CTAL-TM-001 plan - ISTQB Certified Tester Advanced Level - Test Manager (CTAL-TM_001) Updated: 2023
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Exam Code: CTAL-TM-001 ISTQB Certified Tester Advanced Level - Test Manager (CTAL-TM_001) plan November 2023 by Killexams.com team|
CTAL-TM-001 ISTQB Certified Tester Advanced Level - Test Manager (CTAL-TM_001)
The iSQI CTAL-TM-001 (ISTQB Certified Tester Advanced Level - Test Manager) is a certification exam designed for experienced software testers who want to demonstrate their expertise in test management. This certification is based on the ISTQB (International Software Testing Qualifications Board) syllabus. Below is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, exam objectives, and exam syllabus.
Number of Questions and Time:
The CTAL-TM-001 exam typically consists of approximately 60 multiple-choice and scenario-based questions. Candidates are given a specific time limit of 180 minutes (3 hours) to complete the exam.
The CTAL-TM-001 certification exam covers various subjects related to test management. Candidates can prepare for the exam by studying the following key areas:
1. Test Process and Project Management:
- Understanding the test management process.
- Defining test objectives, strategies, and plans.
- Estimating and planning test activities.
- Monitoring and controlling test activities.
- Managing risks and issues.
2. Test Organization:
- Defining roles and responsibilities within the test organization.
- Building and managing the testing team.
- Communication and collaboration with stakeholders.
- Test documentation and reporting.
3. Test Techniques and Methods:
- Selecting appropriate test techniques and methods.
- Test design techniques (e.g., specification-based, structure-based, and experience-based techniques).
- Non-functional testing techniques (e.g., performance, security, and usability testing).
4. Test Tools and Automation:
- Evaluating and selecting test tools.
- Implementing test automation.
- Managing test environments and test data.
The objectives of the CTAL-TM-001 exam are to assess the candidate's knowledge and understanding of the following areas:
1. Test management principles, processes, and best practices.
2. Test planning, estimation, and monitoring.
3. Test organization and team management.
4. Test techniques and methods.
5. Test tools and automation.
The exam syllabus for CTAL-TM-001 includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:
- Test process and project management
- Test organization and team management
- Test techniques and methods
- Test tools and automation
- Risk-based testing
- Test metrics and reporting
Candidates are advised to refer to the official ISTQB syllabus for CTAL-TM-001 for a complete and detailed understanding of the exam objectives and syllabus.
It's important to note that the iSQI CTAL-TM-001 certification exam is administered by iSQI, a globally recognized certification body. Candidates interested in taking the exam should consult official iSQI resources or training providers to obtain accurate and up-to-date information on the exam, including registration, preparation, and study materials.
|ISTQB Certified Tester Advanced Level - Test Manager (CTAL-TM_001)|
iSQI (CTAL-TM_001) plan
Other iSQI examsCTAL-TA ISTQB Certified Tester Advanced Level - Test Analyst (Syllabus-2012)
CTAL-TM-001 ISTQB Certified Tester Advanced Level - Test Manager (CTAL-TM_001)
CTAL-TM-UK ISTQB Certified Tester Advanced Level - Test Manager (CTAL-TM_UK)
CTAL-TTA-001 ISTQB Certified Tester Advanced Level - Technical Test Analyst (CTAL-TTA-Syll2012)
CTFL_001 ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation Level (CTFL_001)
CTFL_UK ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation Level (CTFL_UK)
IREB IREB Certified Professional for Requirements Engineering (CPRE)
CTFL_Syll2018 ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation Level
CTFL_Foundation ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation Level
CPUX-F UXQB Certified Professional for Usability and User Experience - Foundation Level
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ISTQB Certified Tester Advanced(R) Level - Test Manager
Which of the following is NOT a typical key challenge for testing in a RAD based
development approach? 1 credit
A. Re-usable test scripts for (automated) regression testing
B. Project management and control
C. No complete requirements specification
As a result of the RAD based development approach, the test manager has decided to
change the risk mitigation approach. Which test technique might be most appropriate
to use? 2 credits
A. Decision Table Testing
B. Boundary Value Analysis
C. Error Guessing
D. Exploratory Testing
The business has asked for a weekly progress report. Which of the following would
be appropriate as a measure of test coverage? 2 credits
A. Percentage of business requirements exercised
B. Percentage of planned hours worked this week
C. Percentage of countries that have test scenarios
D. Percentage of test iterations completed
Section 11: Sec Eleven (61 to 61)
Details: course 11, Scenario 11 "Incident Management"
The following is the current incident handling process in used at the company.
