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Exam Code: DASSM Practice exam 2023 by team
DASSM Disciplined Agile Senior Scrum Master

Exam Specification:

- exam Name: Disciplined Agile Senior Scrum Master (DASSM)
- exam Code: DASSM
- exam Duration: 2 hours
- exam Format: Multiple-choice and multiple-select questions

Course Outline:

1. Introduction to Disciplined Agile (DA) and Senior Scrum Master Role
- Understanding the principles and values of Disciplined Agile
- Exploring the responsibilities and expectations of a Senior Scrum Master
- Overview of the Senior Scrum Master's role in guiding and facilitating Agile teams

2. Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) and Agile Product Delivery
- Understanding the DAD lifecycle and its phases
- Applying Agile principles and practices to product delivery
- Managing and prioritizing the product backlog

3. Facilitating Agile Team Collaboration
- Facilitating Agile ceremonies and events
- Promoting effective communication and collaboration within the team
- Supporting the team in resolving conflicts and making decisions

4. Scaling Agile Practices
- Applying Agile scaling frameworks and methodologies
- Managing dependencies and coordinating with other teams
- Ensuring alignment and consistency across Agile teams

5. Agile Coaching and Leadership
- Coaching teams and individuals on Agile practices and mindset
- Leading the adoption and implementation of Disciplined Agile practices
- Guiding and mentoring Agile team members

6. Agile Metrics and Reporting
- Implementing effective Agile metrics for measuring team performance
- Tracking and reporting progress of Agile projects
- Using data-driven insights to drive continuous improvement

7. Continuous Improvement and Learning
- Establishing a culture of continuous improvement within Agile teams
- Encouraging experimentation and learning from failures
- Identifying and implementing opportunities for process improvement

Exam Objectives:

1. Understand the principles and values of Disciplined Agile.
2. Apply Agile practices and methodologies in product delivery.
3. Facilitate Agile team collaboration and communication.
4. Scale Agile practices across teams and manage dependencies.
5. Coach teams and individuals on Agile practices and mindset.
6. Use Agile metrics and reporting to track progress and drive improvement.
7. Foster a culture of continuous improvement and learning within Agile teams.

Exam Syllabus:

The exam syllabus covers the following syllabus (but is not limited to):

- Introduction to Disciplined Agile and Senior Scrum Master role
- Disciplined Agile Delivery and Agile Product Delivery
- Facilitating Agile team collaboration and communication
- Scaling Agile practices and managing dependencies
- Agile coaching and leadership in the context of Disciplined Agile
- Agile metrics and reporting for tracking progress and improvement
- Continuous improvement and learning in Agile teams

Disciplined Agile Senior Scrum Master
Scrum Disciplined study help
Killexams : Scrum Disciplined study help - BingNews Search results Killexams : Scrum Disciplined study help - BingNews Killexams : Researchers use artificial intelligence to help diagnose autism, study says

Researchers are proposing using artificial intelligence technology to help diagnose autism spectrum disorder.

In a latest article published in Scientific Reports, researchers from Brazil, France and Germany reportedly used magnetic resonance imaging to train a machine learning algorithm. 

The work – in which the "quantitative diagnostic method" is proposed – was based on brain imaging data for 500 people, with more than 240 that had been diagnosed with autism. 


Machine learning techniques were applied to the data.

"We began developing our methodology by collecting functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI] and electroencephalogram [EEG] data," Francisco Rodrigues, the last author of the article and a professor at the University of São Paulo’s Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science, explained in a statement. 


São Paulo University on November 15, 2015, in São Paulo, Brazil. (Frédéric Soltan/Corbis via Getty Images)

"We compared maps of people with and without ASD and found that diagnosis was possible using this methodology," he added.

The machine learning algorithm was fed with the maps, and the system was able to determine which brain alterations were associated with autism with above 95% mean accuracy. 

While previous research proposes methods for diagnosing autism based on machine learning, the article notes it often uses a single statistical parameter that is not brain network organization. 

