CyberArk-EPM test format - CyberArk Endpoint Privilege Manager (EPM) solution expert Updated: 2024
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Exam Code: CyberArk-EPM CyberArk Endpoint Privilege Manager (EPM) solution expert test format January 2024 by Killexams.com team
|CyberArk Endpoint Privilege Manager (EPM) solution expert
CyberArk Privilege test format
Other CyberArk examsCAU302 CyberArk Defender + Sentry
CAU201 CyberArk Defender
PAM-DEF CyberArk Defender
PAM-DEF-SEN CyberArk Defender PAM & Sentry
CAU305 CyberArk CDE Recertification
CyberArk-EPM CyberArk Endpoint Privilege Manager (EPM) solution expert
PAM-CDE-RECERT CyberArk CDE Recertification (PAM-CDE-RECERT)
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Which of the following application options can be used when defining trusted sources?
A. Publisher, Product, Size, URL
B. Publisher, Name, Size, URI
C. Product, URL, Machine, Package
D. Product, Publisher, User/Group, Installation Package
An EPM Administrator is looking to enable the Threat Deception feature, under what section should the EPM
Administrator go to enable this feature?
A. Threat Protection Inbox
C. Threat Intelligence
D. Policy Audit
An EPM Administrator would like to enable CyberArk EPM's Ransomware Protection in Restrict mode.
What should the EPM Administrator do?
A. Set Block unhandled applications to On.
B. Set Protect Against Ransomware to Restrict.
C. Set Protect Against Ransomware to Restrict and Set Block unhandled applications to On.
D. Set Control unhandled applications to Detect.
An EPM Administrator would like to enable a Threat Protection policy, however, the policy protects an application that
is not installed on all endpoints.
What should the EPM Administrator do?
A. Enable the Threat Protection policy and configure the Policy Targets.
B. Do not enable the Threat Protection policy.
C. Enable the Threat Protection policy only in Detect mode.
D. Split up the endpoints in to separate Sets and enable Threat Protection for only one of the Sets.
After a clean installation of the EPM agent, the local administrator password is not being changed on macOS and the
old password can still be used to log in.
What is a possible cause?
A. Secure Token on macOS endpoint is not enabled.
B. EPM agent is not able to connect to the EPM server.
C. After installation, Full Disk Access for the macOS agent to support EPM policies was not approved.
D. Endpoint password policy is too restrictive.
In EPM, creation of which user type is required to use SAML?
A. Local CyberArk EPM User
B. AD User
C. SQL User
D. Azure AD User
A company is looking to manage their Windows Servers and Desktops with CyberArk EPM. Management would like
to define different default policies between the Windows Servers and Windows Desktops.
What should the EPM Administrator do?
A. In the Default Policies, exclude either the Windows Servers or the Windows Desktops.
B. Create Advanced Policies to apply different policies between Windows Servers and Windows Desktops.
C. CyberArk does not recommend installing EPM Agents on Windows Servers.
D. Create a separate Set for Windows Servers and Windows Desktops.
Before enabling Ransomware Protection, what should the EPM Administrator do first?
A. Enable the Privilege Management Inbox in Elevate mode.
B. Enable the Control Applications Downloaded From The Internet feature in Restrict mode.
C. Review the Authorized Applications (Ransomware Protection) group and update if necessary.
D. Enable Threat Protection and Threat Intelligence modules.
What is the CyberArk recommended practice when deploying the EPM agent to non-persistent VDIs?
A. A separate set
B. a VDI advanced policy
C. a separate license
D. A separate computer group
If you want to diagnose agent EPM agent connectivity issues, what is the agent executable that can be used from the
What unauthorized change can CyberArk EPM Ransomware Protection prevent?
A. Windows Registry Keys
B. Website Data
C. Local Administrator Passwords
D. Certificates in the Certificate Store
How does CyberArk EPM's Ransomware Protection feature monitor for Ransomware Attacks?
A. It compares known ransomware signatures retrieved from virus databases.
B. It sandboxes the suspected ransomware and applies heuristics.
C. It monitors for any unauthorized access to specified files.
D. It performs a lookup of file signatures against VirusTotal's database.
On the Default Policies page, what are the names of policies that can be set as soon as EPM is deployed?
