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CSQE Certified Software Quality Engineer Certification (CSQE) exam Questions |

CSQE exam Questions - Certified Software Quality Engineer Certification (CSQE) Updated: 2023

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Exam Code: CSQE Certified Software Quality Engineer Certification (CSQE) exam Questions June 2023 by team

CSQE Certified Software Quality Engineer Certification (CSQE)

The Certified Software Quality Engineer (CSQE) understands software quality development and implementation, software inspection, testing, and verification and validation; and implements software development and maintenance processes and methods.CSQEComputer Delivered – The CSQE examination is a one-part, 175-question, four-and-a-half-hour exam and is offered in English only. One hundred and sixty questions are scored and 15 are unscored.Paper and Pencil – The CSQEexamination is a one-part, 160-question, four-hour exam and is offered in English only.

Work experience must be in a full-time, paid role. Paid intern, co-op or any other course work cannot be applied toward the work experience requirement.

Candidates must have eight years of on-the-job experience in one or more of the areas of the Certified Software Quality Engineer Body of Knowledge.

A minimum of three years of this experience must be in a decision-making position. ("Decision-making" is defined as the authority to define, execute, or control projects/processes and to be responsible for the outcome. This may or may not include management or supervisory positions.)

For candidates who were certified by ASQ as a quality auditor, reliability engineer, provider quality professional, quality engineer or quality manager, the experience used to qualify for certification in these fields applies to certification as a software quality engineer.

Here are the minimum expectations of a Certified Software Quality Engineer.
Must possess a fundamental understanding of quality philosophies, principles, methods, tools, standards, organizational and team dynamics, interpersonal relationships, professional ethics, and legal and regulatory requirements. Must evaluate the impact of software quality management principles on business objectives and demonstrate comprehensive knowledge of developing and implementing software quality programs, which include tracking, analyzing, reporting, problem resolution, process improvement, training, and provider management. Must have a basic understanding of how and when to perform software audits including audit planning, approaches, types, analyses, reporting results and follow-up. Must understand systems architecture and be able to implement software development and maintenance processes, quantify the fundamental problems and risks associated with various software development methodologies, and assess, support, and implement process and technology changes.
Must be able to apply project management principles and techniques as they relate to software project planning, implementation and tracking. Must be able to evaluate and manage risk. Must select, define and apply product and process metrics and analytical techniques, and have an understanding of measurement theory and how to communicate results. Must have a thorough understanding of verification and validation processes, including early software defect detection and removal, inspection, and testing methods (e.g., types, levels, strategies, tools and documentation). Must be able to analyze test strategies, develop test plans and execution documents, and review customer deliverables. Must have a basic understanding of configuration management processes, including planning, configuration identification, configuration control, change management, status accounting, auditing and reporting. Must assess the effectiveness of product release and archival processes.

Certification from ASQ is considered a mark of quality excellence in many industries. It helps you advance your career, and boosts your organizations bottom line through your mastery of quality skills. Becoming certified as a Software Quality Engineer confirms your commitment to quality and the positive impact it will have on your organization. ExaminationEach certification candidate is required to pass an examination that consists of multiple-choice questions that measure comprehension of the body of knowledge.

I. General Knowledge (16 questions)A. Benefits of Software Quality Engineering Within the OrganizationDescribe the benefits that software quality engineering can have at the organizational level. (Understand)B. Ethical and Legal Compliance 1. ASQ code of ethics for professional conductDetermine appropriate behavior in situations requiring ethical decisions, including identifying conflicts of interest, recognizing and resolving ethical issues, etc. (Evaluate)2. Regulatory and legal issuesDescribe the importance of compliance to federal, national, and statutory regulations on software development. Determine the impact of issues such as copyright, intellectual property rights, product liability, and data privacy. (Understand) C. Standards and ModelsDefine and describe the ISO 9000 and IEEE software standards, and the SEI Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) for development, services, and acquisition assessment models. (Understand)D. Leadership Skills1. Organizational leadershipUse leadership tools and techniques (e.g., organizational change management, knowledge transfer, motivation, mentoring and coaching, recognition). (Apply)2. Facilitation skillsUse facilitation and conflict resolution skills as well as negotiation techniques to manage and resolve issues. Use meeting management tools to maximize meeting effectiveness. (Apply)3. Communication skillsUse various communication methods in oral, written, and presentation formats. Use various techniques for working in multicultural environments, and identify and describe the impact that culture and communications can have on quality. (Apply)E. Team Skills1. Team managementUse various team management skills, including assigning roles and responsibilities, identifying the classic stages of team development (forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning), monitoring and responding to group dynamics, working with diverse groups and in distributed work environments, and using techniques for working with virtual teams. (Apply)2. Team toolsUse decision-making and creativity tools such as brainstorming, nominal group technique (NGT), and multi-voting. (Apply)

II. Software Quality Management (22 questions)A. Quality Management System1. Quality goals and objectivesDesign software quality goals and objectives that are consistent with business objectives. Incorporate software quality goals and objectives into high-level program and project plans. Develop and use documents and processes necessary to support software quality management systems. (Create)2. Customers and other stakeholdersDescribe and analyze the effect of various stakeholder group requirements on software projects and products. (Analyze)3. OutsourcingDetermine the impact that outsourced services can have on organizational goals and objectives, and identify criteria for evaluating suppliers/vendors and subcontractors. (Analyze)4. Business continuity, data protection, and data managementDesign plans for business continuity, disaster recovery, business documentation and change management, information security, and protection of sensitive and personal data. (Analyze) B. Methodologies1. Cost of quality (COQ) and return on investment (ROI)Analyze COQ categories (prevention, appraisal, internal failure, external failure) and return on investment (ROI) metrics in relation to products and processes. (Analyze)2. Process improvement Define and describe elements of benchmarking, lean processes, the Six Sigma methodology, and use define, measure, act, improve, control (DMAIC) model and the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) model for process improvement. (Apply)3. Corrective action procedures Evaluate corrective action procedures related to software defects, process nonconformances, and other quality system deficiencies. (Evaluate)4. Defect prevention Design and use defect prevention processes such as technical reviews, software tools and technology, and special training. (Evaluate)C. Audits1. Audit typesDefine and distinguish between various audit types, including process, compliance, supplier, and system. (Understand)2. Audit roles and responsibilitiesIdentify roles and responsibilities for audit participants including client, lead auditor, audit team members, and auditee. (Understand)3. Audit processDefine and describe the steps in conducting an audit, developing and delivering an audit report, and determining appropriate follow-up activities. (Apply)III. System and Software Engineering Processes (32 questions)A. Life Cycles and Process Models1. Waterfall software development life cycleApply the waterfall life cycle and related process models, and identify their benefits and when they are used. (Apply)2. Incremental/iterative software development life cyclesApply the incremental and iterative life cycles and related process models, and identify their benefits and when they are used. (Apply)

Agile software development life cycleApply the agile life cycle and related process models, and identify their benefits and when they are used. (Apply)B. Systems ArchitectureIdentify and describe various architectures, including embedded systems, client-server, n-tier, web, wireless, messaging, and collaboration platforms, and analyze their impact on quality. (Analyze)C. Requirements Engineering1. Product requirements Define and describe various types of product requirements, including system, feature, function, interface, integration, performance, globalization, and localization. (Understand)2. Data/information requirements Define and describe various types of data and information requirements, including data management and data integrity. (Understand)3. Quality requirements Define and describe various types of quality requirements, including reliability and usability. (Understand)

4. Compliance requirementsDefine and describe various types of regulatory and safety requirements. (Understand)5. Security requirementsDefine and describe various types of security requirements including data security, information security, cybersecurity, and data privacy. (Understand)6. Requirements elicitation methodsDescribe and use various requirements elicitation methods, including customer needs analysis, use cases, human factors studies, usability prototypes, joint application development (JAD), storyboards, etc. (Apply)7. Requirements evaluationAssess the completeness, consistency, correctness, and testability of requirements, and determine their priority. (Evaluate)D. Requirements Management1. Requirements change managementAssess the impact that changes to requirements will have on software development processes for all types of life-cycle models. (Evaluate)2. Bidirectional traceabilityUse various tools and techniques to ensure bidirectional traceability from requirements elicitation and analysis through design and testing. (Apply)E. Software Analysis, Design, and Development1. Design methodsIdentify the steps used in software design and their functions, and define and distinguish between software design methods. (Understand)2. Quality attributes and designAnalyze the impact that quality-related elements (safety, security, reliability, usability, reusability, maintainability) can have on software design. (Analyze)3. Software reuseDefine and distinguish between software reuse, reengineering, and reverse engineering, and describe the impact these practices can have on software quality. (Understand)4. Software development toolsAnalyze and select the appropriate development tools for modeling, code analysis, requirements management, and documentation. (Analyze)F. Maintenance Management1. Maintenance typesDescribe the characteristics of corrective, adaptive, perfective, and preventive maintenance types. (Understand)2. Maintenance strategyDescribe various factors affecting the strategy for software maintenance, including service-level agreements (SLAs), short- and long-term costs, maintenance releases, and product discontinuance, and their impact on software quality. (Understand)3. Customer feedback managementDescribe the importance of customer feedback management including quality of product support and post-delivery issues analysis and resolution. (Understand)IV. Project Management (22 questions)A. Planning, Scheduling, and Deployment1. Project planningUse forecasts, resources, schedules, task and cost estimates, etc., to develop project plans. (Apply)2. Work breakdown structure (WBS) Use work breakdown structure (WBS) in scheduling and monitoring projects. (Apply)3. Project deploymentUse various tools, including milestones, objectives achieved, and task duration to set goals and deploy the project. (Apply)