Autism is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain. (iStock)


Analyzing the fMRI data showed changes in certain brain regions associated with cognitive, emotional, learning and memory processes, and the cortical networks of autism patients showed more segregation, less distribution of information and less connectivity compared to controls.

"Until a few years ago, little was known about the alterations that lead to the symptoms of ASD. Now, however, brain alterations in ASD patients are known to be associated with certain behaviors, although anatomical research shows that the alterations are hard to see, making diagnosis of mild ASD much harder. Our study is an important step in the development of novel methodologies that can help us obtain a deeper understanding of this neurodivergence," Rodrigues said.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia, on March 14, 2020. (Elijah Nouvelage/Bloomberg via Getty Images)

The methodology is under development and will take years to implement, according to the São Paulo Research Foundation, which supported the research.


About one in 36 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 

Diagnosing the developmental disability can be difficult because there is no medical test, like a blood test, to do so. 

Wed, 16 Aug 2023 08:48:00 -0500 Fox News en text/html
Killexams : Study Finds This Common Fruit Can Help Improve Brain Function

Strawberries are already known for being one of the healthiest, nutrient-dense fruits, chock full of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and fiber. However, according to a new study, strawberry consumption may also be linked with improved brain function and lowered blood pressure.

The study, which was conducted by San Diego State University and funded by the California Strawberry Commission, presented the findings at the American Society of Nutrition's 2023 Nutrition conference last month. The sampling of participants, described as a group of about "35 healthy older adults," consumed 26 grams of a freeze-dried strawberry powder—or the equivalent of about two cups of fresh strawberries—daily for eight weeks.

Researchers primarily measured cognition based on neurological and behavioral function, as well as cardiometabolic health assessed by blood pressure and waist circumference.

What they found was that cognitive processing speed increased moderately among participants who consumed the strawberry powder. Strawberry consumption also reduced systolic blood pressure, reduced waist circumference, and increased total-antioxidant capacity.

"Prior to conducting our clinical study, some of the similar effects were shown in animal studies and some human studies, but different populations and different designs," Dr. Shirin Hooshmand, San Diego State University associate professor and co-author of the study, told Good Housekeeping. "Following strawberry consumption daily for eight weeks, cognitive processing speed increased by 5.2 percent, systolic blood pressure decreased by 3.6 percent, and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased by 10.2 percent."

The new research only reinforces that strawberries are a nutritional powerhouse. At just under 50 calories, one cup of the fruit boasts three grams of fiber and only about 11 grams of carbs.

A one-cup serving of strawberries also pack in 85 milligrams of vitamin C, which meets about 100 percent of the recommended daily intake of 75 milligrams per day for women and 90 per day for men. As an antioxidant, vitamin C helps boost immune function, benefits healthy skin, and can also reduce the risk of several chronic diseases.

And with plenty of ways to incorporate strawberries into food and beverage recipes, there's never been a better time to eat (or drink) up to your health.

Sat, 19 Aug 2023 05:31:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Play games to help keep dementia at bay: study

Puzzles, chess and writing journals may be more than pure amusements to pass the time. These brain activities could help reduce the risk of dementia. 

According to a latest study in JAMA Network Open, activities related to adult literacy, such as taking classes, using a computer or writing journals, as well as active mental tasks like games, cards, or crossword puzzles, were related to a reduced dementia risk over 10 years.

The study looked at 10,318 adults in Australia who were 70 years old or older, who were generally healthy and without major cognitive impairment at enrollment.

Read: Having friends isn’t just good for your social life — it can also ward off dementia

The participants who engaged in literacy activities and active mental activities had an 11% and 9% lower, respectively, risk of dementia. 

To a lesser extent, participating in creative artistic activities, such as crafts, woodwork, and painting or drawing, and in passive mental activities such as reading, watching TV or listening to  the radio was also associated with reduced dementia risk, the study found. Creative artistic and passive mental activities both conferred a 7% decrease, according to the study.

“These results suggest that engagement in adult literacy, creative art, and active and passive mental activities may help reduce dementia risk in late life,” the study said.

The people in the study who developed dementia were older, more likely to be men and have lower levels of physical activity and to be in poorer health than individuals without dementia, the study said.