A. Privilege Escalation, Privilege Management, Application Management
B. Privilege Management, Application Control, Threat analysis
C. Privilege Management, Threat Protection, Application Escalation Control
D. Privilege Management, Privilege Threat Protection, Local Privileged Accounts Management
An EPM Administrator would like to notify end users whenever the Elevate policy is granting users elevation for their
applications. Where should the EPM Administrator go to enable the end-user dialog?
A. End-user UI in the left panel of the console
B. Advanced, Agent Configurations
C. Default Policies
D. End-User UI within the policy
Can the EPM Set Administrator configure Audit Dialog Pop-ups for the Record Audit Video option?
A. Yes, when Audit Video recording started, when Audit Video recording stopped, and when Audit Recording video
reached size limit.
B. Yes, when Audit Video recording started, when not enough disk space to start the video recording, and when video
recording is initializing.
C. Yes, when Audit Video recording started, when Audit Video recording is uploaded to the EPM server, and when
audit recording cannot be initialized.
D. No, Audit Video is only available without the possibility of having End-User dialog pop-ups.
An EPM Administrator would like to exclude an application from all Threat Protection modules. Where should the
EPM Administrator make this change?
A. Privilege Threat Protection under Policies.
B. Authorized Applications under Application Groups.
C. Protect Against Ransomware under Default Policies.
D. Threat Protection under Agent Configurations.
When adding the EPM agent to a pre-existing security stack on workstation, what two steps are CyberArk
recommendations. (Choose two.)
A. Add any pre-existing security application to the Files to Be Ignored Always.
B. Add EPM agent to the other security tools exclusions.
C. EPM agent should never be run with any other security tools.
D. Create new advanced policies for each security tool.
The Final test will be Monday, December 12 from 3:30-5:30 pm.
Prof. Hess will be available for last-minute questions on Monday in ME 3003B.
All students will take the test in CL50.
Some additional notes regarding the Final Exam:
Final test from previous semesters
CyberArk and Accenture are taking their long-standing collaboration to new heights, aiming to deliver privileged access management solutions for clients worldwide. The two companies announced today an evolution of their collaboration, with Accenture expanding deployment of the CyberArk Identity Security Platform to include CyberArk Privilege Cloud.
Through their unified efforts, the two companies strive to foster a holistic approach to security, enabling zero trust at an enterprise scale through advanced solutions grounded in identity security and privileged access management.
A Fruitful Partnership Amplified
I spoke with Chris Moore, senior VP of global channels at CyberArk, and Harpreet Sidhu, senior managing director with Accenture, about the collaboration between the two companies and the crucial role of privileged access management.
The partnership is not recent; it has flourished for many years with tangible results. The working synergy has been leveraged from both ends, with Accenture becoming CyberArk's "go-to partner from a services perspective," according to Moore. Notably, Accenture is CyberArk's single largest enabled partner globally, spotlighting the deep-seated mutual trust and commitment at the heart of this collaboration.
Accenture's Harpreet, emphasized the proactive strategies and investment in privileged access capabilities, which have not only averted crises but also propelled sustainable growth. He stressed that the collaboration with CyberArk has addressed complex global environmental challenges and varying use cases with stellar efficiency, and streamlining identity security operations for global 2000 customers.
A press release announcing the collaboration explains, “By incorporating CyberArk Privilege Cloud into its own cyber defense-strategy, Accenture benefits from the same level of cybersecurity it delivers to clients, enabling sensitive data and critical systems to be well-protected. CyberArk enables Accenture to securely store, rotate and isolate credentials (for both human and non-human users).”
The Zero Trust Resurgence and Identity Security
I pointed out the current resurgence in focus on zero trust and how privileged access management and identity security are vital components for fostering the foundation of a zero trust environment. Sidhu likens a strong identity program to "the foundation for the house," emphasizing that without it, "you're leaving the front door open."
The progression toward zero trust is a multifaceted journey, entailing a conglomeration of capabilities, including good Identity Governance and assurance programs, certification attestation, and robust privileged access management capacities. Harpreet stressed that these essential elements safeguard an organization’s "crown jewels" while securing privileged access across different environments.