Step 1: Incident is documented in the incident Tile with the following information:
- Software module or area where the fault occurred
- Who has reported the fault
- Hardware configuration used for the test that found the fault
- The sequential incident number (1 greater than the last one recorded)
Step 2: Developer assigned to fix the fault
Step 3: Developer fixes the fault
Step 4: Developer signs off the incident as closed, and it is then removed from the
Regarding the process described above, what is the most important recommendation
you would make using IEEE 1044 as a guide? 2 credits
A. No priority or severity assigned
B. Incident numbering is manual rather than automated
C. No mentioning of reproduceability
D. No classification on type of incident
Section 12: Sec Twelve (62 to 65)
Details: course 12, Scenario 12 ďAutomatic Teller Machine (ATM)Ē
You are a test manager in charge of integration, system and acceptance testing for a
bank. You are working on a project to upgrade an existing ATM to allow customers
to obtain cash advances from supported credit cards. The system should allow cash
advances from Ä20 to Ä500, inclusively, for all supported credit cards. The supported
credit cards are American Express, VISA, Eurocard and Mastercard.
In the master test plan the following items are listed in the section named ďitems
and/or features to be testedĒ:
I All supported credit cards
II Language localization
II Valid and invalid advances
V Response time
Relying only on the information provided in the scenario, select the TWO items
and/or features for which sufficient information is available to proceed with test
design. 2 credits
A. All supported credit cards
B. Language localization
C. Valid and invalid advances
E. Response time
Answer: A, C
Continuing with the Scenario described in the previous question, which of the
following subjects would you need to address in detail in the master test plan? 3 credits
A. An approach to regression testing
B. A list of boundary values for ďadvance amountĒ
C. A description of dependencies between test cases
D. A logical collection of test cases
Given the following figures for the testing on a project, and assuming the failure rate
for initial tests remains constant and that all retests pass, what number of tests remain
to be run? 3 credits
Given is the following defect removal chart reported at the end of system testing -
showing total defects detected and closed defects (fixed and successfully retested). A
number of open defects are classified as critical. All tests have been executed.
Based on the chart above, what is the most appropriate next test phase? 1 credit
A. Acceptance testing to verify the business process
B. Acceptance testing to verify operational requirements
C. Requirements testing as part of testing regulatory compliance
D. Another system test cycle to verify defect resolution
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PETALING JAYA: Telekom Malaysia Bhd‚Äôs (TM) latest revision of the Unifi broadband plan is expected to have a minimal effect on the telecommunication company‚Äôs (telco) average revenue per user (Arpu) and earnings.
MIDF Research said this was premised on a higher entry-level plan of RM99 per month, low risk of downgrade in broadband plan and free speed upgrade for existing subscribers.
‚ÄúOur view is also in tandem with the management‚Äôs decision to retain the existing market guidance for financial year 2023 (FY23),‚ÄĚ it said in a report after a latest TM group briefing.
Premised on the revised Mandatory Standard on Access Pricing, TM has introduced a new set of fibre broadband pricing for new subscribers.
Under the revised offerings, the entry-level plan is 100 megabits per second (mbps) at RM99 per month. The 30 mpbs plan at RM69 per month is no longer available to the masses.
Existing users would be entitled to a free speed upgrade. The upgrade would be rolled out in phases and would be completed in three months.
On a separate note, TM also introduced a RM149 package which consists of 100 mbps home fibre broadband, unlimited 4G+5G postpaid and a free 5G smartphone. This, however, comes with a 36-month contract.