Read: Opinion: This is now the No. 1 preventable cause of Alzheimer’s in America

In 2022, there were 55 million individuals worldwide living with dementia, with 10 million new cases emerging annually, the study said. There’s no cure for dementia. As a result, “identifying new strategies to prevent or delay dementia onset among older individuals is a priority,” the study said.

These findings can help inform strategies for dementia prevention later life in terms of modifying daily routines and activities, the study said.

Thu, 03 Aug 2023 07:38:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Study: Racial disparities in middle school discipline escalate early in the year and dip ahead of breaks

A new study finds that daily discipline rates in middle school escalate quickly in the first days of school and fluctuate throughout the year in predictable ways — often dipping ahead of breaks.

These escalations are most acutely felt by Black students, the data shows. By November, the Black student discipline rate is 10 times higher than it was at the beginning of the year and 50 times higher than the white student rate at the beginning of the year.

The study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, demonstrated that discipline dipped ahead of breaks, including Thanksgiving, winter break and spring break, and then it escalated rapidly in the days after the break. Researchers also translated the data affecting Black students into sound to convey how the constant barrage of discipline might feel to them.

There was no sustained “cool-down” effect in the days after breaks, which surprised author Sean Darling-Hammond, assistant professor of biostatistics, community health sciences and education policy at UCLA.

“It indicated just how pernicious, pervasive and stable this escalation that occurs is,” he said. “Once you get to November, this is your new baseline of discipline.”

Racial disparities that show up in the first 10 or 20 days can predict the disparities that will persist all year. Researchers considered factors such as income and gender, and it looked at both suspensions and lower-level disciplinary rates. But the data consistently showed that Black students were far more likely to be disciplined than any other group.

“Teachers’ perception of students change very quickly at the beginning of the year, and that’s very different for students of different races,” said Darling-Hammond.

He said the findings point to the need for professional development on discipline to come early in the year.

“Teachers are coming into the year with every intention of being fair and equitable in how they respond to students, but something is hijacking their ability to do that,” he said. “If we can start to understand exactly what that is when it happens, we can design interventions that are more responsive.”

One trend didn’t show up in the data: annual standardized testing didn’t have any effect on discipline rates.

Researchers chose to focus on middle school-aged children because there is a “giant jump” in discipline between elementary school and middle school, said Darling-Hammond. Focusing on this precarious time could potentially help students avoid trajectories that are an “on-ramp to the school-to-prison pipeline.”

California has been trying to reduce suspensions and expulsions for several years by hiring more counselors, addressing the underlying cause of students’ misbehavior and encouraging restorative justice programs. In 2019, California banned suspensions in elementary and middle schools for willful defiance, defined as disrupting school activities or defying school authorities. Until the pandemic, schools were showing progress in reducing suspensions, which tend to primarily involve Black students and students with disabilities.

The study looked at four years of data from a single school district whose name and location were not revealed by researchers, due to a data-sharing agreement with the district. Darling-Hammond noted that is one of the top 30 largest school districts in the country. This data set from the 2015-16 school year to the 2018-19 included the daily discipline rates for 46,964 students in 61 middle schools that served sixth through eighth graders.

The school district was chosen for study because of the “extraordinarily rare” granular data set that the school district collected on discipline, said Darling-Hammond. It included the demographics of students involved, including race, gender, economic status and whether the student was an English learner or special education student. It included the reason for the disciplinary action and the outcome, which ranged from a verbal warning to suspension.

But researchers said that the school district in question was also a useful one to study because it included demographics similar to many other American school districts. It included both urban and suburban schools, and its racial demographics are close to the demographics of the United States: 5% Asian, 18% Black, 17% Hispanic and 55% White. The median income is $54,000 and 58% are eligible for free and reduced-price lunch.

The district began to implement “restorative practices” and “positive behavioral interventions and supports” practices during the 2015-16 school year. This showed up in the data that showed an overall reduction in discipline, but it showed consistently wide racial disparities.