B. Tracking and Controlling1. Phase transition controlUse various tools and techniques such as entry/exit criteria, quality gates, Gantt charts, integrated master schedules, etc., to control phase transitions. (Apply)2. Tracking methodsCalculate project-related costs, including earned value, deliverables, productivity, etc., and track the results against project baselines. (Apply)3. Project reviewsUse various types of project reviews such as phase-end, management, and retrospectives or post-project reviews to assess project performance and status, to review issues and risks, and to discover and capture lessons learned from the project. (Apply)4. Program reviewsDefine and describe various methods for reviewing and assessing programs in terms of their performance, technical accomplishments, resource utilization, etc. (Understand)C. Risk Management1. Risk management methodsUse risk management techniques (e.g., assess, prevent, mitigate, transfer) to evaluate project risks. (Evaluate)2. Software security risksEvaluate risks specific to software security, including deliberate attacks (hacking, sabotage, etc.), inherent defects that allow unauthorized access to data, and other security breaches. Plan appropriate responses to minimize their impact. (Evaluate)3. Safety and hazard analysisEvaluate safety risks and hazards related to software development and implementation and determine appropriate steps to minimize their impact. (Evaluate)V. Software Metrics and Analysis (19 questions)A. Process and Product Measurement1. Terminology Define and describe metric and measurement terms such as reliability, internal and external validity, explicit and derived measures, and variation. (Understand)2. Software product metricsChoose appropriate metrics to assess various software attributes (e.g., size, complexity, the amount of test coverage needed, requirements volatility, and overall system performance). (Apply)3. Software process metricsMeasure the effectiveness and efficiency of software processes (e.g., functional verification tests (FVT), cost, yield, customer impact, defect detection, defect containment, total defect containment effectiveness (TDCE), defect removal efficiency (DRE), process capability). (Apply)4. Data integrity Describe the importance of data integrity from planning through collection and analysis and apply various techniques to ensure data quality, accuracy, completeness, and timeliness. (Apply)B. Analysis and Reporting Techniques1. Metric reporting tools Using various metric representation tools, including dashboards, stoplight charts, etc., to report results. (Apply)2. Classic quality toolsDescribe the appropriate use of classic quality tools (e.g., flowcharts, Pareto charts, cause and effect diagrams, control charts, and histograms). (Apply)

3. Problem-solving toolsDescribe the appropriate use of problem solving tools (e.g., affinity and tree diagrams, matrix and activity network diagrams, root cause analysis and data flow diagrams [DFDs]). (Apply)VI. Software Verification and Validation (29 questions)A. Theory1. V&V methods Use software verification and validation methods (e.g., static analysis, structural analysis, mathematical proof, simulation, and automation) and determine which tasks should be iterated as a result of modifications. (Apply)2. Software product evaluationUse various evaluation methods on documentation, source code, etc., to determine whether user needs and project objectives have been satisfied. (Analyze)B. Test Planning and Design1. Test strategies Select and analyze test strategies (e.g., test-driven design, good-enough, risk-based, time-box, top-down, bottom-up, black-box, white-box, simulation, automation, etc.) for various situations. (Analyze) 2. Test plansDevelop and evaluate test plans and procedures, including system, acceptance, validation, etc., to determine whether project objectives are being met and risks are appropriately mitigated. (Create)3. Test designsSelect and evaluate various test designs, including fault insertion, fault-error handling, equivalence class partitioning, and boundary value. (Evaluate)4. Software testsIdentify and use various tests, including unit, functional, performance, integration, regression, usability, acceptance, certification, environmental load, stress, worst-case, perfective, exploratory, and system. (Apply)5. Tests of external products Determine appropriate levels of testing for integrating supplier, third-party, and subcontractor components and products. (Apply)6. Test coverage specificationsEvaluate the adequacy of test specifications such as functions, states, data and time domains, interfaces, security, and configurations that include internationalization and platform variances. (Evaluate)7. Code coverage techniquesUse and identify various tools and techniques to facilitate code coverage analysis techniques such as branch coverage, condition, domain, and boundary. (Apply)8. Test environmentsSelect and use simulations, test libraries, drivers, stubs, harnesses, etc., and identify parameters to establish a controlled test environment. (Analyze)9. Test toolsIdentify and use test utilities, diagnostics, automation, and test management tools. (Apply)10. Test data managementEnsure the integrity and security of test data through the use of configuration controls. (Apply)C. Reviews and InspectionsUse desk checks, peer reviews, walk-throughs, inspections, etc., to identify defects. (Apply)D. Test Execution DocumentsReview and evaluate test execution documents such as test results, defect reporting and tracking records, test completion metrics, trouble reports, and input/output specifications. (Evaluate)

VII. Software Configuration Management (20 questions)A. Configuration Infrastructure1. Configuration management teamDescribe the roles and responsibilities of a configuration management group. (Understand) (NOTE: The roles and responsibilities of the configuration control board [CCB] are covered in area VII.C.2.)2. Configuration management toolsDescribe configuration management tools as they are used for managing libraries, build systems, and defect tracking systems. (Understand)3. Library processes Describe dynamic, static, and controlled library processes and related procedures, such as check-in/check-out, and merge changes. (Understand)B. Configuration Identification 1. Configuration items Describe software configuration items (baselines, documentation, software code, equipment) and identification methods (naming conventions, versioning schemes). (Understand)2. Software builds and baselinesDescribe the relationship between software builds and baselines, and describe methods for controlling builds and baselines (automation, new versions). (Understand)C. Configuration Control and Status Accounting1. Item change and version controlDescribe processes for documentation control, item change tracking, version control that are used to manage various configurations, and describe processes used to manage configuration item dependencies in software builds and versioning. (Understand)2. Configuration control board (CCB)Describe the roles, responsibilities and processes of the CCB. (Understand) (NOTE: The roles and responsibilities of the configuration management team are covered in area VII.A.1.)3. Concurrent developmentDescribe the use of configuration management control principles in concurrent development processes. (Understand)4. Status accountingDiscuss various processes for establishing, maintaining, and reporting the status of configuration items, such as baselines, builds, and tools. (Understand)D. Configuration AuditsDefine and distinguish between functional and physical configuration audits and how they are used in relation to product specification. (Understand) E. Product Release and Distribution 1. Product releaseAssess the effectiveness of product release processes (planning, scheduling, defining hardware and software dependencies). (Evaluate)2. Customer deliverablesAssess the completeness of customer deliverables including packaged and hosted or downloadable products, license keys and user documentation, and marketing and training materials. (Evaluate)3. Archival processesAssess the effectiveness of source and release archival processes (backup planning and scheduling, data retrieval, archival of build environments, retention of historical records, offsite storage). (Evaluate)
Certified Software Quality Engineer Certification (CSQE)
Quality-Assurance Certification exam Questions

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Certified Software Quality Engineer Certification
(A) Engineering effort
(B) Code coverage
(C) Customer surveys
(D) Process maturity
Answer: A
Question: 84
During a functional configuration audit, a software auditors principal responsibility is to
verify that the
(A) product meets specifications
(B) processes used in software development were performed
(C) documentation of the product satisfies the contract
(D) documentation accurately represents the product
Answer: A
Question: 85
An architectural model should be used to
(A) document design procedures
(B) develop a system design
(C) verify code
(D) deploy a system model
Answer: B
Question: 86
According to ISO 9001, quality records must be maintained in order to
(A) demonstrate achievement of the required quality and the effective operation of the
quality system
(B) demonstrate progress in accordance with the associated quality plan
(C) justify the current funding and staffing of the quality organization
(D) demonstrate that the design and coding activities have alleviated the need for unit
Answer: A
Question: 87
Which of the following is NOT a requirement of an effective software environment?
(A) Ease of use
(B) Capacity for incremental implementation
(C) Capability of evolving with the needs of a project
(D) Inclusion of advanced tools
Answer: D
Question: 88
Which of the following is the best resource for validation testing of an object-oriented
(A) PERT charts
(B) Use case scenarios
(C) Entity relationship diagrams
(D) Decomposition matrices
Answer: B
Question: 89
A customer satisfaction survey used the following rating scale: 1 = very satisfied 2 =
satisfied 3 = neutral 4 = dissatisfied 5 = very dissatisfied This is an example of which of
the following measurement scales?
(A) Nominal
(B) Ordinal
(C) Ratio
(D) Interval
Answer: B
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Quality-Assurance Certification exam Questions - BingNews Search results Quality-Assurance Certification exam Questions - BingNews Sample CRCM exam Questions

The following questions are representative of the types of questions you will find on the CRCM (Certified Regulatory Compliance Manager) exam.

