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CWNA-108 approach - Certified Wireless Network Administrator Updated: 2023

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Exam Code: CWNA-108 Certified Wireless Network Administrator approach November 2023 by team

CWNA-108 Certified Wireless Network Administrator


EXAM NAME : Certified Wireless Network Administrator

QUESTIONS TYPE : Multiple-Choice


The CWNA certification is a foundational level wireless LAN certification for the CWNP Program. To earn a CWNA certification, you must take the CWNA test at a Pearson Vue Testing Center and pass with a 70% or higher. Instructors must pass with a 80% or higher. However you choose to prepare for the CWNA exam, you should start with the test objectives, which cover the full list of skills tested on the exam. The CWNA certification is valid for three (3) years. To recertify, pass one of the professional level certifications exams (CWSP,CWDP, CWAP) BEFORE your CWNA expires. By doing so, the CWNA will be renewed for another three (3) years. Or retake the current version of the CWNA exam.

While the Certified Wireless Specialist (CWS) and Certified Wireless Technician (CWT) certifications are not a required prerequisite to the CWNA certification, it is highly recommended. It will provide a solid learning foundation before continuing to pursue the CWNA.

Main Areas Covered by CWNA:

- Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies

- Antenna Concepts

- Wireless LAN Hardware and Software

- Network Design, Installation, and Management

- Wireless Standards and Organizations

- 802.11 Network Architecture

- Wireless LAN Security

- Troubleshooting

The Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA) understands standards and operations
of 802.11 wireless networks. Responsibilities include deploying, managing, monitoring, and
basic troubleshooting of these networks. The CWNA has the ability to describe devices and
operations of current WLAN technologies.

The CWNA test has no prerequisites; however, the following are recommended before
attempting the CWNA exam:

● Basic knowledge of networking (routers, switches, cabling, etc.)

● Basic knowledge of TCP/IP

● At least 1 year of work experience with wireless LAN technologies

The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from a Job Task Analysis
(JTA) involving wireless networking experts (CWNEs) and professionals. The results of this JTA
were used in weighing the subject areas and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the
relative importance of the content.
When you pass the CWNA exam, you earn credit towards the CWSP, CWDP, CWAP, and
CWNE certifications and you earn the CWNA certification.
The following chart provides the breakdown of the test as to the distribution of questions
within each knowledge domain

- Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies 15%

- WLAN Regulations and Standards 20%

- WLAN Protocols and Devices 20%

- WLAN Network Architecture and Design Concepts 15%

- WLAN Network Security 10%

- RF Validation 10%

- WLAN Troubleshooting 10%

1.0 Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies – 15%

1.1 Define and explain the basic characteristics of RF and RF behavior

• Wavelength, frequency, amplitude, phase, sine waves

• RF propagation and coverage

• Reflection, refraction, diffraction and scattering

• Multipath and RF interference

• Gain and loss

• Amplification

• Attenuation

• Absorption

• Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)

• Return Loss

• Free Space Path Loss (FSPL)

1.2 Apply the basic concepts of RF mathematics and measurement

• Watt and milliwatt

• Decibel (dB)

• dBm and dBi

• Noise floor



• dBm to mW conversion rules of 10 and 3

• Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP)

1.3 Identify RF signal characteristics as they relate to antennas.

• RF and physical line of sight and Fresnel zone clearance

• Beamwidths

• Passive gain

• Polarization

• Antenna diversity types

• Radio chains

• Spatial multiplexing (SM)

• Transmit Beamforming (TxBF)

• Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC)


1.4 Explain and apply the functionality of RF antennas, antenna systems, and accessories available

• Omni-directional antennas

• Semi-directional antennas

• Highly directional antennas

• reading Azimuth and Elevation charts for different antenna types

• Antenna orientation

• RF cables and connectors

• Lightning arrestors and grounding rods/wires

2.0 WLAN Regulations and Standards – 20%

2.1 Explain the roles of WLAN and networking industry organizations


• Wi-Fi Alliance


• Regulatory domains and agencies

2.2 Explain and apply the various Physical Layer (PHY) solutions of the IEEE 802.11-2016
standard as amended including supported channel widths, spatial streams, data rates.

• DSSS – 802.11

• HR-DSSS – 802.11b

• OFDM – 802.11a

• ERP – 802.11g

• Wi-Fi 4 - HT – 802.11n

• Wi-Fi 5 - VHT – 802.11ac

• Wi-Fi 6 - HE - 802.11ax

2.3 Understand spread spectrum technologies, Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS)



• OFDMA and Resource Units



• QAM (16, 64, 256,1024)

2.4 Identify and apply 802.11 WLAN functional concepts

• Primary channels

• Adjacent overlapping and non-overlapping channels

• Throughput vs. data rate

• Bandwidth

• Guard Interval

2.5 Describe the OSI model layers affected by the 802.11-2016 standard and amendments

2.6 Identify and comply with regulatory domain requirements and constraints (specifically
in 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz)

• Frequency bands used by the 802.11 PHYs

• Available channels

• Regulatory power constraints

• Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)

• Transmit Power Control (TPC)

2.7 Explain basic use case scenarios for 802.11 wireless networks

• Wireless LAN (WLAN) – BSS and ESS

• Wireless bridging

• Wireless Ad-Hoc (IBSS)

• Wireless Mesh

3.0 WLAN Protocols and Devices – 20%

3.1 Describe the components and functions that make up an 802.11 wireless service set

• Stations (STAs)

• Basic Service Set (BSS) (Infrastructure mode)



• Extended Service Set (ESS)

• IBSS (Ad-Hoc)

• Distribution System (DS)

• Distribution System Media (DSM)

3.2 Define terminology related to the 802.11 MAC and PHY



• PHY preamble and header

3.3 Identify and explain the MAC frame format

• MAC frame format

• MAC addressing

3.4 Identify and explain the purpose of the three main 802.11 frame types

• Management

• Control

• Data

3.5 Explain the process used to locate and connect to a WLAN

• Scanning (active and passive)

• Authentication

• Association

• Open System Authentication and Shared Key authentication

• Connecting to 802.1X/EAP and Pre-Shared Key authentication networks

• BSS selection

• Connecting to hidden SSIDs

3.6 Explain 802.11 channel access methods




• CTS-to-Self


• Interframe spaces (SIFS, DIFS, EIFS, AIFS)

• Physical carrier sense and virtual carrier sense

• Hidden node

3.7 Explain 802.11 MAC operations

• Roaming

• Power save modes and frame buffering

• Protection mechanisms

3.8 Describe features of, select, and install WLAN devices, control, and management

• Access Points (APs)

• WLAN controllers

• Wireless network management systems

• Wireless bridge and mesh APs

• Client devices

4.0 WLAN Network Architecture and Design Concepts– 15%

4.1 Describe and implement Power over Ethernet (PoE) 802.3af, 802.3at, 802.3bt

• Power Source Equipment

• Powered Device

• Midspan and endpoint PSEs

• Power classes to include power differences between PSE and PD

• Power budgets and powered port density

4.2 Define and describe differences, advantages and constraints of the different wireless
LAN architectures

• Centralized data forwarding

• Distributed data forwarding

• Control, Management and Data planes

• Scalability and availability solutions

• Tunneling, QoS and VLANs

4.3 Describe design considerations for common deployment scenarios in wireless such as
coverage requirements, roaming considerations, throughput, capacity and security

• Design considerations for data

• Design considerations for voice

• Design considerations for video

• Design considerations for location services including Real-Time Location
Services (RTLS)

• Design considerations for highly mobile devices (e.g. tablets and smartphones)

