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Killexams : SpringSource Core-Spring download - BingNews Search results Killexams : SpringSource Core-Spring download - BingNews Killexams : SpringSource Launches Java Application Server

ByChris Kanaracus, IDG News Service

— -- SpringSource, maker of the Spring Framework for Java development, will announce a new application server on Wednesday that it claims will "liberate" Java users from "antiquated legacy Java technologies."

Dubbed the SpringSource Application Platform, the server combines Spring technologies and the Apache Tomcat server with the increasingly popular OSGi (Open Services Gateway Initiative) framework for Java development.

OSGi "enables a more dynamic, less constricted Java" because it enables applications to load modules of Java classes on demand, Redmonk analyst James Governor wrote in a recent blog post: "There is no need to load the entire Java stack to run an application - just the runtime services it actually requires."

For the new release, SpringSource has developed the Dynamic Module Kernel (dm-Kernel), which makes working with OSGi simpler, according to the company.

"OSGi is very difficult to use out of the box," said SpringSource CEO Rod Johnson. Customers and systems integrators whom the company has spoken with regarding OSGi are "all enthusiastic about the benefits, but have pulled back from trying to use it."

The product is now in beta at SpringSource's Web site. The company is planning to release open-source and commercial versions in June. Pricing is still being determined, but will be "competitive" with other offerings, Johnson said.

SpringSource is releasing the new functionality -- which, besides the dm-Kernel, includes a management console and assorted other plumbing, according to Johnson -- under the GPLv3 open-source license.

With the launch, SpringSource has essentially packaged up ongoing practices in the Java community, said Michael Coté, another Redmonk analyst. "What they're doing is taking the use case of Tomcat and Spring and some other JEE goodies and putting it into a 'product,'" he said.

The effort should not be taken lightly, Coté suggested: "The Spring Framework has revolutionized the use of Java for sure, and I wouldn't dismiss SpringSource's efforts to put that further."

Efforts like SpringSource's reflect OSGi's growing role on the server side. Consultant and developer Daniel Rubio visited this trend in a recent essay.

Tue, 29 Apr 2008 23:59:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Core Curriculum

Because a liberal education in the Jesuit tradition is oriented toward particular ends, the Core Curriculum affirms a set of central learning goals. These goals are divided among three broad categories—Knowledge, Habits of Mind and Heart, and Engagement with the World.

Thu, 13 Aug 2020 00:51:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : The 6-Step Core Web Vitals Guide: How To Boost Your Website Ranking

Is your website losing rankings?

Worried that your site isn’t meeting Google’s Core Web Vitals criteria?

Want to optimize the page speed of your website but aren’t sure what to do next?

This guide will take you step by step through the process of:

But first, let’s get a solid understanding of what Core Web Vitals are and why we need to pay attention to these key SEO metrics.

What Are The Core Web Vitals?

The Core Web Vitals are a set of three page speed metrics that were developed by Google.

Each metric measures and rates a different aspect of the experience your visitor has on the pages of your website.

  • Largest Contentful Paint (LCP): How quickly does the main page content render?
  • Cumulative Layout Shift (CLS): Is the page layout stable after rendering?
  • First Input Delay(FID): How quickly does the page react to user input?

The better your results in a Core Web Vitals test, the better your rank could be on SERPs.

See your website’s Core Web Vitals now

How Do Core Web Vitals Impact Google Rankings?

The Core Web Vitals metrics became a ranking factor with the Page Experience update in June 2021.

Google collects these metrics from real Chrome users as part of the Chrome User Experience Report (CrUX).

This data is then used to rank the search results.

For each metric, Google has defined a threshold for what counts as a “Good” user experience, and these good scores will be colored green in any Core Web Vitals report. For example, the Largest Contentful Paint should happen within 2.5 seconds of navigating to a page.

Does Lighthouse Score Impact My Website Ranking?

Unlike the Core Web Vitals, the Lighthouse score does not impact your search engine rankings. Even if Lighthouse gives you a low score, your real users might still have a good experience on your website.

In addition to the Core Web Vitals metrics, many performance tools will also show you a Performance score between 0 and 100.

This is called the Lighthouse Performance score, based on Google’s Lighthouse testing tool that many other site speed tests are built on top of.

This score provides a high-level evaluation of your website.

However, when optimizing your pages, you can ignore it and instead focus on the specific metrics you want to improve.

So, let’s start improving the website speed metrics that really matter – Core Web Vitals.

Step 1: Check If You Need To Optimize Your Core Web Vitals

Visit Search Console, a Google tool that provides in-depth reporting on how well your website does in search results.

If you have Search Console configured on your site, you can quickly see your website’s live Core Web Vitals reports. If not, here’s how to get your website set up on Google Search Console.

This Core Web Vitals tab shows how well your website is doing according to Google’s user experience metrics.

If you have only “good URLs” then you’re doing well and don’t have to worry about further optimizing Core Web Vitals for SEO.

But, if some of your pages are marked as “poor” or “needs improvement”, then improving the Core Web Vitals metrics could help your site rank higher on Google.

Step 2: Identify The Slow Pages On Your Website

Individual slow pages on your website can drag down the metrics and experience of your full website. So, it’s important to locate and repair each page that is returning a “poor” or “needs improvement” score.

How To Identify Individual Slow Pages In Search Console

If your website gets a lot of traffic, this step is easy.

  1. Open the Core Web Vitals tab.
  2. Click “Open Report” for the mobile or desktop data.
  3. Select one of the issues listed under “Why URLs aren’t considered good.”
  4. Click one of the URL groups with an issue.

Google will provide URL-level data for the example pages in the group, and you can focus your efforts on the pages that perform worst on the Core Web Vitals.

However, once you’re inside your Search Console, you may see only see data for “URL groups” instead of individual pages; that’s perfectly normal.

If you have a newer website that doesn’t get much traffic, Google will combine multiple URLs into a single URL group and rate the group according to the Core Web Vitals.

Chances are, the pages within that URL group are so similar that the changes you make to one page can be duplicated for the other pages in the group.