1.  A borrower has a right to rescind a loan agreement in all of the following situations except:

a. A line of credit used for the borrower's business, secured by the borrower's primary  dwelling
b. A revolving line of credit secured by the borrower's primary dwelling used to Improve the borrower's home
c. An increase of a line of credit from $5,000 to $10,000 secured by the borrower's primary dwelling
d. A loan to pay off a contract for a deed secured by the borrower's primary dwelling

2.  When opening a deposit account online, Regulation E disclosures MUST be provided at the time of account opening or: 

a. Before the first EFT occurs 
b. Along with the first periodic statement 
c. Within three business days of account opening 
d. Within three business days of a customer's request for the EFT service

3.  The primary responsibility for overseeing a bank’s inherent compliance risk should lie with which of the following?

a. Internal audit
b. Consumers
c. Board of Directors
d. Compliance officer

4.   A branch manager finds an unexplained $7,000 cash shortage in Teller #1's cash drawer. Which of the following actions must the bank take?

a. File a Currency Transaction Report (CTR) with the IRS
b. Discharge Teller #1 immediately
c. Send a notice of adverse action to the bank's federal regulator
d. File a Suspicious Activity Report (SAR)

5.  A compliance professional recently discovered the bank did not file and disclose an accurate covered agreement, as required by the CRA Sunshine Act. In order to ensure correct reporting in the future, what must be provided? 

a. All individual mortgage loans 
b. Grants or loans to fulfill CRA activity 
c. Non-public or confidential information that will be provided in the public file 
d. A copy of the agreement to the regulatory agency 24 months after the end of the term

Answer Key

1. a
2. a
3. c
4. d
5. b

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Prepare for the CCST Exam
  • The correct answer is D, A/D converter. A digital controller requires a digital signal as its input. A 4-20 mA transmitter outputs an analog signal. Therefore, a device to convert an analog (A) signal to a digital (D) is required. This class of device is referred to as an A/D converter.

    An I/P transducer is used to convert an analog current (I) signal to a pneumatic (P) signal, as for actuation of final control elements. A P/I transducer is used to convert a pneumatic signal (P) to an analog current (I) signal, as for a pneumatic transmitter in a programmable logic controller loop. A DP transmitter is a differential pressure transmitter, which can output a pneumatic, an analog, or a digital signal, depending on the model of transmitter used.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is C, "sample conditioning system." Answers A and C are items not generally associated with extractive field analyzers. Capillary tubes are used for collecting small samples (water, for instance) from a larger container. There are special capillary tubes that can be used in the analyzer chamber of a gas chromatograph, but they are not constructed from glass. Smooth-walled pipe is important for reducing friction losses in piping systems.

    A sample probe calibration system is important to the overall function and maintenance of an extractive field analyzer. However, these systems are not used to prepare the sample for analysis, but rather to provide a mechanism to verify and maintain analyzer performance.

    A sample conditioning system can contain devices, such as filters, demisters, flow regulators, and heaters. sample conditioning systems are used to bring the sample to the ideal process conditions for accurate measurement in the analyzer itself. The sample conditioning system can be a key maintenance item in an analyzer system, since each device needs to be calibrated, cleaned, etc.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is B, "equal to." In order for air to be discharged from the end of a bubbler purge tube, the air pressure in the tube must be equal to (or higher than) the pressure exerted by the liquid head in the tank.

    As the tank level is decreased, the liquid head pressure at the tip of the purge tube decreases, and more bubbles per unit of time can escape. The corresponding reduction in pressure in the purge tube is proportional to the level in the tank. Therefore, the point at which the liquid head pressure and the purge tube pressure are equal is the highest level (URV = 100%) that the device will measure.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is A, "51 K ohms ± 5%."

    The four-color band coding is:
    Color    Value    Multiplier
    Black    0    1
    Brown    1    10
    Red    2    100
    Orange    3    1000
    Yellow    4    10 K
    Green    5    100K
    Blue    6    1 M
    Violet    7    10 M
    Gray    8     
    White    9     
    Gold    ± 5%    0.1
    Silver    ± 10%    0.01

    So a resistor with four bands, green-brown-orange-gold, has a value of: 5 1 x 1000 ± 5% or 51 KΩ.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is D, series and energized. To measure current, you must connect the two leads of the ammeter in the circuit so that the current flows through the ammeter. In other words, the ammeter must become a part of the circuit itself. The only way to measure the current flowing through a simple circuit is to insert your ammeter into the circuit (in series) with the circuit energized.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is A; it prevents the formation of a second temperature measurement junction.

    A thermocouple measurement junction is formed wherever two dissimilar metals are joined. KX-type thermocouple extension wire is made of the same metals as the K-type thermocouple (chromel and alumel). When extending the thermocouple leads with an extension wire back to the control system input card, KX thermocouple extension wire must be used, and the chromel wire and the alumel wire must be joined to the wire of the same metal in the extension cable. If JX or another type of extension wire is used, another measurement junction is formed. For instance, if JX extension cable is used in the example in this problem, the point where the iron and chromel wires are joined would form another thermocouple. This will negatively affect the intended measurement signal. Proper installation of thermocouple extension wires also requires special terminal blocks to prevent additional junctions from being formed.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is B, "hydraulic actuation." Although many pneumatic actuators can provide a large force, they require either a large diaphragm area (in the case of a diaphragm actuator) or a large cylinder (in the case of a rack and pinion actuator).

    Hydraulic actuators are driven by a high-pressure fluid (up to 4,000 psig) that can be delivered to the actuator by a pump that is remote from the actuator itself. Hydraulic cylinders can deliver up to 25 times more force than a pneumatic cylinder of the same size.

    Manual actuation is accomplished by turning a valve handle, and is limited to the amount of force that an operator can exert on the lever or hand wheel.

    Electric actuation delivers high torques for rotary-style valves, but electric actuators tend to be large and heavy compared to hydraulic actuators.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is D; they measure pressure by sensing the deflection of the diaphragm. For most pressure applications, changes in pressure are detected by the change in deflection of a measuring diaphragm.

    The deflection is converted into an electrical signal (voltage) by a piezoelectric or capacitance device. The small electrical current is converted to a standard signal (e.g., 4-20 mA or a digital signal) by a transmitter. Therefore, answer B is not correct.

    Answer A is not correct, because pressure sensors can measure very small pressure changes (inches of water) and in some cases, millimeters of water.

    Pressure measurement devices are not affected by volume, since they are measuring force over an area only. Many pressure sensors are sensitive to temperature (capillary tubes are filled with fluids that can expand with temperature). Therefore, answer C is not correct.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is C, "Gather information about the problem." Once a problem is identified, data must be gathered and analyzed to determine a viable set of potential actions and solutions.

    The logical analysis troubleshooting method consists of (in order):
    1. Identify and define the problem.
    2. Gather information about the problem.
    3. Evaluate the information/data.
    4. Propose a solution or develop a test.
    5. Implement the solution or conduct the test.
    6. Evaluate the results of the solution or test.
    7. If the problem is not resolved, reiterate until the problem is found and resolved.
    8. If the problem is resolved: document, store/file, and send to the appropriate department for follow up if required.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • The correct answer is B, “location, elevation, and tag number.” Instrument location plans are most often used to support new plant installations and deliver the installer information about the genuine physical location of the installation of an instrument, the elevation of installation (at grade, on a platform, at what height on a process line, etc.), and the tag number of the instrument to be installed.

    Specification numbers (part of answers C and D) are usually indicated on instrument lists and instrument installation details. Wiring plans (part of answer A) are typically shown on conduit and wiring schedules or cabling diagrams. Although these details are useful in the installation of a plant, they are not part of the instrument installation plans.

    Reference: Goettsche, L.D. (Editor), Maintenance of Instruments and Systems, Second Edition, ISA, 2005.

  • Thu, 02 Dec 2021 09:44:00 -0600 en text/html
    Indiana 4-H Livestock Quality Care

    Quality Assurance programs are a great way to ensure our youth producers are creating a product we can be proud to consume. Any Indiana youth wishing to exhibit an animal at a county or state fair must have completed a Quality Assurance Certification. Youth have the option to complete an in-person Indiana 4-H Quality Livestock Care Course OR an online Youth for the Quality Care of Animals (YQCA) Course. County and State Fair will accept both of these options.

    This requirement is set for youth exhibiting, Swine, Beef Cattle, Dairy Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Rabbits, and Poultry.


    Certification is a requirement (and it is very good practice) for youth planning to exhibit an animal (Swine, Beef Cattle, Dairy Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Rabbits, and Poultry) in the Orange County 4-H Fair (all other county fairs), the Indiana State Fair, and some open shows. You can check out handbook at “General Livestock Rules” for the most up to date details.

    This requirement should not be viewed as just another rule, but rather as an important educational opportunity for 4-H livestock members. Making this an exhibition rule is how we are ensuring that 4-H members learn about quality assurance, but it really has nothing to do with animal exhibition. The real reason we are requiring this is so youth learn the best management practices with their animals. The goals of having 4-H members complete a quality assurance program include ensuring that youth will be more prepared to be ambassadors for animal agriculture in their role as youth livestock exhibitors; that animals from youth livestock programs are treated with the utmost care, and 4-H members are contributing to a safe, wholesome food supply.