“This isn’t a story of ‘nothing works,'” said Darling-Hammond. “This is a story about how what we’re doing could work a lot better if we are attending to the dynamics of what’s happening in school and when it’s happening.”

The study was co-authored by Jennifer L. Eberhardt, professor of organizational behavior and psychology at Stanford, Jason A. Okonofua, assistant professor of psychology at UC Berkeley and Michael Ruiz, researcher at UC Berkeley.

Sun, 20 Aug 2023 21:26:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Study: Vitamin D Supplements May Help Reduce Risk of Heart Attack in Older People

Fact checked by Sarah Scott

  • A new study suggests that taking vitamin D supplements may help protect older adults from major cardiovascular events, like heart attacks.

  • The study is relatively small and researchers and outside medical professionals alike emphasize the need for further research in order to clarify vitamin D's ability to contribute to heart health in this way.

  • Experts agree that lifestyle factors, like diet and exercise, are still the primary ways individuals can focus on prevention of heart attacks and other cardiovascular-related events.

Taking vitamin D supplements may help reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events (like heart attacks) for older adults, according to a new study.

The trial, which was based out of Australia, assessed 21,315 people who ranged from 60 to 84 years old. They randomly gave one group of 10,662 participants one capsule of 60,000 IU vitamin D, while a placebo was given to 10,653 participants.

The supplements and the placebo were taken orally by participants at the beginning of each month for up to 5 years, with the clinical trial starting in 2014 and concluding in 2020.

Researchers excluded people from the trial with a history of hypercalcemia, or high calcium levels, overactive thyroid, or hyperparathyroidism, kidney stones, osteomalacia, or "soft bones," sarcoidosis, which is an inflammatory disease, or who were already taking more than 500 IU per day of vitamin D supplements.

Study author Rachel Neale, PhD, told Health that there have been plenty of observational studies suggesting that the concentration of 25 hodroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D—the molecule that is measured to determine vitamin D status—in the bloodstream is "inversely associated with health outcomes."

The opposite has been examined less.

While the largest clinical trial of its kind, the researchers acknowledge that the study was relatively small, and more work needs to be done to understand the effectiveness of these kinds of supplements, especially in people who are taking statins or other medications to manage cardiovascular disease.

Neale, who also serves as the deputy coordinator of the Population Health Department at QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, noted that the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular health risk may not be causal.

"Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether supplementing people with vitamin D would Improve health outcomes," she said.


Taking Vitamin D Supplements Could Protect Your Heart

Over the course of the trial, 1,336 of the participants experienced a major cardiovascular event—this was evenly divided between the placebo and vitamin D supplement groups.

The research team found that 6.6% of those in the placebo group and 6% in the supplement group experienced a cardiovascular event during those five years.

Those in the vitamin D supplement group seemed better protected from these heart disease events; this group experienced a rate of major cardiovascular events that was 9% lower compared to what was seen in the placebo group.

This comes out to about 5.8 fewer cardiovascular events per 1,000 participants. The heart attack and coronary rates were 19% and 11% lower, respectively, in the vitamin D group. That being said, the rate of stroke showed no difference between the placebo and supplement groups.

Related: 26 Symptoms of Low Vitamin D You Need to Know About

How Vitamin D Impacts the Heart

When asked what is known about vitamin D and its impact on heart health, Boback Ziaeian, MD, PhD, an assistant professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA in the Division of Cardiology, told Health that there are many studies out there on vitamin D "that span basic sciences, observational research, and clinical trials."

That being said, it's only very recently that we've started seeing large randomized trials like this one that focus on vitamin D supplements as a mechanism to prevent cardiovascular disease, cancer, and even dementia.

"These trials have all largely been negative for their primary endpoint design. The latest Australian study is the first large study to suggest a possible benefit and that is very uncertain," said Ziaeian, who is unaffiliated with this clinical trial.

Essentially, more needs to be examined here.

Neale said that there are a number of different potential mechanisms inherent in vitamin D that could be beneficial for your heart.

She mentioned that vitamin D "can influence the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which influences blood volume and vascular resistance." She also noted that vitamin D can also lower inflammation and "reduce cardiac remodeling."