How To View Slow URL Groups In Search Console

Google Search Console sometimes categorizes similar pages on your website into URL groups. This is because most pages on your website likely don’t get enough traffic by themselves for Google to have sufficient performance data.

Use the detailed desktop and mobile Core Web Vitals reports in Google Search Console to find out what parts of your website are slow.

In the same area as before, you can also see your slow URL groups.

In the screenshot above, we can see that there’s a group of 30 URLs on the website that don’t meet the Largest Contentful Paint threshold.

By default, Search Console shows one example URL from the group. You can click on the group to see the full list of URLs in the group.

But just because a group of URLs is slow that doesn’t mean that every single page in that group is slow. You need to investigate further to identify what pages you need to optimize.

How To Test Individual Page Speed For URLs Inside Of A URL Group

If you’re seeing a long list of “URLs with not enough usage data,” we have a solution for you.

Google only provides URL-level performance data for individual pages that receive enough traffic to record data from.

Since you don’t have enough real user data, your best option is to run lab-based performance tests to see which pages in the URL group are slow.

Lab-based tests are run in a controlled environment used to measure page performance.

The lab data won’t match the field data, but you can use it to rank your pages and identify the slowest ones.

You can use a free site speed testing tool to run your tests, or use DebugBear to test pages in bulk and rank them by the Core Web Vitals metrics.

Step 3: Set Up Monitoring For Key Pages On Your Website

Once you’ve identified which pages are underperforming, you’ll want to continuously monitor your website to detect performance changes more quickly.

DebugBear both runs continuous lab-based tests and tracks Google’s real user data over time. This way you can confirm that your Core Web Vitals improvements are working and get alerted to any accidental regressions that occur.

Which Pages Should You Monitor Continuously?

There are three types of pages that you should consider monitoring:

  • Specific pages that you identified as having poor Core Web Vitals.
  • Key high-traffic pages like your homepage.
  • Equivalent competitor pages so that you can compare and benchmark.

Pro Tip: Identify different page categories on your website and monitor one or two URLs for each type of page.

Pages within a category will have similar performance characteristics. Monitoring 50 similar pages generally won’t help you catch additional performance problems.

Step 4: Run In-Depth Performance Tests On Slow Pages To Identify Potential Fixes

With a performance test, you’ll be able to learn the exact causes for “needs improvement” or “poor” Core Web Vitals scores.

To run a performance test on your individual slow pages:

  1. Visit: Go to
  2. Test: Enter the URL of your slow webpage.
  3. Review: Analyze your Core Web Vitals results and read the recommendations in your report to speed up your site.

How To Analyze Largest Contentful Paint Scores

Largest Contentful Paint (LCP) measures how soon after navigation the largest content element shows up on the page.

So the first step is identifying the LCP element – for example, a big image or heading on the page.

Once that’s done, you can look into what you can do to load the resources necessary to show that content more quickly.

How To Analyze Cumulative Layout Shift Scores

Cumulative Layout Shift measures how stable the layout is after rendering.

To reduce it, check what UI elements change position after the initial page load.

How To Analyze First Input Delay Scores

First Input Delay measures how soon after a user interaction the page starts processing the user input.

Lab tests generally don’t simulate user interactions, but you can still look at long CPU tasks that would delay how quickly user input could be handled by the page.

Step 5: Identify The Most Promising Optimizations

The impact that different site speed optimizations have varies widely.

Often, applying a small number of improvements can drastically lift up your entire site.

Before implementing any changes, consider:

  • How big will the impact be on the Core Web Vitals?
  • Will the improvements apply just to a specific page or across the whole website?
  • How much work will it be to implement the change?

Use Quick Experiments To Estimate The Potential Impact Of A Core Web Vitals Optimization

DebugBear includes an Experiments feature that lets you try out performance optimizations without having to make and deploy code changes to your website.

You can modify the page HTML to see how changes in resource prioritization would impact your website in practice.

For example, below we can see the early stages of the rendering process for a website. An image is eventually shown at the top of the page. The screenshot at the selected point in the rendering process shows what the page layout looks like before the image has loaded.

In the baseline video recording on the left, no space is reserved for the image while the image file is being downloaded, resulting in an eventual downward shift of some of the page content when the image arrives.

On the right, we see an experiment to see how the page would load if a minimum height was set for the image, which eliminates the layout shift.

Use A Staging Environment To Test The Performance Impact Of A Core Web Vitals Optimization

Another way to check that your changes have the desired effect is by deploying code changes to a staging environment and running tests there.

Verifying metric improvements early will help you quickly find the changes that work and have a positive impact on Core Web Vitals.

Step 6: Evaluate Optimizations On Your Production Site

Once your changes are in production, or live, it will take 30 days to see the full result of your optimizations.

Once you can see the impact that your optimizations have had, you can go through these steps again to decide what to optimize next.

Start Optimizing Your Core Web Vitals For Better Performance

DebugBear can help Boost your Core Web Vitals by making it easy to run performance tests, identify opportunities for improvement, and keep track of page speed over time.

The product is built for Core Web Vitals optimization, combining Google’s real user data with in-depth reports that help you make your website faster.

Try DebugBear with a free 14-day trial.

Tue, 08 Nov 2022 18:13:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : Spring Modulith Structures Spring Boot 3 Applications with Modules and Events

VMware has introduced an experimental project, Spring Modulith, to better structure monolithic Spring Boot 3 applications through modules and events. The project introduces new classes and annotations but doesn't generate code. Its modules don't use the Java Platform Module System (JPMS), but instead map to plain Java packages. Modules have an API, but Spring Modulith encourages using Spring application events as the "primary means of interaction." These events can be automatically persisted to an event log. Spring Modulith also eases the testing of modules and events.

The upcoming Spring Boot 3 framework, due in November 2022, is the foundation of Spring Modulith. So it has a baseline of Spring Framework 6, Java 17, and Jakarta EE 9. Spring Modulith is the successor of the Moduliths (with a trailing "s") project. That project used Spring Boot 2.7 and is now retired, receiving only bug fixes until November 2023.