‚ÄúWe view that TM is taking this opportunity to reignite its mobile business which has a better network proposition,‚ÄĚ MIDF Research, which is maintaining its ‚Äúneutral‚ÄĚ stance on TM with an unchanged target price of RM5.22, said.
Kenanga Research, meanwhile, noted that it is ‚Äúneutral‚ÄĚ on TM‚Äôs repricing of its Unifi plans, as it is within the research house‚Äôs expectations.
‚ÄúDespite the price cuts (7% to 24%), we believe Arpu will be largely resilient. This is because higher entry-level Arpu would offset erosion from cheaper business Arpu and some down-trading of plans.
‚ÄúOn the other hand, we are positive that uncertainty surrounding Unifi‚Äôs repricing has finally dissipated. We maintain our forecasts, target price of RM6.57 for the stock and our ‚Äėoutperform‚Äô call,‚ÄĚ it said.
Kenanga Research further said it liked the telco on account of it being leveraged towards secular data growth on the back of current trends such as digital transformation, the proliferation of the Internet of things and artificial intelligence.
TM is also benefiting from the Jendela phase two projects via rollout and monetisation opportunities and sustained traction in its cost-optimisation initiatives.
Risks include higher-than-expected erosion in wholesale revenues from new reference access offer prices, pricing pressures at the retail segment arising from policy-led directives and irrational competition in the retail fibre broadband space.
Telekom Malaysia (TM) has adjusted the monthly subscription fee of its Unifi Home 2Gbps plan from RM399 to RM428.90.
The new pricing comes with a subscription to a standard Netflix plan, where the company said users can watch on two supported devices at a time.
Other offerings include the existing Unifi TV Ultimate Max package offering users access to 10 streaming apps including Disney+ Hotstar, BBC Player and iQiyi, as well as a free WiFi 6-certified Mesh device.
The 2Gbps plan was first introduced April with a subscription price of RM399, promising download speeds of up to 2Gbps and upload speeds of up to 1Gbps.
TM has also adjusted the price of its 1GBps plan, which was also introduced in April, from RM349 monthly to RM378.90 monthly with the inclusion of Netflix Standard. The company is also offering users under this plan a free six-month speed upgrade to 2GBps.
For those who have already subscribed to the plans, the company noted in an FAQ that the price offering (with discount) is valid as long as they remain with their respective 24-month plans.
Currently, the company is not offering new users the choice of opting out of the additional Netflix subscription from the 2Gbps and 1Gbps plans. Both plans also come with a 24-month contract.
On whether subscribers will experience the exact gigabit speed, the company said that 2Gbps plan customers "will enjoy an aggregated speed offering which means every LAN port will not exceed 1Gbps but with a combined bandwidth of 2Gbps", while 1Gbps customers "will enjoy the 1Gbps speed experience".
TM in its FAQ stated that customers can downgrade their plan, adding that the existing contract will ‚Äúreset to 24-months‚ÄĚ.
Unifi plans without Netflix are available starting with the 30Mbps plan at RM89 monthly.
By now you have heard about the Department of Labor's (DOL) new rules for retirement plans of all kinds. (They were announced almost a year ago.) And by now you have heard all sorts of rumors that the Trump administration will repeal the new rules, or not repeal them, or delay them or revamp them. ‚Ä¶ There are just too many rumors to keep straight!
Here's the bottom line: Anyone who is a plan sponsor has a fiduciary responsibility to the plan and the participants. You cannot delegate it away, you cannot hire somebody to do it for you. You can hire professionals to help you, but at the end of the day, you have fiduciary responsibilities that are much broader than you might think. The new DOL rules don't change this.
Preparation and documentation are your allies. But where do you start? There are so many rules and regulations that most plan sponsors have no clue where to begin. Below are five things every plan sponsor should do immediately, just to comply with the old rules.
1. Have an independent third party evaluate your compliance.
Do you know what you are supposed to be doing and when? Do you have any idea what needs to be kept and what doesn't? How do you evaluate your custodial reports, and what do you do with them?