Moore shares this perspective, adding, “Identity security is everything and privilege is in the middle of that journey.” It oversees an extensive range, from workforce and customer access to identity management, which Moore believes makes CyberArk an indispensable tool in the voyage to zero trust.
Empowering Enterprises in Today's Macro Environment
In the rapidly evolving macro environment, the partnership seeks to empower enterprises to grow and adapt at the necessary speed. Sidhu noted the CyberArk platform's capacity to leverage automation and cloud capabilities—features essential for optimizing organization, staffing, and achieving desired outcomes in today's setting.
As part of a holistic strategy, the platform promises a continuum of identity security, covering a wide spectrum, and guarding against vulnerabilities from various attack paths. Moore emphasized, “Attackers are going to take the path of least resistance all the time,” and explained that the CyberArk platform delivers an integrated approach to handling complex enterprise stories and facilitating a seamless security journey.
Accenture: Customer Zero and a Learning Ground
Accenture has not only been a partner but also a learning ground. Moore and Sidhu shared the notion of “Customer Zero" and the importance of an organization leading the way by embracing and utilizing the technologies they provide to customers.
The vast experience and operational scale of the relationship between the two offers a unique playground for CyberArk, facilitating a reciprocative relationship grounded in learning and growing from mutual experiences. The collaboration helps to bring best of breed solutions to the fore, fine-tuned through experiences garnered in Accenture's extensive ecosystem.
Looking Forward: Market Synergies and Growth Prospects
Accenture and CyberArk are harmonizing their narratives, leveraging 700,000 personnel at Accenture to disseminate the collaborative story globally. Moving forward, they aim to foster a security-first narrative, originating from the board and C-level discussions, gradually permeating through the entire organization's fabric.
As Sidhu aptly mentions, this collaboration is not merely a "nice to have"; it is quintessential for business growth in today's environment. With a unified vision and a fortified partnership, CyberArk and Accenture feel they are poised to set new benchmarks in the cybersecurity landscape, championing innovation, efficiency, and a security-first approach in global business operations.
When you are ready, proceed to the current exam.
Read about the new Word Police training manual, Word Court, by Word Police Commissioner Barbara Wallraff.
Join a conversation on Word Police and Word Court in Atlantic Unbound's reader forum, Post & Riposte.
Read recent Word Court columns from The Atlantic Monthly, and browse the Word Fugitives archive, in The Court Record.
Sample Entrance Exam
Word Police exams consist of questions similar to the ones below. Here beneath each question we've told you which answer is correct, and explained why.
When you are taking an real exam, once you've answered all five questions, press the "Submit answers" button to have your responses scored. If you're not sure of the answer to any question, why not take your best guess? (No points are deducted for wrong answers.) You'll need to get at least four answers right to be allowed to proceed. On the next page, you will be asked a final question that you must answer correctly in order to pass the exam.
The real exams provide a clue about the intent of the questions that isn't available here -- namely, that each of them is the test for a particular squad or division. The questions on the entrance test for any given squad will have to do with that squad's specialty. So, for example, on the entrance test for the Number Unit, the focus of the questions will tend to be grammatical number (say, "the Word Police is ..." or "the Word Police are ..."?).
Copyright © 2000 by The Atlantic Monthly Company. All rights reserved.
An Ark Full of Security
CyberArk Software Ltd. (NASDAQ:CYBR) of Israel has been on our acquisition list for 7 years. Like Noah's ark secured the human race, CyberArk wants to make us all safer. Our Seeking Alpha article about the identity security company appeared on S A on November 28, 2018; the share price was on the move up topping $68.35 each at the time of publication. The share price closed the second week of December ’23 near its 52-week high at $204.53 then slipped to $201.25 to close the second week of December '23.
In our opinion, current measures substantiate the stock’s Buy-rating status we, S A, and Wall Street analysts assign it at this time.
CyberArk stands out from its peers in several ways meaningful to investors. My associate, Dan Goldmeier, now VP of Sales & Marketing at start-up Hospice Tools in Chicago, worked with CyberArk in a former position at an Israeli software company. He rates CyberArk "a great company with some of the best tech for cybersecurity for governments and banks and enterprise companies. And the service to customers with boots on the ground is stellar."