Spring Modulith introduces its module abstraction because Java packages are not hierarchical. That's why in this trial code below, the SomethingOrderInternal class from the example.order.internal package is visible to all other classes, not just the ones from the example.order package:

└─  src/main/java
   ├─  example
   |  └─
   ├─  example.inventory
   |  ├─
   |  └─
   ├─  example.order
   |  └─
   └─  example.order.internal

Now Spring Modulith can't make Java compilation fail for violation of its module access rules. It uses unit tests instead: ApplicationModules.of(Application.class).verify() fails for the example above if another module tries to access the module-internal class SomethingOrderInternal. Spring Modulith relies on the ArchUnit project for this capability.

Spring Modulith encourages using Spring Framework application events for inter-module communication. It enhances these events with an Event Publication Registry which guarantees delivery by persisting events. Even if the entire application crashes, or just a module receiving the event does, the registry still delivers the event. The registry supports different serialization formats and defaults to JSON. The out-of-the-box persistence methods are JPA, JDBC, and MongoDB.

Testing events is also improved: This example demonstrates how the new PublishedEvents abstraction helps filter received events to OrderCompleted with a particular ID:

void publishesOrderCompletion(PublishedEvents events) {
  var reference = new Order();

  var matchingMapped = events


Spring Modulith can automatically publish events like HourHasPassed, DayHasPassed, and WeekHasPassed at the end of a particular duration (such as an hour, day, or week). These central Passage of Time events are a convenient alternative to duplicated Spring @Scheduled annotations with cron triggers in the modules.

Spring Modulith does not include a workflow, choreography, or orchestration component for coordinating events, as the Spring ecosystem offers plenty of choices there.

Spring Modulith uses the new observability support of Spring Framework 6 to automatically create Micrometer spans for module API durations and event processing. Spring Modulith can also document modules by creating two kinds of AsciiDoc files: C4 and UML component diagrams for the relationship between modules and a so-called Application Module Canvas for the content of a single module, such as Spring beans and events.

InfoQ spoke to Spring Modulith project lead Oliver Drotbohm, Spring Staff 2 engineer at VMware.

InfoQ: Microservices solve organizational issues of monoliths, such as the failure of various departments to ship at the same release cadence. They also have technical advantages, such as the ability to scale application parts independently and use different technology stacks. Why did you decide then to Boost monoliths? And why now?

Oliver Drotbohm: Microservices architectures are very well covered by the Spring Cloud projects. However, we do not want teams to feel nudged into a particular architectural style just because the technological platform supports it better in one way or another. We want our users to feel equally supported, independent of what architecture they decide to use.

That said, monolithic systems, but also individual elements of a distributed system, have some internal structure. At best, the structure evolves and changes over the lifetime of the overall system. Our goal should be that, at worst, it at least does not accidently degrade. Spring Modulith helps to express and verify structure within a single Spring Boot application: verifying that no architectural violations have been introduced, integration testing modules in isolation, runtime observability of the modules' interactions, extracted documentation, etc.

Timing is a good point, though. We have seen a heavy trend to distribute systems until roundabout three years ago. Practical experience has shown that teams often over-divided their systems. Starting with a slightly more modulithic arrangement has its benefits, especially in domains evolving significantly: the module arrangement needs to change more rapidly as more insight into business requirements is gained. That is much easier to achieve in a monolithic application. That is what let us see increased, revived interest in how to implement modular structures in applications.

InfoQ: How useful is Spring Modulith in an application where there would be only one module?

Drotbohm: I have yet to see a non-trivial piece of software that does something useful and doesn't bear some internal structure that warrants more than one logical module.

InfoQ: There are existing systems for structuring monoliths, such as Domain-Driven Design (DDD) or Hexagonal Architecture. It seems Spring Modulith created a new approach. Why?

Drotbohm: It does not necessarily create a new approach. We piggyback on the notion of a module that has had fundamental semantics for ages but can also be found in DDD as a means to structure Bounded Contexts. The question Spring Modulith wants to answer is how developers can non-invasively express these domain modules in application code. The expressed structure allows the framework to be helpful, in integration testing, in being able to observe the application, etc. Technical structuring approaches such as Onion and Hexagonal Architecture can also be applied to the modules, but rather act as an implementation detail. We want the domain to be the primary driver of the overall code arrangement, just as suggested by Dan North.

InfoQ: The goal of the Java Platform Module System (JPMS) in Java 9 was to provide "reliable configuration" and "strong encapsulation" to Java. Why did JPMS not meet your requirements for modules?

Drotbohm: The JPMS was designed to modularize the JDK, and it does an impressive job at that. That said, a few design decisions are quite invasive for application developers that would simply like to define a few logical modules within their Spring Boot app. For instance, JPMS requires each module to be a single JAR, and integration tests must be packaged as a separate module. This imposes severe technical overhead, especially if a much simpler approach can do the trick.

That said, Spring Modulith works fine in JPMS-structured projects. If your project benefits from the advanced technical separation of JPMS modules, by all means, go for it. We still add a few exciting features on top, like the ability to run integration tests of different scopes (standalone or an entire subtree of modules).

InfoQ: How do modules in Spring Modulith compare with bounded contexts from DDD?

Drotbohm: Within DDD, a module is a means of structure within a Bounded Context. In a microservice architecture, in which a context is often aligned with a deployable service, that might result in the individual Spring Boot application consisting of a couple of modules. In a more monolithic application, developers often leverage the stronger coupling between modules induced by the type system to their benefit. It allows them to use refactoring tools to change the overall arrangement and deploy the changes as a whole without a complex API evolution process. But even in those arrangements, Bounded Contexts can be established by loosening the coupling, introducing anti-corruption and mapping layers, etc. That said, the primary concept we attach to is the — as we call it — Application Module, independent of at which level developers apply Bounded Contexts to their application.

InfoQ: Modules in Spring Modulith expose an API to other modules. But they can also interact through so-called "application events," which the documentation suggests as "their primary means of interaction." Why does Spring Modulith prefer events?