"People have hyped Vitamin D for a long time, but blood levels are heavily confounded by other lifestyle factors like how much time someone spends outdoors or not having other chronic diseases," Ziaeian said.

"So, overall, there's no good evidence that supplementing people with vitamin D does anything beneficial for their health unless they cannot produce it, such as patients with severe kidney disease."

What Future Studies Need to Clarify

Ziaeian said that he doesn't believe we will see a future where vitamin D supplementation will be part of a prescription from your doctor.

"Looking at the literature overall, I think it is very unlikely that we would find many benefits for any vitamin supplementation that for vitamins we normally ingest with normal food intake or that our body produces," he said.

Neale said that "uncertainty in the evidence may not ever be completely resolved." She said this leaves medical providers in a "somewhat difficult position" when it comes to prescribing vitamin D supplements, outside of treating vitamin D deficiency.

"I would emphasize that even if our findings do indicate a real effect of vitamin D, it is not a magic bullet," she said. "Diet and exercise will play a much more important role."

Related: 12 Foods That Are Good Sources of Vitamin D

For more Health news, make sure to sign up for our newsletter!

Read the original article on Health.

Fri, 21 Jul 2023 13:20:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Kombucha may help control blood sugar in Type 2 diabetics: study

A SCOBY may look pretty gross, but new research suggests the bacteria and yeast glob could help Type 2 diabetics lower their blood sugar levels.

The study found participants who consumed 8 ounces of kombucha for four weeks saw their blood sugar levels decrease from 164 to 116 milligrams per deciliter.

Scientists from Georgetown University, the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the nonprofit MedStar Health reported the findings Tuesday in the Frontiers in Nutrition journal.

Kombucha, a fermented, sweetened black tea drink produced from a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast, has long been touted as healthy, based on claims it enhances immunity and energy levels, reduces food cravings and alleviates gut inflammation.

“Some laboratory and rodent studies of kombucha have shown promise, and one small study in people without diabetes showed kombucha lowered blood sugar,” study co-author Dr. Dan Merenstein, a professor at Georgetown’s School of Health, said in a statement.

Two people with hands one injecting insulin in finger.
In a new study, kombucha was shown to reduce blood sugar levels in Type 2 diabetes sufferers.
Getty Images

“But to our knowledge, this is the first clinical trial examining effects of kombucha in people with diabetes,” he continued. “A lot more research needs to be done, but this is very promising.”

In the study, one group drank the kombucha while another downed a placebo beverage.

No one was told which drink they were receiving.

After a two-month period to “wash out” the biological effects of the beverages, the mixtures were swapped between the groups, who were directed to drink their new concoction for four weeks.

 view of Health-Ade Pink Lady Apple and Passion Fruit-Tangerine kombuchas are seen as Ryan Seacrest partners with Health-Ade to bring kombucha to LA Dodger Fans at Dodger Stadium.
Study participants drank beverages produced by Craft Kombucha.
Getty Images for

The placebo beverage didn’t seem to have any effect on blood sugar levels.

The American Diabetes Association advises that fasting blood sugar levels should be between 80 to 130 milligrams per deciliter.

Participants drank kombucha produced by Craft Kombucha, a commercial manufacturer in the D.C. area.

The study authors noted different brands of kombucha have slightly varying microbial mixtures.

“However, the major bacteria and yeasts are highly reproducible and likely to be functionally similar between brands and batches, which was reassuring for our trial,” said Dr. Robert Hutkins, the study’s senior author.

Miami Beach, Florida, Whole Foods supermarket, retail display of kombucha, tea, fruit punch and healthy energy drinks.
Kombucha has long been touted as a healthy drink.
Jeffrey Greenberg/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 37 million Americans have diabetes, and 90% to 95% of them have Type 2 diabetes.

Approximately 96 million American adults — more than 1 in 3 — have prediabetes.

“Diabetes itself is the eighth leading cause of death in the US as well as being a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke and kidney failure,” lead study author Dr. Chagai Mendelson said.

Mendelson said further studies are needed to assess kombucha’s effect on diabetes.