Fiduciary excellence should be your goal. A fiduciary is supposed to be acting in the "best interest" of another, in this case, in the best interest of the plan and participants. To achieve fiduciary excellence, you first have to know where you are now. That is what a third-party evaluation will uncover.
2. Have an independent third party review your plan for performance, fees and fiduciary excellence.
Many plans receive an annual, sometimes quarterly, review of their investments from their custodian. The plan sponsor looks at it, says to himself, "Yup, that's my plan ‚Ä¶" and files the document away.
Maybe the report might mention that one or two funds are underperforming. Maybe the report might mention that one or two funds have higher-than-average fees. What does the plan sponsor do about it? Ask the broker? Ask the custodian? Where does he go for independent advice? Many plan sponsors look at the questionable funds and say, ‚ÄúA 6% return seems pretty good to me,‚ÄĚ and that is the end of it, not knowing that the average for that sector might have been 12%.
And how does the plan sponsor review the funds for fiduciary excellence? On what basis will he determine this? Having an independent third party come in to evaluate the plan itself can answer many of these questions.
3. Write a specific and unique Investment Policy Statement (IPS).
Many plans do not have an IPS. When asked, the plan sponsor mutters something about the custodian having it, or it‚Äôs around here somewhere, or they gave it to their broker.
The IPS determines how the plan assets are to be invested. It is the plan sponsor's guide to how THEY want the plan run. When should they replace a fund? How should they determine performance standards? On what basis do they select funds? This has to be determined by the plan's investment policy committee. You don't have one of those? Make that six things you need to do.
4. Determine your policies and procedures.
Joe the Janitor dies at age 42. He's been with the company for 20 years. Mrs. Joe the Janitor, after grieving the loss of her husband, turns her attention to the windfall she is about to inherit from Joe's 401(k). She knows he's been putting money away every year, so she figures, if he put away the max each year, and had it in the S&P 500 fund, she's going to be rich!
Unfortunately, she gets a check for $21,000. Joe only put away $1,000 per year and left it in the money market earning next to nothing.
Mrs. Joe the Janitor gets furious, hires an attorney and sues. And she wins. And the money comes out of the plan sponsor's pocket, not the plan or the company. Plan sponsors are personally liable.
So what happened? The company never had any participant educational seminars for the participants. And if they did, they didn't document them, which in the legal world is the same as not having them. The plan sponsor is responsible for educating the participants, even if it is a self-directed plan.
What are your policies and procedures for handling participant education? What is your policy for handling new hires? Retirees? Employees who leave the company? Your investment policy committee? Plan fiduciaries, and on and on and on? Plan sponsors have to have policies and procedures in place to handle just about everything that comes up.
5. Maintain a fiduciary file.
This is where you are able to prove you did what you said you did. If the company had kept a record of their invitations to participant education, a list of those who responded, and a list of those who attended the educational seminars, Mrs. Joe the Janitor would not have won.
The fiduciary file is where the plan sponsor keeps everything from checklists to acceptance letters to plan documents. Prove to me you reviewed the plan's expenses four years ago. It will be in the fiduciary file. What are the roles and responsibilities of the plan fiduciaries? They will be in the fiduciary file. When was the last time you did an internal audit? Again ‚Äď it will be in the fiduciary file.
Plan sponsors are responsible for much more than they realize. Fiduciary excellence is up to the plan sponsor. This is not something your third-party administrator (TPA) can do for you. Their job is plan design and administration. It's not something your plan's custodian does: They just maintain the funds and make sure dividends get credited properly and other operational duties. It is not something your broker does. He may have an annual educational seminar, but he is not responsible for inviting the participants and documenting who attended and then maintaining that documentation.
Some companies now offer limited and sometimes even full fiduciary services with regard to the selection and monitoring of the funds. But this is only limited to this area. They do not maintain the plan's policies and procedures, the IPS or the fiduciary file. And none of them are qualified to come in as an independent third party to review the plan sponsor's compliance and plan funds' performance and fees.
Depending on the services they offer, a plan sponsor consultant may be able to help you reach your goal of achieving fiduciary excellence.
John Riley, registered Research Analyst and the Chief Investment Strategist at CIS, has been defending his clients from the surprises Wall Street misses since 1999.