Drotbohm: There are a couple of effects of the switch from invoking a Spring bean of another module to publishing an application event instead. First, it frees the caller from having to know about the parties that need to be invoked. This creates a dependency on the caller component, as the number of foreign beans to be injected increases. The primary problem this causes is that those foreign beans need to be available when we try to integration test the calling component. Of course, we can mock the collaborators, but that means that both the implementation and the tests need intimate knowledge about the arrangement, which methods are called, etc. Every additional component that would need to be called adds more complexity to the arrangement. Alternatively, we can deploy the system as a whole, which makes the tests brittle as all modules have to be bootstrapped, and an issue in module A can cause the tests for module B to fail.

Publishing an application event instead solves that problem, as it frees the publishing component from having to know who is supposed to be invoked and those components not even having to be available at integration test time. This is a key ingredient to the ability to test application modules in isolation. This is quite similar to using message publication as a means to integrate a distributed system instead of actively invoking related systems. Except that no additional infrastructure is needed as Spring Framework already provides an in-process event bus.

InfoQ: Other frameworks have various degrees of code generation. For instance, Angular has customizable schematics to generate small amounts of code, such as modules or components. What are the plans for code generation in Spring Modulith?

Drotbohm: None, except the already existing feature to create C4 and UML component diagrams from the structural arrangement.

InfoQ: How can I migrate an existing Spring Boot 3 project to Spring Modulith?

Drotbohm: We have taken much care to ensure that using the fundamental features of Spring Modulith's is as non-invasive as possible. In its most rudimentary form, and assuming you already follow the default package arrangement conventions, you would not even have to touch your production code. You could add the verification libraries to your project in the test scope and apply a prepared architectural fitness function in a test case.

InfoQ: Spring Modulith is an experimental project. How safe is it to use in production?

Drotbohm: Spring Modulith has a predecessor named Moduliths that is currently available in version 1.3 and has been used in production by a couple of projects for the last two years. Thus, the experimental status reflects the fact that we simply start new Spring projects as such. Also, compared to Moduliths, we flipped a couple of defaults and would like to see how the community reacts to those changes. We want to react to feedback rather quickly and avoid being limited by internal API compatibility requirements that we have to fulfill as a non-experimental Spring project for a while. The rough plan is to use the time until Spring Boot 3.1 to gather feedback and, unless we find any significant problem, promote the project to non-experimental in early Q2 2023.

InfoQ: Spring Modulith is currently at version 0.1 M2. What are the plans for its future?

Drotbohm: We are currently introducing the project to Spring developers, gathering feedback, and trying to incorporate this until the 1.0 release. Compared to Modulith, we have already added JDBC- and MongoDB-based implementations of the Event Publication Registry. We are looking into similar extensions of the current feature set, like more advanced observability features to capture business-relevant metrics per module or a visual representation of event-command flows through the application. It would be nice if, in a couple of years, we find the conventions established by Spring Modulith in as many Spring Boot applications as possible, no matter which architectural style they follow.

The project has already reached its second milestone of version 0.1. More details may be found in the documentation and source code on GitHub.

Tue, 22 Nov 2022 01:57:00 -0600 en text/html
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Killexams : Java Champion Josh Long on Spring Framework 6 and Spring Boot 3

Key Takeaways

  • Microservices are an opportunity to show where Java lags behind other languages.
  • Reactive programming provides a concise DSL to express the movement of state and to write concurrent, multithreaded code with better scaling.
  • Developing in Spring Boot works well even without special tooling support.
  • Regarding current Java developments, Josh Long is most excited about Virtual Threads in Project Loom, Java optimization in Project Leyden, and Foreign-Function access in Project Panama.
  • Josh Long wishes for real lambdas in Java — structural lambdas — and would like to revive Spring Rich, a defunct framework for building desktop Swing-powered client applications.

VMware released Spring Framework 6 and Spring Boot 3. After five years of Spring Framework 5, these releases start a new generation for the Spring ecosystem. Spring Framework 6 requires Java 17 and Jakarta EE 9 and is compatible with the recently released Jakarta EE 10. It also embeds observability through Micrometer with tracing and metrics. Spring Boot 3 requires Spring Framework 6. It has built-in support for creating native executables through static Ahead-of-Time (AOT) compilation with GraalVM Native Image. Further details on these two releases may be found in this InfoQ news story.

InfoQ spoke with Josh Long, Java Champion and first Spring Developer Advocate at VMware, about these two releases. Juergen Hoeller, Spring Framework project lead at VMware, contributed to one answer.

InfoQ: As a Spring Developer Advocate, you supply talks, write code, publish articles and books, and have a podcast. What does a typical day for Josh Long look like?

Josh Long: It's hard to say! My work finds me talking to all sorts of people, both in person and online, so I never know where I'll be or what work I'll focus on. Usually, though, the goal is to advance the will of the ecosystem. So that means learning about their use cases and advancing solutions to their problems. If that means talking to the Spring team and/or sending a pull request, I'll happily do that. If it means giving a presentation, recording a podcast, writing an article or a book or producing a video, then I'll do that.

InfoQ: VMware gets feedback about Spring from many sources: conferences, user groups, issue trackers, Stack Overflow, Slack, Reddit, Twitter, and so on. But happy users typically stay silent, and the loudest complainers may not voice essential issues. So, how does VMware collect and prioritize user feedback?

Long: This is a very good question: everything lands in GitHub, eventually. We pay special attention to StackOverflow tags and do our best to respond to them, but if a bug is discovered there, it ultimately lands in GitHub. GitHub is a great way to impact the projects. We try to make it easy, like having labels for newcomers who want to contribute to start somewhere where we could mentor them. GitHub, of course, is not a great place for mock test — use Stackoverflow for that. Our focus on GitHub is so great that even within the teams themselves, we send pull requests to our own projects and use that workflow.

InfoQ: There are many projects under the Spring umbrella. VMware has to educate Spring users about all of them. How does VMware know what Spring users don’t know so it can teach them?

Long: In two words: we don't. We can surmise, of course. We spend a lot of effort advancing the new, novel, the latest and greatest. But we also are constantly renewing the fundamental introductory content. You wouldn't believe how many times I've redone the "first steps in..." for a particular project :) We're also acutely aware that while people landing on our portals and properties on the internet might be invested long-time users, people finding Spring through other means may know less. So are constantly putting out the "your first steps in..." introductory content. And anyway, sometimes "the first steps in…" changes enough that the fundamentals become new and novel :) 

InfoQ: Java legacy applications often use older versions of Java and frameworks. Microservices allow developers to put new technology stacks into production at a lower risk. Do you see this more as an opportunity for Java to showcase new features and releases? Or is it more of a threat because developers can test-drive Java competitors like .NET, Go, JavaScript or Python?

