help on new approaches such as expanding their network of potential applicants.

Medical Schools

Parents’ education plays an important role. Medical students of any race are more likely to come from households where parents have a bachelor’s degree or higher. This narrows the pool: 28% of Black adults age 25 and older have completed college, compared with 42% of White adults.

The likelihood a Black college student will continue to medical school is also closely linked to where they do their undergraduate studies, and HBCUs produce a disproportionate share. Close to 5% of all Black applicants to medical school in the current term came from three HBCUs — Howard University, Spelman College and Xavier — according to AAMC data, even though HBCUs overall account for less than 2% of US bachelor’s degrees.

The pattern is repeated at medical school. Out of the latest graduating class of about 20,920, almost 7% were Black, according to AAMC data. Three HBCUs — Howard, Morehouse School of Medicine and Meharry Medical College — accounted for 182, or 13%, of these Black graduates.

HBCUs expect more applications following the SCOTUS ruling, and have warned that the influx could strain their resources. The combined endowment of all HBCUs was about $3.9 billion in 2019, according to the Brookings Institution. That’s less than a tenth of the $41 billion for Harvard University that same year.

“HBCUs are less capable of funding these students with the kinds of scholarship dollars that other universities or institutions with large endowments can,” Joseph Tyndall, dean of Morehouse School of Medicine, said in an interview. “The resources have been lopsided.”

Two new medical schools, both connected to HBCUs, are aiming to help Strengthen diversity in healthcare.

The Maryland College of Osteopathic Medicine at Morgan State in Baltimore plans to start accepting students in 2025. It wants to create a pipeline of practitioners who will return to provide care in their local communities, John Sealey, the school’s founding dean, said in an interview.

Xavier University of Louisiana, which is also setting up a college of medicine, hasn’t finalized the date for accepting new students. President Verret said the HBCU network is ready to play its role, but it’s “not the wealthiest in the country,” and new facilities require a lot of investment.

Medical Debt

There’s also the enormous cost of medical school. Almost a quarter of medical students come from the richest 5% of households, according to research in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Just 1.7% of Black non-Hispanic families landed in that top income bracket, the smallest share for any race.

David Hallo, 29, finished a pre-med program in 2017 at the University of Virginia with around $15,000 of student loans. He said he’s postponing medical school so he can work full time to pay it off, and is concerned about adding $250,000 of debt to cover a four-year program.

“Going back to medical school as a full-time student is one of my biggest fears,” Hallo said in an interview. “I ask myself: How am I going to juggle this and be able to take on more loans?”

About three-quarters of medical school graduates in 2019 had education debt, and the median amount for those borrowers was $200,000, AAMC data show. The burden weighed heaviest on Black, non-Hispanic graduates both by share of debt (91%) and median amount ($230,000). Students of other races borrowed less.

After the high court ruling, the NMA said it will raise $1 million to fund scholarships to help tackle the shortage of Black doctors in the US. It will provide an update on its progress in August, an NMA representative said.

The end of affirmative action makes it even more critical to boost representation of Black students in medical schools, said Kameron Matthews, co-founder of Tour for Diversity in Medicine, an initiative to bring people of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds into the field.

“This is now going to be a driving motivation for us,” she said. “These students are facing a very steep uphill battle of even getting into the health profession.”

Michael R. Bloomberg, the majority owner of Bloomberg News parent Bloomberg LP, and his charitable organization, Bloomberg Philanthropies, support HBCU medical schools and other health and diversity programs.

--With assistance from Kelsey Butler.

©2023 Bloomberg L.P.

Wed, 13 Dec 2023 19:28:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Private hospital admissions soar to record high as hundreds of thousands rely on insurance

Private hospitals saw record admissions this year after hundreds of thousands of people sought care through their insurance amid rocketing NHS waiting lists, new figures show.

Between January and June 443,000 private treatments took place – a 7 per cent rise from 2022, the vast majority of which were claimed through medical insurance policies.

According to the Private Hospital Information Network (PHIN), which collects data from hospitals in the sector, there was a 12 per cent increase in the number of people paying for care via insurance with 157,000 people using this route from January to March and 148,000 from April to June this year.

The news comes as the NHS’s waiting list continues to grow with almost 7.8 million appointments recorded. Recently published data shows that there is a total of 6.5 million individual people on the waiting list.

New waiting list figures are due to be published by the NHS on Thursday and recent research suggests that the backlog will keep growing until at least August next year.

David Furness, from the Independent Healthcare Provider Network – which represents the interests of private hospitals – told The Independent: “We know from our own research, the most important factor in people choosing the private sector for care is long NHS waiting lists – nearly half – 46 per cent – of people who’ve used private healthcare said being unable to get an NHS appointment was a factor.

“The growth in demand for insurance particularly could show that people are taking steps to protect themselves and their families’ health.

“We also know that employers are increasingly realising the value of offering private medical insurance to their employees – our recent polling showed a quarter (25 per cent) of all businesses now offer PMI for their employees, with a further 20 per cent planning to introduce it in the next year.”

The figures show for patients paying through private insurance that the biggest increases this year occurred in those needing diagnostic colonoscopy procedures, to diagnose bowel conditions for example.

The number of consultant doctors working in private hospitals also reached a three-year high in March 2023 at 9,000, the report said.

Dr Ian Gargan, chief executive of PHIN, said the sector is on track to record its highest-ever number of admissions this year. 

“Patients increasingly used private medical insurance to pay for their treatment and this upturn may be due to the ongoing and extensive NHS waiting lists forcing more people to consider their healthcare options, and plan ahead, in ways that they have never had to before.

“They may feel they can no longer rely on the public health service as they have always previously done to get the operations they need in a timely manner.”

He said the number of people paying for diagnostics is also increasing as people seek assurance over whether they need treatment rather than risk waiting for NHS services.

This week the British Medical Association announced further strike action dates for December and January, prompting healthcare leaders to warn any further action will hit trusts’ ability to reduce the national waiting list.

NHS England also told trusts last month to pull back on efforts to tackle the backlog in a bid to save money due to financial pressures on the NHS.

This article was updated to reflect the correct time periods covered by the data.

Wed, 06 Dec 2023 19:12:00 -0600 en text/html

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