    Sat, 01 Apr 2023 19:37:00 -0500 en text/html
    Training and Quality Assurance

    The Saint Louis University IRB maintains an education program and a quality assurance program to provide researchers with services to aid in the navigation of the IRB process, Improve study conduct and quality of study records, and provide ongoing and current information from the field of research.

    Below you can find additional information on:

    Human Subjects Research (HSR) Training

    Training on the involvement of human subjects in research is mandatory at Saint Louis University.

    All faculty, staff, students and collaborating researchers who conduct human subjects research must complete a Collaborative Institutional Review Board Training Initiative (CITI) Human Subjects Training course or provide documentation of comparable training.

    Investigators who have completed a human subjects research training course other than CITI may provide a copy of their training certificate (with listed course modules) to the IRB Office with their IRB application or to The IRB will determine whether the training course satisfies the mandatory education requirement. 

    CITI Training: Mandatory for HSR Studies

    For CITI Training, please register at

    Complete one of the following courses as it relates to you/your research:

    • Biomedical Research: Individuals who conduct any biomedical research should select this course during the registration process.
    • Social/Behavioral Research: Individuals who conduct only social/behavioral research should select this course during the registration process. 
    • External Collaborator: This course is for non-SLU collaborators, such as community partners (not SLU faculty, staff or students), who are assisting on a SLU research project. Those who routinely partner on SLU research should select the Biomedical or Social/Behavioral Research basic courses instead of this course.

    CITI Registration Instructions:

    When registering, carefully follow the instructions to provide SLUNet ID information to ensure your training links to the eIRB system. You should also save the training completion report (with listed course modules) for your records. Documentation of an approved educational program must be on file with the IRB Office before research on human subjects may begin.

    GCP Training: Mandatory for NIH-Funded Clinical Trials

    Good Clinical Practice (GCP) training focuses on quality standards for designing, conducting, recording and reporting research to help assure the safety and integrity of studies. The IRB recommends all researchers train on the principles of GCP and industry sponsors may require it, but the course is only mandated for investigators conducting NIH-funded clinical trials.

    The NIH Policy on Good Clinical Practice Training for NIH Awardees Involved in NIH-funded Clinical Trials (NOT-OD-16-148, effective date January 1, 2017), mandates GCP training every three years for all investigators and study staff of NIH-funded “clinical trials.” A clinical trial is defined by NIH as “a research study in which one or more human subjects are prospectively assigned to one or more interventions to evaluate the effects of those interventions on health-related biomedical or behavioral outcomes.” For NIH interpretation, see the clinical trial definition.

    SLU researchers are able to satisfy these requirements through their SLU CITI account (see registration instructions above) with the follow courses: 

    •  GCP for Clinical Trials - Investigational Drugs and Medical Devices (U.S. FDA focus)
      Biomedical GCP, Basic and Refresher courses available
      Researchers conducting biomedical research must take this course. A basic GCP training must be on file before a refresher training will be accepted to satisfy the requirement.
    • GCP - Social and Behavioral Research Best Practices for Clinical Research
      Behavioral (BSS) GCP, Basic (Refresher coming soon!) course available
      Researchers conducting behavioral research should take this course.
      This course does not satisfy the requirement for biomedical researchers,
      however, biomedical researchers are also encouraged to take it.

    Comparable courses may also be accepted, such as:

    Documentation of comparable training must be submitted to the IRB for review/acceptance and to enter into our database so training will automatically appear in eIRB applications.

    Please note, GCP course completion does not count toward the mandatory IRB/Human Subjects Protections education requirement noted above.

    Research with team members found out of compliance with training requirements may be asked to halt activities until compliance is restored.

    IRB Courses/Continuing Education

    The IRB maintains an education program that features routinely offered introductory sessions, periodically offered special syllabu sessions and customizable courses that can be brought into the classroom or research unit upon request. Past subjects have included the history of ethics in human subjects research, primary investigator and research team responsibilities, IRB submission requirements, and common submission pitfalls and solutions.

    Until further notice, all SLU IRB education sessions will be held online via Zoom.

    Please complete the SLU IRB Education Request Form to request and schedule an IRB education session. For additional inquiries about educational sessions, educational collaborations, or information about educational materials, please contact the IRB Office at 314-977-7744 or

    The IRB can also offer informational sessions to community groups. See additional information on the For Research Participants page of the IRB website for more information.

    IRB Submitter 101
    • Format: Offered regularly online
    • Length: 60 minutes
    • Course description: This introductory course covers the basic history and mission of the IRB, how to determine which projects need review, choosing the appropriate forms to submit, basic information on the submission and approval process, and tips for successful submissions.
    • Is this course for me? Submitter 101 is for anyone newly involved in research (or those looking for a refresher), who are interested in learning the basics of human subjects research and submitting to the IRB.
    eIRB 101
    • Format: Offered regularly online
    • Length: 60 minutes
    • Course description: Learn how to use the electronic IRB (eIRB) submission system, including how to create and manage protocols and their subsequent submissions; obtain appropriate signatures and approvals; and other systems tips and tricks.
    • Is this course for me? eIRB 101 is for anyone who is interested in learning the basics of using the IRB’s electronic submission system.
    Post-Approval 101
    • Format: Offered regularly online
    • Length: 60 minutes
    • Course description: Learn the important compliance requirements following IRB approval, including study conduct, proposing changes, completing renewals, and reporting requirements (what to report, when and how). 
    • Is this course for me? Post-Approval 101 is for anyone interested in learning the research requirements after receiving IRB approval and is recommended after taking Submitter 101.
    Informed Consent 101
    • Format: Offered regularly online
    • Length: 60 minutes
    • Course description: Learn researcher responsibilities surrounding the informed consent process and its proper documentation; how to apply for waivers and other non-traditional consent types; as well as common consent process and documentation mistakes to avoid.
    • Is this course for me? Informed Consent 101 is for anyone interested in learning the different types of informed consent, how to be compliant with research consent requirements, and how to avoid the most common consent mistakes.
    Central IRB 101
    • Format: Offered regularly online
    • Length: 60 minutes
    • Course description: This course covers the basics of the Central IRB Reliance Program, including the SLU process for using central IRBs, as well as the specifics of working with our current established partners including eligibility requirements, the submission process, and investigator’s post-approval requirements.
    • Is this course for me? Central IRB 101 is for anyone interested in learning about the Central IRB Reliance Program. This course is not recommended for students. Use of a central IRB is restricted to researchers or research units conducting eligible industry-sponsored, clinical trials.
    IRB Classroom 101
    • Format: Offered in-person or online, by request
    • Length: 30 to 60 minutes (or as requested)
    • Course description: Classroom 101 course content is completely customizable. Possible subjects can range from an introduction to the IRB (mission and foundations), how to navigate the IRB process and prepare a submission, and tips and tricks for IRB success. An interactive “Be the IRB” case study game is also available.
    • Is this course for me? This tailored session is designed to meet a wide range of needs (for submitters or non-submitters) for instructors or departments looking to have IRB subjects presented to their group.
    IRB: Who We Are
    • Format: Offered in-person, by request
    • Length: 15 minutes (or as requested)
    • Course description: This course is meant to be a high level summary of the IRB’s mission, purpose and primary function at SLU. It briefly covers what projects require IRB review, how to submit to the IRB, and other practical basics so attendees are familiar with the IRB and know where to go for more information/assistance.
    • Is this course for me? This general session works well for new graduate student, resident and new faculty orientations or others needing a short, high-level introduction to the SLU IRB.
    IRB Bootcamp
    • Format: Offered in-person, by request
    • Length: 45 minutes (or as requested)
    • Course description: This course covers department-specific information on how to navigate the IRB process, including tips on choosing the appropriate forms to submit, information on the submission and approval process, and tips for successful submissions and conduct of research. The IRB Bootcamp session is designed to be delivered quickly and succinctly; and is tailored to the most common types of research done in the unit and highlights common pitfalls and ways to avoid them.
    • Is this course for me? This tailored session is designed for instructors or departments looking to have IRB subjects presented to their group in a targeted, practical session to meet their unique needs.

    Quality Assurance Review (QAR) Program

    The IRB maintains a QAR Program aimed at promoting high ethical and quality standards in human subjects research by providing monitoring and educational opportunities for researchers who conduct research involving human volunteers. See the QAR Program and FAQs for more information.

    For more information, call 314-977-7744 or email

    QAR Visits

    The QAR Team conducts routine investigator visits to assess whether research operations are being conducted in compliance with IRB-approved protocols, regulations and institutional policies. Review types vary in size and focus, and include things like consent process observation, consent documentation reviews, and study organization/documentation reviews. Investigators are selected randomly and once reviewed, are not eligible for routine re-selection for another two years.

    Voluntary Visits

    Principal investigators, research directors or study teams may also voluntarily request the QAR Team to visit and perform a specific type of review.  If you would like to request a review, please contact or 314-977-7744.

    Investigator Self-Assessment Program

    Principal investigators, research directors or study teams interested in monitoring their own research programs for compliance and quality assurance can use the QAR Investigator Self-Assessment Checklist. The tool can be used in whole, in part, or in combination with unit or sponsor specific elements to ensure that all requirements are being met in the conduct of the research.