Long: Threat? Quite the contrary: if Java reflects poorly when viewed through the prism of other languages, then it's better for that to be apparent and to act as a forcing function to propel Java forward. And, let's be honest: Java can't be the best at everything. Microservices mean we can choose to use Spring and Java for all the use cases that make sense — without feeling trapped in case Java and Spring don't offer the most compelling solution. Don't ask me what that use case is because I have no idea…

InfoQ: Spring 5 added explicit Spring support for Kotlin. In your estimate, what percentage of Spring development happens in Kotlin these days?

Long: I don't know. But it's the second most widely used language on the Spring Initializr.

InfoQ: Scala never got such explicit support in Spring. Why do you think that is?

Long: It did! We had a project called Spring Scala way back in 2012.  We really wanted it to work. Before we announced Spring Scala, we even had a Spring Integration DSL in Scala. We tried. It just seems like there wasn't a community that wanted it to work. Which is a pity. These days, with reactive and functional programming so front-and-center, I feel like the Java and Scala communities have more in common than ever.

InfoQ: Spring 5 also added reactive applications. Now you’re a proponent of reactive applications and even wrote a book about it. What makes reactive applications so attractive to you?

Long: I love reactive programming. It gives me three significant benefits:

  • A concise DSL in which to express the movement of state in a system — in a way that robustly addresses the volatile nature of systems through things like backpressure, timeouts, retries, etc. This concise DSL simplifies building systems, as you end up with one abstraction for all your use cases.
  • A concise DSL in which to write concurrent, multithreaded code — free of so much of the fraught threading and state-management logic that bedevils concurrent code.
  • An elegant way to write code in such a way that the runtime can better use threads to scale (i.e., handle more requests per second).

InfoQ: For which problems or applications is reactive development a perfect fit?

Long: If reactive abstractions are suitable to your domain and you want to learn something new, reactive programming is a good fit for all workloads. Why wouldn't you want more scalable, safer (more robust), and more consistent code?

InfoQ:  Where is reactive development not a good fit?

Long: Reactive development requires a bit of a paradigm change when writing code. It's not a drop-in replacement or a switch you can just turn on to get some scalability like Project Loom will be. If you're not interested in learning this new paradigm, and you're OK to do without the benefits only reactive programming can offer, then it makes no sense to embrace it.

InfoQ: Common complaints about reactive development are an increased cognitive load and more difficult debugging. How valid are these complaints in Spring Framework 6 and Spring Boot 3?

Long: I don't know that we're doing all that much to address these concerns directly in Spring Boot 3. The usual mechanisms still work, though! Users can put breakpoints in parts of a reactive pipeline. They can use the Reactor Tools project to capture a sort of composite stack trace from all threads in a pipeline. They can use the .log() and .tap() operators to get information about data movement through the pipeline, etc. Spring Boot 3 offers one notable improvement: Spring now supports capturing both metrics and trace information through the Micrometer Metrics and Micrometer Tracing projects. Reactor even has new capabilities to support the new Micrometer Observation abstraction in reactive pipelines.

InfoQ: How important is tool support (such as IDEs and build tools) for the success of a framework? At least experienced users often bypass wizards and utilities and edit configuration files and code directly.

Long: This is a fascinating question. I have worked really hard to make the case that tooling is not very important to the experience of the Spring Boot developer. Indeed, since Spring Boot's debut, we've supported writing new applications with any barebones Java IDE. You don't need the IntelliJ IDEA Ultimate Edition, specialized support for Spring XML namespaces, or even the Java EE and WTP support in Eclipse to work with Spring Boot. If your tool supports public static void main, Apache Maven or Gradle, and the version of Java required, then you're all set! 

And there are some places where Spring Boot got things that might benefit from tooling, like ye ole and application.yaml. But even here, you don't need tooling: Spring Boot provides the Spring Boot Actuator module, which gives you an enumeration of all the properties you might use in those files.

That said: it doesn't hurt when everything's literally at your fingertips. Good tooling can feel like it's whole keystrokes ahead of you. Who doesn't love that? To that end, we've done a lot of work to make the experience for Eclipse and VS Code (and, by extension, most tools that support the Eclipse Java Language Server) developers as pleasant as possible. 

I think good tooling is even more important as it becomes necessary to migrate existing code. A good case in point is the new Jakarta EE APIs. Jakarta EE supersedes what was Java EE: All javax.*  types have been migrated to jakarta.*. The folks at the Eclipse Foundation have taken great pains to make on-ramping to these new types as easy as possible, but it's still work that needs to be done. Work, I imagine, your IDE of choice will make it much easier.

InfoQ: For the first time since 2010, a Spring Framework update followed not one, but two years after the previous major release - version 5.3 in 2020. So it seems Spring Framework 6 had two years of development instead of one. What took so long? :-)  

Long: Hah. I hadn't even noticed that! If I'm honest, it feels like Spring Framework 6 has been in development for a lot longer than two years. This release has been one of incredible turmoil! Moving to Java 17 has been easy, but the migration to Jakarta EE has been challenging for us as framework developers. First, we had to sanitize all of our dependencies across all the supported Spring Boot libraries. Then we worked with, waited for, and integrated all the libraries across the ecosystem, one by one, until everything was green again. It was painstaking and slow work, and I'm glad it's behind us. But if we've done our jobs right, it should be trivial for you as a developer consuming Spring Boot.

The work for observability has also been widespread. The gist of it is that Micrometer now supports tracing, and there's a unified abstraction for both tracing and metrics, the Observation. Now for some backstory. In Spring Boot 2.x, we introduced Micrometer to capture and propagate metrics to various time-series databases like Netflix Atlas, Prometheus, and more. Spring Framework depends on Micrometer. Spring Boot depends on Spring Framework. Spring Cloud depends on Spring Boot. And Spring Cloud Sleuth, which supports distributed tracing, depends on Spring Cloud. So supported metrics at the very bottom of the abstraction stack and distributed tracing at the very top.