• Capacity planning for high and very high-density environments

• Design considerations for guest access/BYOD

• Design considerations for supporting legacy 802.11 devices

4.4 Demonstrate awareness of common proprietary features in wireless networks.

• AirTime Fairness

• Band steering

• Dynamic power and channel management features

4.5 Determine and configure required network services supporting the wireless network

• DHCP for client addressing, AP addressing and/or controller discovery

• DNS for address resolution for clients and APs

• Time synchronization protocols (e.g. NTP, SNTP)

• VLANs for segmentation

• Authentication services (e.g. RADIUS, LDAP)

• Access Control Lists for segmentation

• Wired network capacity requirements

5.0 WLAN Network Security – 10%

5.1 Identify weak security options that should not be used in enterprise WLANs


• Shared Key authentication

• SSID hiding as a security mechanism

• MAC filtering

• Use of deprecated security methods (e.g. WPA and/or WPA2 with TKIP)

• Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS)

5.2 Identify and configure effective security mechanisms for enterprise WLANs

• Application of AES with CCMP for encryption and integrity

• WPA2-Personal including limitations and best practices for pre-shared (PSK) use

• WPA2-Enterprise -configuring wireless networks to use 802.1X including
connecting to RADIUS servers and appropriate EAP methods

5.3 Understand basic concepts of WPA3 and Opportunistic Wireless Encryption (OWE) and
enhancements compared to WPA2

• Understand basic security enhancements in WPA3 vs. WPA2

• Understand basic security enhancements of encryption and integrity in WPA3
(e.g. CCMP, GCMP, AES)

• Simultaneous Authentication of Equals (SAE) in WPA3 as an enhancement for
legacy pre-shared key technology

• Understand the purpose of Opportunistic Wireless Encryption (OWE) for public
and guest networks

5.4 Describe common security options and tools used in wireless networks

• Access control solutions (e.g. captive portals, NAC, BYOD)

• Protected management frames

• Fast Secure Roaming methods

• Wireless Intrusion Prevention System (WIPS) and/or rogue AP detection

• Protocol and spectrum analyzers

• Best practices in secure management protocols (e.g. encrypted management
HTTPS, SNMPv3, SSH2, VPN and password management)

6.0 RF Validation – 10%

6.1 Verify and document that design requirements are met including coverage, throughput,
roaming, and connectivity with a post-implementation validation survey

6.2 Locate and identify sources of RF interference

• Identify RF disruption from 802.11 wireless devices including contention vs.
interference and causes/sources of both including co-channel contention (CCC),
overlapping channels, and 802.11 wireless device proximity

• Identify sources of RF interference from non-802.11 wireless devices based on the
investigation of airtime and frequency utilization

• Understand interference mitigation options including removal of interference
source or change of wireless channel usage

6.3 Perform application testing to validate WLAN performance

• Network and service availability

• VoIP testing

• Real-time application testing

• Throughput testing

6.4 Understand and use the basic features of validation tools

• Use of throughput testers for validation tasks

• Use of wireless validation software (specifically survey software and wireless

• Use of protocol analyzers for validation tasks

• Use of spectrum analyzers for validation tasks

7.0 WLAN Troubleshooting – 10%

7.1 Describe and apply common troubleshooting tools used in WLANs

• Use of protocol analyzers for troubleshooting tasks

• Use of spectrum analyzers for identifying sources of interference

• Use of management, monitoring and logging systems for troubleshooting tasks

• Use of wireless LAN scanners for troubleshooting tasks

7.2 Identify and troubleshoot common wireless issues

• Identify causes of insufficient throughput in the wireless distribution systems
including LAN port speed/duplex misconfigurations, insufficient PoE budget,
and insufficient Internet or WAN bandwidth

• Identify and solve RF interference using spectrum analyzers

• Identify wireless performance issues using SNR, retransmissions, and airtime
utilization statistics

• Identify causes of wireless issues related to network services including DHCP,
DNS, and time protocols including using native interface and IP configuration
tools (e.g. pings, DNS lookups, interface configuration)

• Identify wireless issues related to security configuration mismatches
Certified Wireless Network Administrator
CWNP Administrator approach

Other CWNP exams

CWAP-403 Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP)
CWNA-108 Certified Wireless Network Administrator
CWS-100 Certified Wireless Specialist

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Certified Wireless Network Administrator
You have received a report of poor wireless connections on the third floor of a building under your administration. Three individuals have reported the problem. Apparently, the connections are reporting a strong signal, but the users cannot
access the Internet. With the problem identified, what is the next logical step in the troubleshooting process?
A. Verify the solution
B. Discover the scale of the problem
C. Perform corrective actions
D. Create a plan of action or escalate the problem
Correct Answer: B
Section: (none)
QUESTION 53 What is the final step in an effective
troubleshooting process?
A. Disable the WLAN
B. Verify the solution
C. Notify the users of problem resolution
D. Document the results
Correct Answer: D
You are troubleshooting a problem with interference from a non-802.11 device. Given that the device is not a WLAN device, you cannot use a protocol analyzer and have chosen to use a spectrum analyzer. You want to view the signal from
the interfering device over time to see the activity that is generating. What common spectrum analyzer view should you use for this analysis?
A. APs
B. Waterfall/Spectrogram
C. Real-time FFT
D. Clients
Correct Answer: B
QUESTION 55 Your manager asked you to locate a solution that allows for centralized monitoring of WLAN performance over time. He wants a single pane of glass for administration and monitoring of the solution. What do you
A. Laptop-based spectrum analyzers
B. AP-based spectrum analysis
C. Overlay WLAN monitoring solution
D. Laptop-based protocol analyzers
Correct Answer: C
You were previously onsite at XYZs facility to conduct a pre-deployment RF site survey. The WLAN has been deployed according to your recommendations and you are onsite again to perform a post-deployment validation survey.
When performing this type of post-deployment RF site survey voice over Wi-Fi, what is an action that must be performed?
A. Spectrum analysis to locate and identify RF interference sources.
B. Frequency-band hopping analysis to detect improper RF channel implementations.
C. Application analysis with an active phone call on an VoWiFi handset.
D. Protocol analysis to discover channel use on neighboring APs.
Correct Answer: C
You are troubleshooting a client problem with a 2.4 GHz WLAN connection. The client is experiencing surprisingly low data rates during the work day. You analyze the workspace outside of business hours and detect a strong signal with a
typical noise floor at the client location. During working hours, the user works with a laptop in the area and uses an external USB hard drive for continuous data access. The user also states that the laptop works as expected on her home
network. The user working approximately 8 feet away from this client experiences no problems. Based on this information, what is the likely cause of the problem?
A. The AP is overloaded during the work day
B. The drivers in the laptop are corrupt
C. The laptop has a failing wireless adapter
D. The external hard drive is USB 3.0 and is causing a significant increase in the noise floor when in use
Correct Answer: D
In addition to coverage analysis results, what should be included in a post-deployment site survey report to ensure WLAN users experience acceptable performance?
A. WAN interface analysis results
B. Capacity analysis results
C. Application Layer protocol availability analysis results
D. Layer 4 protocol availability analysis results
Correct Answer: B
You are troubleshooting a client issue on a Windows laptop. The laptop can see and connect to 2.4 GHz APs, but is does not even see 5 GHz APs. While evaluating the issue, you determine that this problem is happening for all of the
laptops of this model in the organization. Several other tablets connect on channel 48 and channel 52 in the same work areas. What is the likely problem?
A. The clients are configured to use WPA and 5 GHz channels only support WPA2.
B. The client drivers are faulty and should be upgraded.
C. The antennas in the laptop have insufficient gain to detect the 5 GHz signals.
D. The access points are configured to disallow 5 GHz.
Correct Answer: C
A client complains of low data rates on his computer. When you evaluate the situation, you see that the signal strength is -84 dBm and the noise floor is -96 dBm. The client is an 802.11ac client and connects to an 802.11ac AP. Both the
client and AP are 2x2:2 devices. What is the likely cause of the low data rate issue?
A. Weak signal strength
B. CAT5e cabling run to the AP
C. Too few spatial streams
D. Lack of support for 802.11n
Correct Answer: A
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CWNP Administrator approach - BingNews Search results CWNP Administrator approach - BingNews Medication Administration Through Enteral Feeding Tubes

Medication Administration Considerations With EN

If the medications are needed and alternative routes of drug delivery are not options, then the medications may be given through enteral feeding tubes. Several factors should be considered before administering medications concomitantly with EN. As discussed previously, feeding tube size and placement site should be considered. Gastric access is generally preferred over jejunal administration because gastric tubes are larger and less prone to clogging and because the stomach may be more tolerant of hypertonic medications.[6,10] Gastric feedings may be administered by bolus or intermittent methods; EN and medications may thus be given at separate times.