    Fri, 29 Sep 2017 11:18:00 -0500 en text/html
    Cyara adds Generative AI to chatbot testing

    This website is using a security service to protect itself from online attacks. The action you just performed triggered the security solution. There are several actions that could trigger this block including submitting a certain word or phrase, a SQL command or malformed data.

    Tue, 23 May 2023 01:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html
    10 Best Websites that Offer Online Tutoring Jobs for Teachers

    As an experienced teacher myself, I am well-versed with the ins and outs of online tutoring, including the different platforms available for this purpose. Over time, I have had the opportunity to explore, engage with, and evaluate a plethora of online tutoring platforms.

    In this post, I’ve curated a selection of what I consider to be the best platforms for online tutoring available in the market right now. These online tutoring websites are especially ideal for finding side jobs for teachers.

    In crafting this list of the best online tutoring jobs for teachers, my primary focus was on the features, user experience, and functionality that each platform provides. I chose not to include pricing as a determining factor because, let’s face it, prices can fluctuate and vary greatly depending on numerous factors. So, it seems only fair to let these platforms speak for themselves based on their merits, regardless of the cost involved.

    Remember, as teachers, our mission extends beyond the four walls of a physical classroom. With the power of technology and the internet, we can reach out to students across the globe, breaking geographical barriers and enriching lives with the power of knowledge.

    My hope is that this list of the best online tutoring jobs for teachers will serve as a trustworthy and practical resource as you navigate the world of online tutoring. This isn’t just a compilation of popular names, but a collection of platforms that I truly believe can help you make a difference in your students’ lives.

    Best tutoring websites for teachers are:

    1. Chegg Tutors

    Chegg Tutors is one the popular platforms for online tutoring jobs, presenting a great opportunity for teachers looking to leverage their knowledge and experience to earn additional income.

    One of the strengths of Chegg Tutors lies in its stringent requirements for tutors. By requiring prior tutoring or teaching experience, as well as enrollment in or graduation from a four-year university, the platform ensures a high-quality roster of tutors. Further, the review and approval process by the company’s student success team gives added assurance to students of the calibre of tutors they’re engaging with.

    The impressive breadth of tutoring subjects offered is another aspect that sets Chegg Tutors apart. With over 500 subjects spanning across math, English, foreign languages, science, and social studies, tutors with expertise in a wide range of areas have opportunities to offer their services. The additional feature of test prep for various exams like ACT, SAT, LSAT, GRE, GMAT, and MCAT further broadens the tutoring scope on this platform.

    TutorMe is a comprehensive online tutoring platform offering a wealth of resources and a large pool of subjects. This platform offers an excellent opportunity for teachers interested in online tutoring jobs.

    The multifaceted learning resources that TutorMe provides enable students to choose the tools that best align with their learning style. These include video conferencing, audio and text chat, shared whiteboard space, and file sharing capabilities, offering a dynamic and versatile learning environment.

    Another cool feature I like about TutorMe is its 24/7 availability, which ensures that students can connect with a tutor in less than three minutes. This feature gives a huge advantage to tutors as they have the opportunity to engage with students around the clock, depending on their own availability. Additionally, the flexibility given to students to either choose their tutor or be matched by TutorMe provides an added layer of personalization to the service.

    TutorMe’s wide subject variety, covering 299 subjects including basic subjects like English, science, math, and foreign languages, as well as more specialized areas like computer science, engineering, humanities, and professions, provides an extensive range of opportunities for teachers with different areas of expertise.

    The application process for tutors at TutorMe is also well-defined, requiring previous tutoring or teaching experience, mastery of the subjects tutored, and enrollment in or graduation from an accredited university.

    Wyzant provides an appealing platform for teachers seeking online tutoring opportunities, presenting an excellent balance of freedom, support, and accessibility.

    Active tutors on Wyzant receive over two tutoring job opportunities each week. This level of demand suggests a high level of engagement from students, meaning tutors have regular opportunities to earn income.

    Creating a free profile on Wyzant gives you immediate access to current tutoring jobs, allowing you to start your tutoring journey quickly. This profile can be enhanced with pictures, videos, student reviews, and more, offering a comprehensive showcase of your qualifications and experience for potential students.

    Wyzant’s management tools are impressive and include the ability to schedule and sync lessons with your personal calendar, collect student ratings and reviews, track lesson and payment history, and provide helpful feedback for students and parents. You can also view student improvement over time, a feature that can offer immense satisfaction as a tutor.

    Wyzant’s application process is relatively straightforward. You must be at least 18 years old, reside in the United States, and possess a valid Social Security Number. Unlike previous platforms, you’re not required to be a certified teacher to tutor on Wyzant, making the platform accessible to a wider range of potential tutors.

    Preply is another good platform for online tutoring, presenting an excellent opportunity for teachers looking to diversify their income sources.

    The platform gives tutors full control over their tutoring business. You can choose your hourly rate and change it anytime. Furthermore, you can decide when and how many hours you want to teach, with no minimum time commitment or fixed schedule.

    Preply supports its tutors’ professional growth by providing professional development webinars and tips to upgrade their skills. In addition, they offer a range of resources such as a smart calendar for scheduling, an interactive classroom for engaging lessons, convenient payment methods, and a supportive tutor community. These features equip tutors with the tools they need to manage and grow their tutoring business effectively.

    Preply caters to a broad audience, with tutors teaching over 800,000 students globally across more than 100 subjects. This extensive reach suggests that there’s a steady stream of new students, ensuring tutors have consistent opportunities to find new learners.

    The application process at Preply is straightforward and inclusive. There’s no specific certification or teaching experience required, making it accessible for those who are passionate about sharing knowledge and have outstanding communication skills.

    The process involves providing basic information about yourself, uploading a headshot photo, describing your strengths as a tutor, recording a short video introduction, and choosing your availability. Once your profile is approved, you’ll be visible to students worldwide.

    VIPKid is an innovative platform offering one-on-one English language instruction to children in China. This platform offers a fantastic opportunity for teachers seeking online tutoring roles, especially those proficient in teaching English as a Second Language (ESL).

    VIPKid’s program focuses on reinforcing key language skills, including listening comprehension, speaking and pronunciation, studying and phonics, and writing and grammar. This comprehensive approach ensures students gain a well-rounded command of the English language.

    What sets VIPKid apart is the provision of prepared class materials. Their curriculum team has already designed materials for every class, so as a tutor, you won’t have to spend time creating lesson plans.

    However, teachers are asked to prepare for class by reviewing these materials on the teacher portal 6-12 hours in advance. This allows you to fully understand the content and plan how to effectively deliver it during the session.

    Teachers can teach any student who books their class, offering diverse teaching experiences. The platform signs 6-month contracts with applicants who pass their screening process. You have the flexibility to work as much or as little as you’d like, but VIPKid does ask for a 2-week notice if you plan to take an extended period off.

    Studypool is a unique online tutoring platform that operates on a bid-based system. It’s an unconventional, yet intriguing approach for those seeking tutoring opportunities.

    Here’s how it works: students post questions or assignments with a set time limit and price range. Tutors then bid on these posts, essentially “applying” for the job by offering the best response or strategy to tackle the question or assignment.

    The student who posted the question then chooses the tutor they wish to work with based on the bids they receive. This dynamic system allows for competitive pricing and gives the tutor the chance to showcase their expertise right off the bat.

    Since students can post questions at any time, tutors have the opportunity to work flexible hours. You can bid on questions in your area of expertise whenever you’re available. This makes Studypool a great option for those seeking to work on their own schedule.

    In terms of qualifications, Studypool requires tutors to have a higher degree or be a current college student. This ensures that students receive professional help, as tutors are bidding on questions they’re confident in answering.

    In addition to the bid-based system, Studypool also offers live tutoring sessions. This feature allows students to schedule a one-on-one session with a tutor for more in-depth assistance. It’s an excellent option for students needing a deeper dive into a syllabu beyond what a single question would provide.

    The pricing model on Studypool is variable since it’s determined by the students posting the questions. The cost depends on how much the student is willing to pay for a particular question or assignment. While this could potentially result in higher earnings per question compared to a fixed-rate tutoring job, it also means income may be less predictable. is a comprehensive online tutoring platform that caters to a wide range of learners across different stages. The platform offers tutoring in English and Spanish in hundreds of subjects, including AP® subjects, algebra, writing, programming languages, world languages, web design, and NCLEX® exam preparation.

    One of the most commendable aspects of is its rigorous tutor vetting process. Tutors are required to pass a strict selection process, including education verification, multiple background checks, a subject matter exam, and an interview. This ensures that students receive help from highly qualified and experienced tutors.

    Tutoring sessions are held in’s user-friendly online classroom. This digital space includes a two-way whiteboard, code editor, text editor, and graph paper, along with other educational tools like a graphing calculator, formulas, file sharing, and emojis. Students can choose to communicate with tutors via text-chat or voice, depending on their preference.

    One of the major benefits of becoming a tutor on is the flexibility it offers. You can log in and offer your services whenever you’re available. There’s no need to travel, making it a perfect choice for those looking for remote work opportunities. Additionally, the platform handles payments regularly, eliminating the need for you to issue invoices.