Note: Cornerstone Investment Services has a Plan Sponsor Consultant program that covers all of these areas.
Disclosure: Third party posts do not reflect the views of Cantella & Co Inc. or Cornerstone Investment Services, LLC. Any links to third party sites are believed to be reliable but have not been independently reviewed by Cantella & Co. Inc or Cornerstone Investment Services, LLC. Securities offered through Cantella & Co., Inc., Member FINRA/SIPC. Advisory Services offered through Cornerstone Investment Services, LLC's RIA. Please refer to my website for states in which I am registered.
Lesson Plan One:
‚ÄúEvery light is a shade, compared to the higher lights, till you come to the sun; and every shade is a light, compared to the deeper shades, till you come to the night.‚ÄĚ - John Ruskin, 1879
Grades: 6-12, Middle/High School
Time Frame: 3-4 class periods, approx. 45 minutes each
The student will create a two-dimensional design that uses two aspects of Hans Hofmann's art, the three-dimensional, (push and pull) of color and the Cubist‚Äôs fracture of the picture plane.
The student will learn about color temperature and use warm and cool colors to create advancing and receding shapes.
The student will learn various ways of blending oil pastels to create visual effects.
This lesson comes after the student has an understanding of the basic vocabulary of color and the color wheel. Previous lessons may focus on the difference between color in light and colored pigments, the three qualities of color, (hue, value and intensity), color harmonies such as analogous and complementary, the symbolic interpretation of color in different cultures, the psychological affects of color, and the interactive behavior of colored shapes and forms.
Hans Hofmann (1880-1966) was one of the most respected and influential art teachers of the twentieth century, as well as a prolific master painter who came into his own late in his career. A contemporary of Matisse and Picasso during his early years in Paris, Hofmann became the first artist/teacher to bring the concepts of European modernism over to the United States, and in doing so, helped launch Abstract Expressionism: the first internationally recognized American art movement.
The documentary Hans Hofmann: Artist/Teacher, Teacher/Artist explores the life, work, and teachings of this often-overlooked figure through interviews with his former students, as well as modern masters like Frank Stella, who never studied with Hofmann, yet credits him as a major influence.
Hans Hofmann was influenced by two styles of painting, the Cubists‚Äô style and that of a group of painters known as the Fauves, or ‚Äúwild beasts.‚ÄĚ From the Cubists, Hofmann developed an understanding of the shifting planes of objects in space. From the Fauves, he learned to abandon the traditional practices regarding color in painting. In the past, color was part of the realistic, visual representation of form. Whereas other artists had used color as the description of an object, the Fauves let color become the subject of their paintings. Color shapes, rather than line, were the unifying elements in a painting.
Another German √©migr√©, artist/teacher Josef Albers,* greatly influenced Hofmann. Albers was fascinated by the way that color can trick our eyes into seeing things that aren‚Äôt really there. Throughout his teaching career, he immersed his students in the principles of design and the investigation of color and its behavior. He taught that interpretation of any color depends on its environment. Knowing how colors interact allows the artist to create vibrations and subtle movements in space. An area with a particular color can come forward or recede, (push and pull), depending on the colors that surround it.
*For a short biography of Albers go to:
For an explanation of color contrast go to:
For the Josef Albers, ‚ÄúThe Interaction of Color‚ÄĚ CD-Rom, (Yale Univ. Press) with interactive exercises, call 1-800-YUP-READ.
If using the Hans Hofmann: Artist/Teacher, Teacher/Artist video as a part of the lesson, refer students to the section of the documentary where Hofmann‚Äôs former students are describing Push and Pull (about 3/4 through the tape):
SELINA TRIEFF: One of the statements that I really love that he did make was that in nature light creates color, and in painting, color creates light.
HAYNES OWNBY: He put on colors. He would get in some red, and you could see that thing come up and up and up and up in the light, the luminosity‚Ä¶
ROBERT HENRY: If you want to create the illusion of space, overlapping will do it to a much greater extent than perspective will, and here‚Äôs a painting in which he takes this little blue rectangle and he overlaps it in front of the green, which could be overlapped in front of the yellow. But you can see his absolute mastery of color in the density of that blue and the way it reacts to the green and the yellow around it.