Liquid Preparations

Selecting the most appropriate dosage form is also something to consider. Liquid preparations are the preferred formulations when possible because they are readily absorbed and are less likely to cause tube occlusions. Elixirs or suspensions are generally favored over syrups since syrups are more likely to cause clumping when exposed to EN.[10,13,16] An important safety measure to take when administering liquid medications through enteral feeding tubes is to make sure that the drugs are drawn up and dispensed only in oral syringes (not syringes intended to give parenteral injections) in order to avoid the accidental parenteral administration of an oral formulation.[10,13]

Adjustments in the medication dosage or frequency may be necessary when changing formulations. This is particularly important when switching from an extended-release product to a liquid preparation, which is usually immediate release and requires more frequent dosing. Another concern when administering liquid preparations to adults is that many are designed for use in children; therefore, large volumes of the drug must be given in order to achieve an adult dosage, and this could cause intolerability.[5,10,16]

Although oral liquid medications are preferred for enteral administration, they may potentially cause adverse effects. Many liquid preparations are extremely hyperosmolar or contain large amounts of sorbitol, increasing the risk of GI intolerance. This is particularly troublesome when a large volume of drug is dispensed per dose.[14,16] Hypertonic medications may not be well tolerated when delivered into the small intestine. The stomach, though, is able to dilute hyperosmolar substances with gastric juices before transferring the contents into the duodenum. However, if the hypertonic medications are administered too rapidly into the stomach, they may be "dumped" into the small bowel, resulting in osmotic diarrhea.[17,18] If possible, hypertonic medications, especially when undiluted, should not be administered directly into the small intestine, such as with a jejunostomy tube. This may cause bloating, nausea, cramping, and diarrhea.[18,19] Diluting the hyperosmolar liquid medication with 10–30 mL of sterile water before delivery through the feeding tube may help prevent these intestinal intolerances from occurring. More water may be needed when diluting medications that are either extremely hypertonic or being delivered directly into the small intestine.[5,19] Unfortunately, osmolality data for some medications are not usually readily available, and the manufacturer or package insert must be consulted.[19] Some liquid medications with a high osmolality are listed in Appendix A. The average osmolality values of other liquid preparations have been published elsewhere.[17]

The sorbitol component of the medication itself can also cause GI distress with liquid preparations. Sorbitol is an inactive ingredient used as a sweetening agent to Excellerate medication taste as well as stability, but large amounts (i.e., ≥ 20 g per day) may cause an osmotic laxative effect, resulting in cramping and diarrhea. Even doses as low as 10 g per day may lead to bloating and flatulence.[19,20] Although most liquid medications only contain a small amount of sorbitol, patients may be taking multiple products that contain this ingredient, thus increasing the cumulative effects.[5] Unfortunately, since sorbitol is considered an inert substance, manufacturers may not always list it on the product label. Even when inactive ingredients are included on the label or in the package insert, the exact amount of sorbitol in the liquid preparation is generally not listed. Sorbitol content may also differ among manufacturers of a particular product. The best way to determine the sorbitol content of a liquid medication is to contact the drug manufacturer.[19,20,21] Appendix B lists some medications that contain sorbitol, although the amount may vary by manufacturer. The sorbitol content of various oral liquids has been published elsewhere.[20,21]

Suspensions, which are often used for antibiotics, may be a more desirable type of liquid formulation. They generally contain less sorbitol than other liquid products, and most reconstituted antibiotic preparations have no sorbitol. Although suspensions may have a high osmolality, diluting with water will help decrease the tonicity.[19,20,21]

When patients experience adverse GI effects, oftentimes the enteral tube feeding is blamed, but the hyperosmolality and sorbitol content of the liquid medication may be the causes. Several commonly used medications, such as acetaminophen liquid, have a high osmolality and contain sorbitol. Pharmacists can play a key role in identifying the potential medication culprits and evaluating the osmotic load and sorbitol amount. It may be necessary to change the medication to a therapeutically equivalent agent that does not contain sorbitol or an agent that has a lower osmolality. Switching the administrative route may also be helpful. Changing the medication formulation (e.g., from a liquid to a crushed tablet or opened capsule) may be another option.[18,19] Generally, injectable formulations are not administered into the GI tract because these dosage forms are not apt to survive in gastric acidity, which can result in reduced drug absorption.[14] The osmolality of parenteral drugs may be higher, potentially causing osmotic diarrhea, and the cost may be much greater.[9] Although liquid medications are more convenient to administer via a feeding tube, it may not be the best option if GI distress occurs.

Some liquid formulations are not appropriate for administration via the enteral tube. These include lansoprazole oral suspension granules and mineral oil, which are too viscous and may occlude the tube. Sucralfate suspension is also not suitable because it may cause an insoluble mass or bezoar formation.[10,13,16,22]

Syrups should also be avoided, particularly when mixed with enteral formulas. Syrups with an acidic pH (≤4) are the most problematic because of their physical incompatibility with EN formulations, which can result in clumping or thickening and may cause the feeding tube to become clogged. Similar problems with tube occlusions may occur with ferrous sulfate elixir, which is not a syrup but is also very acidic. Some liquid preparations that are not compatible with enteral tube feedings and cause clumping or precipitation are listed in Appendix C. Further diluting the syrup with water cannot prevent the physical incompatibilities between EN and syrups. An alternative liquid preparation is preferable. If this is not possible, the enteral feeding should be interrupted and the tube flushed with at least 30 mL of water before and after administering the incompatible syrup in order to separate the medication from the EN; the tube feeding may then resume.[19,23] Not all syrups are considered physically incompatible with enteral products. Syrups are generally less preferable to other liquid formulations because many syrups have pH values of <4 and cause compatibility problems.[23]

Solid Dosage Forms

When a liquid preparation is inappropriate or unavailable, certain solid dosage forms may be used for administration into feeding tubes. Most simple, compressed tablets, including those that are sugar- or film-coated, are immediate-release products and may be crushed. Crushing the tablet results in minimal pharmacokinetic changes to the drug and is similar to swallowing it whole. Crushing some preparations could cause a bitter taste if taken orally, but this is not an issue for administration via a feeding tube. Tablets should be crushed to a fine powder using a mortar and pestle and then mixed with 15–30 mL of water before delivery through the tube. Similarly, hard gelatin capsules that contain a powdered drug may be opened and the contents diluted in 10–15 mL of water to form a slurry before administration.[12,13,19,24]

Administration of liquid-filled soft gelatin capsules is more challenging. One end of the capsule may be pierced with a needle, and its liquid contents can be squeezed out and mixed with water. A concern with this method is that all of the contents may not be removed from the capsule, which can result in underdosing. Alternatively, the entire soft gelatin capsule may be dissolved in a container of warm water and all of the contents given. Care should be taken not to administer the undissolved gelatin portion into the tube because this may cause occlusion.[9,12,19]

Special care should be taken with some extended-release capsules that contain beads or pellets and certain capsules filled with enteric-coated granules. These capsules may be opened and emptied into the feeding tube, but their contents should not be crushed. Examples of medications that may be administered this way include diltiazem (Tiazac, Biovail Pharmaceuticals, Morrisville, NC) and verapamil (Verelan, UCB Pharma, Smyrna, GA).[5,12,25] Ferrone et al.[26] described how delayed-release pancreatic enzyme capsules that contain enteric-coated microspheres (Pancrecarb MS-4, Digestive Care, Inc., Bethlehem, PA) may be opened and the contents mixed with applesauce or apple juice before administration through the feeding tube. A potential complication with pouring capsule contents through any enteral access device is that tube occlusions may occur, so large-bore feeding tubes (≥14 French) are preferred.