    Skooli is an online platform that enables students to connect with professional educators and subject-area experts for personalized tutoring sessions. To become a Skooli tutor, one must possess a Bachelor’s degree (or higher) in a related field, a government-issued teaching license, or a specialized instructor qualification.

    Tutors can conduct their sessions from anywhere with an internet connection, making the platform highly flexible. They can set their own schedules, and can be online to accept instant help requests whenever they’re available. This makes Skooli a suitable option for those seeking to convert their knowledge into income during their spare time.

    The platform facilitates a highly interactive learning environment through features such as video conferencing, online chat, screen sharing, an interactive whiteboard, and Google Drive. This digital classroom setup effectively simulates face-to-face tutoring experiences, extending beyond geographical limits while introducing features unique to online learning.

    iTalki is an online language learning platform that connects students with language tutors across the globe. To become an iTalki tutor, one has to apply, choosing either to be a Professional Teacher or a Community Tutor. An applicant can start as a Community Tutor and later upgrade to Professional Teacher if they wish.

    Certain technology requirements are essential for iTalki teachers, and applicants are required to submit an introduction video as part of the application process. This video is a crucial marketing tool to attract more students and should ideally be between one to four minutes long.

    The introduction video should be split into two parts: the first should cover an introduction about the tutor (their name, where they’re from, their interests, and hobbies), the languages they speak, their accent, information about their lessons, and an outro encouraging students to book a lesson. The second part focuses on the technical aspects of the video, including the background, script, image quality, lighting, headphone use, video alignment, and background sounds.

    Once approved as a teacher, tutors can update their profiles, including their intro video, and add new teaching languages if desired. The platform is designed to be user-friendly, allowing tutors to reach a global audience and share their language expertise.

    Varsity Tutors is a comprehensive educational platform that provides personalized, one-on-one tutoring services to students across a broad range of subjects. The platform caters to diverse student needs. It also offers preparation for Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate exams, as well as college and career readiness.

    Varsity Tutors allows tutors to be their own boss, manage their schedules, and work from anywhere. The platform uses a matching algorithm to pair tutors with students who best fit their teaching style, taking into account over 100 attributes and millions of data points.

    The use of advanced technology like adaptive assessments and AI-generated lesson plans enables the identification of students’ areas of weakness and how to best structure tutoring sessions.

    Varsity Tutors provides an array of tools to facilitate tutoring, including personalized dynamic learning plans, a purpose-built Live Learning Platform, and features that assist with scheduling, communication with clients, invoicing, and payment.

    To become a Varsity Tutors instructor, potential tutors need to apply, complete a video interview, and once matched with students, deliver high-quality instruction. Payment is bi-weekly, and tutors have the flexibility to adjust the number of students they work with over time.

    Tue, 30 May 2023 04:18:00 -0500 Med Kharbach, PhD en-US text/html
    Is Agile Killing QA?

    In this agile world, quality assurance (QA) has changed from “test everything” to “test as fast as you can.” The increasing adoption of agile and DevOps is minimizing the importance of QA for many teams because these ideologies focus on speed, and quality can become secondary. Even though the agile methodology calls for QA to be part of the sprint team, it poses a unique challenge because proper testing and validation take time.

    In many instances, organizations with large customer bases forgo QA altogether. Or, as is often the case, testing is only done on the outputs of each sprint team or piece of work. This approach doesn’t test products in the context in which they will be used and doesn’t even test the product as a whole, just a portion.

    In its current form -- with traditional lab and outsourced testing -- QA is indeed being killed by agile. That’s because traditional lab and outsourced testing are too slow to keep up with agile sprint and release cadences.

    Traditional Testing Methods Are Failing

    I've seen firsthand why this is the case, having spent my career in engineering and currently serving in an executive role at a company that has succeeded in moving away from traditional testing methods toward a crowdsourced testing model. First, there is a perception in many companies that QA is just a pitstop on the journey to a more glamorous job, such as scrum master, developer or product manager. This leads to a talent shortage where small QA teams aren’t able to test at the speed and scale of software being developed. In Capgemini’s World Quality Report, 42% of survey respondents list a lack of professional test expertise in agile teams as a challenge in applying testing to agile development.

    With limited resources, internal QA teams can’t achieve the test coverage necessary to ensure bugs don’t make their way into production. The diversification of platforms -- browsers, mobile devices and operating systems (Android, Windows, iOS, etc.) -- and new devices like voice assistants pose significant challenges for internal QA teams. These experiences require dedicated teams with broad skills and bigger budgets -- things few internal QA teams have to spare.

    Offshore models haven’t had much more luck keeping up with the demands of an agile environment. Though they can be a cheaper alternative to traditional labs, they can’t account for real-world use cases. They can also take a while to get started and don’t fit well in the SDLC. Overall, they provide only a sliver of the test coverage enterprises need.

    QA Can Make A Comeback

    Agile is killing traditional QA. But that doesn’t mean all QA is dying. Many companies have evolved their strategies, blending in-house and outsourced testing with automated, real-world and beta testing.

    • Automated testing: Test automation has quickly become a popular option for companies. In fact, its use grew 85% from 2015 to 2017 across all industry domains, according to KPMG. Automation is not a complete replacement of internal testing, but it does augment the strategy by taking on lower-priority tests (smoke and regression testing, for example) that don’t require a human touch.

    Smaller teams are usually better off starting with an off-the-shelf enterprise solution so they can get up and running quickly and have the support to handle software bugs along the way. More mature testing teams may benefit more from an open source automation framework. This approach provides increased flexibility and customization, but it requires advanced technical expertise and a longer runway to build the solution as even mature teams can have trouble managing an automation solution at scale.

    When that human touch is required, real-world and beta testing can help fill in the gaps.

    • Real-world testing: Real-world testing tests with real users on personally owned devices in their home environments, enabling brands to uncover edge use cases and functional problems that only exist in the real world. Testers can be segmented by demographic (age, location, device, etc.) and expertise (QA, security, usability, etc.). This testing can be started quickly and scale at a moment’s notice, helping agile teams add more testers on-demand to account for peak periods.

    Real-world testing is a valuable solution for brands looking to expand test coverage or those that don’t have the resources to replicate real-world scenarios themselves. The key to getting started is finding a fully managed partner with the scale to match desired customer personas, devices, locations, languages and even payment instruments in order to take the pressure off internal teams and augment existing processes.

    • Beta testing: Beta testing releases a product to a subset of users prior to the full launch and is a common practice for many companies. This approach gives companies a large test base with which to work. The big drawback is that it can be inconsistent and disorganized because testers aren’t vetted and duplicate bugs are shown. All brands can benefit from beta testing, but those with more loyal users will get more feedback and therefore better results. Brands can implement beta testing by dedicating internal resources to the task of setting up the tests and managing responses or by working with a partner to manage the process.

    By giving agile teams additional outside resources that easily scale, each of these testing approaches keeps developers moving quickly and able to adjust to the high demands of customers. Each method works best when managed by a dedicated resource who can integrate testing into the team and ensure bugs are handled correctly, allowing testing to shift further left in the SDLC and become a true part of the agile process.

    QA is still critical in delivering the best experiences possible to today’s demanding customers. Consumers expect their digital products to Improve over time, and with each new update, their expectations rise. If they are disappointed, the cost of switching software is basically zero. With no space for error, brands can turn to automated, real-world and beta testing to ensure they can keep quality high even as development moves faster.

    Mon, 18 Mar 2019 00:35:00 -0500 Rob Mason en text/html
    Honda Certified Pre-Owned Program © JATO

    Looking for used Honda vehicles? Visit Autos Marketplace.

    When it comes to purchasing a pre-owned vehicle, concerns about reliability and the overall condition of the car are common among buyers. After all, no one wants to end up with a lemon or face unexpected repairs shortly after making a substantial investment. In such a scenario, Honda Certified Pre-Owned (CPO) vehicles offer an enticing solution. Backed by a reputation for quality and performance, Honda CPO cars provide buyers with the assurance of a reliable and well-maintained vehicle. In this article, we delve into the world of Honda CPO, exploring what sets it apart and why it is a smart choice for those in the market for a used car.

    1. The Honda Certified Pre-Owned Program: Honda's CPO program stands as a testament to the company's commitment to customer satisfaction and vehicle quality. To qualify for certification, Honda vehicles must undergo a meticulous and comprehensive 182-point inspection by certified technicians. This rigorous evaluation ensures that each vehicle meets Honda's stringent standards for mechanical condition, appearance, and reliability. Only vehicles that pass the inspection receive the coveted Honda CPO status.

    2. The Benefits of Honda Certified Pre-Owned: a) Warranty Coverage: One of the primary advantages of purchasing a Honda CPO vehicle is the warranty coverage that comes with it. Buyers receive an extension of the original new car limited warranty, providing them with peace of mind. The warranty covers major components, including the engine, drivetrain, and electrical system, offering protection against unexpected repair costs. b) Roadside Assistance: Honda CPO vehicles also come with 24/7 roadside assistance, which adds an extra layer of security to your driving experience. Whether it's a flat tire, a dead battery, or any other unexpected incident, Honda's roadside assistance program ensures that help is just a phone call away, giving you the confidence to tackle any journey. c) Vehicle History Report: Every Honda CPO vehicle comes with a comprehensive vehicle history report, providing buyers with a detailed account of the car's past. This report includes information about previous owners, accident history, maintenance records, and more. Transparency and knowledge about the vehicle's history empower buyers to make informed decisions and understand the true value of their purchase.