BETTY BISHOP: I think if you look at some of the paintings of the squares, the different yellows, the subtleties‚ÄĒI mean it‚Äôs funny because I don‚Äôt think people think of Hofmann as subtle, because he sort of comes off with a bang. But if you look, you see that all these, it isn‚Äôt just one yellow, it‚Äôs many yellows and very sensitive.
JAMES GAHAGAN: The key to push and pull, or creating this internal tension in and out, has to do with a word called plasticity. A lot of people actually used to think it meant plastic and they got confused, you know, like a plastic spoon, a plastic dish or something like that. But plasticity just simply means that it‚Äôs malleable, flexible. The very space that you‚Äôre trying to create the illusion, the experience of‚ÄĒit‚Äôs like putty and you have to feel that way towards it and about it. Push/pull. Push/pull. Push/pull. Push/pull. All of that is‚Ä¶you just have to imagine that you‚Äôre shaping the space itself.Through comparison and contrast of different colors, one begins to understand how colors interact and how this may be applied in art making. Colors shift relative to their backgrounds: green looks more yellow on a blue background, but more blue on a yellow background. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) visually advance, while cool colors (blue and green) recede.
Introduce students to these concepts using the ‚ÄúPush & Pull Puzzle‚ÄĚ on the Hofmann PBS website: http://www.pbs.org/hanshofmann/push_and_pull_001.html. (You will need the Flash 5 Plug-in). Have students first fill in the painting using only cool tones. Then have them change just a few squares to red. Notice how the red squares seem to jump forward, while the cool tones recede. Try experimenting with the opposite approach, filling the whole painting with warm colors, then changing a few squares to blue or green. Experiment with different combinations and notice the effect. Which color advances the most in space? Which ones recede the most?
Students may also experiment with this theory by doing these exercises with construction paper, solid colored magazine paper or paint:
Make a ‚Äúcolor ladder‚ÄĚ using one color from dark to light. How does a color‚Äôs value influence its position in space? How does the warmth or coolness of a color affect its depth?
Use one color, i.e. red, and change its background color until one observes a shift in hue, value, intensity or depth. How does color intensity influence a color‚Äôs space?
Using a leaf gathered from outside or a shape based on a natural object, the student draws this shape slightly larger on oaktag (tagboard) and cuts it out. If school rules prohibit students from going outside, the teacher can have a collection of leaf shapes for students to chose from.
The student will then trace about 5-7 of their shapes for 12‚ÄĚx18‚ÄĚ paper and from 8-12 shapes for 18‚ÄĚx24‚ÄĚ paper using pencil. Some of the shapes should go off the edge of the paper. Shapes should not overlap one another.
Using a ruler, the student divides the paper using intersecting lines that travel from one edge of the paper to another. Curved lines may also be used but students should be encouraged to keep it simple and not create new shapes that are too small to color with craypas.
At this point, it would be a good idea for the teacher to demonstrate the process of coloring the shapes and talk about the rules to be followed:
When the project is completed, have the students view each other‚Äôs work through 3-D glasses*. The effect will create a buzz of excitement.
Students discuss how they may use the concept of color temperature, warm and cool, and push and pull, in other works of art and in their everyday lives. How would an understanding of these concepts help them in designing architectural spaces, stage and window design, fashion and textile design, signage and advertising design?
The students will be able to see how successful they were at creating the illusion of push and pull with warm and cool colors. Other criteria for assessing student success are:
How well did the student follow the rules?
Did the student show an understanding of warm and cool colors?
Can the student explain the color concept that was illustrated?
Does the use of the materials enhance or detract from the visual effect of the push and pull of color shapes?
Students may use the concept of the push and pull of color to design a poster or billboard advertising an important event or to promote a social issue.
Students may use these concepts to design a stage set for an up-coming school play.
Students may create an acrylic or oil painting using Hofmann‚Äôs geometric shapes and explore the ‚Äúplasticity‚ÄĚ of the push and pull of color shapes.