In a survey by Gartner Peer Insights, CyberArk reviews rate it higher than Microsoft (MSFT) and 22 other well-known players in the field of Identity Security. CyberArk is "better at service and support, easier to integrate and deploy, and better evaluation and contracting."
A second reason for our gleam comes from the company's strategy of generating growing recurring revenue; that translates to good earnings and high margins. The quarterly gross profit margin over the last 3 quarters averages ~80% and 81.59% over all the years. That number is better than 85% of GPM of companies in the industry. CyberArk's operating and net margins rank lower than those of industry competitors but CyberArk is producing enough cash flow for the company liquidity ranking to place it mid-level among its peers.
According to Stockanalysis.com, CyberArk is the seventh largest, Israel-based, publicly traded, business on a U. S. exchange by market cap (~$8.39B) with annual revenue touching $700M.
A primary reason for the resiliency of Israel's stocks is that most of the above companies have R&D and marketing offices overseas and customers are worldwide. Overseas locations operationally support CyberArk's Israel and West Bank locations. Its operations, productivity, and output are minimally affected by the war.
CyberArk Software develops, markets, and sells software security programs and services. It is building subscription revenue, too.
Brand names include
Customers include financial services, manufacturing, insurance, healthcare, energy and utilities, transportation, retail, technology, and telecommunications industries. Private customers and government agencies are reached through CyberArk’s direct sales force, channel sales, security service providers, and advisory partners.
The company was founded in 1999 when Israel’s burgeoning tech industry engendered its tag name, the Start-Up Nation. Late this year, CyberArk was named an Overall Leader in the KuppingerCole Analysts AG 2023 “Leadership Compass: Access Management” report. “The company’s overall leadership position is based on the strength of its CyberArk Identity offering across the report’s product, innovation and market categories.”
CyberArk’s growth is partly attributable to its acquisition of 7 companies in software and IT at a cost of nearly $145M over the years. S A reports investment firm Wedbush Securities recently cited CyberArk among the global leaders likely to benefit from increased Washington spending next year on security and risk management; it projects total spending of $215B in ’24 or +14% Y/Y. Israel’s cybersecurity firms and government are projected to report revenue to grow in 2024 at an annual CAGR average of 11.66% hitting a market volume of $1.5B by FY ’28. This might be an underestimation considering how significantly cybersecurity firms are aiding in Israel’s anti-terror war effort.
More Good News
Q3 ’23 reported in November was one of the company’s best quarters. Demand for Identity Security is a global priority according to the CEO: “Total bookings growth accelerated and…significantly outpaced our guidance framework.” The engagement of customers on a subscription model resulted in “a break-out in terms of product ARR (annual recurring revenue) subscription growth, rising to a quarterly level," according to S A analyst Bert Hochfeld.
The shareholders were also told
We foresee significant revenue growth, and better and more consistent EPS upside over the next 2 years and into the future. Identity cybersecurity is an important part of risk management in public space security, as we discussed in a recent article about Evolv Technologies Holdings, Inc. (EVLV). We think the increase in demand for CyberArk’s products and services on a subscription basis is going to positively affect the consensus FY ‘24 EPS forecast loss to between -$1.73-to -$2.38 from the 2023 consensus between -$2.31-to -$2.40 per share. Wells Fargo (WFC) recently upgraded its average target price from $201 to $231.
We see an opportunity for an average target share price of +$250 over the next 3 to 6 months with no impediments to ending this rally anytime soon.
Finally, media coverage and sentiment about CyberArk was bullish most of the year and seems to remain so.
In our 2018 article, we wrote, “CyberArk is a solid investment for small investors interested in the cybersecurity industry. There is plenty of room for growth and opportunities for climbing to the target prices set by institutional investors.” Little has changed except, to note, that S A downgraded its Quant Rating assessment this year to Hold, as the share price soared $100 from the end of 2022 lowering its valuation. We consider this new status a risk flag and investors need to watch valuation.