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Conveying keyword insights to non-SEOs: A visual approach

Explaining keyword research to those unfamiliar with SEO to gain support can be challenging.

Stakeholders often find it difficult to grasp the value of SEO, and at the same time, SEOs struggle to communicate the benefits and contributions effectively.

Fortunately, there are strategies available for SEOs to bridge this gap by employing their keyword research more strategically and effectively. 

This article explores a visual approach for effectively communicating keyword research insights with stakeholders outside the search industry. 

Leveraging unique visuals

Non-SEO-savvy stakeholders may not know much about search keywords but likely understand general marketing concepts like the marketing funnel and audience segments.

You can use this understanding to explore keywords more deeply and create strategies that align with these broader marketing terms.

One critical yet frequently overlooked element here is search intent

You can group keywords based on intent and create a bubble chart to visually represent the position of each keyword cluster within the marketing funnel, like the chart below.

The chart clearly shows the content needed to help searchers at each level of the marketing funnel. Overall, it reveals the necessary content for different stages of the funnel.

But it’s not just limited to that; you can also narrow it down to specific subjects or subsets of keywords. This allows for a detailed analysis and a better understanding of the specific types of content needed for each topic.

Taking the above keyword intent visualization and drilling into the “all-weather tires” cluster shows that “Awareness” content should be produced to target these keyword clusters. Unlocking this insight means SEOs can match the searchers’ expectations.

This visualization shows how certain keywords help users move through the marketing funnel, and there are more actions you can take to optimize it further.

Companies often use audience personas or segments in broader marketing efforts. Integrating this knowledge is vital for effective communication, especially with stakeholders focused on paid search, as they commonly associate keywords with audience segments.

Likewise, by utilizing ChatGPT, SEOs can categorize keyword subjects based on audience personas, resulting in a visual representation like the one below:

This chart displays the size of various subjects and indicates which audience segments are most likely to engage with content related to those topics.

With these visuals, you are in a stronger position to develop more effective content strategies and enhance your communication with stakeholders outside the search domain.

Get the daily newsletter search marketers rely on.

How to build the visuals

The effectiveness of these two visuals is undeniable, though they require additional effort to develop.

Keyword intent cluster

SEOs can use various approaches to build keyword intent clusters, but I'll outline the most straightforward and effective method.

To begin, we need more than just keyword data and search volume to craft this visual. Specifically, it will require top 10 organic listings and a keyword intent score.

A keyword intent score can be calculated through various means. I suggest you use a tool you can access that supplies keyword intent. 

When creating my own visuals, I used the DataForSEO API and assigned a score for each SERP feature that appeared on a SERP, then calculated the average score for each keyword. 

This can also be accomplished in a tool like Semrush by transforming the categorical keyword intents into a numerical scale. 

When assigning a value for each intent, select a minimum value representing transactional intent and a maximum value representing informational intent. A blended intent can also be calculated by assigning a value between two intents. 

We can create the intent clusters now that a numerical value has been established for keyword intent. 

By gathering page 1 organic listings data, we leverage Google’s intelligence to create more accurate and relevant keyword clusters.

To create the clusters, compile the organic listings for a keyword into a list and compare it to another keyword list, keeping track of the number of similar pages appearing in each list. 

Upon completing this analysis, we will be in a position to construct a similarity matrix for all the keywords, identical to the example provided below:

Next, create the clusters and aggregate all of their associated metrics. Through my experimentation, I discovered that establishing a threshold at 4 or 5 similar URLs resulted in the most cohesive clustering.

Once all keyword clusters have been aggregated along with their metrics, it’s time to assemble a bubble chart. The data at this point should closely align with the below:

Each cluster in the bubble chart should ideally start with a value of 0 on the x-axis unless you are in the process of fine-tuning the visual to reduce bubble overlap. 

I advise initializing all clusters at 0 and making necessary adjustments to the data once the bubble chart has been generated. 

This fine-tuning step is crucial. Without it, the visual can become unclear and difficult to comprehend. To see the impact of this step, compare the examples below.

After fine-tuning, the visual is complete and ready to help communicate the value of specific keywords to stakeholders outside the search domain.

Associate subject clusters with audience personas

If you can access your company's audience personas or segments, use this information to better align with stakeholders.

Integrating subject clusters with audience personas offers insight into the content that targets each audience within a business. These insights enable SEOs to identify content gaps and potential areas for improvement, equipping them with the necessary data to communicate more strategically.

A quick analysis of the chart below clearly reveals that the business is not effectively engaging with "Emma." Consequently, when determining the direction for future content creation, they might utilize this insight as a valid reason to devise content that resonates more with "Emma."

Similar to the keyword intent cluster visualization, there are various ways to create this chart. I'll share the simplest method I've found.

Start by giving ChatGPT your audience personas and asking it to summarize each. This helps make sure that ChatGPT really understands them. 

Here is an example prompt:

“I have a list of subjects that I would like you to categorize based on the audience personas that I will provide and your knowledge of each topic. Before starting, write a paragraph about each persona to ensure you understand them well. Then I will give you the list of subjects to categorize. After categorizing the keywords, please return them to me in a table that I can copy and paste into Excel.

Persona 1:
AGE: …

Persona 2:

Persona 3:

When creating this prompt, provide ChatGPT with comprehensive details about each persona. This helps it establish the best understanding of the audience personas possible, which can be Verified through the summaries. 

After confirming that it has an accurate grasp of the personas, proceed by uploading the list of keyword subjects that require categorization.

If all goes well, ChatGPT should generate a table for you that is separated by commas and resembles the following structure:

Next, simply transfer the output to Excel and utilize the "Text to Columns" feature to split the data effectively.

Once the data has been collected, convert the audiences' names into values for the bubble chart. So, this is to say that Brittany will now be represented by the number four on the y-axis. 

For subjects assigned to two or more audiences, take the average of the audience number.

An example is the subject “fuel efficiency,” which was categorized for John and Emma, so it was assigned 2.5 as an audience value. 

After gathering all necessary data, transform the audience names into numerical values for the bubble chart. 

To illustrate, Brittany will be represented as the number four on the y-axis. For subjects assigned to two or more audiences, calculate the mean of the audience numbers.

Take, for instance, the subject "fuel efficiency," attributed to both John and Emma, resulting in an assigned audience value of 2.5.

Subsequently, count the number of subjects assigned to each audience and allocate a numerical value to each topic, indicating its position on the x-axis. The data should closely resemble the example below:

After gathering all necessary data, SEOs can create a bubble graph using Excel.

They can enhance the graph by incorporating additional visual elements, such as background images or gradients, to delineate segments for each target audience clearly.