This arrangement worked, for the most part. But it meant that we had two different abstractions to think about metrics and tracing. It also meant that Spring Framework and Spring Boot couldn't support instrumentation for distributed tracing without introducing a circular dependency. All of that changes in Spring Boot 3: Spring Framework depends on Micrometer, and Micrometer supports both tracing and metrics through an easy, unified abstraction. 

And finally, the work for Ahead-of-Time (AOT) compilation with GraalVM Native Image landed officially in Spring Framework 6 (released on November 15, 2022). It has been in the works in some form or another since at least 2019. It first took the form of an experimental research project called Spring Native, where we proved the various pieces in terms of Spring Boot 2.x and Spring Framework 5.x. That work has been subsumed by Spring Framework 6 and Spring Boot 3. 

InfoQ:  As announced last year, the free support duration for Spring Framework 6.0 and 6.1 will be shorter. Both are down 20% to 21.5 months, compared to 27 months for Spring 5.2. In contrast, the free support duration for Spring Boot 3.0 remains one year. Why is that?

Long: We standardized the way support is calculated in late 2021. We have always supported open-source releases for 12 months for free. Each project can extend that support based on release cycles and their community needs, but 12 months of open-source support and 12 months of additional commercial support is what all projects have as the minimum. It’s normal for us to further extend support for the last minor release in a major generation (as we are doing with Spring Framework 5.3.x).

It’s important to note that the standardization of support timelines happened at the end of 2021. We had zero major or minor Spring Framework releases since that happened. Spring Framework 6 will be the first under the new guidelines.

Juergen Hoeller: It’s worth noting that the commercial support timeframe for Spring Framework 6.0 and 6.1 is shorter as well. We are not shortening the support of open-source releases in favor of commercial releases. Rather, it's all a bit tighter — the expectation is that people upgrade to the latest 6.x feature releases more quickly. Just like they also should be upgrading their JDK more quickly these days. In that sense, Spring Framework 5.x was still very much attached to the JDK 8 usage style of "you may stay on your JDK level and Java EE level." Spring Framework 6.x is meant to track JDK 17+ and Jakarta EE 9+ (both release more often than before) as closely as possible, adapting the release philosophy accordingly. 

InfoQ: Spring Boot 3 supports the GraalVM Native Image AOT compiler out of the box. This produces native Java applications that start faster, use less memory, have smaller container images, and are more secure. In which areas of cloud computing does this put Java on more equal footing against competitors such as Go?

Long: I don't know that I'd characterize Java as less or more on equal footing with Go. Regardless of Go, Java hasn't been the most memory-efficient language. This has foreclosed on some opportunities like IoT and serverless. AOT compilation with GraalVM Native Image puts it in the running while retaining Java's vaunted scalability and productivity.

InfoQ: In which areas of cloud computing will native Java not move the needle?

Long: I don't know. It feels like GraalVM Native Image will be a suitable replacement for all the places where the JRE might have otherwise been used. Indeed, GraalVM opens new doors, too. Developers can write custom Kubernetes controllers using Spring Boot now. You can write operating-system-specific client binaries like CLIs (hello, Spring Shell!).

InfoQ: Downsides of native Java are a slower, more complex build pipeline, less tool support, and reduced observability. The build pipeline disadvantages seem unavoidable — AOT compilation takes longer, and different operating systems need different executables. But how do you think tool support and observability in native Java will compare against dynamic Java in the medium term?

Long: IntelliJ already has fantastic support for debugging GraalVM native images. I don't think most people will mourn the loss of Java's vaunted portability. After all, most applications run in a Linux container running on a Linux operating system on a Linux host. That said, there is a fantastic GitHub Action that you can use to do cross-compilation, where the build runs on multiple operating systems and produces executables specific to those operating systems. You can use tools like Buildpacks (which Spring Boot integrates with out of the box, e.g.: mvn -Pnative spring-boot:build-image) to build and run container images on your macOS or Windows hosts. GraalVM's observability support has been hampered a bit because Java agents don't run well (yet) on in native executables. But, the aforementioned Micrometer support can sidestep a lot of those limitations and yield a more exhaustive result.

InfoQ: Talking about observability: That’s another headline feature of Spring 6. It encompasses logging, metrics, and traces and is based on Micrometer. Java has many observability options already. Why bake another one into Spring? And why now?

Long: Java doesn't really have a lot of things that do what Micrometer does. And we're not baking another one — we're enhancing an existing one that predates many distinct and singly focused alternatives. Micrometer has become a de-facto standard. Many other libraries already integrate it to surface metrics:

  • RabbitMQ Java client
  • Vert.x?
  • Hibernate
  • HikariCP
  • Apache Camel
  • Reactor
  • RSocket
  • R2DBC
  • DS-Proxy
  • OpenFeign
  • Dubbo
  • Skywalking
  • Resilience4J (in-progress)
  • Neo4J

InfoQ: How can I view and analyze the observability data from Spring 6 and Spring Boot 3 besides memorizing the data files directly?

Long: Micrometer provides a bevy of integrations with metrics tools like Graphite, Prometheus, Netflix Atlas, InfluxDB, Datadog, etc. It works with distributed tracing tools like OpenZipkin. It also integrates with OpenTelemetry ("OTel"), so you can speak to any OTel service.

InfoQ: Spring Boot 3 won’t fully support Native Java and observability in all its projects and libraries at launch. How will I know if my Spring Boot 3 application will work in native Java and provide complete observability data?

Long: This is only the beginning of a longer, larger journey. The surface area of the things that work well out-of-the-box with GraalVM Native Image grows almost daily. There's no definitive list, but you should know that all the major Spring projects have been working on support. It's our priority. Check out our Spring AOT Smoke Tests to see which core projects have been validated.

InfoQ: Which upcoming feature of Java excites you the most?