Another concern is the conflict in Gaza; when Israel was invaded by Hamas in October, the average share price of Israel-based firms dived around 14% to 16%. Shares of CyberArk sold for $171 each in Sep ’23, slipped to ~$156 in late October, but are back-up, as we predicted the share prices would be once initial economic-impact revisions were evaluated.
Third, corporate insiders do not own many shares and that is never reassuring to retail value investors. Hedge funds consistently bought the stock in the first quarter of 2023 and in greater quantities beginning in May ’23. Since the rally, funds have tended to sell, decreasing their holdings by 102K shares last quarter. At its peak number in Q1 ’23, 33 hedge funds owned shares, 27 in Q2, and 30 at the end of Q3 ’23.
We do not see any downward trend evolving yet despite the greatest risk which is the high valuation. The company holds $571.6M in debt but last reported $906.2M in cash and equivalents; plus, its market cap tops $8B. CyberArk’s net cash flow from operations is slightly up but so are liabilities. It is liquid enough to cover outstanding financial obligations. Short interest moved up to +5% on the share price rise with days to cover 3-to-4 down from +7 last August.
CyberArk is in a labor-intensive business competing for trained innovative-thinking employees. In February ’23, the company hired another 150 employees to keep R&D apace. Officials also announced the CEO of 18 years is stepping down, but we expect any new moves to be delayed until after the war on terrorists is settled.
Regarding S A’s valuation F grade, a peek at the metrics reveals the share price rally puts them out-of-sync with sector mean numbers. For example, P/E non-GAAP forward is 261.6 versus the sector mean of 23.8; PEG non-GAAP is 11.89 versus 2.03; and EV to Sales TTM and FWD is around 11 to the sector’s mean of 2.88 and 2.81, respectively. EV/EBITDA gets an F standing at 1.88 to 15.3. CyberArk’s price to various metrics all rate a D- or F. Concomitantly, its Enterprise Value has steadily risen:
In our opinion, considering EV growth, past and potential revenue and earnings growth, liquidity, potential for generating recurring income, and other metrics, we conclude the shares selling at around $210 each is a reasonable fair value but other valuation gauges suggest there is potential for the share price to move up higher.
Granted, the current share price is on the expensive side of fair value; we think fair value will rise when its price-to-sales ratio becomes more balanced as the company grows, cuts debt, enjoys the results of lower loan interest rates, and Identity Security software grows in sophistication and effectiveness pushing massive industry growth.
More value lies in the potential for this Israeli tech company garnering M&A attention from a suitor. These deals are at a 9 year low because of the war but identity tech companies have learned a lot from the war making CyberArk potentially more valuable.
We see from the valuation metrics a rising risk from sell-offs to take profits as we near the end of the year and start a new one. But predictions are, for the most part, 2024 will be a big up year for the stock market. The demand for identity security is only going to increase. We do not see any other significant downward pressures over the next 6 months on the stock. CyberArk is facing few risks, is carrying through on its subscription strategy, and has the potential for tremendous growth worldwide. It is why the company gets a better Factor Grade for Momentum from 6 and 3 months earlier and we see the stock as a Buy opportunity even at +$200 per share.
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A typical examination question in Mathematics will have several parts to it. Some parts (most usually at the beginning of the question) test your knowledge, by asking you to reproduce "bookwork", i.e. material presented in the lectures. Really, these parts test how well you've revised. Occasionally, especially in certain more advanced courses, there are entire questions that are bookwork. In some courses, some pieces of bookwork come up in the test almost every year. In other courses, hardly any bookwork is set explicitly.
Tip: Figure out which pieces of bookwork come up most frequently, and make sure you can answer those questions easily and quickly.
You would be surprised how many poor attempts at routine bookwork questions we see every year. These are the parts of the questions that we expect students to be able to do.
Other parts of examination questions involve a "problem". In a "Methods" course, this will typically involve you applying a known technique from the course, and again this is something we expect you to be able to do. In a Pure Mathematics course, you might be asked to prove a result, or to apply a result in a particular setting.
Tip: Sometimes (but certainly not always!), the first part of the question is intended as a big hint as to how you should approach the second part.
Many test questions, especially those that are otherwise very routine, have a last part (a "rider") which is more challenging than the rest of the question. This is quite deliberate, and the intention is to test whether you've really understood the material.