“We hope that a much larger trial, using the lessons we learned in this trial, could be undertaken to provide a more definitive answer to the effectiveness of kombucha in reducing blood glucose levels, and hence prevent or help treat Type 2 diabetes,” he added.

Tue, 01 Aug 2023 12:36:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Blue-light glasses don’t help with eye strain, major study says

Editor’s Note: Get inspired by a weekly roundup on living well, made simple. Sign up for CNN’s Life, But Better newsletter for information and tools designed to Improve your well-being.

CNN  — 

Adding a blue-light filter to your eyeglasses may not ease eye strain from computer work, protect the retina or help with sleep at night, according to a new review of existing research.

“We found there may be no short-term advantages with using blue-light filtering spectacle lenses to reduce visual fatigue associated with computer use,” said senior author Laura Downie in a statement. Downie is an associate professor of optometry and vision sciences and director of the anterior eye, clinical trials and research translation unit at the University of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia.

“It is also currently unclear whether these lenses affect vision quality or sleep-related outcomes, and no conclusions could be drawn about any potential effects on retinal health in the longer term,” Downie said. “People should be aware of these findings when deciding whether to purchase these spectacles.”

In reality, it’s not the blue-light emission from our devices that is causing eye strain for most people, said ophthalmologist Dr. Craig See, a cornea specialist at Cole Eye Institute at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio.

“Most people have computer vision syndrome, which is related to sitting at a computer screen for a long period of time,” said See, who was not involved in the study.

Symptoms of computer vision syndrome include dry eyes, watery eyes, blurry vision, light sensitivity, burning or itchy eyes, and difficulty concentrating and keeping your eyes open, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Eye strain from presbyopia, which is the gradual loss with age of the ability of the eye to focus on nearby objects, can contribute, as can neck and shoulder pain, See said.

“I don’t typically recommend blue-light filters to my patients,” See said. “There’s no reason to think that blue-light filtering is harmful, other than the cost associated with adding it to your glasses. The takeaway here is that it may not be doing as much as we were hoping.”

The report, published Thursday in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, analyzed data from 17 randomized controlled clinical trials conducted in six countries that lasted from a few days to a few months. The review is part of the nonprofit Cochrane Collaboration, an independent, international network of researchers that uses some of the highest standards in evidence-based research.

The brevity of the clinical trials affected the reviewers’ ability to consider longer-term outcomes, Downie said. “Our certainty in the reported findings should be interpreted in the context of the quality of the available evidence.”

In addition, blue-light filtering lenses only filter between 10% and 25% of blue light from artificial devices such as computer screens, and that blue light is only “a thousandth of what we get from natural daylight,” said first author Dr. Sumeer Singh, a postdoctoral clinical research fellow in the anterior eye, clinical trials and research translation unit at the University of Melbourne.

“Filtering out higher levels of blue light would require the lenses to have an obvious amber tint, which would have a substantial effect on colour perception,” he said in a statement.

The review was conducted to answer an ongoing debate on whether blue-light filtering lenses have any merit in ophthalmic practice, Downie said.

“Research has shown that these lenses are frequently prescribed to patients in many parts of the world, and a range of marketing claims exist about their potential benefits, including that they may reduce eye strain associated with digital device use, Improve sleep quality and protect the retina from light-induced damage,” she said.

“Our findings do not support the prescription of blue-light filtering lenses to the general population,” Downie said. “These results are relevant to a broad range of stakeholders, including eye care professionals, patients, researchers and the broader community.”

There are a number of actions you can take to ease or prevent eye strain, See said. First, if you haven’t had your eyes checked in the last year or two, visit a specialist right away. Your eyes may have weakened, making a new prescription necessary.

“When you visit the eye doctor, go in with a measurement of how far away your face is from your computer screen, so the doctor can maximize your prescription,” See said. “You should be arm’s length from the screen. And if you’re using a laptop, consider getting a larger external display that you can plug into.”

Having a bigger screen can ease eye strain by increasing text size and may also reduce headaches and neck strain from bending over the laptop, See explained.