Students create artworks that use organizational principles and functions to solve specific visual arts problems and evaluate their effectiveness.
Students apply media, techniques, and processes with sufficient skill, confidence and sensitivity that their intentions are carried out in their artworks.
Students will intentionally take advantage of the qualities and characteristics of art media, techniques, and processes to enhance communication of their experiences and ideas.
About the Author
Peggy Reeves is an artist and has worked as an art educator for the last 27 years. She has a Master of Science in Education from Queens College. Presently, she is the Supervisor of Art for the Southern Berkshire Regional School District in Sheffield, Massachusetts.
Talks to establish a British and Irish ‚Äėsuper league‚Äô that would also include clubs from South Africa and Italy have taken place between executives from the home unions and the leagues, Telegraph Sport can reveal.
It is understood that initial discussions have already taken place at the World Cup and the catalyst is a shared sense to capture and recreate the atmosphere, colour, and drama of the tournament in France by exploring what would be the most radical overhaul of the club game since the sport turned professional in 1995.
It is understood there are also moves for greater collaboration between the URC, Premiership Rugby, the Six Nations and British and Irish Lions to pool back-room resources to dramatically reduce the costs of running the competitions and increase shared revenues and attractiveness to investors by centralising resources.
‚ÄúThere‚Äôs an energy to create a better future for the club game,‚ÄĚ said one leading executive at the World Cup.
‚ÄúWe‚Äôre all flatlining, surviving, and making ends meet, whereas if you‚Äôre really serious about growing the game, we need to look at what formats are open to us and what would it take to be brave enough to step into that new world?‚ÄĚ
One of the previous sticking points to the concept of uniting the English Premiership and the URC ‚Äď which features teams from Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Italy and more recently South Africa ‚Äď has been the detrimental impact it would have on the European Champions Cup.
However, one solution has been put forward for an ‚ÄėFA Cup-style‚Äô knock-out competition involving clubs from the French Top 14 to ensure it retains its point of difference within a revised European domestic structure.
Further talks are set to resume following the World Cup next month, which are expected to dive deeper into the detail of how a new league would be structured, with the aim of establishing a new competition within the next three years, to coincide with the introduction of a ‚Äėworld club championship‚Äô.
‚ÄúFor the first time it seems that Premiership Rugby, who had previously said ‚Äėno, no, no‚Äô to any such talks are open to the idea of looking at a way of creating a kind of super league,‚ÄĚ added another source close to the talks.
The Premiership currently consists of 10 clubs following the financial demise of Worcester, Wasps and London Irish last season, while the URC has 16 clubs. The next stage of the negotiations is to look at how integration of the two leagues would work.
‚ÄúIt is complicated, but one proposal would be for two leagues based on merit, and promotion and relegation between the two, or two conferences ‚Äď a Premiership and URC one, to qualify for knockout stages,‚ÄĚ said another source close to the talks.
‚ÄúCurrently it is quite difficult for one broadcaster to invest in three or four competitions,‚ÄĚ said one leading executive at the World Cup. ‚ÄúWhereas if you form a British and Irish league, it makes the conversations with broadcasters much easier. You could have one rugby channel that increases the value of the broadcasting deal and clubs could grow their attendances. There is validity in it.‚ÄĚ
The Six Nations already aggregate their broadcasting and commercial revenues as part of a deal known as ‚ÄėProject Light‚Äô and there is an expectation that a similar arrangement would bolster club finances.
Underpinning the desire for change is also to create more invigorating and attractive domestic club fixtures, including reviving the historically great Anglo-Welsh clashes, as a solution to the challenging financial climate.
‚ÄúWhen you get it right, like at this World Cup where you are getting very good teams playing against very good teams and great jeopardy, we should not have to wait four years for that to happen,‚ÄĚ a source added.
‚ÄúEvery year there should be unbelievable games. In fairness the European final this year was incredible, but we need to get more moments like that.