Tip: Do try all the riders (they're not always so hard after all!) but don't waste too much time on them in an test if there are other things you can tackle instead.
Students sometimes seem to be annoyed that they have to do something clever to get 100% on a question. Don't forget, in many other subjects it's practically impossible to score 100% on a question!
Tip: Make sure you've answered all the parts of the question. Sometimes you're asked to do seven or eight things, and it's easy to overlook one.
In January 2023, we reported on the reasons why nursing test pass rates fell in 2020 and 2021. In this report, we follow up on what has happened since.
During the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, the share of candidates who passed the national licensure test to work as a registered nurse fell sharply, from 88.2% to 82.5%, for first-time U.S.-educated candidates, with a smaller decline -- from 72.8% to 68.9% -- for all candidates, including internationally educated and repeat test-takers.
In 2022, pass rates continued to drop, averaging 79.9% (8 percentage points lower than in 2019) for first-time U.S.-educated candidates, and 63.4% for all candidates, the lowest point in the last decade.
In 2023, to most experts' surprise, that spiral appears to be turning around.
Things Are Looking Up
The reason for this reversal depends on whom you ask. Test developers have argued that rates improved due to radical transparency and massive outreach to stakeholders, while some online critics have suggested the test simply got easier. Other nurse educators agreed that the increased transparency and outreach impacted rates, but worry those same measures exacerbated a culture of "teaching to the test."
Understanding trends in test pass rates also requires context.
The National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) produces the test that aspiring nurses take to gain licensure: the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX). This test uses computerized adaptive testing, which means each test-taker gets virtually a different exam, the difficulty of which changes based on the response given.
Every 3 years, the NCSBN assesses the pass rates for the test and determines whether the current passing standard is appropriate. If the NCSBN's board of directors decides that the level of clinical judgment required of nurses in practice has increased, it can vote to raise the passing standard.
In December 2022, the NCSBN's board voted to keep the current passing standard on the NCLEX through March 31, 2026. Months later, on April 1, the NCSBN launched the Next Generation NCLEX (NGN), a new version of the NCLEX that aims to more effectively measure test-takers' clinical judgment.
Anytime a new test is introduced, pass rates tend to dip by a few percentage points in the first two to three quarters, explained Philip Dickison, PhD, RN, CEO of the NCSBN. He said he was naturally a bit concerned about a new test compounding the "drastic drop in the ability curve" seen during the pandemic, "but it was still the right thing to do."
Keith Rischer, PhD, RN, a nurse educator and owner of KeithRN, a nursing education company, recalled that the last major change to the NCLEX occurred when the passing standard was raised by 0.16 percentage points in 2012. Pass rates fell more than 7 percentage points -- from 90.34% for first-time candidates to 83.04% -- in a single year.
While the NCSBN kept the same passing standard in 2022, the stronger emphasis on clinical judgment and the "unique six-question case studies" in the NGN was predicted to increase the difficulty of the test in some respects.
"There was an anticipation that this was going to be another precipitous decline in NCLEX pass rates," Rischer said.
However, that wasn't what happened. Instead, preliminary data showed a jump in pass rates, from 79.9% in 2022 to 88.6% in 2023, for all first-time U.S.-educated candidates. Importantly, the 2023 data exclude the fourth quarter of the calendar year, which typically has the lowest pass rate, experts noted.
Still, Dickison said he was "pretty amazed" at the speed of the recovery. Some viewed the change as a "huge increase," but he stressed that rates were starting from a low baseline following a 3-year period when other variables, namely pandemic-related disruptions, impacted pass rates.
"What I think you're seeing ... is that we have rebounded to pre-pandemic ability levels in our measurements," he said.
Dickison credits the rebound to NCSBN's decision to let educators, regulators, and -- controversially -- preparatory groups "under the hood" of the new test for several years before the NGN actually launched.
"The idea was to be as transparent as possible to all stakeholders," Dickison said. This meant leveraging opportunities at conferences and during webinars, and sharing what to expect of the new test -- from case studies and measurement models -- in newsletters. Dickison also credited educators for the big role they played in helping prepare students.