Visualizing complex SEO concepts for effective stakeholder communication

Bridging the gap between SEO concepts and stakeholder understanding is challenging but crucial. 

With keyword intent clusters and audience persona charts, SEOs have a streamlined and visual way to convey complex concepts. 

Using the visual aids discussed in this article, you can approach stakeholders with more strategic content insights that align with familiar concepts. 

Opinions expressed in this article are those of the guest author and not necessarily Search Engine Land. Staff authors are listed here.

Sun, 12 Nov 2023 20:00:00 -0600 Tyler Rouwhorst en text/html
Graham: ‘Nothing but praise’ for Biden administration’s approach to this issue No result found, try new keyword!Sen. Lindsey Graham speaks with CNN’s Abby Phillip about the Biden administration’s approach to the Saudi-Israel deal. Eagles sign five-time All-Pro offensive weapon to active roster 25 famous ... Tue, 31 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en-us text/html Empathy: The Heart-Centered Approach To Leading Change

Mary Gregory is an executive coach at Mary Gregory, Leadership Coaching and Facilitation, and author of Ego: Get Over Yourself and Lead.

Leading change can often feel like riding a roller coaster. You must deal with not only the twists and turns of transformation but also people's fears and concerns. Change creates uncertainty, which triggers anxiety, causing people to challenge or resist your proposals. Ignoring people's concerns or trying to persuade them to agree without genuinely understanding them or their needs risks false buy-in and even sabotage.

Empathy is the core skill for genuinely understanding where people are coming from and dissolving resistance, making change management smoother. Read on to explore why empathy is an absolute must and for tips on cultivating this heart-centered skill as part of your leadership.

Understanding Resistance

Any change, whether we want it or not, is an emotional journey.

When a change is desired, we feel excitement and anticipation. On the other hand, when a change is imposed, we tend to feel fear. This is often linked to our human need to be included, have a say and contribute to our destiny. When any of these factors are missing, we will likely feel immense fear and defend ourselves by resisting. Understanding this very human process is the first step to being able to do something about it.

Another element of being human that is helpful to understand is that when it comes to emotional experiences, fear and excitement are more closely aligned than you might think. Consider that roller coaster ride. During the ups and downs, fast turns and loop-the-loops, both emotions are generally experienced, and they may even merge.

So if excitement and fear are so closely associated, what might people need to shift their feelings from fear toward excitement? What part of the journey might be creating anxiety? And how can this be addressed so that people start to feel more hopeful about the future and their part in it?

The Role Empathy Can Play

Empathy is the ability to really tune into the experiences of another, sitting side by side with shared understanding. It's not about feeling sorry for someone; it's about getting another person or group of people's experience. The role this plays when leading change is invaluable on many levels:

• Building Trust: Empathy supports trust building by demonstrating that you are in tune with your team and understand their feelings and concerns. Listening to people and understanding how they feel is the start of building bridges and finding ways to navigate significant changes together.

• Empowering Communication: Understanding your team's feelings, their perspective on the situation and how the change will impact them means you are in a much better position to explain the change to them in a way that resonates. It also means you can more easily identify what might be difficult for them and find ways to overcome these things.

• Increasing Motivation: Think about a time when you felt fully understood by somebody. Now think about how that impacted your mood and sense of well-being. When someone really gets us, the impact can be one of relief, inner calm, increased hope and greater connection with that person or situation. The "feel-good" factor that empathy provides results in people being more open to change and more willing to engage with new possibilities.

• Creative Problem-Solving: Empathy can help you tap into your team's creative potential. When they feel heard, they're more likely to develop innovative solutions.

• Conflict Resolution: Empathy suspends "right and wrong." The intention is to understand and appreciate different perspectives, seek common ground, resolve conflict and ensure a more harmonious change process.

Cultivating Empathy

Being fully present with someone, listening with an open heart, asking open-ended questions and validating another's feelings are the foundations of empathy. Practice these four skills regularly. And share your journey in developing empathy to encourage others.

In the end, leading change isn't just about corporate strategies. It's about connecting hearts and minds. Empathy isn't just a tool; it's the heart of leadership. By acknowledging the concerns that lead to resistance, practicing empathy and reaping its benefits, you're not only ensuring a smoother and happier change journey but also embarking on transforming your organization into a safe, supportive, innovative and joyful workplace.

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Wed, 01 Nov 2023 23:00:00 -0500 Mary Gregory en text/html
Master of Public Administration

Preparation before your arrival

Prior to your arrival at LSE you will receive details about optional readings and online learning materials which are designed to help you to prepare for the programme.  

MPA Welcome & Introductory Teaching 

From mid-September (exact date TBC) you will need to attend MPA Welcome events and introductory teaching sessions. These will take place prior to the start of the LSE Autumn Term dates. The welcome sessions include campus enrolment, a programme introduction, compulsory introductory teaching in mathematics, statistics, academic writing and presentation skills plus sessions to introduce opportunities and resources available to you during your studies.

If you have not studied mathematics and statistics for some time, the MPA introductory teaching provides a challenging but accessible introduction to some of the key skills and techniques required for the degree. For other students, it serves as a refresher course.

First year

In the first year, you will take three compulsory courses, in micro- and macro-economics, political science and quantitative methods of analysis. These provide a rigorous foundation to support you in your second year.

You will also select optional courses (electives) to the value of one unit from a range of options.

MPA Y1Click image to view

Micro and Macro Economics for Public Policy 

You will learn macro- and micro- economic concepts, models and methods suitable for appraising policy, applicable in a wide variety of contexts. This includes the study of demand and supply, the labour market, public goods, market failure, inflation and monetary policy, fiscal policy and debt, and exchange rates. 

Political Science for Public Policy
You will learn concepts and models for understanding the behaviour of political actors and why they lead to particular outcomes. This includes the study of voting, political parties, interest groups, legislative politics, corruption, democratisation and ethnic conflict. These tools are essential for designing policy interventions to achieve desired future outcomes. 

Quantitative Approaches and Policy Analysis 
You will learn skills for the quantitative evaluation of public policies, such as causal relationships; randomised control trials; difference-in-difference estimation; instrumental variables; regression discontinuity designs and cost-benefit analysis. 

Option courses (electives) - Year one

In addition to your required core courses, you will take full unit or half-unit option courses (electives). The SPP offers a wide range of courses as options.

You can review the 2023/24 option list here.

Second Year

The key features of the second year are the MPA Capstone and the option to choose a specialisation to be a part of your degree title.

You will also choose a range of option courses (electives) from the School of Public Policy (or elsewhere in LSE, subject to permission and availability).

MPA Y2Click image to view

The MPA Capstone 

The MPA Capstone is a compulsory one unit course. You will carry out analysis and research, as part of a team, in order to address a practical policy issue relevant to a real-life client organisation. It allows you to extend your capabilities by applying what you have learned in the MPA core courses in a professional context. 

Option courses (electives)

Your remaining second year course units will be made up of option courses (electives) from a wide range available in the School of Public Policy or (with permission and subject to availability) from elsewhere in LSE.

You may choose to write a Policy Paper (6,000 words) or a Dissertation (10,000 words) as one of your option courses. You will choose your own subject if you decide to write a Policy Paper or Dissertation, which you will develop in consultation with your allocated supervisor.  


You can either choose to pursue a general MPA or you can request that one of the following specialisms is added to your degree title.

The current specialisms are:

  • Economic Policy
  • International Development
  • Inequality and Poverty
  • Social Impact
  • International Political Economy

Each specialism has one or more courses attached to it (please refer to the programme regulations and click on 'MPA course list' for details). To be eligible for a specialism to be added to your degree title, you must meet the requirements to be eligible for the overall degree and pass the courses attached to your chosen specialism. You can only choose one specialism but you can take courses from other specialisms as option courses (electives).