Long: I am super excited about three upcoming bodies of work: Project Loom, Project Leyden, and Project Panama. Project Loom brings lightweight green threads to the JVM and promises to be a boon to scalability. Project Leyden seems like it'll supply the application developer more knobs and levers to constrain and thus optimize their JVM applications. One of the more dramatic constraints looks to be GraalVM Native Images. And Project Panama looks to finally make Foreign-Function access as pain-free as it is in languages like Python, Ruby, PHP, .NET, etc. These three efforts will bring Java to new frontiers.

InfoQ: If you could make one change to Java, what would that be?

Long: Structural lambdas! I want real lambdas in Java. Right now, lambdas are a bit more than syntax sugar around single-abstract method interfaces. All lambdas must conform to a well-known single abstract method (SAM) interface, like java.util.function.Function<I,O>. This was fine before Java added the var keyword, which I love. But it's aesthetically displeasing now because of the need to tell the compiler to which interface a given lambda literal conforms. 

Here's some code in Kotlin:

val name = "Karen" // a regular variable of type String
val myLambda: (String) -> Int = { name -> name.length } // a lambda taking a string and returning an int

Here's the equivalent code in Java:

var name = "Karen";
var myLambda = new Function<String, Integer>() {
  public Integer apply(String s) {
    return s.length();

There are ways around this: 

var name = "Karen";
Function<String, Integer> myLambda = s -> s.length(); 

This is what I mean by it being aesthetically displeasing: either I abandon the consistency of having both lines start with var, or I abandon the conciseness of the lambda notation. 

Is this likely to ever get fixed? Probably not. Is it a severe issue? Of course not. On the whole, Java's a fantastice language. And most languages should be lucky to have gotten to Java's ripe old age with as few idiosyncratic syntax oddities as it has!

InfoQ: And what would your one change to Spring or Spring Boot be?

Long: This is a tough one! I wish we could bring back and renew Spring Rich, a now long-since defunct framework for building desktop Swing-powered client applications. Griffon is the only thing that addresses this space. It's a shame, because Spring could be great here, especially now that it has deeply integrated GraalVM Native Image support. Admittedly, this is probably a niche use case, too :) 

InfoQ: Josh, thank you for this interview.

Mon, 28 Nov 2022 22:56:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Best Spring Vacations No result found, try new keyword!Spring is the ideal time to visit many of the world's most popular vacation destinations. Before the peak summer crowds roll in, travelers can often find pleasant temperatures, fewer tourists and ... Wed, 30 Nov 2022 04:54:00 -0600 text/html Killexams : Core Requirements & Courses

History Core courses offer long-term and global perspectives on the social, economic, political, and cultural factors shaping human experience. They introduce students to the importance of historical context and the process of historical change by examining which aspects of human life have changed and which have endured over time and across different regions of the world. Students learn how to interpret the past using primary sources, and they acquire breadth of knowledge, a critical framework, and analytical skills. By studying past events, students develop an understanding of the historical roots of contemporary societies and come to view the present with a sharper eye, appreciating that it, too, is contingent and will one day be re-examined and reconstructed. Through this process, students become better-informed and more open-minded whole persons, prepared to engage in the world.

Studying a broad sweep of time is essential to forming a rich sense of history. Toward this end, and as part of the Core Curriculum, students take two (2) three-credit History Core courses, one pre-1800 and one post-1800. Learning history also involves more than books and lectures. We learn by doing, and the History Core shows that history is alive and that we are part of it. In addition to memorizing documents, examining artifacts, writing essays, and attending lectures, students move outside the classroom to explore living history in interdisciplinary ways. We make use of the outstanding resources on campus and in the greater Boston area, visiting museums and historic sites, attending special presentations and performances, and conducting oral interviews.

Please visit the EagleApps Course Information and Schedule section in Agora for up-to-date course descriptions, faculty, meeting times, and room assignments.

Sun, 16 Aug 2020 18:14:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Xbox Elite Controller Series 2 Core review: Semi-pro
At a glance

Expert's Rating


  • Slick two-tone colorway and improved grips
  • Integrated rechargeable battery
  • USB-C and Bluetooth provide broad compatibility
  • Customizable profiles


  • Rear button slots go unused without the $60 accessory kit
  • More than twice the price of standard Xbox controller

Our Verdict

The Elite Controller Series 2 Core is a major functionality upgrade over the base model Xbox controller, but most “elite” gamers will want the accessories to complete the experience.

Price When Reviewed


Best Prices Today: Xbox Elite Controller Series 2 Core

Microsoft used to offer just one Xbox controller, leaving it to third parties to fill any specific niches, but no more. It launched the first Elite Controller in the Xbox One era, and it followed that up with the revamped Series 2 Elite controller in 2019. However, at almost $200 it’s pricey, and even dedicated gamers may scoff at the expense. Now, the Elite Controller Series 2 Core has entered the game. This controller has a few aesthetic changes from the standard Elite, and it doesn’t come with the accessories kit, but it’s priced at a more reasonable $130. 

If you don’t need all the add-ons, the Core is a great way to save some cash while getting a more feature-rich Xbox controller. But if you end up wanting the accessories, it will just cost you more in the long run. Still, this could be the sweet spot for some gamers.

Elite Controller Series 2 Core: Design and build quality

Microsoft’s Series 2 Core controller has the same shape and profile as the Series 2 Elite, which itself is almost identical to the 2020 base model controller that ships with the Xbox Series S and Series X. If you’re coming from the regular controller, as most will, the first thing you’ll probably notice about the Series 2 Core is the rubberized grips. They feel much more secure in the hand than the all-plastic design of the standard Xbox gamepad, and the dot texture is present all the way around. The Elite Series 2 has the same texture, but the entire controller is black—the Core has a two-tone white/black colorway that we think looks pretty sharp. 

Xbox Elite Controller Series 2 Core

The Xbox Elite Controller Series 2 Core has rubberized grips that feel much more secure than the plastic of the standard controllers.

Ryan Whitwam

The top edge sports the USB-C port for charging and wired gameplay, along with the pairing button. It comes with an 8-foot USB-A-to-C cable, too. One thing you won’t see is a seam for the battery compartment. Unlike the base model, this controller has an integrated rechargeable battery. Previously, you had to go all the way up to the $180 Elite Series 2 for that luxury. Look farther down on the back, and you’ll understand why the Series 2 Core is only $130. 