Rayna Letourneau, PhD, RN, executive director of the Florida Center for Nursing, said that while some nurse educators have noted the test has gotten "too easy," she suggested that perhaps the NGN is simply "a more logical way to measure what nursing students are being taught."
Similarly, she attributes the rise in pass rates to the focus on increased resources and preparation of candidates, including the implementation of "student success" coaching programs.
Teaching to the Test?
Rischer seemed to have a different view, pointing out that the NGN offers partial credit for certain "select-all-that-apply" multiple-choice questions. He said that he believes the real reason for improved pass rates is a shift in nursing education, though he added that his hypothesis is, at this point, "conjecture."
"What we have in the nursing literature for over almost 50 years ... is this widening gap between how nursing is taught in the university and college settings and how it's actually practiced at the bedside," he said. "We're not preparing our graduates for real-world practice realities."
Rischer said he grew even more concerned when he learned from online discussions that some professors were using NGN demo items to teach first-semester students.
"That's called teaching to the test," he argued. Instead of teaching students "alternative multiple-choice items, we need to be teaching our students the open-ended thinking of clinical practice."
For example, for a patient who had an appendectomy, Rischer said the appropriate steps are to take vital signs and conduct a head-to-toe assessment.
"There is not a 'select-all-that apply' multiple-choice item on your forehead that I could say, 'You know what? This is the correct answer,'" he added, noting that the NCSBN "is part of the problem." Currently, the primary mechanism that state nursing boards use to measure a program's performance is their first-time pass rate on the NCLEX, which only "reinforc[es] this unhealthy culture of teaching to the test."
The end result of that, as studies have shown, is that "currently less than 10% [of new nurses] have what practice partners would say is entry-level clinical judgment competency," Rischer said, citing a 2021 study. "Complications develop when a nurse doesn't notice or recognize what's most important until it's too late. So ... clinical judgment competency is a big deal. And teaching to the test ... isn't going to solve that."
He said one solution is to move away from first-time test-taker metrics and potentially allow students to take the test twice and then average their score.
Another, more dramatic, change would be to include a skills test or what Rischer calls "demonstrable competencies" for essential skills involved in clinical decision making, which could be evaluated by an "objective observer."
"It will take more time. It will take more money, but this is something that we can and should be doing," he said.
'Not the Only Measurement'
For his part, Dickison noted that the NGN, like any exam, has limitations.
While it "measures your cognitive and your thinking ability, our test does not measure the affective domain, doesn't measure character," he said. For example, the test cannot assess a "less-than-acceptable social interaction" a student has with a professor, nor does the test know which student is always late to class.
"If they don't show up to class on time every day, that might be a [sign] that they're not going to show up to a patient when they need to," Dickison explained. "That's why you have a regulatory system. That's why we have an education [system] ... these all have to work together. If you don't pass the NCLEX, you don't go to work, but it is not the only measurement that tells us we have a good nurse."
To determine authenticity and authorship.
The specifics of an investigation will depend on the nature of the document being studied (e.g., historical or personal) and the goals of the inquiry. Generally speaking, a document will be examined from three different aspects: historical, scientific, and stylistic.
Tips on how to authenticate a document by comparing handwriting.
It is virtually impossible to pinpoint the age of an undated document, but there may be clues to the era. If it is a printed piece - say a greeting card - the method of printing, address, and even the stamp may be important.
At the very least, materials and techniques must be consistent with place and time. Many forgeries are identified by the presence of materials that didn’t exist at the time alleged.
A detailed paper analysis will detect every shred of physical evidence concealed in a document.
Comparisons of style are essential for authentication. Penmanship, cultural phrasing, and form of address can help to identify both the era and author. Handwriting comparisons can authenticate a signature or manuscript.
In some cases, all of it taken together can’t solve a historical puzzle. For example, there are five known manuscript copies of the Gettysburg Address. Testing has proved that all are authentic Lincoln documents. But it will never prove, definitively, which of the five Lincoln actually read from at Gettysburg.
General Final test Information
GeneralFinal exams will be generated by the Registrar’s Office according to an test matrix on or about the last day of the add/drop period for the term for any course that has 'Yes' indicated for a Final test in the catalog. The day and time of the first class meeting during the week determine the date and time for each exam. Courses that meet outside the normal university block scheduling will be scheduled within the time block that best fits the schedule without creating conflicts for students.