‚ÄúThis is a leadership issue thing as well. We are seeing executives who are no longer the traditional ‚Äėblazers‚Äô but more forward-thinking people who are trying to really grow the game but also in some respects, bring back some of the great stuff we‚Äôve lost: the great derbies and rivalries of yesteryear.‚ÄĚ
The prospect of an Anglo-Welsh league was first tabled in Jan 1999, when the Welsh Rugby Union were offered five places for Welsh clubs in the English league system. The offer was turned down, however, with the WRU instead forging ahead with a link with Scotland and Ireland to establish the Celtic League, which evolved into the Pro 12 and now the URC.
An Anglo-Welsh Cup was established in 2005, involving 12 Premiership and four Welsh clubs, as a knockout tournament but was replaced by the Premiership Rugby Cup in 2018.
Revelations about talks over new domestic league structure come just a week before the World Rugby council is due to sign off a new ‚ÄėNations Championship‚Äô tournament involving teams from the Six Nations and Rugby Championship, set to start in 2026, which will be held every two years to avoid clashes with the World Cup and Lions tours.
U.S. President Joe Biden's plan to export Ukrainian grain stuck in the war-torn country by building silos on Poland's border is "remarkably interesting," but could take months to implement, Poland's deputy prime minister said Wednesday.
"The statement by the President of the United States, Joe Biden, about the intention to build temporary silos in Poland, near the border with Ukraine, is a remarkably interesting idea. However, for the time being it is a preliminary declaration which requires many detailed solutions to be worked out," Deputy Prime Minister Henryk Kowalczyk, who doubles as Poland's agriculture minister, wrote in a statement.
Biden announced the plan Tuesday, meant to help move crucial grains out of Ukraine amid a global food crisis exacerbated by Russia's attack on the major agricultural producer, which traditionally feeds struggling countries in the Middle East and Africa. Under Biden's plan, the U.S. would aid in the construction of temporary grain silos on the Polish side of the border with Ukraine in order to speed up rail exports, which are failing to match the volumes of grain that the country used to ship out from its southern ports before Russia's invasion.
"It should be noted that this type of investment will take approximately three to four months to complete," said Kowalczyk, who told POLITICO last month that Warsaw was attempting to solve logistical bottlenecks by July because of Ukraine's looming summer harvest. POLITICO understands that Kyiv has not been consulted on the U.S. silo plan.
Kowalczyk's remarks are a further sign that there is no perfect workaround to Moscow's agricultural blockade of Ukraine, with little sign of progress so far on a U.N. push to negotiate safe passage for grain ships in the Black Sea, where Russia is blockading Ukraine's crucial port of Odesa.
France has already banned domestic flights for journeys that are possible in less than two-and-a-half hours by train. The Dutch government is going ahead with plans to cap the number of flights at Amsterdam‚Äôs Schiphol Airport next year, pending EU approval, in a bid to reduce noise pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.¬†
We all want to reduce carbon emissions, whether on the ground or at 39,000ft, but Paris‚Äôs minimum pricing proposal is a bad idea for three reasons. First, it will penalise the less well off and be unlikely to reduce the number of flights. Those who take one or two flights a year to go on holiday with their family will still fly but find the cost onerous at a time when they are grappling with high inflation and mortgage rates. The well off will fly just as much as ever and absorb the cost. This, hopes Eddie Wilson, chief executive of Ryanair, will make the proposal ‚Äúpolitically impossible‚ÄĚ to introduce because ‚Äúsaying that poor people can‚Äôt travel generally doesn‚Äôt fly in France.‚ÄĚ
Second, it risks damaging a hugely important industry. Research by the International Air Transport Association shows the overall European aviation industry is worth ¬£800 billion and supports 13.5 million jobs. In Britain alone aviation supports 400,000 jobs. Ryanair closed its two-aircraft base at Brussels‚Äô Zaventem Airport during last winter, blaming increased charges and taxes, after Belgium introduced a ‚ā¨10 tax per passenger on flights shorter than 500km, and a ‚ā¨2 levy per departing passenger on EU routes.
Third, anyone who remembers the bad old days of the 1970s will recall with horror what happens when prices are fixed. They only go one way. Up and up.¬†
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