    3. Reliability and Quality Assurance: Honda has earned a well-deserved reputation for manufacturing reliable vehicles that stand the test of time. This commitment to quality carries over to their CPO program. The thorough inspection process, in combination with the warranty coverage, demonstrates Honda's confidence in the reliability of their certified pre-owned vehicles. Additionally, Honda CPO cars often undergo necessary reconditioning to ensure they meet Honda's high standards, further cementing their reliability and quality.

    4. Variety and Choice: Honda offers a wide range of models and trim levels within their CPO program, providing buyers with plenty of choices to suit their preferences and needs. Whether you are in the market for a compact car like the Honda Civic, a versatile SUV like the Honda CR-V, or a family-friendly minivan like the Honda Odyssey, you can find a certified pre-owned Honda that fits your lifestyle and budget.

    5. The Honda CPO Buying Experience: Purchasing a Honda CPO vehicle goes beyond the peace of mind it offers. The Honda dealership experience is known for its excellent customer service and dedication to making the buying process hassle-free. From knowledgeable sales representatives who can guide you through your options to flexible financing and trade-in options, Honda dealerships strive to provide a positive and satisfying buying experience for their customers.

    Choosing a Honda Certified Pre-Owned vehicle allows buyers to enjoy the best of both worlds: the affordability of a pre-owned car and the reliability and peace of mind associated with a brand-new Honda. With the comprehensive inspection process, warranty coverage, and additional benefits like roadside assistance, Honda CPO vehicles offer exceptional value for prospective buyers. The commitment to quality and reliability that Honda is known for extends to their CPO program, making it a compelling choice for those in search of a used car. Furthermore, the availability of a diverse range of models and trim levels within the Honda CPO program ensures that buyers can find a vehicle that suits their specific requirements and preferences. Whether you prioritize fuel efficiency, spaciousness, or advanced safety features, Honda has a certified pre-owned option to match your needs.

    In addition to the quality of the vehicles themselves, the Honda dealership experience plays a crucial role in the overall satisfaction of CPO buyers. Honda dealerships have a reputation for providing exceptional customer service and support throughout the buying process. From knowledgeable sales representatives who can answer questions and provide guidance to flexible financing options, Honda dealerships strive to ensure a seamless and enjoyable purchasing experience for their customers.

    It is important to note that while Honda CPO vehicles offer numerous advantages, it is still advisable for buyers to conduct their due diligence. Taking the time to research specific models, comparing prices, and test-driving the vehicle can provide further assurance and help buyers make an informed decision.

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    Mon, 15 May 2023 09:39:25 -0500 en-US text/html
    Westpac is testing ChatGPT-like AI, minus the hallucinations

    David Walker is well aware that large language models such as ChatGPT, which was trained on the entire internet, can hallucinate. They can even make up historical events that never happened.

    "They can tell lies, they can make up information," said Walker, who is chief technology officer of Westpac, in an interview. "They're incredibly powerful."

    The bank, which is based in Sydney and has more than 12 million customers, can't afford to let a public version of ChatGPT make up or hallucinate answers for customers or employees who use a virtual assistant. GPT (generative pre-trained transformer) models are artificial neural networks that are pre-trained on large data sets of unlabelled text, and able to generate humanlike content.

    But Walker does want to deliver employees and customers the ChatGPT experience of humanlike answers to their questions — if it can be done safely, with assurance the answers are accurate. 

    The bank is working with Kasisto to test its Kai-GPT, a large language model trained only on conversations and data in the banking industry. 

    "Hallucination in public AI models is unavoidable and can get pretty bad," said Zor Gorelov, CEO of Kasisto, in an interview. This is why banking GPTs need accuracy, transparency, trust and customizability, he said. 

    This is also why banks like Westpac will focus on internal use cases for generative AI — giving it to front-line bankers, contact center agents and mortgage workers, Gorelov said. Westpac will train Kai-GPT on its proprietary content, and thereby dramatically reduce the risk that the system will hallucinate, Gorelov said. 

    Walker hopes to provide more complete and more conversational help to customers and staff, for instance, in the mortgage lending process. 

    "When people apply for a home loan, they have to fill in lots of forms," Walker said. "We need to know who you are, we need to know all kinds of things about you. This is going to aid us in checking the quality of information coming in, so it's going to stop us having to go backwards and forwards to our customers. It's going to streamline the process. It's going to help our customers, it's going to help our lending staff, and it's going to make things much more straight through and seamless."

    Other banks are likely to do similar experimentation over the next two years, according to Peter Wannemacher, principal analyst, digital banking at Forrester.

    "Specialist tools built on top of a large language model will be launched by vendors, traditional financial institutions and fintechs," Wannemacher said. "Most traditional financial institutions will start by focusing on employee-facing generative tools, rather than exposing a chatbot built on top of a large language model directly to the end user." 

    But he also thinks banks will proceed with caution. 

    "Large language models have suddenly become both better and widely utilized, but they still fail spectacularly and can even generate totally wrong, even fraudulent outputs," Wannemacher said. "Money is a highly sensitive area of people's lives, and traditional banks will rightly resist launching anything customer-facing until they have a much better sense of what can go wrong and how to address it." 

    To prevent Kai-GPT from answering a question based on information from another bank that doesn't pertain to Westpac, Walker is using what he calls layering. One layer of the model is trained on data and conversations from many banks. Another layer is trained on information specific to Westpac, such as its policy documents, forms and websites and recordings of conversations in the bank's contact centers. 

    "As it formulates an answer, to work out the intent of the question, it will draw on that industry layer," Walker said. "It's got the knowledge of all those conversations from all those banks and it'll be smarter because of that. But it'll draw even deeper down into the Westpac-specific model when you're talking about terms of a home loan or a deposit interest rate. Those layers work together to formulate these really rich, wonderful answers, but in an accurate and concise way." 

    Using as much data as possible gives a richness and precision to answers, Walker said: "It's still a matter of identifying what you want to train on and what knowledge you need the GPT engine to understand." 

    The bank is moving slowly for now to ensure the new technology fits within its responsible AI policy and "how we think ethically about protecting our staff and our customers," Walker said. "We want to make sure that we don't run ahead too fast and throw something out there that could do harm. We have the principle 'do no harm.' It's sort of fundamental."

    The first go-live of Kai-GPT at Westpac will be in mortgage operations. Over the next few months, the bank will workshop the use of the technology in the loan application process to help borrowers know what forms they should use and what information the bank needs to receive, which should help speed up the process for the bank.

    Once Walker's team feels confident about Kai-GPT's ability to help employees and customers and do no harm, he thinks he'll be able to quickly deploy it to other areas of the bank.

    The key advantage of a large language model over earlier generations of chatbots in use at Westpac is the richness of the answers it can provide, Walker said.

    "It provides an answer in a way that's more like a human talking to a human, so customers or employees feel like they're getting the information they need rather than just sharp one-liners," he said. "We think this is quite a game changer when it comes to this next generation of working with artificial intelligence." 

    Westpac already uses Kasisto's Kai software as an orchestrator of other chatbots the bank uses in areas like service management, human resources and risk management. If an employee can't remember which bot to go to for information, he or she can go to the orchestrator and get routed to the right chatbot.

    "We thought that that was a very powerful way to handle conversation and we've found that really useful," Walker said. "It's a one-stop-shop entry point."

    Kai-GPT was trained on Kasisto's own data, data from other banks Kasisto works with and information gleaned from financial websites, SEC filings and other sources. 

    "Our goal is to create the best large language model in the world designed for banking and financial services and achieve what we call artificial financial intelligence," Gorelov said. "We feel that our job is to help our customers of all sizes to have the highest performing large language model that is designed and built for banking that provides accurate responses and knows more about banking than most bankers do."

    Kai-GPT is transparent, Gorelov said, in terms of the data and methodology used for its training.

    "It is trusted, because we've worked with banks over the past 10 years," he said. "We know how precise they are, how demanding they are when it comes to personally identifiable information and proprietary content."

    The program is also customizable, so banks can inject their own content and make it work better on their own data sets.

    The bigger the data set and the more questions a large language model is capable of answering, the more important and difficult to enforce guardrails become. 

    "The world went from prescriptive AI, where every intent, every response needed to be designed manually to generative AI, where you no longer need to anticipate every user's question and retrain the model when something new comes up," Gorelov said. "It's a different world we live in and we're quite excited about it. But guardrails and the AI protection, transparency, visibility of sources, those issues become more and more important."

    Thu, 01 Jun 2023 05:16:00 -0500 en text/html
    Generative AI: Enterprise Use Cases

    Generative AI, a type of AI that is trained to generate original content, is growing in both its consumer and business use cases. Particularly in the enterprise, generative AI is:

    • Quickly automating and simplifying project workflows.
    • Taking repetitive tasks off the plates of busy employees.
    • Helping businesses maintain high quality and volume production standards.