The Core doesn’t include Microsoft’s accessory package, but the controller is fully compatible with it. Thus, you have four slots for rear paddle buttons. Not having them makes the controller look a bit incomplete, but admittedly, you’re not going to spend a lot of time staring at the back of your gamepad. Also on the back are switches to change the travel of the triggers. That’s useful if you want to tune the experience for specific games. For example, you might want the short throw for shooters, but the longer travel is ideal for racing games where the trigger is your throttle. The switches are a bit fiddly and hard to adjust on the fly, though. 

On the face of the controller, you’ll find all the buttons in the usual Xbox layout. The ABXY cluster doesn’t have the color-coding of the cheaper controller, which makes for a more understated look. There’s also an LED profile indicator in the middle. The d-pad has the same metal dish shape as the full-priced Elite Series 2, which feels nicer under your finger than even the improved plastic d-pad on the regular model. The Core has the same removable controls as the non-Core Elite gamepad, too. Both the d-pad and thumbsticks are held in place with magnets, and they feel completely stable—no wobble or clicking—until you pull straight up. Since the Core doesn’t come with the accessory bundle, you’ll probably leave these in place.

Elite Controller Series 2 Core: Features and hands-on experience

If you’re switching from the standard Xbox controller, you’ll notice the added heft of the Elite Core. It’s 300 grams (10.58 ounces), whereas the regular controller (with batteries installed) is 250g. The balance of the controller is still good, though, and we found it perfectly comfortable for long gaming sessions. The adjustable triggers also help to limit unnecessary movement as most games don’t need the full range of motion. 

Because it does so much more, the Elite Core needs firmware updates. In fact, it won’t work correctly out of the box until you update it. On Windows, you’ll need to download the Xbox accessories app, but the Xbox console will already know how to update your peripherals.

Microsoft says the controller can run about 40 hours wirelessly on a charge, and that’s only a tiny bit higher than our real-world numbers. It runs long enough you might lose track of the cable, but happily, it charges with standard USB-C. There are pogo pins on the back for the controller charging dock, but that’s an unnecessary add-on when USB-C is so prevalent. 

All the buttons on the Elite Controller Series 2 Core are smooth and appropriately tactile. The sound is a bit quieter and deeper than the standard controller, save for the triggers, which are much louder if you use the middle or short travel positions. We’re impressed that the thumbsticks feel so solid even when you’re spinning them furiously—you’d never know they pop off unless you pull upward on them. 

Xbox Elite Controller Series 2 Core

The thumbsticks on the Xbox Elite Controller Series 2 Core feel surprisingly solid considering they are removable.

Ryan Whitwam

The cheaper 2020 controller added a share button in the middle of the face, but the Elite Core has a lot more going on. The button in that position lets you switch between the controller’s three customizable profiles, as indicated with the aforementioned profile LED indicator. The profiles let you control what each button does, adjust your trigger dead zones, tweak the vibration, invert the thumbsticks, and even change the Xbox button’s color. 

The Elite Core has even more functionality if you need it. You can assign a button to “shift,” which activates secondary functions for any button of your choosing. So you lose instant access to the share feature, but this is a very powerful upgrade over the base model controller. However, you might not have a button to devote to shift unless you splurge on the accessory kit to get the paddles. 

You do miss out on some of the controller’s functionality by not having the accessory kit, which Microsoft will sell you separately for $60. That puts the total price slightly higher than if you’d just bought the non-Core Elite controller, which comes with the kit.

Elite Controller Series 2 Core: Compatibility

The Elite Core gamepad pairs perfectly with the Xbox Series X and S, but its Bluetooth functionality means it can also talk to myriad other devices. To pair with other devices over Bluetooth, long-press the pair button next to the USB-C port and select it on your phone or PC. A double-tap of that button will move the controller back to the Xbox, if it’s paired with one.

Microsoft’s Windows OS naturally has full integration, including the Xbox Accessories app for conjuring the controller’s advanced features. You can also connect it to an Android or iOS mobile device over Bluetooth, but you’ll have to use the desktop app and a USB-C cable to change settings. 

Xbox Elite Controller Series 2 Core

Ryan Whitwam

Speaking of the USB-C port, that’s another way you can connect to the controller. It works in wired mode for PC and Xbox. While we had no trouble using the base model Xbox controller in wired mode with Android, that’s not the case for the Elite Core. For whatever reason, it will only charge when connected to a phone’s USB-C port.

Xbox Elite Controller Series 2 Core

Xbox Elite Controller Series 2 Core with its charging cable.

Ryan Whitwam

Should you buy an Elite Controller Series 2 Core?

The Elite Controller Series 2 Core adds a ton of features you don’t get with Microsoft’s standard controller, including profiles, better grips, button remapping, and adjustable triggers. However, you lose out on some of what the hardware can do by not getting the bundled accessory kit, which comes with the full-priced Elite Series 2 kit. The rear-facing paddle button connectors are useless unless you spend more on accessories, and it’s pointless to have removable buttons when you don’t have the alternative controls. 

For mobile and PC gamers, the Elite Core does offer a better experience than the base model gamepad. The built-in battery means you can take the Elite Core controller on the road and charge it with a regular USB-C cable, but you might not even have to bother given the robust battery life. However, the lack of wired USB-C support on smartphones is a bummer. 

For casual gamers who don’t want button profiles or adjustable triggers, it’s best to stick with the cheaper Xbox controller. Serious gamers should probably still spring for the full Elite controller kit. It’s more expensive, but you get all the accessories you might end up buying anyway. Buying the Elite Core and the accessory kit separately is $10 more than just buying the full Elite bundle. For those few in the middle, the Elite Core is a great piece of hardware. The $130 asking price is steep but justifiable as long as you are confident you won’t want the accessories after you start tinkering with the Elite Controller Series 2 Core.

Thu, 10 Nov 2022 01:34:00 -0600 Author: Ryan Whitwam en text/html
Killexams : Intel Core i5-13600K Review Mon, 21 Nov 2022 16:41:00 -0600 en text/html
CoreSpringV3.2 exam dump and training guide direct download
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