For the most up-to-date list of optional courses please visit the relevant School Calendar page.  

Whilst care has been taken to ensure that this information is up to date and correct, a change of circumstances since publication may cause the School to change, suspend or withdraw a course or programme of study, or change the fees that apply to it. The School will always notify the affected parties as early as practicably possible and propose any viable and relevant alternative options. Note that the School will neither be liable for information that after publication becomes inaccurate or irrelevant, nor for changing, suspending or withdrawing a course or programme of study due to events outside of its control, which includes but is not limited to a lack of demand for a course or programme of study, industrial action, fire, flood or other environmental or physical damage to premises.
You must also note that places are limited on some courses and/or subject to specific entry requirements. The School cannot therefore guarantee you a place. Please note that changes to programmes and courses can sometimes occur after you have accepted your offer of a place. These changes are normally made in light of developments in the discipline or path-breaking research, or on the basis of student feedback. Changes can take the form of altered course content, teaching formats or assessment modes. Any such changes are intended to enhance the student learning experience. You should visit the School’s Calendar, or contact the relevant academic department, for information on the availability and/or content of courses and programmes of study. Certain substantive changes will be listed on the updated graduate course and programme information page.
Thu, 16 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-GB text/html
Master's in Healthcare Administration Online

Register By: December 02 Classes Start: December 04

Lead in Healthcare Administration

  • $637 per credit (36 credits total)
  • 5 terms per year, each term is 10 weeks
  • Transfer up to 12 graduate credits to reduce cost
  • Complete in as few as 15 months or at your own pace
  • Applicable to many roles in healthcare
  • Focus on communication, critical thinking and analytics in healthcare

Master's in Healthcare Administration Program Overview

Healthcare administrators play a vital role in today's shifting healthcare paradigm – they ensure equitable quality and access to the best care through leadership. By earning your online Master of Science (MS) in Healthcare Administration degree program, you'll boost your qualifications to fill critical roles within healthcare organizations and advance your career in this vital industry.

Healthcare is a booming field. If you've set your sights on a leadership role in the healthcare field, but aren't interested in a clinical position, then a career in healthcare administration could be for you. Healthcare managers have the unique responsibility of applying business best practices in combination with applying the models, influences and complexity of the healthcare industry. It's a role that takes a combination of organizational leadership and strategic vision balanced with skillful collaboration among internal and external stakeholders.

At Southern New Hampshire University, you'll receive the formal healthcare education necessary to advance your skills and complement your experience within the complex field of health administration. The master's in healthcare administration online program covers a variety of topics, including:

  • Finance and economics
  • Law
  • Policy
  • Informatics
  • Strategic planning

"With healthcare being one of the fastest-growing industries in the United States – and those currently in health care administrative roles retiring at record rates – graduates will be able to pursue a variety of career options in hospital, outpatient clinic or long-term care facility, home care agency roles managing entire organizations or specific departments," said Dr. Rebecca Arsenault, an adjunct faculty member at SNHU.

SNHU provides students with an array of accredited online healthcare degrees and online nursing programs. Our online MS in Healthcare Administration broadens our offering in this vital area, providing a more in-depth study of the healthcare industry for those ready to take the next step in their careers.

"In healthcare, the only constant is change and innovation," said Dr. Matt Frederiksen-England, an SNHU adjunct faculty member. "SNHU teaches nurses and healthcare administrators the philosophy about leadership, focusing on building a foundation that will allow post-graduates to adapt to the ever-changing environment. Students are provided the tools to be leaders who will help drive a better healthcare delivery system."

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How You'll Learn

At SNHU, you'll get support from day 1 to graduation and beyond. And with no set class times, 24/7 access to the online classroom, and helpful learning resources along the way, you'll have everything you need to reach your goals.

Career Outlook

Healthcare leaders are needed more than ever. As medical technology advances and each generation continues to lead longer lives, we can expect the need for more and more qualified healthcare professionals. At the same time, there is an increased focus, even scrutiny, on the rising costs of healthcare without an overall increase in patient outcomes. Healthcare leaders must have a firm grasp of the internal and external influences on healthcare including reimbursement models, quality and improvement measures, marketing and communication strategies, government impacts, finances and budget and how to lead teams through change.

Headshot of Dr. Matt Fredericksen-England with the text Dr. Matt Fredericksen-EnglandAnd that's before you even consider a pandemic like COVID-19. A worldwide pandemic showed us how necessary it was to have healthcare leaders in a time of crisis. They navigated populations through uncertain times, everything from securing PPE to collaborating with community partners on how to contain the virus.

"I believe most of the world saw the importance of healthcare administrators and nurse leaders during COVID-19. When times were tough, the ones who still maintained employment were healthcare workers more than any other field," said Dr. Matt Frederiksen-England, an adjunct faculty member at Southern New Hampshire University. "Students earning an MS in Healthcare Administration are those who will be providing leadership to healthcare in the years to come.

Job Growth and Salary

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects the addition of more healthcare jobs than any other occupational group from 2020 to 2030 – offering about 2.6 million new job openings across the country.1 That's a jump of 36% since the 2018 prediction of 1.9 million.

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Job Growth

While the BLS considers 5% the average growth rate for all occupations, medical and health service managers are projected to have 28% growth through 20311 – meaning opportunities abound for MS in Healthcare Administration graduates.

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While salaries vary regionally, the BLS reported a median annual salary of $101,340 for medical and health services managers in 2021.1

Understanding the numbers
When reviewing job growth and salary information, it’s important to remember that genuine numbers can vary due to many different factors—like years of experience in the role, industry of employment, geographic location, worker skill and economic conditions. Cited projections do not guarantee genuine salary or job growth.

Leading a Healthcare Organization

Earning your MS in Healthcare Administration is a great choice in getting you closer to your goal of leading a healthcare organization. Healthcare administrators utilize their extensive knowledge of healthcare to take lead on issues related to organizational management. As a healthcare administrator, you’ll be in charge of managing and overseeing staff and processes in varying departments, floors, units or even entire facilities.

Dr. Toni Clayton with the text Dr. Toni Clayton"Healthcare administrators support policies and processes for the delivery of care and services that impact our patient populations," said Dr. Toni Clayton, executive director of health professions. "It requires leaders to apply healthcare principles and methodologies as they manage people and processes."

That being said, good healthcare administrators must lead an organization by demonstrating business acumen as well as deep empathy for their team members, patients and clients. As a healthcare administrator, you might find yourself in charge of tasks such as:

  • Assessing resource needs
  • Budget preparation
  • Demonstrating organizational leadership and representation
  • Facilitating interdepartmental communications
  • Implementing continuous quality improvement programs
  • Informing recruitment efforts
  • Leading and managing staff
  • Making recommendations to Excellerate financial position
  • Managing health information
  • Strategic planning
  • Upholding compliance and regulation standards

Where Could You Work?

According to the Association of University Programs in Health Administration (AUPHA), healthcare executives have the opportunity to make a significant contribution to improving the health of the citizens in the communities they serve. They also have the opportunity to work in thousands of health services organizations throughout the U.S. and the world, including:

Consulting Firms

Provide strategic recommendations to healthcare organizations to Excellerate care and efficiency.

Disposable Supplies and Equipment

Provide medical equipment and supplies, office supplies and other items to hospitals and healthcare organizations.

Federal Programs

Help people in the communities get access to healthcare through federal and state-funded programs like Medicare and Medicaid.

Home Health Agencies

Work in communities and meet people where they are to provide greater access to medical care and assistance.