Exam times are as follows:
While test blocks are three hours long, the real length of the test is determined by the instructor.
If examination days are postponed because of weather conditions, the first make-up day is documented on the academic calendar.
Faculty should review their test schedule just after the last day of add/drop. If an test was not generated or changes are needed, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Requests for final exams, combined exams, etc. will not be accepted after the mid-semester evaluation date for the term in question. Please refer to the academic calendar for specific date information.
Note: Requests for combined exams will not be accepted after the mid-semester evaluation date for the term in question. Please refer to the academic calendar for specific date information.
If a student has three (or more) finals scheduled on the same test day, the student has the right to ask that a make up test (or exams) be scheduled to reduce the number of exams in each day to two. Under these circumstances, required courses1 take priority, so the student should make every effort to arrange the make-up test for a non-required course with the respective instructor. Likewise, if a student has two finals scheduled in the same test period, the required course takes priority; the student should schedule a make-up test for the non-required conflicting course with the respective instructor. If for any reason a mutually agreeable solution between the student and the instructor cannot be achieved, the student should see his or her college dean immediately.
Students – If you have questions regarding any of your final exams, please contact your instructor directly. Instructors should reach out by email to: email@example.com if an test update is needed in SiS.
1'Required courses' refers to whichever course is required toward that specific student’s degree pathway.
Final Exams for Hybrid and Virtual Class Sections
Exams (including final exams) for fully virtual classes should be administered virtually, as that is the modality which students selected. Exceptions to hold on-campus exams require deans' approval. An email (noting the approval) should be sent by email to: firstname.lastname@example.org so that the test location may be updated – exceptions are subject to room availability. If approved, faculty must indicate the alternate test format in their course syllabus and accommodate students who are unable to attend in-person exams.
If a class section is hybrid (includes both an in-person meeting and either an online or virtual meeting pattern), then the final test will be assigned as in-person, but the instructor may request the final test to be virtual/online depending on the modes of instruction of the hybrid section. Hybrid courses also include courses that have more than one component with different modes of instruction (i.e., the lecture portion is virtual, but the recitation is in-person) and the instructor may decide whether or not the final test is in-person in this scenario as well. Any requests for final test updates should be sent by email to: email@example.com.
Undergraduate and Graduate Final Exams (Day-school Sections)
Graduate, Online and Professional Studies Final Exams (GPS Sections)
Graduate, Online and Professional Studies sections (section number typically begins with '0') take place on the final on-campus meeting day for that section (usually the week prior to the final test period) – please see the on-campus course dates on Graduate, Online and Professional Studies website for the final meeting date (not to be confused with the course session dates).
If a GPS section is 'matched' (combined) with a day-school section (example ACCT 2010 201 and ACCT 2010 001), the final test will follow day-school guidelines and an test block will be assigned for both sections in SIS.
Classroom Reservations During the Final test Period
Classroom reservations for ad hoc needs during the final test period (review sessions, test accommodations, makeup exams, etc.) will be accepted one week prior to the final test period. Please email scheduling for these requests.
Individual makeup exams should be coordinated between the student and instructor as needed and should take place through the UMass Lowell Testing Centers or in a department location (please do not use academic classrooms for individual makeup exams without a confirmed reservation).
If an entire class needs to makeup an test due to an unforeseen circumstance or emergency, the test should be rescheduled by emailing: firstname.lastname@example.org. Makeup exams for classes should take place during the regular examination period.
The university final test makeup dates listed on the university calendar are only to be used for inclement weather or other unanticipated university closure and should not be used as final test dates for individual student or class makeup exams.
Disability Services Support & Resources
Students who are registered with the Disability Services Office and have been approved for an extended time accommodation: if you have two exams scheduled on the same day, you may reschedule one of the exams if it has been confirmed that both exams are scheduled to use the entire 3-hour block. Please refer to the instructions under Examination Conflicts listed above to do so. For any other accommodation or disability-related question or concern, please contact by email: email@example.com or visit Disability Services website for faculty and student resources.
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