    Learn how generative AI is optimizing enterprise use cases across a variety of industries and tasks.

    Also read: Generative AI Landscape: Current and Future Trends

    And: 100+ Top Artificial Intelligence Companies 2023

    Generative AI in the Enterprise: Table of Contents

    Generative AI Enterprise Use Cases

    Some enterprises, like marketing and sales-driven companies, have quickly added generative AI into their content creation workflows, while others — like real estate, education — have been more hesitant.

    Overall, more enterprise companies are looking to today’s top AI companies for assistance – most firms aren’t able to produce or support artificial intelligence without external support.

    Still, generative AI’s integration into enterprises is expanding across industries and department types:

    Code generation, documentation, and QA

    For software developers and programmers, generative AI uses cases include writing, completing, and vetting sets of software code. Quality assurance is perhaps the most important emerging use case in this area, with generative AI models handling bug fixes, test generation, and various types of documentation.

    Product and app development

    Generative AI is now being used to code various kinds of apps and write product documentation for these apps. While apps are probably the most common type of product development for generative AI today, generative AI support is also going into projects like semiconductor chip development and design.

    Blog and social media content writing

    With the right prompts and inputs, large language models are capable of creating appropriate and creative content for blogs, social media accounts, product pages, and business websites.

    Many of these models enable users to deliver instructions on article tone and voice, input past written content from the brand, and add other specifications so content is written in a way that sounds human and relevant to the brand’s audience.

    Inbound and outbound marketing communication workflows

    Inbound and outbound marketing frequently require contextualized email and chat threads to be sent to prospective and current customers on a daily basis. Generative AI solutions can create and send the content for these communications, and in some cases, they can also automate the process of moving these people to the next stage of the customer lifecycle in a CRM.

    Graphic design and video marketing

    Generative AI is capable of generating realistic images, animation, and audio that can be used for graphic design and video marketing projects. Some generative AI vendors offer voice synthesis and AI avatars so you can create marketing videos without actors, video equipment, or video editing expertise.

    Entertainment media generation

    As AI-generated imagery, animation, and audio become more and more realistic, this type of technology is being used to create the graphics for movies and video games, the audio for music and podcast generation, and the characters for virtual storytelling and virtual reality experiences.

    Some tech experts predict that generative AI will constitute the majority of future film content and script writing, though creatives are understandably pushing back on that assumption.

    Performance management

    Generative AI uses cases include several business and employee coaching scenarios. As an example, contact center call documentation and summarization, when combined with sentiment analysis, gives managers the information they need to assess current customer service rep performance and coach employees on ways to improve.

    Business performance reporting

    Because generative AI can work through massive amounts of text and data to quickly summarize the main points, it is becoming an important piece of business performance reporting. It’s especially useful for unstructured and qualitative data that usually require more processing before insights can be drawn.

    Customer support and customer experience

    For many of the most straightforward customer service engagements, generative AI chatbots and virtual assistants can handle customer service questions at all hours of the day. Chatbots have been used for customer service for many years, but generative AI advancements are giving them additional resources to deliver comprehensive and more human answers without the help of a human customer support representative.

    Optimized enterprise search and knowledge base

    Both internal and external search benefit from generative AI technology. For internal employee users, generative AI models can be used to scour, identify, and or summarize enterprise resources when users are searching for certain information about their job.

    Similarly, generative AI models can be embedded into company websites and other customer-facing properties, giving them a self-service solution to find answers to their brand questions.

    Pharmaceutical drug discovery and design

    Generative AI technology is being used to make drug discovery and design processes more efficient for new drugs. AI-driven drug discovery is one of the areas of generative AI that is receiving the most funding right now, so expect this particular enterprise use case to grow significantly in the coming months and years.

    Medical diagnostics

    Generative AI in medicine is still nascent, but that is changing quickly. Image generation and editing tools are increasingly being used to optimize and zoom into medical images, allowing medical professionals to get a better and more realistic look at certain areas of the human body. Some tools even perform medical image analysis and basic diagnostics on their own.

    More on this topic: Generative AI in Healthcare

    Inverse design

    In medicine, manufacturing, and other materials-based industries, generative AI is being used in a process called inverse design. With inverse design, generative AI assesses missing materials in a process and generates new materials that fulfill the required properties for that environment.

    Consumer-friendly data analysis

    Although generative AI poses some crucial security concerns, it can also be used to heighten data and consumer privacy.

    For example, generative AI can be used to create synthetic data copies of genuine sensitive data, allowing analysts to analyze and derive insights from the copies without compromising data privacy or compliance.

    Smart manufacturing and predictive maintenance

    Generative AI is quickly becoming a staple in modern manufacturing, helping workers create more innovative designs and meet other production goals.

    In the realm of predictive maintenance, generative models can generate to-do lists and timelines, make workflow and repair suggestions, and simplify the process of assessing complex data from sensors and other parts of the assembly line.

    Inventory and supply chain management

    Several components of supply chain management can be enhanced with generative AI. Route optimization, demand forecasting, provider risk management, and inventory management can all be made smarter and more accurate with generative AI suggestions.

    Fraud detection and risk management

    This type of technology can analyze large amounts of transaction or claims data, quickly summarizing and identifying any patterns or anomalies in that data. With these capabilities, generative AI is great for fraud detection and risk management in finance and insurance scenarios.

    Learn about other generative AI examples.

    How Enterprises Are Using Generative AI Today

    Generative AI enterprise use cases comprise a number of creative initiatives. Some are sticking with conventional subscription-based generative AI models, while others are building their own models and versions of these tools into their existing tool stack.

    Here are a few examples of how major enterprises are adding generative AI to their processes today:

    Professional services and business operations: Accenture uses case

    Accenture, a major consulting firm, is using generative AI to help its clients create smarter business strategies, roadmaps, and operations.

    Accenture’s clients span across banking, sales, customer service, legal, and other industries and are using Accenture’s generative AI services for enhanced search, document summarization, and automated communications.

    Life sciences: Nvidia uses case

    Nvidia recently released its BioNeMo Drug Discovery Cloud Service, which uses large language modeling to advance and speed up drug discovery, protein engineering, and research in genomics, chemistry, biology, and molecular dynamics.

    Travel and hospitality: Expedia uses case

    Expedia’s beta ChatGPT-powered travel planner lets users ask questions and get recommendations on travel, lodging, and activities. It also saves suggested hotels and venues through an intelligent shopping feature, so users can recall and easily book recommended lodging.

    E-commerce and retail: Shopify uses case

    Shopify now offers Shopify Magic to help retailers generate product descriptions and other product-related content with artificial intelligence.

    Fintech and software development: Stripe uses case

    Stripe, a financial services and SaaS company, is using OpenAI’s GPT-4 to power better documentation, summarization, and query management for developers that use Stripe Docs.

    Also read: Generative AI Companies: Top 12 Leaders

    Generative AI Use Cases: Ethics and Compliance

    Generative AI is an emerging technology and there are still many unknowns. For example, most users aren’t familiar with how the models are trained or what data goes into their training.

    Additionally, these models have wide-ranging capabilities that can both help and harm cybersecurity postures. And finally, generative AI models are quickly growing in their skill sets, posing a threatening alternative for many skilled workers’ careers.

    So what can enterprises do to make sure they’re using generative AI responsibly and ethically, in compliance with security/privacy regulations? We expect responsible generative AI expectations to rapidly evolve as the technology matures, but here are a few tips to get started with responsible use:

    • Only input depersonalized and nonsensitive data into large language models. Otherwise, your most sensitive data could become part of the tool’s training dataset and become exposed to third-party users and companies.
    • Stay current with generative AI news and trends. The generative AI space is changing daily, and with that change comes news of companies that are getting the technology right. Yet some companies are taking dangerous and/or unethical steps in their AI development. Staying updated on all of these changes will ensure you only use the most credible tools and work with the most ethical AI providers.
    • Create an AI usage and ethics policy for your business. There are policy templates that are publicly available that should cover how internal users in your organization are allowed to use AI tools and also how your business is allowed to invest in third-party tools.
    • Offer career training to all employees. Employees are rightfully afraid that parts of their job will soon be outsourced to AI; to combat this fear and build up their career prospects, offer training and certifications that will help them to use AI in their jobs and build skills that cannot easily be demonstrated by AI models.

    Learn more: Generative AI and Cybersecurity: Advantages and Challenges

    Bottom Line: Generative AI Enterprise Use Cases

    Because generative AI capabilities are changing on a near-daily basis, enterprise use cases for this new technology are evolving just as quickly. With this change comes new opportunities for enterprises to enhance their current operations.

    Already, enterprises are leveraging generative AI for everything from writing marketing copy to discovering new pharmaceuticals. For enterprise leaders who want to incorporate generative AI into their business, the key is to consider what model works best for your business, what you’re trying to achieve, and how this new business factor will affect your employees and your customers.

    Read next: Top 9 Generative AI Applications and Tools

    Sat, 03 Jun 2023 02:24:00 -0500 en-US text/html

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