Help to ensure hospital departments, staffing, equipment and more are functioning at optimal levels.

Insurance Companies

Work with hospitals, federal agencies and other organizations to provide insurance coverage to policyholders and help process insurance claims.

As a healthcare leader, you'll be responsible for managing growth in human capital, leading strategic planning efforts and being well versed in navigating the healthcare system that is heavily influenced by public policy and government leadership and legislation – all crucial in today's workforce.

Start Your Journey Toward an Online Healthcare Administration Degree

Why SNHU for Your Online Master's in Healthcare Administration

Admission Requirements

How to Apply

Janet Johnson, MS Healthcare Administration 2021 graduate

Get the Skills You Need

Janet Johnson '21

"SNHU has given me the skills and knowledge to advance in my career. After graduating, I was offered a job at a large, well-respected hospital, and I’m excited to see where the future will take me."

Courses & Curriculum

SNHU’s online MS in Healthcare Administration was designed to provide you with the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in top healthcare administration positions. To ensure the program is on the cutting-edge of healthcare, the master's degree curriculum and coursework is regularly reviewed by an advisory board made up of healthcare professionals from a wide variety of occupations within the industry. With this vital input from industry experts, you can graduate from our program feeling confident that you're ready to take your career to the next step.

"Subject-matter experts develop course competencies based upon job skills identified by employers," said Dr. Rebecca Arsenault, an adjunct faculty member at SNHU. "From these skills-based competencies, course learning objectives reflect real-world skills that students will need as they seek employment opportunities.

Industry-Aligned Standards

Healthcare is a unique and complex industry that undergoes frequent changes based on developments in technology and medical practices, as well as political and policy changes. This means that leaders in the healthcare field need a strong understanding of the industry to successfully lead a medical facility or other healthcare organization. As such, the master's in healthcare administration online curriculum was developed by well-respected practitioners in the field and is aligned with standards from:

  • The Association of University Programs in Health Administration (AUPHA)
  • The Healthcare Leadership Alliance (HLA)

Following these standards, our rigorous online MS degree program will focus on equipping you with the expertise required for top healthcare administration positions, including:

  • Communication
  • Computational skills
  • Critical thinking
  • In-depth understanding of the healthcare environment
  • Leadership
  • Relationship management
  • Societal and cultural context

Develop Diverse and Practical Expertise

SNHU's MS in Healthcare Administration will require you to take courses within 3 critical disciplines in healthcare administration – integrated health profession, organizational leadership and health information management.

Dr. Rebecca Arsenault with the text Dr. Rebecca Arsenault"Students develop diverse expertise including day-to-day management, financial and reimbursement competency and other technical skills necessary to operate healthcare facilities and services," Arsenault said. "Students develop an understanding of the role of a healthcare administrator in leading teams, allocating resources for staff training and development and quality improvement initiatives and promoting community public and governmental relations."

Another benefit to the program is the opportunity to participate in hands-on learning.

"This program provides the option for students to participate in HEaRT (Higher Education and Real-world Training) Challenges, which are internship-type work experiences where students address a critical problem facing healthcare facilities across the country," Arsenault said. "Students then present their ideas and recommendations directly to industry experts."

Not the healthcare program you're looking for? If you'd like to enroll in a program geared more toward the business environment within healthcare, SNHU also offers an MBA in Healthcare Management. The MBA program was designed to focus more on the business skills necessary in building good leaders, and when paired with the healthcare management concentration, you can still dive deeper into issues like healthcare law, ethics and compliance.

Minimum Hardware Requirements

Stacey Marrazo, MS Healthcare Administration 2022 graduateLearn from Industry Experts

Stacey Marrazo ‘22

"The professors were all professionals with experience in the field they were teaching. It was almost like being able to follow them through their work and understand the inner workings of the job."

University Accreditation

New England Commission of Higher Education Southern New Hampshire University is a private, nonprofit institution accredited by the New England Commission of Higher Education (NECHE) as well as several other accrediting bodies.

Tuition & Fees

Tuition rates for SNHU's online degree programs are among the lowest in the nation. We offer a 25% tuition discount for U.S. service members, both full and part time, and the spouses of those on active duty.

Online Graduate Programs Per Course Per Credit Hour Annual Cost for 15 credits 
Degree/Certificates $1,911 $637 $9,555 
(U.S. service members, both full and part time, and the spouses of those on active duty)*
$1,410 $470 $7,050 

Tuition rates are subject to change and are reviewed annually.
*Note: students receiving this rate are not eligible for additional discounts.

Additional Costs:
Course Materials ($ varies by course). Foundational courses may be required based on your undergraduate course history, which may result in additional cost.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is a master's in healthcare administration worth it?

What can I do with a master's degree in healthcare administration?

How much can you make with a master's in healthcare administration?

How long does it take to get a master's in healthcare administration?

How do I get a master's in healthcare administration?

How much does a master's in healthcare administration cost?

What degree is needed to run a hospital?

SNHU Spotlight: Katwana Harris, BS in Healthcare Administration Grad

After 20 years in healthcare, Katwana Harris pursued a BS in Healthcare Administration at Southern New Hampshire University. She said that SNHU's support, flexibility and reasonable program length exceeded her expectations, and Harris now recommends the school to friends and coworkers.

What is Trauma-Informed Care?

Despite the prevalence of trauma, there can be a lack of understanding of its impact. Learning more is the first step toward making a difference. According to SAMHSA, trauma-informed care (TIC) is an approach based on a foundation of knowledge about trauma and a desire to avoid re-traumatization.

SNHU Hosts Third Annual Global Summit for Healthcare Professionals

This October, Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) hosted its third annual Global Summit. It's a free event open to the public that gives health professionals the opportunity to earn contact hours, develop professionally and connect with others in their field.


Sources & Citations (1, 2)

Mon, 13 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Stopping The Insanity: A Modern Approach To Solving Today’s Complex, Recurring Problems

Rob De La Espriella is the CEO of BlueDragon IPS and a leading expert in solving complex problems in modern operating environments.

Traditional Approaches To Solving Workplace Problems Are Not Working

The harsh reality is that most tools and techniques used today to investigate organizational and programmatic failures, human performance deficiencies, equipment failures and accidents/incidents originated in the 20th century. For example, the “5 Whys” root cause analysis technique was developed in the 1930s for the automobile manufacturing industry. The Fishbone diagram came about in the 1940s. While these tools provided value in the past, they were designed for less complex times.

Consider that we are now in the 21st century. Why are many regulated industries, including aerospace, defense, energy, pharmaceuticals and healthcare, still relying on antiquated problem-solving methods? As a result, these industries experience incredibly high instances of recurring human errors, organizational and programmatic breakdowns, accidents and incidents, quality issues, as well as insurance claims, fraud, waste and abuse cases. Mostly because organizations fail to uncover and address their deepest underlying causes.

Let’s consider an example. Over a period of five years, a high-tech manufacturing company experienced 12 separate events involving electrical arc flash that resulted in severe injuries to technicians. The company used the “5 Whys” for incident investigations and kept identifying “inadequate PPE” and “lack of adherence to procedures” as root causes. However, had they looked deeper, they would have uncovered larger institutional problems related to production pressures, inadequate staffing and deficiencies in their safety culture. And they left open the possibility that a future event could cause a fatality.

This is just one example, but statistics tell the full story. There are not thousands of new root causes to explain this volume of issues. Problems recur because organizations fail to perform the type of deep-dive analyses required to identify the true underlying causes. Continued reliance on outdated methods perpetuates a vicious cycle of recurrence, describing the well-known definition of insanity.