“If your text is difficult for you to read, it’s going to take you longer to read it,” he said. “You will be affecting your posture to do so, and you’ll be blinking even less if you’re straining to read things. Having a bigger screen can help with that.”

The eye stops blinking regularly as computer time increases, See said, so taking regular breaks from work at the computer is also important. Try using the 20-20-20 rule — every 20 minutes, look at something 20 feet (6 meters) away for 20 seconds, which can encourage your eyes to blink at their normal rate. Better yet, get up and walk away, because constant sitting will increase neck and back strain.

If dry eyes are part of the problem, a warm compress applied to your eyes can offer relief, as can over-the-counter artificial tears. But keep the use to a minimum – many contain preservatives and should be used no more than four times a day.

“If you need them more often, you need to move to preservative-free tears, which come in a vial,” See said. “I will say if you need artificial teardrops more than four times a day, then I think it’s a good idea to see an eye doctor for your condition.”

Thu, 17 Aug 2023 12:56:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Study: Ketone bodies may help boot immune system

GRAND RAPIDS, Mich. (WOOD) — A new study by the Van Andel Institute is exploring how a substance made by the liver may supercharge immune cells fight to infection and disease.

According to the study, when T cells — the soldiers of the immune system — absorb ketone bodies, their function improves by reprogramming them to fight threats to the body better.

Authors of the study think ketone bodies could be an evolutionary failsafe that boosts the immune system when certain nutrients in the body are low. The study said this can happen when appetite is suppressed or during illness.

Ketone bodies are increased when glucose is low. This can be caused by exercise or during fasting.

“When you’re under a dietary regiment such as the ketogenic diet or fasting, it’s one way that our bodies boost production of these ketone bodies and so we think this might unlock a way of boosting immunity,” Dr. Rusty Jones, who worked on the study, said. 

Although the study suggests increasing ketone bodies with fasting may enhance T cell function, other studies show that fasting might suppress immune function.

Authors say that both show the complex relationship between diet and the immune system.

Going forward, scientist hope to explore how fasting and ketone body supplementation affects immune function-focusing on T cells’ ability to fight cancer.  

Wed, 02 Aug 2023 15:08:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Teenage smokers have different brains than non-smoking teens, study suggests

CDC: 1 in 10 young adults are vaping regularly

CDC: 1 in 10 young adults are vaping regularly 02:00

A new study suggests that the brains of teenagers who take up smoking may be different from those of adolescents who don't take up the habit —  data that could help treat and prevent nicotine addiction from an early age. 

A research team led by the universities of Cambridge and Warwick in Britain and Fudan University in China found that teens who started smoking cigarettes by 14 years of age had significantly less grey matter in a section of the brain's left frontal lobe. 

Tuesday's findings, published in the scientific journal Nature Communications, indicate that adolescents with less grey matter on the left frontal lobe have less cognitive function and therefore are more inclined to break rules and develop bad habits such as smoking. 

The left frontal lobe is linked to decision-making and rule-breaking. Grey matter is the brain tissue that processes information, and its growth and development peaks for humans in their teenage years.   

Notably, researchers found that the right part of the same brain region also had less grey matter in teenage smokers. 

The right frontal lobe of the brain is linked to the seeking of sensations and the research team found that the right frontal lobe shrinks for teenagers who smoke regularly -- which may lead to addiction and affect the ways adolescents seek pleasure.

Scientists hope the combined results may help in intervening and preventing teenagers from taking up the bad habit before addiction takes hold. 

"Smoking is perhaps the most common addictive behaviour in the world, and a leading cause of adult mortality," said Cambridge University Professor Trevor Robbins, who co-authored the study. 

"The initiation of a smoking habit is most likely to occur during adolescence. Any way of detecting an increased chance of this, so we can target interventions, could help save millions of lives," Robbins said in a press release on Tuesday. 

Around 1,600 young people try their first cigarette before the age of 18 every day in the United States, and nearly half a million Americans die prematurely each year from smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, according to the CDC. 

Wed, 16 Aug 2023 08:10:00 -0500 en-US text/html
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