A New Breed Of Problems In The Modern Workplace Is Driving The Need To Update Our Approach

Today’s modern socio-technical working environments put tremendous pressure on human performance and create a new breed of intricate, multifaceted problems. This includes the proliferation of high technology; matrixed organization charts where we serve multiple bosses with a plethora of collateral duties; a large volume of regulations, requirements, programs, processes and procedures; the advent of Big Data and data analytics; and certainly not least, the local, regional and national cultural pressures and political correctness in the modern workplace. Solving these modern, complex problems requires a modern approach.

Six Keys To Solving Complex Problems In The 21st Century

Forward-thinking problem solvers are adopting new approaches that incorporate contemporary concepts that allow a more holistic, human-centric approach, captured below in six keys to solving the complex problems of the 21st century.

1. Critical Thinking

The unbiased and intellectually disciplined process of gathering, organizing and analyzing data, evidence and information so we can draw insights and solve problems. Critical thinking is one of two anchors for complex problem-solving.

2. Systems Thinking

The second of two anchors for solving complex problems. Using systems thinking, we can conduct a systems inventory of affected programs, processes and procedures to establish a holistic approach that attacks problems from multiple perspectives.

3. Unbiased Questions

Generating unbiased, evidence-based questions that are anchored to specific standards for performance and insights from data analysis create more effective lines of inquiry.

4. Analysis Of Defenses

An assessment of the effectiveness of the line of defenses put in place to guard us from hazards and help us succeed in managing our complex operations to determine where they failed. This is essential to our holistic approach and must be conducted every time.

5. In-Depth Causal Analysis

Not the same as data analysis, this approach uncovers the small set of deep-seated causes that have far-ranging effects and will continue to generate events. As previously stated, there are not thousands of new root causes creating thousands of recurring problems each year.

6. Effective Corrective Actions

Incorporating modern concepts (such as the Hierarchy of Hazard Controls and Lean Mistake-Proofing) to produce actions more likely to prevent recurrence. Traditional corrective actions that include more procedure requirements and training have not done much to prevent recurrence.

The Benefits Of Modernizing Your Problem-Solving System

A modern approach to solving recurring problems allows organizations to finally move beyond mere event causes and address the deepest underlying sources of recurring issues. The payoff includes:

• Modernized Mission Assurance: A system that accounts for modern workplace dynamics.

• Enhanced Critical Thinking: A system that creates stronger problem-solvers and decision makers.

• Continuous Improvement Culture: A system that proactively assesses and improves our line of defense.

• Higher Reliability: A system that eliminates latent organizational and programmatic weaknesses, reducing problem recurrence and improving consistency of operations.

• Reduced Operating Costs: A system that keeps personnel working on mission-critical tasks and not on recurring problems.

• Stronger Public Trust: An advanced problem-solving system that builds public trust and confidence, leading to a competitive advantage and improved market share.

• Greater Regulatory Trust: A system that proactively self-identifies and addresses complex problems, demonstrates credibility and increases regulator trust and confidence.

Take Aways

In closing, we must acknowledge some cold, hard truths. Traditional problem-solving tools have proven less than effective for preventing recurring failures in today’s complex landscape, resulting in preventable accidents and fatalities, costing industries money each year. The modern sociotechnical workplace has bred a new class of complex and challenging problems that require innovative tactics with the latest advancements in holistic problem-solving.

Rather than chasing symptoms with outdated reductionist tools and techniques, organizations should update their performance improvement and corrective action programs with methodologies that are designed to solve problems in the 21st century. By addressing those systemic gaps, they can achieve the fundamental transformation needed to prevent recurring issues, avoid preventable tragedies and meet the challenges of the modern era.

Forbes Business Council is the foremost growth and networking organization for business owners and leaders. Do I qualify?

Wed, 18 Oct 2023 00:30:00 -0500 Rob De La Espriella en text/html
Quick Take: Biden Administration Seeks to Shape Domestic and International Approach to AI Through Executive Order

Today, the Biden Administration released its highly anticipated Executive Order on Safe, Secure and Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence, setting forth a broad vision of the Administration’s legal, regulatory, and policy approach to the development and implementation of Artificial Intelligence in the United States. Through the EO, the Administration seeks to assert American leadership in an area where there is concern that the federal government’s efforts are not keeping pace with the speed at which the technology is being adopted or regulated in other countries. The EO also makes clear that the Administration will require measures to ensure safe and responsible development and use of AI, but that it will take an overall cautious approach to regulation in this area in order to ensure continued innovation and not unnecessarily stifle the economic potential of the technology.

The EO provides a roadmap of some of the key issues that the Administration has been focused on as it seeks to develop guardrails for the technology. Specifically, the EO directs action around new standards for AI safety and security, measures to protect Americans’ privacy, consumer and workforce protections, promoting innovation and competition, advancing American leadership abroad, and ensuring responsible and effective government use of AI.

The EO should be of interest to clients across a wide variety of industries, with heightened immediate importance to government contractors and large technology companies that are developing advanced AI systems. The EO sets forth areas where the Administration is directing the development of appropriate standards going forward, including guidance for federal government agencies’ use of AI, for red-teaming models, and for detecting AI-generated content and authenticating official content. Meaningful resources will be dedicated across a broad range of government agencies to create and implement these standards as well as to develop other policies and reports required by the EO. Companies developing AI products or using AI in any way (or that are planning to do so in the future)—which is certain to be most companies—will need to be cognizant of these standards and recommendations as they are being developed. Our experience indicates that companies should not be waiting for these standards and recommendations to be rolled out, but should be carefully watching agency developments and anticipating future guidelines based on the areas of demonstrated interest from the Administration.

The EO also highlights key areas where the Administration (and others) have been raising concerns about potential risks of discrimination and other consumer protection concerns— including in education, health care, housing, and employment. At the same time, the Administration also is focusing on ways to promote innovation and competition. AI is a groundbreaking yet disruptive technology, with many areas of potential concern. However, it is also an area where there are meaningful opportunities both for companies and for consumers. The EO attempts to balance these considerations and ensure orderly technological development that provides benefits without raising substantial new or expanded risks.

The EO also focuses on critical concerns about privacy and cybersecurity. The EO endorses the need for bipartisan national privacy legislation to protect all Americans (with a focus on children). It further provides support for the development of “privacy enhancing technologies” as a means of realizing the benefits of AI without raising new privacy concerns. The EO also recognizes that there are meaningful cybersecurity concerns raised by AI technology, and establishes an advanced cybersecurity program to develop AI tools to find and fix vulnerabilities in critical software. 

Companies will want to review the EO to understand whether there are immediate obligations being imposed on them. For example, the EO—leveraging the authority of the Defense Production Act—will require companies developing any foundation model that poses a serious risk to national security, national economic security, or national public health and safety to share the results of red-teaming efforts with the federal government. However, it is important to recognize that most of the EO is focused on future efforts by the federal government that are intended to shape standards, norms, and legal requirements going forward. Despite the fact that these requirements do not impose immediate obligations on most companies, it is critical that companies understand the issues that the EO is concerned with and pay close attention to how federal agencies approach the requirements of the EO over the coming months as many of the requirements are intended to eventually flow down to the private sector. 

Mon, 30 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
'What it’s doing now is indefensible': What should Israel's approach be in Gaza?

One month after the Hamas attack against Israel, Israel is facing criticism for bombarding Gaza. Zack Beauchamp writes that "Israel must do something, and what it’s doing now is indefensible."

Here & Now's Scott Tong speaks with Beauchamp, a senior correspondent at Vox and author of the forthcoming book "The Reactionary Spirit."

Click here for more coverage and different points of view.  

This segment aired on November 8, 2023.

Tue, 07 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html

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